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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433792/a-pilot-study-examining-a-computer-based-intervention-to-improve-recognition-and-understanding-of-emotions-in-young-children-with-communication-and-social-deficits
#1
Neri L Romero
BACKGROUND: A common social impairment in individuals with ASD is difficulty interpreting and or predicting emotions of others. To date, several interventions targeting teaching emotion recognition and understanding have been utilized both by researchers and practitioners. The results suggest that teaching emotion recognition is possible, but that the results do not generalize to non-instructional contexts. This study sought to replicate earlier findings of a positive impact of teaching emotion recognition using a computer-based intervention and to extend it by testing for generalization on live models in the classroom setting...
April 20, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424776/socially-responsible-surgery-building-recognition-and-coalition
#2
Tyler D Robinson, Thiago M Oliveira, Theresa R Timmes, Jacqueline M Mills, Nichole Starr, Matthew Fleming, Megan Janeway, Diane Haddad, Feroze Sidhwa, Ryan D Macht, Douglas F Kauffman, Tracey A Dechert
IMPORTANCE: Socially responsible surgery (SRS) integrates surgery and public health, providing a framework for research, advocacy, education, and clinical practice to address the social barriers of health that decrease surgical access and worsen surgical outcomes in underserved patient populations. These patients face disparities in both health and in health care, which can be effectively addressed by surgeons in collaboration with allied health professionals. OBJECTIVE: We reviewed the current state of surgical access and outcomes of underserved populations in American rural communities, American urban communities, and in low- and middle-income countries...
2017: Frontiers in Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418399/restoring-effects-of-oxytocin-on-the-attentional-preference-for-faces-in-autism
#3
M Kanat, I Spenthof, A Riedel, L T van Elst, M Heinrichs, G Domes
Reduced attentional preference for faces and symptoms of social anxiety are common in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The neuropeptide oxytocin triggers anxiolytic functions and enhances eye gaze, facial emotion recognition and neural correlates of face processing in ASD. Here we investigated whether a single dose of oxytocin increases attention to faces in ASD. As a secondary question, we explored the influence of social anxiety on these effects. We tested for oxytocin's effects on attention to neutral faces as compared to houses in a sample of 29 autistic individuals and 30 control participants using a dot-probe paradigm with two different presentation times (100 or 500 ms)...
April 18, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413566/a-hierarchical-predictive-coding-model-of-object-recognition-in-natural-images
#4
M W Spratling
Predictive coding has been proposed as a model of the hierarchical perceptual inference process performed in the cortex. However, results demonstrating that predictive coding is capable of performing the complex inference required to recognise objects in natural images have not previously been presented. This article proposes a hierarchical neural network based on predictive coding for performing visual object recognition. This network is applied to the tasks of categorising hand-written digits, identifying faces, and locating cars in images of street scenes...
2017: Cognitive Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411014/impact-of-the-act-fast-stroke-campaign-delivered-by-student-pharmacists-on-the-primary-prevention-of-stroke
#5
Lucy Phan Vo, JoAnna Han Souksavong, Annie Tran, Janet Chang, Kajua B Lor
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of an Act FAST educational intervention performed by student pharmacists on knowledge of stroke recognition and management. DESIGN: Stroke preparedness and knowledge of primary prevention were assessed with the use of pre- and post-intervention surveys targeting community members at health fairs. The intervention was an Act FAST educational session with blood pressure and blood glucose screenings provided by student pharmacists...
April 12, 2017: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407373/activation-of-the-arabidopsis-membrane-bound-transcription-factor-bzip28-is-mediated-by-site-2-protease-but-not-site-1-protease
#6
Yuji Iwata, Makoto Ashida, Chisa Hasegawa, Kazuki Tabara, Kei-Ichiro Mishiba, Nozomu Koizumi
The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a homeostatic cellular response conserved in eukaryotic cells to alleviate the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Arabidopsis bZIP28 is a membrane-bound transcription factor activated by proteolytic cleavage in response to ER stress, thereby releasing its cytosolic portion containing the bZIP domain from the membrane to translocate into the nucleus where it induces the transcription of genes encoding ER-resident molecular chaperones and folding enzymes...
April 13, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406690/the-inversion-part-whole-and-composite-effects-reflect-distinct-perceptual-mechanisms-with-varied-relationships-to-face-recognition
#7
Constantin Rezlescu, Tirta Susilo, Jeremy B Wilmer, Alfonso Caramazza
Face recognition is thought to rely on specific mechanisms underlying a perceptual bias toward processing faces as undecomposable wholes. This face-specific "holistic processing" is commonly quantified using 3 measures: the inversion, part-whole, and composite effects. Consequently, many researchers assume that these 3 effects measure the same cognitive mechanism(s) and these mechanisms contribute to the wide range of individual differences seen in face recognition ability. We test these assumptions in a large sample (N = 282), with individual face recognition abilities measured by the well-validated Cambridge Face Perception Test...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406679/gently-does-it-humans-outperform-a-software-classifier-in-recognizing-subtle-nonstereotypical-facial-expressions
#8
Neta Yitzhak, Nir Giladi, Tanya Gurevich, Daniel S Messinger, Emily B Prince, Katherine Martin, Hillel Aviezer
According to dominant theories of affect, humans innately and universally express a set of emotions using specific configurations of prototypical facial activity. Accordingly, thousands of studies have tested emotion recognition using sets of highly intense and stereotypical facial expressions, yet their incidence in real life is virtually unknown. In fact, a commonplace experience is that emotions are expressed in subtle and nonprototypical forms. Such facial expressions are at the focus of the current study...
April 13, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405380/robust-associations-between-the-20-item-prosopagnosia-index-and-the-cambridge-face-memory-test-in-the-general-population
#9
Katie L H Gray, Geoffrey Bird, Richard Cook
Developmental prosopagnosia (DP) is a neurodevelopmental condition, characterized by lifelong face recognition deficits. Leading research groups diagnose the condition using complementary computer-based tasks and self-report measures. In an attempt to standardize the reporting of self-report evidence, we recently developed the 20-item prosopagnosia index (PI20), a short questionnaire measure of prosopagnosic traits suitable for screening adult samples for DP. Strong correlations between scores on the PI20 and performance on the Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT) appeared to confirm that individuals possess sufficient insight into their face recognition ability to complete a self-report measure of prosopagnosic traits...
March 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405355/face-familiarity-promotes-stable-identity-recognition-exploring-face-perception-using-serial-dependence
#10
Rebecca Kok, Jessica Taubert, Erik Van der Burg, Gillian Rhodes, David Alais
Studies suggest that familiar faces are processed in a manner distinct from unfamiliar faces and that familiarity with a face confers an advantage in identity recognition. Our visual system seems to capitalize on experience to build stable face representations that are impervious to variation in retinal input that may occur due to changes in lighting, viewpoint, viewing distance, eye movements, etc. Emerging evidence also suggests that our visual system maintains a continuous perception of a face's identity from one moment to the next despite the retinal input variations through serial dependence...
March 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403005/impact-of-patient-affect-on-physician-estimate-of-probability-of-serious-illness-and-test-ordering
#11
Jeffrey A Kline, Dawn Neumann, Samih Raad, David L Schriger, Cassandra L Hall, Jake Capito, David Kammer
PURPOSE: The authors hypothesize patient facial affect may influence clinician pretest probability (PTP) estimate of cardiopulmonary emergency (CPE) and desire to order a computerized tomographic pulmonary angiogram (CTPA). METHOD: This prospective study was conducted at three Indiana University-affiliated hospitals in two parts: collecting videos of patients undergoing CTPA for suspected acute pulmonary embolism watching a humorous video (August 2014-April 2015) and presenting the medical histories and videos to clinicians to determine the impact of patient facial affect on physicians' PTP estimate of CPE and desire to order a CTPA (June-November 2015)...
April 11, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399433/embodied-emotion-impairment-in-huntington-s-disease
#12
Iris Trinkler, Sévérine Devignevielle, Amal Achaibou, Romain V Ligneul, Pierre Brugières, Laurent Cleret de Langavant, Beatrice De Gelder, Rachael Scahill, Sophie Schwartz, Anne-Catherine Bachoud-Lévi
Theories of embodied cognition suggest that perceiving an emotion involves somatovisceral and motoric re-experiencing. Here we suggest taking such an embodied stance when looking at emotion processing deficits in patients with Huntington's Disease (HD), a neurodegenerative motor disorder. The literature on these patients' emotion recognition deficit has recently been enriched by some reports of impaired emotion expression. The goal of the study was to find out if expression deficits might be linked to a more motoric level of impairment...
March 18, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397623/differences-in-neural-and-cognitive-response-to-emotional-faces-in-middle-aged-dizygotic-twins-at-familial-risk-of-depression
#13
K W Miskowiak, A M B Svendsen, C J Harmer, R Elliott, J Macoveanu, H R Siebner, L V Kessing, M Vinberg
BACKGROUND: Negative bias and aberrant neural processing of emotional faces are trait-marks of depression but findings in healthy high-risk groups are conflicting. METHODS: Healthy middle-aged dizygotic twins (N = 42) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI): 22 twins had a co-twin history of depression (high-risk) and 20 were without co-twin history of depression (low-risk). During fMRI, participants viewed fearful and happy faces while performing a gender discrimination task...
April 11, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392772/the-tromso-infant-faces-database-tif-development-validation-and-application-to-assess-parenting-experience-on-clarity-and-intensity-ratings
#14
Jana K Maack, Agnes Bohne, Dag Nordahl, Lina Livsdatter, Åsne A W Lindahl, Morten Øvervoll, Catharina E A Wang, Gerit Pfuhl
Newborns and infants are highly depending on successfully communicating their needs; e.g., through crying and facial expressions. Although there is a growing interest in the mechanisms of and possible influences on the recognition of facial expressions in infants, heretofore there exists no validated database of emotional infant faces. In the present article we introduce a standardized and freely available face database containing Caucasian infant face images from 18 infants 4 to 12 months old. The development and validation of the Tromsø Infant Faces (TIF) database is presented in Study 1...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392730/external-quality-assessment-in-croatia-problems-challenges-and-specific-circumstances
#15
REVIEW
Jasna Lenicek Krleza, Ivana Celap, Jelena Vlasic Tanaskovic
In Croatian medical laboratories (ML), external quality assessment (EQA) has a long tradition of almost half of a century. At national level, EQA is provided by Croatian Centre for Quality Assessment in Laboratory Medicine (CROQALM) which is a part of Croatian Society of Medical Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine.
This case study aimed to summarize the main challenges, which are set to CROQALM and their possible solutions.
CROQALM has 10 schemes, covering majority of analysis for which medical biochemistry laboratories in Croatia are authorized for, including pre-analytical and post-analytical phase of laboratory work...
February 15, 2017: Biochemia Medica: časopis Hrvatskoga Društva Medicinskih Biokemičara
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391501/unaccompanied-children-at-the-united-states-border-a-human-rights-crisis-that-can-be-addressed-with-policy-change
#16
REVIEW
Janna Ataiants, Chari Cohen, Amy Henderson Riley, Jamile Tellez Lieberman, Mary Clare Reidy, Mariana Chilton
In recent years, unaccompanied minors have been journeying to the United States (U.S.)-Mexico border in great numbers in order to escape violence, poverty and exploitation in their home countries. Yet, unaccompanied children attempting to cross the United States border face treatment at the hands of government representatives which violates their inherent rights as children. The result is a human rights crisis that has severe health consequences for the children. Their rights as children are clearly delineated in various, international human rights documents which merit increased understanding of and recognition by the U...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390296/mirror-self-face-perception-in-individuals-with-schizophrenia-feelings-of-strangeness-associated-with-one-s-own-image
#17
Catherine Bortolon, Delphine Capdevielle, Rosalie Altman, Alexandra Macgregor, Jérôme Attal, Stéphane Raffard
Self-face recognition is crucial for sense of identity and for maintaining a coherent sense of self. Most of our daily life experiences with the image of our own face happen when we look at ourselves in the mirror. However, to date, mirror self-perception in schizophrenia has received little attention despite evidence that face recognition deficits and self abnormalities have been described in schizophrenia. Thus, this study aims to investigate mirror self-face perception in schizophrenia patients and its correlation with clinical symptoms...
April 3, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388482/face-proprioception-does-not-modulate-access-to-visual-awareness-of-emotional-faces-in-a-continuous-flash-suppression-paradigm
#18
Sebastian Korb, Sofia A Osimo, Tiziano Suran, Ariel Goldstein, Raffaella Ida Rumiati
An important question in neuroscience is which multisensory information, presented outside of awareness, can influence the nature and speed of conscious access to our percepts. Recently, proprioceptive feedback of the hand was reported to lead to faster awareness of congruent hand images in a breaking continuous flash suppression (b-CFS) paradigm. Moreover, a vast literature suggests that spontaneous facial mimicry can improve emotion recognition, even without awareness of the stimulus face. However, integration of visual and proprioceptive information about the face to date has not been tested with CFS...
April 4, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387538/the-voice-of-surrogate-decision-makers-family-responses-to-prognostic-information-in-chronic-critical-illness
#19
Judith E Nelson, Laura C Hanson, Kristine L Keller, Shannon S Carson, Christopher E Cox, James A Tulsky, Douglas B White, Emily J Chai, Stefanie P Weiss, Marion Danis
RATIONALE: Information from clinicians about the expected course of the patient's illness is relevant and important for decision-making by surrogates for chronically critically ill patients on mechanical ventilation. OBJECTIVE: Observe how surrogates of chronically critically ill patients respond to information about prognosis from palliative care clinicians. METHODS: Qualitative analysis of a consecutive sample of audio-recorded meetings from a larger, multisite, randomized trial of structured informational and supportive meetings led by a palliative care physician and nurse practitioner for surrogates of patients in Medical Intensive Care Units with chronic critical illness (i...
April 7, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377626/problems-with-visual-statistical-learning-in-developmental-dyslexia
#20
Heida Maria Sigurdardottir, Hilda Bjork Danielsdottir, Margret Gudmundsdottir, Kristjan Helgi Hjartarson, Elin Astros Thorarinsdottir, Árni Kristjánsson
Previous research shows that dyslexic readers are impaired in their recognition of faces and other complex objects, and show hypoactivation in ventral visual stream regions that support word and object recognition. Responses of these brain regions are shaped by visual statistical learning. If such learning is compromised, people should be less sensitive to statistically likely feature combinations in words and other objects, and impaired visual word and object recognition should be expected. We therefore tested whether people with dyslexia showed diminished capability for visual statistical learning...
April 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
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