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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048236/-it-just-kind-of-happens-college-students-rationalizations-for-blackout-drinking
#1
Kevin Wombacher, Jacob J Matig, Sarah E Sheff, Allison M Scott
Nearly half of college students engage in binge drinking, and blackouts (i.e., episodes of periodic memory loss) represent one common consequence of this behavior. Although researchers have begun to understand the extent to which students black out, little is known about why they do so. We conducted two studies to further our understanding of this risky health behavior. In Study 1, we conducted face-to-face interviews (N = 19) to explore students' blackout experiences. Our findings suggest that students recognize that blacking out is an unhealthy behavior; however, because such a recognition contradicts group norms about alcohol consumption, it causes them to experience dissonance, which they manage via a variety of rationalization strategies...
October 19, 2017: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042762/assessing-the-nutritional-status-of-hospitalized-elderly
#2
REVIEW
Nur Adilah Shuhada Abd Aziz, Nur Islami Mohd Fahmi Teng, Mohd Ramadan Abdul Hamid, Nazrul Hadi Ismail
PURPOSE: The increasing number of elderly people worldwide throughout the years is concerning due to the health problems often faced by this population. This review aims to summarize the nutritional status among hospitalized elderly and the role of the nutritional assessment tools in this issue. METHODS: A literature search was performed on six databases using the terms "malnutrition", "hospitalised elderly", "nutritional assessment", "Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA)", "Geriatric Nutrition Risk Index (GNRI)", and "Subjective Global Assessment (SGA)"...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042515/structural-basis-for-regulation-of-the-nucleo-cytoplasmic-distribution-of-bag6-by-trc35
#3
Jee-Young Mock, Yue Xu, Yihong Ye, William M Clemons
The metazoan protein BCL2-associated athanogene cochaperone 6 (Bag6) forms a hetero-trimeric complex with ubiquitin-like 4A and transmembrane domain recognition complex 35 (TRC35). This Bag6 complex is involved in tail-anchored protein targeting and various protein quality-control pathways in the cytosol as well as regulating transcription and histone methylation in the nucleus. Here we present a crystal structure of Bag6 and its cytoplasmic retention factor TRC35, revealing that TRC35 is remarkably conserved throughout the opisthokont lineage except at the C-terminal Bag6-binding groove, which evolved to accommodate Bag6, a unique metazoan factor...
October 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038663/repetition-blindness-for-faces-a-comparison-of-face-identity-expression-and-gender-judgments
#4
Karen Murphy, Zoe Ward
Repetition blindness (RB) refers to the impairment in reporting two identical targets within a rapid serial visual presentation stream. While numerous studies have demonstrated RB for words and picture of objects, very few studies have examined RB for faces. This study extended this research by examining RB when the two faces were complete repeats (same emotion and identity), identity repeats (same individual, different emotion), and emotion repeats (different individual, same emotion) for identity, gender, and expression judgment tasks...
2017: Advances in Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038295/characterization-of-aromatic-residue-controlled-protein-retention-in-the-endoplasmic-reticulum-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#5
Meng Mei, Chao Zhai, Xinzhi Li, Yu Zhou, Wenfang Peng, Lixin Ma, Qinhong Wang, Brent L Iverson, Guimin Zhang, Li Yi
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention sequence (ERS) is a characteristic short sequence that mediates protein retention in the ER of eukaryotic cells. However, little is known about the detailed molecular mechanism involved in ERS-mediated protein ER retention. Using a new surface display-based fluorescence technique that effectively quantifies ERS-promoted protein ER retention within Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells, we performed comprehensive ERS analyses. It was found that the length, type of amino acid residue, and additional residues at position -5 and -6 of C-terminal HDEL motif all determined the retention of ERS in the yeast ER...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037464/-ocular-sarcoidosis-what-the-internist-should-know
#6
P Sève, L Kodjikian, Y Jamilloux
Sarcoidosis is one of the leading causes of inflammatory eye disease. Any part of the eye and its adnexal tissues can be involved. Uveitis and optic neuropathy are the main manifestations, which the internists face. This review reports the state of knowledge for these two ocular involvements and proposes an assessment-algorithm for sarcoidosis in patients with suspected sarcoid uveitis. Two groups of patients with sarcoid uveitis can be distinguished: one young and multiethnic group in which ophthalmological findings are various and another group of elderly Caucasian women with mostly chronic posterior uveitis...
October 13, 2017: La Revue de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035989/-it-doesn-t-make-sense-for-us-not-to-have-one-understanding-reasons-why-community-sports-organizations-chose-to-participate-in-a-funded-automated-external-defibrillator-program
#7
Lauren V Fortington, Sheree Bekker, Damian Morgan, Caroline F Finch
OBJECTIVE: Implementation of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) in community sports settings is an important component of emergency medical planning. This study aimed to understand motivations for why sports organizations participated in a government-funded program that provided AEDs and associated first-aid training. DESIGN: Face-to-face interviews. SETTING: Community sports organizations in Victoria, Australia. PARTICIPANTS: Representatives from 14 organizations who participated in a government-funded AED program...
October 10, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033855/implicit-recognition-of-familiar-and-unfamiliar-faces-in-schizophrenia-a-study-of-the-skin-conductance-response-in-familiarity-disorders
#8
Aurely Ameller, Aline Picard, Fabien D'Hondt, Guillaume Vaiva, Pierre Thomas, Delphine Pins
OBJECTIVE: Familiarity is a subjective sensation that contributes to person recognition. This process is described as an emotion-based memory-trace of previous meetings and could be disrupted in schizophrenia. Consequently, familiarity disorders could be involved in the impaired social interactions observed in patients with schizophrenia. Previous studies have primarily focused on famous people recognition. Our aim was to identify underlying features, such as emotional disturbances, that may contribute to familiarity disorders in schizophrenia...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023525/multisensory-emotion-perception-in-congenitally-early-and-late-deaf-ci-users
#9
MULTICENTER STUDY
Ineke Fengler, Elena Nava, Agnes K Villwock, Andreas Büchner, Thomas Lenarz, Brigitte Röder
Emotions are commonly recognized by combining auditory and visual signals (i.e., vocal and facial expressions). Yet it is unknown whether the ability to link emotional signals across modalities depends on early experience with audio-visual stimuli. In the present study, we investigated the role of auditory experience at different stages of development for auditory, visual, and multisensory emotion recognition abilities in three groups of adolescent and adult cochlear implant (CI) users. CI users had a different deafness onset and were compared to three groups of age- and gender-matched hearing control participants...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023209/age-differences-in-emotion-recognition-task-demands-or-perceptual-dedifferentiation
#10
Robert G Franklin, Leslie A Zebrowitz
Background/Study Context: Older adults (OA) have consistently shown lower accuracy compared with younger adults (YA) when labeling facial expressions of emotion in multiple choice tasks. However, OA do not show lower accuracy when judging psychological attributes from faces in rating tasks. The authors investigated whether the cognitive demands of multiple choice tasks yields an underestimation of OA emotion recognition ability and whether lower scores by OA in emotion recognition tasks are an instance of age-related dedifferentiated face perception...
October 12, 2017: Experimental Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022853/destination-memory-in-social-interaction-better-memory-for-older-than-for-younger-destinations-in-normal-aging
#11
Mohamad El Haj, Stéphane Raffard, Luciano Fasotti, Philippe Allain
Destination memory, a memory component allowing the attribution of information to its appropriate receiver (e.g., to whom did I lend my pen?), is compromised in normal aging. The present paper investigated whether older adults might show better memory for older destinations than for younger destinations. This hypothesis is based on empirical research showing better memory for older faces than for younger faces in older adults. Forty-one older adults and 44 younger adults were asked to tell proverbs to older and younger destinations (i...
October 12, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021623/preference-for-novel-faces-in-male-infant-monkeys-predicts-cerebrospinal-fluid-oxytocin-concentrations-later-in-life
#12
Jesus E Madrid, Ozge Oztan, Valentina Sclafani, Laura A Del Rosso, Laura A Calonder, Katie Chun, John P Capitanio, Joseph P Garner, Karen J Parker
The ability to recognize individuals is a critical skill acquired early in life for group living species. In primates, individual recognition occurs predominantly through face discrimination. Despite the essential adaptive value of this ability, robust individual differences in conspecific face recognition exist, yet its associated biology remains unknown. Although pharmacological administration of oxytocin has implicated this neuropeptide in face perception and social memory, no prior research has tested the relationship between individual differences in face recognition and endogenous oxytocin concentrations...
October 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020059/the-relation-between-face-emotion-recognition-and-social-function-in-adolescents-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-a-case-control-study
#13
Anne Lise Høyland, Terje Nærland, Morten Engstrøm, Stian Lydersen, Ole Andreas Andreassen
An altered processing of emotions may contribute to a reduced ability for social interaction and communication in autism spectrum disorder, ASD. We investigated how face-emotion recognition in ASD is different from typically developing across adolescent age groups. Fifty adolescents diagnosed with ASD and 49 typically developing (age 12-21 years) were included. The ASD diagnosis was underpinned by parent-rated Social Communication Questionnaire. We used a cued GO/ NOGO task with pictures of facial expressions and recorded reaction time, intra-individual variability of reaction time and omissions/commissions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020028/learning-speed-is-affected-by-personality-and-reproductive-investment-in-a-songbird
#14
Hector Fabio Rivera-Gutierrez, Tine Martens, Rianne Pinxten, Marcel Eens
Individuals from different taxa, including songbirds, differ consistently in behaviour and personality when facing different situations. Although our understanding of animal behaviour has increased, knowledge about between-individual differences in cognitive abilities is still limited. By using an experimental approach and a free-living songbird (Parus major) as a model, we attempted to understand between-individual differences in habituation to playbacks (as a proxy of learning speed), by investigating the role of personality, age and reproductive investment (clutch size)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019629/health-disparities-and-child-development-after-prematurity
#15
Frances A Carter, Michael E Msall
There is increased recognition that preterm neonates require sequential surveillance to capture the spectrum of coordination, communication, learning, and behavior regulation disorders that may occur in the first 5 years of life and beyond. In particular, the framework of follow-up needs to go beyond the detection of cerebral palsy, blindness, and deafness in the first 2 years of life for only those at highest preterm risk (ie, <28 weeks gestation, with combinations of severe cranial sonographic abnormalities, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and retinopathy of prematurity)...
October 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018230/affective-touch-enhances-self-face-recognition-during-multisensory-integration
#16
Elena Panagiotopoulou, Maria Laura Filippetti, Manos Tsakiris, Aikaterini Fotopoulou
Multisensory integration is a powerful mechanism for constructing body awareness and key for the sense of selfhood. Recent evidence has shown that the specialised C tactile modality that gives rise to feelings of pleasant, affective touch, can enhance the experience of body ownership during multisensory integration. Nevertheless, no study has examined whether affective touch can also modulate psychological identification with our face, the hallmark of our identity. The current study used the enfacement illusion paradigm to investigate the role of affective touch in the modulation of self-face recognition during multisensory integration...
October 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016168/voice-only-communication-enhances-empathic-accuracy
#17
Michael W Kraus
This research tests the prediction that voice-only communication increases empathic accuracy over communication across senses. We theorized that people often intentionally communicate their feelings and internal states through the voice, and as such, voice-only communication allows perceivers to focus their attention on the channel of communication most active and accurate in conveying emotions to others. We used 5 experiments to test this hypothesis (N = 1,772), finding that voice-only communication elicits higher rates of empathic accuracy relative to vision-only and multisense communication both while engaging in interactions and perceiving emotions in recorded interactions of strangers...
October 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992398/impact-of-social-cognition-on-alcohol-dependence-treatment-outcome-poorer-facial-emotion-recognition-predicts-relapse-dropout
#18
Claudia I Rupp, Birgit Derntl, Friederike Osthaus, Georg Kemmler, W Wolfgang Fleischhacker
BACKGROUND: Despite growing evidence for neurobehavioral deficits in social cognition in alcohol use disorder (AUD), the clinical relevance remains unclear, and little is known about its impact on treatment outcome. This study prospectively investigated the impact of neurocognitive social abilities at treatment onset and on treatment completion. METHODS: Fifty-nine alcohol-dependent patients were assessed with measures of social cognition including three core components of empathy via paradigms measuring: 1) emotion recognition (the ability to recognize emotions via facial expression), 2) emotional perspective taking, and 3) affective responsiveness at the beginning of inpatient treatment for alcohol dependence...
October 9, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992053/molecular-and-neuroendocrine-approaches-to-understanding-trade-offs-food-sex-aggression-stress-and-longevity-an-introduction-to-the-symposium
#19
Jill E Schneider, Pierre Deviche
Life history strategies are composed of multiple fitness components, each of which incurs costs and benefits. Consequently, organisms cannot maximize all fitness components simultaneously. This situation results in a dynamic array of trade-offs in which some fitness traits prevail at the expense of others, often depending on context. The identification of specific constraints and trade-offs has helped elucidate physiological mechanisms that underlie variation in behavioral and physiological life history strategies...
September 11, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991740/duplex-metric-learning-for-image-set-classification
#20
Gong Cheng, Peicheng Zhou, Junwei Han
Image set classification has attracted much attention because of its broad applications. Despite the success made so far, the problems of intra-class diversity and inter-class similarity still remain two major challenges. To explore a possible solution to these challenges, this paper proposes a novel approach, termed duplex metric learning (DML), for image set classification. The proposed DML consists of two progressive metric learning stages with different objectives used for feature learning and image classification, respectively...
October 6, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
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