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Face recognition

Elena Meirzadeh, Liel Sapir, Hagai Cohen, Sidney R Cohen, David Ehre, Daniel Harries, Meir Lahav, Igor Lubomirsky
The riddle of anomalous polar behavior of the centrosymmetric crystal of α-glycine is resolved by the discovery of a polar, several hundred nanometer thick hydrated layer, created at the {010} faces during crystal growth. This layer was detected by two independent pyroelectric analytical methods: (i) periodic temperature change technique (Chynoweth) at ambient conditions and (ii) contactless X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy under ultrahigh vacuum. The total polarization of the surface layer is extremely large, yielding ≈1 μC·cm(-2), and is preserved in ultrahigh vacuum, but disappears upon heating to 100 °C...
October 25, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Sharon E Card, Heather D Clark, Michelle Elizov, Narmin Kassam
General internal medicine (GIM), like other generalist specialties, has struggled to maintain its identity in the face of mounting sub-specialization over the past few decades. In Canada, the path to licensure for general internists has been through the completion of an extra year of training after three core years of internal medicine. Until very recently, the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada (RCPSC) did not recognize GIM as a distinct entity. In response to a societal need to train generalist practitioners who could care for complex patients in an increasingly complex health care setting, the majority of universities across Canada voluntarily developed structured GIM training programs independent of RCPSC recognition...
October 24, 2016: Journal of General Internal Medicine
G Besson, G Barragan-Jason, S J Thorpe, M Fabre-Thorpe, S Puma, M Ceccaldi, E J Barbeau
Verifying that a face is from a target person (e.g. finding someone in the crowd) is a critical ability of the human face processing system. Yet how fast this can be performed is unknown. The 'entry-level shift due to expertise' hypothesis suggests that - since humans are face experts - processing faces should be as fast - or even faster - at the individual than at superordinate levels. In contrast, the 'superordinate advantage' hypothesis suggests that faces are processed from coarse to fine, so that the opposite pattern should be observed...
October 21, 2016: Cognition
Lee E Morrow, Paul Wischmeyer
Clinicians have traditionally dichotomized bacteria as friendly commensals or harmful pathogens. However, the line separating the two has become blurred with the recognition that the intestinal microbiome is a complex entity wherein species can shift sides - from friend to foe and back again - based on crucial factors in their local environment. Significant disruptions in the homeostasis of the microbiome, a phenomenon called 'dysbiosis,' is increasingly associated with a host of untoward effects. Intensive care unit patients are at high risk for dysbiosis given high rates of antibiotic use, acute changes in diet, and the stress of critical illness...
October 19, 2016: Chest
Xiao Wei Tang, Miao Yu, Wei Wei Duan, Xiang Rong Zhang, Wei Wei Sha, Xiang Wang, Xiao Bin Zhang
Deficit schizophrenia (DS) has been proposed as a pathophysiologically distinct schizophrenia subtype. This study investigated facial emotion recognition deficits and alexithymia in DS and non-deficit schizophrenia patients (NDS) and their relationships with other clinical variables. The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS), and Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS) were employed to evaluate the psychiatric symptoms in patients with schizophrenia...
September 29, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Wai Jia Tam, Philip Yap
Approximately two-thirds of the world's older adults live in developing nations. By 2050, as many as 80% of such older people will live in low- and middle-income countries. In sub-Saharan Africa alone, the number of individuals aged 60 and older is projected to reach 163 million. Despite this demographic wave, the majority of Africa has limited access to qualified geriatric health care.(3) Although foreign aid and capacity-building efforts can help to close this gap over time, it is likely that failure to understand the unique context of Africa's older adults, many of whom are marginalized, will lead to inadequacies in service delivery and poor health outcomes...
October 22, 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Daniela Mier, Sarah Eisenacher, Franziska Rausch, Susanne Englisch, Martin Fungisai Gerchen, Vera Zamoscik, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Mathias Zink, Peter Kirsch
Schizophrenia is associated with significant impairments in social cognition. These impairments have been shown to go along with altered activation of the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS). However, studies that investigate connectivity of pSTS during social cognition in schizophrenia are sparse. Twenty-two patients with schizophrenia and 22 matched healthy controls completed a social-cognitive task for functional magnetic resonance imaging that allows the investigation of affective Theory of Mind (ToM), emotion recognition and the processing of neutral facial expressions...
October 21, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
David A Peterson, Gwen C Littlewort, Marian S Bartlett, Antonella Macerollo, Joel S Perlmutter, H A Jinnah, Mark Hallett, Terrence J Sejnowski
OBJECTIVE: To compare clinical rating scales of blepharospasm severity with involuntary eye closures measured automatically from patient videos with contemporary facial expression software. METHODS: We evaluated video recordings of a standardized clinical examination from 50 patients with blepharospasm in the Dystonia Coalition's Natural History and Biorepository study. Eye closures were measured on a frame-by-frame basis with software known as the Computer Expression Recognition Toolbox (CERT)...
October 21, 2016: Neurology
Kiran Sandhu, Paul Burton, Aysin Dedekorkut-Howes
The informal waste recycling sector has been an indispensable but ironically invisible part of the waste management systems in developing countries as India, often completely disregarded and overlooked by decision makers and policy frameworks. The turn towards liberalization of economy since 1991 in India opened the doors for privatization of urban services and the waste sector found favor with private companies facilitated by the local governments. In joining the privatization bandwagon, the local governments aim to create an image of a progressive city demonstrated most visibly through apt management of municipal solid waste...
October 18, 2016: Waste Management
Xiaoqian Yan, Andrew W Young, Timothy J Andrews
The aim of this study was to investigate the causes of the own-race advantage in facial expression perception. In Experiment 1, we investigated Western Caucasian and Chinese participants' perception and categorization of facial expressions of six basic emotions that included two pairs of confusable expressions (fear and surprise; anger and disgust). People were slightly better at identifying facial expressions posed by own-race members (mainly in anger and disgust). In Experiment 2, we asked whether the own-race advantage was due to differences in the holistic processing of facial expressions...
October 21, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Mona Malakouti, Gabrielle E Brown, Argentina Leon, Eva Wang, April N Naegeli, Emily Edson-Heredia, Ethan Levin, John Y M Koo
INTRODUCTION: Patient-reported outcome measures are increasingly utilized in dermatology to assess the impact of skin disease on quality of life. Despite recognition of the influence of skin disease on intimate relationships, an instrument to assess intimacy has not been developed. The objective of this study was to create the Dermatologic Intimacy Scale (DIS) and administer the prototype to a patient population. METHODS: A group of healthcare providers at the University of California San Francisco created the DIS prototype...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
Naomi Priest, Laura Thompson, Tamara Mackean, Alison Baker, Elizabeth Waters
OBJECTIVE: Australian Indigenous children experience some of the most substantial health inequalities globally. In this context, research regarding their health and well-being has overemphasised physical illnesses with limited exploration of a diverse range of dimensions and determinants, particularly those based on Indigenous holistic understandings of health and well-being. This deficit-based approach has thus missed many strengths and assets of Indigenous children. This research aimed to gain insight into the perspectives of Indigenous children about their health and well-being in an urban setting in Australia...
October 21, 2016: Ethnicity & Health
Steve D Charman, Andrea Reyes, Daniella K Villalba, Jacqueline R Evans
Some innocent suspects rely on the memory of strangers to corroborate their alibis. However, no research has examined whether such potential alibi corroborators can accurately recognize an innocent suspect with whom they previously interacted. We developed a novel alibi corroboration paradigm in which undergraduate students (representing innocent suspects who would later provide an alibi) interacted with naïve university employees (representing potential alibi corroborators). Each student briefly interacted with a different naïve university employee (n = 60), and were also each yoked to a different employee with whom they did not interact (n = 60)...
October 19, 2016: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
Francesco Corrivetti, Guillaume Herbet, Sylvie Moritz-Gasser, Hugues Duffau
BACKGROUND: Face recognition is a complex function sustained by a distributed large-scale neural network, with a core system involving the ventral occipito-temporal cortex, the inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) and the splenial commissural fibers. This circuit seems to be bilaterally organized, with however a right hemispheric dominance. According to this anatomo-functional model, prosopagnosia is usually, but not exclusively, generated by a damage of the right part of this brain network...
October 15, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Dahan Anat, Reiner Miriam
The extensive use of gestures for human-human communication, independently of culture and language, suggests an underlying universal neural mechanism for gesture recognition. The mirror neuron system (MNS) is known to respond to observed human actions, and overlaps with self-action. The minimal cues needed for activation of the MNS for gesture recognition, facial expressions and bodily dynamics, is not yet defined. Using LED-point representations of gestures, we compared two types of brain activations: 1) in response to human recognizable vs non-recognizable motion and 2) in response to human vs non-human motion...
October 15, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Cenk Murat Özer, Ibrahim Ilker Öz, Ismail Şerifoğlu, Mustafa Çağatay Büyükuysal, Çağatay Barut
The orbital aperture is the entrance to the orbit in which most important visual structures such as the eyeball and the optic nerve are found. It is vital not only for the visual system but also for the evaluation and recognition of the face. Eyeball volume is essential for diagnosing microphthalmos or buphthalmos in several eye disorders. Knowing the length of the optic nerve is necessary in selecting the right instruments for enucleation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate eyeball volume, orbital aperture, and optic nerve dimensions for a morphological description in a Turkish population sample according to gender and body side...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Maria Teresa Turano, Maria Pia Viggiano
The relationship between face recognition ability and socioemotional functioning has been widely explored. However, how aging modulates this association regarding both objective performance and subjective-perception is still neglected. Participants, aged between 18 and 81 years, performed a face memory test and completed subjective face recognition and socioemotional questionnaires. General and social anxiety, and neuroticism traits account for the individual variation in face recognition abilities during adulthood...
October 18, 2016: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
Nicola Jones, Leigh M Riby, Michael A Smith
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) exhibit accelerated decline in some domains of cognition including verbal episodic memory. Few studies have investigated the influence of DM2 status in older adults on recognition memory for more complex stimuli such as faces. In the present study we sought to compare recognition memory performance for words, objects and faces under conditions of relatively low and high cognitive load. METHODS: Healthy older adults with good glucoregulatory control (n = 13) and older adults with DM2 (n = 24) were administered recognition memory tasks in which stimuli (faces, objects and words) were presented under conditions of either i) low (stimulus presented without a background pattern) or ii) high (stimulus presented against a background pattern) cognitive load...
July 2016: Archives of Medical Research
Robert G Franklin, Leslie A Zebrowitz
: Background/Study Context: Many studies have found age-related declines in emotion recognition, with older adult (OA) deficits strongest for negative emotions. Some evidence suggests that OA also show worse performance in decoding complex mental states. However, no research has investigated whether those deficits are stronger for negative states. METHODS: The authors investigated OA (ages 65-93) and younger adult (YA; ages 18-22) performance on the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RME), a well-validated measure of the ability to decode complex mental states from faces...
October 2016: Experimental Aging Research
Andrew C Lynn, Aarthi Padmanabhan, Daniel Simmonds, William Foran, Michael N Hallquist, Beatriz Luna, Kirsten O'Hearn
Face recognition abilities improve between adolescence and adulthood over typical development (TD), but plateau in autism, leading to increasing face recognition deficits in autism later in life. Developmental differences between autism and TD may reflect changes between neural systems involved in the development of face encoding and recognition. Here, we focused on whole-brain connectivity with the fusiform face area (FFA), a well-established face-preferential brain region. Older children, adolescents, and adults with and without autism completed the Cambridge Face Memory Test, and a matched car memory test, during fMRI scanning...
October 16, 2016: Developmental Science
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