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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222467/elemental-preference-and-atomic-scale-site-recognition-in-a-co-al-w-base-superalloy
#1
Yanhui Chen, Fei Xue, Shengcheng Mao, Haibo Long, Bin Zhang, Qingsong Deng, Bin Chen, Yinong Liu, Pierce Maguire, Hongzhou Zhang, Xiaodong Han, Qiang Feng
Using state-of-the-art atomic scale super energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and high angle annular dark field imaging this study reveals the elemental partitioning preference between the γ' and γ phases in a Co-Al-W-Ti-Ta superalloy and the site preference of its alloying elements in the ordered L12 γ' phase. A semi-quantitative analysis of atomic column compositions in the ordered L12 γ' structure is provided. Co atoms were found to occupy the {1/2, 1/2, 0} face-center positions whereas Al, W, Ti and Ta atoms prefer to occupy the {0, 0, 0} cube corner positions in the L12 γ phase...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220715/getting-to-know-you-the-development-of-mechanisms-underlying-face-learning
#2
Claire M Matthews, Emily E Davis, Catherine J Mondloch
Nearly every study investigating the development of face recognition has focused on the ability to tell people apart using one or two tightly controlled images to represent each identity. Such research ignores the challenge of recognizing the same person despite variability in appearance. Whereas natural variation in appearance makes unfamiliar faces difficult to recognize, by 6 years of age people easily recognize multiple images of familiar faces. Two mechanisms are proposed to underlie the process by which adults become familiar with newly encountered faces...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214509/a-three-dimensional-stereotaxic-atlas-of-the-gray-short-tailed-opossum-monodelphis-domestica-brain
#3
Piotr Majka, Natalia Chlodzinska, Krzysztof Turlejski, Tomasz Banasik, Ruzanna L Djavadian, Władysław P Węglarz, Daniel K Wójcik
The gray short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica) is a small marsupial gaining recognition as a laboratory animal in biomedical research. Despite numerous studies on opossum neuroanatomy, a consistent and comprehensive neuroanatomical reference for this species is still missing. Here we present the first three-dimensional, multimodal atlas of the Monodelphis opossum brain. It is based on four complementary imaging modalities: high resolution ex vivo magnetic resonance images, micro-computed tomography scans of the cranium, images of the face of the cutting block, and series of sections stained with the Nissl method and for myelinated fibers...
December 6, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212493/development-of-a-video-simulation-instrument-for-assessing-cognition-in-older-adults
#4
Edward H Ip, Ryan Barnard, Sarah A Marshall, Lingyi Lu, Kaycee Sink, Valerie Wilson, Dana Chamberlain, Stephen R Rapp
BACKGROUND: Commonly used methods to assess cognition, such as direct observation, self-report, or neuropsychological testing, have significant limitations. Therefore, a novel tablet computer-based video simulation was created with the goal of being valid, reliable, and easy to administer. The design and implementation of the SIMBAC (Simulation-Based Assessment of Cognition) instrument is described in detail, as well as informatics "lessons learned" during development. RESULTS: The software emulates 5 common instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) and scores participants' performance...
December 6, 2017: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212486/emerging-concepts-and-spectrum-of-renal-injury-following-intravesical-bcg-for-non-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer
#5
Azharuddin Mohammed, Zubair Arastu
BACKGROUND: Intravesical Bacilli Calmette-Guerin (IVBCG) therapy for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) has long been in use successfully. Albeit rarely, we still face with its safety concerns more than 25 years on since its approval by US Food and Drug Agency in 1990. Local and systemic infection following intravesical BCG is widely reported as compared to immune mediated local or systemic hypersensitivity reactions involving kidneys; acute kidney injury (AKI) and other renal manifestations are well reported but not of chronic kidney disease (CKD)...
December 6, 2017: BMC Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206654/descemet-membrane-endothelial-keratoplasty-and-glaucoma
#6
Marcus Ang, Chelvin C A Sng
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review is to describe the relationship between Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) and glaucoma. RECENT FINDINGS: Glaucoma after DMEK is a serious complication that may cause permanent visual loss, affect donor endothelial cells and graft survival. The mechanisms of raised intraocular pressure (IOP) after DMEK include reverse pupillary block in the early postoperative period, and steroid response in the late phase...
December 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206082/developmental-prosopagnosia-with-concurrent-topographical-difficulties-a-case-report-and-virtual-reality-training-programme
#7
Sarah Bate, Amanda Adams, Rachel Bennetts, Hannah Line
Several neuropsychological case studies report brain-damaged individuals with concurrent impairments in face recognition (i.e., prosopagnosia) and topographical orientation. Recently, individuals with a developmental form of topographical disorientation have also been described, and several case reports of individuals with developmental prosopagnosia provide anecdotal evidence of concurrent navigational difficulties. Clearly, the co-occurrence of these difficulties can exacerbate the negative psychosocial consequences associated with each condition...
December 5, 2017: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200563/problems-of-face-recognition-in-patients-with-behavioral-variant-frontotemporal-dementia
#8
Sadanandavalli Retnaswami Chandra, Ketaki Patwardhan, Anupama Ramakanth Pai
Introduction: Faces are very special as they are most essential for social cognition in humans. It is partly understood that face processing in its abstractness involves several extra striate areas. One of the most important causes for caregiver suffering in patients with anterior dementia is lack of empathy. This apart from being a behavioral disorder could be also due to failure to categorize the emotions of the people around them. Patients and Methods: Inlusion criteria: DSM IV for Bv FTD Tested for prosopagnosia - familiar faces, famous face, smiling face, crying face and reflected face using a simple picture card (figure 1)...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199383/combined-corticosterone-treatment-and-chronic-restraint-stress-lead-to-depression-associated-with-early-cognitive-deficits-in-mice
#9
Gwladys Temkou Ngoupaye, Francis Bray Yassi, Doriane Amanda Nguepi Bahane, Elisabeth Ngo Bum
Many models, such as chronic mild stress, chronic stress or chronic corticosterone injections are used to induce depression associated with cognitive deficits. However, the induction period in these different models is still long and face constraints when it is short such as in the chronic mild stress done in a minimum period of 21 days. This study aimed to characterize a model of depression with early onset cognitive deficit. 14 days combined chronic injection of corticosterone followed by 2 h restraint stress using a restrainer was used to induce depression with early cognitive deficit onset...
December 3, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198599/who-is-the-boss-individual-recognition-memory-and-social-hierarchy-formation-in-crayfish
#10
Nayeli Jiménez-Morales, Karina Mendoza-Ángeles, Mercedes Porras-Villalobos, Elizabeth Ibarra-Coronado, Gabriel Roldán-Roldán, Jesús Hernández-Falcón
Under laboratory conditions, crayfish establish hierarchical orders through agonistic encounters whose outcome defines the dominant one and one, or more, submissive animals. These agonistic encounters are ritualistic, based on threats, pushes, attacks, grabs, and avoidance behaviors that include retreats and escape responses. Agonistic behavior in a triad of unfamiliar, size-matched animals is intense on the first day of social interaction and the intensity fades on daily repetitions. The dominant animal keeps its status for long periods, and the submissive ones seem to remember 'who the boss is'...
November 30, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197901/deaf-new-zealand-sign-language-users-access-to-healthcare
#11
Joanne Witko, Pauline Boyles, Kirsten Smiler, Rachel McKee
AIMS: The research described was undertaken as part of a Sub-Regional Disability Strategy 2017-2022 across the Wairarapa, Hutt Valley and Capital and Coast District Health Boards (DHBs). The aim was to investigate deaf New Zealand Sign Language (NZSL) users' quality of access to health services. Findings have formed the basis for developing a 'NZSL plan' for DHBs in the Wellington sub-region. METHODS: Qualitative data was collected from 56 deaf participants and family members about their experiences of healthcare services via focus group, individual interviews and online survey, which were thematically analysed...
December 1, 2017: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197727/development-of-face-recognition-dynamic-causal-modelling-of-meg-data
#12
Wei He, Blake W Johnson
Electrophysiological studies of adults indicate that brain activity is enhanced during viewing of repeated faces, at a latency of about 250ms after the onset of the face (M250/N250). The present study aimed to determine if this effect was also present in preschool-aged children, whose brain activity was measured in a custom-sized pediatric MEG system. The results showed that, unlike adults, face repetition did not show any significant modulation of M250 amplitude in children; however children's M250 latencies were significantly faster for repeated than non-repeated faces...
November 23, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196876/early-recognition-of-sudden-cardiac-arrest-in-athletes-during-sports-activity
#13
N M Panhuyzen-Goedkoop, H J Wellens, J J Piek
INTRODUCTION: Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) in athletes is an unexpected life-threatening event, which is often not recognised early and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is not always initiated immediately. We describe key features to rapidly recognise non-traumatic SCA in athletes during sports activity. METHODS: We reviewed videos and images of athletes suffering from non-traumatic SCA during sports activity. We searched Google images, Google videos and YouTube...
December 1, 2017: Netherlands Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196835/eye-contact-effects-on-social-preference-and-face-recognition-in-normal-ageing-and-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
D Lopis, M Baltazar, N Geronikola, V Beaucousin, L Conty
Perceiving a direct gaze (i.e. another individual's gaze directed to the observer leading to eye contact) influences positively a wide range of cognitive processes. In particular, direct gaze perception is known to stimulate memory for other's faces and to increase their likeability. Alzheimer's disease (AD) results in social withdrawal and cognitive decline. However, patients show preserved eye contact behaviours until the middle stage of the disease. The eye contact effects could be preserved in AD and be used to compensate for cognitive and social deficits...
December 1, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194499/emotion-recognition-associated-with-polymorphism-in-oxytocinergic-pathway-gene-arnt2
#15
Daniel Hovey, Susanne Henningsson, Diana S Cortes, Tanja Bänziger, Anna Zettergren, Jonas Melke, Håkan Fischer, Petri Laukka, Lars Westberg
The ability to correctly understand the emotional expression of another person is essential for social relationships and appears to be a partly inherited trait. The neuropeptides oxytocin and vasopressin have been shown to influence this ability as well as face processing in humans. Here, recognition of the emotional content of faces and voices, separately and combined, was investigated in 492 subjects, genotyped for 25 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in eight genes encoding proteins important for oxytocin and vasopressin neurotransmission...
November 28, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191583/wolf-in-sheep-s-clothing-primary-lung-cancer-mimicking-benign-entities
#16
REVIEW
Annemie Snoeckx, Amélie Dendooven, Laurens Carp, Damien Desbuquoit, Maarten J Spinhoven, Patrick Lauwers, Paul E Van Schil, Jan P van Meerbeeck, Paul M Parizel
Lung cancer is the most common cancer worldwide. On imaging, it typically presents as mass or nodule. Recognition of these typical cases is often straightforward, whereas diagnosis of uncommon manifestations of primary lung cancer is far more challenging. Lung cancer can mimic a variety of benign entities, including pneumonia, lung abscess, postinfectious scarring, atelectasis, a mediastinal mass, emphysema and granulomatous diseases. Correlation with previous history, clinical and biochemical parameters is necessary in the assessment of these cases, but often aspecific and inconclusive...
October 2017: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189918/predictors-of-satisfaction-with-life-in-parents-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#17
Jason Landon, Daniel Shepherd, Sonja Goedeke
This study examined the relationships between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms, care-related activities, and satisfaction with life (SWL) in 184 parents caring for a child with ASD in New Zealand. The relationships between coping styles and SWL were also examined. The parents' SWL scores indicated they were slightly dissatisfied with their lives. A stepwise linear regression showed three predictors (care-related health problems, carer esteem and financial difficulties) explained 47% of the variance in SWL scores...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186621/is-the-voice-an-auditory-face-an-ale-meta-analysis-comparing-vocal-and-facial-emotion-processing
#18
Annett Schirmer
This meta-analysis compares the brain structures and mechanisms involved in facial and vocal emotion recognition. Neuroimaging studies contrasting emotional with neutral (face: N = 76, voice: N = 34) and explicit with implicit emotion processing (face: N = 27, voice: N = 20) were collected to shed light on stimulus and goal driven mechanisms, respectively. Activation likelihood estimations were conducted on the full data sets for the separate modalities and on reduced, modality-matched data sets for modality comparison...
November 23, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184830/orofacial-bacterial-infectious-diseases-an-update
#19
REVIEW
Soussan Irani
Objectives: Most of the oral infections with odontogenic origin are very common and can be treated by tooth extraction, endodontic therapy, or surgical treatment. Other infectious lesions are the manifestations of systemic diseases such as tuberculosis and syphilis. Skin and underlying subcutaneous tissue, fascia, or muscle is also involved with infectious diseases which range from superficial epidermal infections to very serious necrotizing fasciitis. Materials and Methods: An extensive literature in PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scopus search was performed from 1980 to 2017...
October 2017: Journal of International Society of Preventive & Community Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183996/structural-characterization-of-the-bacterial-proteasome-homolog-bph-reveals-a-tetradecameric-double-ring-complex-with-unique-inner-cavity-properties
#20
Adrian C D Fuchs, Lorena Maldoner, Katharina Hipp, Marcus D Hartmann, Jörg Martin
Eukaryotic and archaeal proteasomes are paradigms for self-compartmentalizing proteases. To a large extent, their function requires the interplay with hexameric ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities (AAA+) that act as substrate unfoldases. Bacteria have various types of self-compartmentalizing proteases; in addition to the proteasome itself, these include the proteasome homolog HslV, which functions together with the AAA+ ATPase HslU; the ClpP protease with its partner AAA+ ATPase ClpX; and Anbu, a recently characterized ancestral proteasome variant...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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