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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218433/activation-in-the-angular-gyrus-and-in-the-psts-is-modulated-by-face-primes-during-voice-recognition
#1
Cordula Hölig, Julia Föcker, Anna Best, Brigitte Röder, Christian Büchel
The aim of the present study was to better understand the interaction of face and voice processing when identifying people. In a S1-S2 crossmodal priming fMRI experiment, the target (S2) was a disyllabic voice stimulus, whereas the modality of the prime (S1) was manipulated blockwise and consisted of the silent video of a speaking face in the crossmodal condition or of a voice stimulus in the unimodal condition. Primes and targets were from the same speaker (person-congruent) or from two different speakers (person-incongruent)...
February 20, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215697/directed-network-discovery-with-dynamic-network-modeling
#2
Stefano Anzellotti, Dorit Kliemann, Nir Jacoby, Rebecca Saxe
Cognitive tasks recruit multiple brain regions. Understanding how these regions influence each other (the network structure) is an important step to characterize the neural basis of cognitive processes. Often, limited evidence is available to restrict the range of hypotheses a priori, and techniques that sift efficiently through a large number of possible network structures are needed (network discovery). This article introduces a novel modeling technique for network discovery (Dynamic Network Modeling or DNM) that builds on ideas from Granger Causality and Dynamic Causal Modeling introducing three key changes: (1) efficient network discovery is implemented with statistical tests on the consistency of model parameters across participants, (2) the tests take into account the magnitude and sign of each influence, and (3) variance explained in independent data is used as an absolute (rather than relative) measure of the quality of the network model...
February 16, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213830/recognition-memory-for-low-and-high-frequency-filtered-emotional-faces-low-spatial-frequencies-drive-emotional-memory-enhancement-whereas-high-spatial-frequencies-drive-the-emotion-induced-recognition-bias
#3
Michaela Rohr, Johannes Tröger, Nils Michely, Alarith Uhde, Dirk Wentura
This article deals with two well-documented phenomena regarding emotional stimuli: emotional memory enhancement-that is, better long-term memory for emotional than for neutral stimuli-and the emotion-induced recognition bias-that is, a more liberal response criterion for emotional than for neutral stimuli. Studies on visual emotion perception and attention suggest that emotion-related processes can be modulated by means of spatial-frequency filtering of the presented emotional stimuli. Specifically, low spatial frequencies are assumed to play a primary role for the influence of emotion on attention and judgment...
February 17, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211184/night-time-pedestrian-conspicuity-effects-of-clothing-on-drivers-eye-movements
#4
Joanne M Wood, Richard A Tyrrell, Philippe Lacherez, Alex A Black
PURPOSE: Drivers' responses and eye movements were assessed as they approached pedestrians at night in order to explore the relative conspicuity benefits of different configurations of retroreflective markings. METHODS: Eye movements were recorded using an ASL Mobile Eye (Applied Science Technologies, www.asleyetracking.com) from 14 young licensed drivers (M = 24.1 ± 6.4 years) as they drove along a closed-road circuit at night. At two locations, pedestrians walked in place facing either towards or away from the road...
March 2017: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208733/a-survey-on-banknote-recognition-methods-by-various-sensors
#5
REVIEW
Ji Woo Lee, Hyung Gil Hong, Ki Wan Kim, Kang Ryoung Park
Despite a decrease in the use of currency due to the recent growth in the use of electronic financial transactions, real money transactions remain very important in the global market. While performing transactions with real money, touching and counting notes by hand, is still a common practice in daily life, various types of automated machines, such as ATMs and banknote counters, are essential for large-scale and safe transactions. This paper presents studies that have been conducted in four major areas of research (banknote recognition, counterfeit banknote detection, serial number recognition, and fitness classification) in the accurate banknote recognition field by various sensors in such automated machines, and describes the advantages and drawbacks of the methods presented in those studies...
February 8, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207407/deep-pain-exploiting-long-short-term-memory-networks-for-facial-expression-classification
#6
Pau Rodriguez, Guillem Cucurull, Jordi Gonalez, Josep M Gonfaus, Kamal Nasrollahi, Thomas B Moeslund, F Xavier Roca
Pain is an unpleasant feeling that has been shown to be an important factor for the recovery of patients. Since this is costly in human resources and difficult to do objectively, there is the need for automatic systems to measure it. In this paper, contrary to current state-of-the-art techniques in pain assessment, which are based on facial features only, we suggest that the performance can be enhanced by feeding the raw frames to deep learning models, outperforming the latest state-of-the-art results while also directly facing the problem of imbalanced data...
February 9, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205214/the-reliability-of-facial-recognition-of-deceased-persons-on-photographs
#7
Zuzana Caplova, Zuzana Obertova, Daniele M Gibelli, Debora Mazzarelli, Tony Fracasso, Peter Vanezis, Chiarella Sforza, Cristina Cattaneo
In humanitarian emergencies, such as the current deceased migrants in the Mediterranean, antemortem documentation needed for identification may be limited. The use of visual identification has been previously reported in cases of mass disasters such as Thai tsunami. This pilot study explores the ability of observers to match unfamiliar faces of living and dead persons and whether facial morphology can be used for identification. A questionnaire was given to 41 students and five professionals in the field of forensic identification with the task to choose whether a facial photograph corresponds to one of the five photographs in a lineup and to identify the most useful features used for recognition...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196374/the-visual-white-matter-the-application-of-diffusion-mri-and-fiber-tractography-to-vision-science
#8
Ariel Rokem, Hiromasa Takemura, Andrew S Bock, K Suzanne Scherf, Marlene Behrmann, Brian A Wandell, Ione Fine, Holly Bridge, Franco Pestilli
Visual neuroscience has traditionally focused much of its attention on understanding the response properties of single neurons or neuronal ensembles. The visual white matter and the long-range neuronal connections it supports are fundamental in establishing such neuronal response properties and visual function. This review article provides an introduction to measurements and methods to study the human visual white matter using diffusion MRI. These methods allow us to measure the microstructural and macrostructural properties of the white matter in living human individuals; they allow us to trace long-range connections between neurons in different parts of the visual system and to measure the biophysical properties of these connections...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196317/common-skin-conditions-in-children-noninfectious-rashes
#9
Brian Z Rayala, Dean S Morrell
Cutaneous adverse drug reactions are among the most common noninfectious rashes of childhood. Cutaneous adverse drug reactions are classified as morbilliform, urticarial, bullous, pustular, or psoriasiform. Atopic dermatitis is one of the most common inflammatory cutaneous eruptions, and is characterized by pruritus and flexural distribution. Emollients and topical corticosteroids are first-line therapies. Topical calcineurin inhibitors are second-line, steroid-sparing drugs for certain conditions, such as face and eyelid eczema...
February 2017: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193875/spontaneous-expression-of-mirror-self-recognition-in-monkeys-after-learning-precise-visual-proprioceptive-association-for-mirror-images
#10
Liangtang Chang, Shikun Zhang, Mu-Ming Poo, Neng Gong
Mirror self-recognition (MSR) is generally considered to be an intrinsic cognitive ability found only in humans and a few species of great apes. Rhesus monkeys do not spontaneously show MSR, but they have the ability to use a mirror as an instrument to find hidden objects. The mechanism underlying the transition from simple mirror use to MSR remains unclear. Here we show that rhesus monkeys could show MSR after learning precise visual-proprioceptive association for mirror images. We trained head-fixed monkeys on a chair in front of a mirror to touch with spatiotemporal precision a laser pointer light spot on an adjacent board that could only be seen in the mirror...
February 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193186/afghan-migrants-face-more-suboptimal-care-than-natives-a-maternal-near-miss-audit-study-at-university-hospitals-in-tehran-iran
#11
Soheila Mohammadi, Soraya Saleh Gargari, Masoumeh Fallahian, Carina Källestål, Shirin Ziaei, Birgitta Essén
BACKGROUND: Women from low-income settings have higher risk of maternal near miss (MNM) and suboptimal care than natives in high-income countries. Iran is the second largest host country for Afghan refugees in the world. Our aim was to investigate whether care quality for MNM differed between Iranians and Afghans and identify potential preventable attributes of MNM. METHODS: An MNM audit study was conducted from 2012 to 2014 at three university hospitals in Tehran...
February 13, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193056/comprehensive-and-quantitative-analysis-of-polyphosphoinositide-species-by-shotgun-lipidomics-revealed-their-alterations-in-db-db-mouse-brain
#12
Chunyan Wang, Juan Pablo Palavicini, Miao Wang, Linyuan Chen, Kui Yang, Peter A Crawford, Xianlin Han
Polyphosphoinositides (PPI) play crucial roles in cellular signaling and functions. However, comprehensively determining the changed levels of these species during different cellular processes has faced difficulties. Herein, we applied a novel methylation pattern recognition and simulation approach, and we exploited newly derived fragmentation patterns of methylated PPI species for comprehensive analysis of PPI species including phosphate position(s) and fatty acyl chains capable of circumpassing previous limitations...
December 20, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192770/the-relationship-between-childhood-trauma-emotion-recognition-and-irritability-in-schizophrenia-patients
#13
Mustafa Melih Bilgi, Seval Taspinar, Burcu Aksoy, Kaya Oguz, Kerry Coburn, Ali Saffet Gonul
This study investigated the relationship between childhood trauma, irritability, and emotion recognition, in schizophrenia patients during a psychotic break. Thirty-six schizophrenia inpatients and 36 healthy controls were assessed with the Irritability Questionnaire (IRQ) and two facial emotion recognition tasks, the Emotion Discrimination Test (EDT) and Emotion Identification Test (EIT). Patients were further assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM III-R Axis II Disorders (SCID-II), the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS), and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-28 (CTQ-28)...
February 3, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192170/a-new-approach-to-analyze-data-from-eeg-based-concealed-face-recognition-system
#14
A H Mehrnam, A M Nasrabadi, M Ghodoosi, A Mohammadian, Sh Torabi
The purpose of this study is to extend a feature set with non-linear features to improve classification rate of guilty and innocent subjects. Non-linear features can provide extra information about phase space. The Event-Related Potential (ERP) signals were recorded from 49 subjects who participated in concealed face recognition test. For feature extraction, at first, several morphological characteristics, frequency bands, and wavelet coefficients (we call them basic-features) are extracted from each single-trial ERP...
February 9, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191990/holistic-processing-of-static-and-moving-faces
#15
Mintao Zhao, Isabelle Bülthoff
Humans' face ability develops and matures with extensive experience in perceiving, recognizing, and interacting with faces that move most of the time. However, how facial movements affect 1 core aspect of face ability-holistic face processing-remains unclear. Here we investigated the influence of rigid facial motion on holistic and part-based face processing by manipulating the presence of facial motion during study and at test in a composite face task. The results showed that rigidly moving faces were processed as holistically as static faces (Experiment 1)...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188581/use-of-the-recognition-heuristic-depends-on-the-domain-s-recognition-validity-not-on-the-recognition-validity-of-selected-sets-of-objects
#16
Rüdiger F Pohl, Martha Michalkiewicz, Edgar Erdfelder, Benjamin E Hilbig
According to the recognition-heuristic theory, decision makers solve paired comparisons in which one object is recognized and the other not by recognition alone, inferring that recognized objects have higher criterion values than unrecognized ones. However, success-and thus usefulness-of this heuristic depends on the validity of recognition as a cue, and adaptive decision making, in turn, requires that decision makers are sensitive to it. To this end, decision makers could base their evaluation of the recognition validity either on the selected set of objects (the set's recognition validity), or on the underlying domain from which the objects were drawn (the domain's recognition validity)...
February 10, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186890/3-d-solid-texture-classification-using-locally-oriented-wavelet-transforms
#17
Yashin Dicente Cid, Henning Muller, Alexandra Platon, Pierre Poletti, Adrien Depeursinge
Many image acquisition techniques used in biomedical imaging, material analysis, and structural geology are capable of acquiring 3-D solid images. Computational analysis of these images is complex but necessary since it is difficult for humans to visualize and quantify their detailed 3-D content. One of the most common methods to analyze 3-D data is to characterize the volumetric texture patterns. Texture analysis generally consists of encoding the local organization of image scales and directions, which can be extremely diverse in 3-D...
February 6, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182480/are-portrait-artists-superior-face-recognizers-limited-impact-of-adult-experience-on-face-recognition-ability
#18
Jeremy J Tree, Ruth Horry, Howard Riley, Jeremy B Wilmer
Across 2 studies, the authors asked whether extensive experience in portrait art is associated with face recognition ability. In Study 1, 64 students completed a standardized face recognition test before and after completing a year-long art course that included substantial portraiture training. They found no evidence of an improvement in face recognition after training over and above what would be expected by practice alone. In Study 2, the authors investigated the possibility that more extensive experience might be needed for such advantages to emerge, by testing a cohort of expert portrait artists (N = 28), all of whom had many years of experience...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176420/development-of-simulation-based-learning-program-for-improving-adherence-to-time-out-protocol-on-high-risk-invasive-procedures-outside-of-operating-room
#19
Eun Ju Jeong, Hyun Soo Chung, Jeong Yun Choi, In Sook Kim, Seong Hee Hong, Kyung Sook Yoo, Mi Kyoung Kim, Mi Yeol Won, So Yeon Eum, Young Soon Cho
The aim of this study was to develop a simulation-based time-out learning program targeted to nurses participating in high-risk invasive procedures and to figure out the effects of application of the new program on acceptance of nurses. This study was performed using a simulation-based learning predesign and postdesign to figure out the effects of implementation of this program. It was targeted to 48 registered nurses working in the general ward and the emergency department in a tertiary teaching hospital. Difference between acceptance and performance rates has been figured out by using mean, standard deviation, and Wilcoxon-signed rank test...
February 7, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173857/understanding-the-strategies-employed-to-cope-with-increased-numbers-of-aids-orphaned-children-in-families-in-rural-settings-a-case-of-mbeya-rural-district-tanzania
#20
Nelsensius Klau Fauk, Silivano Edson Mwakinyali, Sukma Putra, Lillian Mwanri
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to understand the strategies employed by families that adopt Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)-orphaned children (Adoptive families) for coping with and mitigating the impact of AIDS in Mbeya Rural District, Tanzania. High numbers of AIDS-orphaned children aged below 18 years in Mbeya Region have led to increasing the burden of families caring for them. Understanding the coping strategies and impact mitigation activities employed by adoptive families is important in order to develop programmes to help them...
February 7, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
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