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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080981/phenotypic-interactions-between-tree-hosts-and-invasive-forest-pathogens-in-the-light-of-globalization-and-climate-change
#1
REVIEW
Jan Stenlid, Jonàs Oliva
Invasive pathogens can cause considerable damage to forest ecosystems. Lack of coevolution is generally thought to enable invasive pathogens to bypass the defence and/or recognition systems in the host. Although mostly true, this argument fails to predict intermittent outcomes in space and time, underlining the need to include the roles of the environment and the phenotype in host-pathogen interactions when predicting disease impacts. We emphasize the need to consider host-tree imbalances from a phenotypic perspective, considering the lack of coevolutionary and evolutionary history with the pathogen and the environment, respectively...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077292/general-and-specific-factors-in-the-processing-of-faces
#2
Roeland J Verhallen, Jenny M Bosten, Patrick T Goodbourn, Adam J Lawrance-Owen, Gary Bargary, J D Mollon
The ability to recognize faces varies considerably between individuals, but does performance co-vary for tests of different aspects of face processing? For 397 participants (of whom the majority were university students) we obtained scores on the Mooney Face Test, Glasgow Face Matching Test (GFMT), Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT) and Composite Face Test. Overall performance was significantly correlated for each pair of tests, and we suggest the term f for the factor underlying this pattern of positive correlations...
January 7, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074680/sero-discovering-versus-sero-cognisant-initial-challenges-and-needs-of-hiv-serodiscordant-couples-in-porto-alegre-brazil
#3
Shana D Hughes, Hong-Ha M Truong
This paper focuses on challenges faced by heterosexual couples of mixed HIV status in Porto Alegre, Brazil, and argues for more conceptual nuance in our understanding of 'serodiscordance'. Couples' stories, collected over 11 months of qualitative research, demonstrate how profoundly serodiscordance involves both partners and suggest that the timing of relationship formation relative to HIV diagnosis influenced the particular challenges they confronted. In recognition of this variation, we propose the distinction of 'sero-discovering' from 'sero-cognisant' couples...
January 11, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073327/nonmotor-symptoms-in-parkinson-disease
#4
Rosanna Palmeri, Lo Viviana Buono, Francesco Corallo, Maria Foti, Di Giuseppe Lorenzo, Placido Bramanti, Silvia Marino
Parkinson disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor and nonmotor symptoms. Nonmotor symptoms include cognitive deficits and impairment in emotions recognition ability associated with loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and with alteration in frontostriatal circuits. In this review, we analyzed the studies on social cognition ability in patients with PD. We searched on PubMed and Web of Science databases and screening references of included studied and review articles for additional citations...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071928/recent-advancements-in-lateral-flow-immunoassays-a-journey-for-toxin-detection-in-food
#5
Pranav Tripathi, Neha Upadhyay, Seema Nara
Biotechnology embraces various physical and chemical phenomenon towards advancement of health diagnostics. Towards such advancement, detection of toxins play an important role. Toxins produce severe health impacts on consumption with high mortality associated in acute cases. The most prominent route of infection and intoxication is through food matrices. Therefore, rapid detection of toxins at low concentrations is the need of modern diagnostics. Lateral flow immunoassays are one of the emergent and popularly used rapid detection technology developed for detecting various kinds of analytes...
January 10, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068393/facial-emotion-recognition-and-expression-in-parkinson-s-disease-an-emotional-mirror-mechanism
#6
Lucia Ricciardi, Federica Visco-Comandini, Roberto Erro, Francesca Morgante, Matteo Bologna, Alfonso Fasano, Diego Ricciardi, Mark J Edwards, James Kilner
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Parkinson's disease (PD) patients have impairment of facial expressivity (hypomimia) and difficulties in interpreting the emotional facial expressions produced by others, especially for aversive emotions. We aimed to evaluate the ability to produce facial emotional expressions and to recognize facial emotional expressions produced by others in a group of PD patients and a group of healthy participants in order to explore the relationship between these two abilities and any differences between the two groups of participants...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067922/-reconstructieve-facial-surgery-in-facial-defects-after-the-surgical-removal-of-malignant-skin-tumours
#7
S Bolouri, F Bierenbroodspot, J Jansma
Because of the enormous and continuing increase in cases of skin cancer in the Netherlands, dentists will increasingly see patients with skin cancer. The most common malignant skin cancers are basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma. With resection of a skin tumour, the oncological principles should be applied. For the closure of the resulting defect, a choice for the individual patient is made out of numerous techniques. Facial reconstructive surgery aims to restore the face in form and function and to maintain the patient's quality of life...
January 2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Tandheelkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067551/emotional-recognition-from-dynamic-facial-vocal-and-musical-expressions-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#8
Joanie Drapeau, Nathalie Gosselin, Isabelle Peretz, Michelle McKerral
OBJECTIVES: To assess emotion recognition from dynamic facial, vocal and musical expressions in sub-groups of adults with traumatic brain injuries (TBI) of different severities and identify possible common underlying mechanisms across domains. METHODS: Forty-one adults participated in this study: 10 with moderate-severe TBI, nine with complicated mild TBI, 11 with uncomplicated mild TBI and 11 healthy controls, who were administered experimental (emotional recognition, valence-arousal) and control tasks (emotional and structural discrimination) for each domain...
October 24, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067000/limitations-and-pitfalls-in-prenatal-diagnosis-of-pericallosal-curvilinear-lipoma-based-on-a-specific-imaging-pattern
#9
Anthony Atallah, Audrey Lacalm, Mona Massoud, Jérome Massardier, Pascal Gaucherand, Laurent Guibaud
We report the first series of five cases of prenatal diagnosis of pericallosal curvilinear lipoma (CL) and underline limitations and pitfalls in identifying a specific prenatal imaging pattern using ultrasound and MRI. On ultrasound, the main referring feature was a short corpus callosum in all cases. This subtle callosal dysgenesis was associated with a band of hyperechogenicity surrounding the corpus callosum, which can mimic the pericallosal sulcus, and increased in size over the third trimester in three out of four cases in which sonographic follow-up was obtained...
January 9, 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064092/effects-of-self-and-familiarity-on-change-detection-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#10
Anna Kochs, Stephan Köhler, Holger Merz, Philipp Sterzer
In schizophrenia, processing of self-related stimuli has been shown to be altered. It is unclear whether altered self-processing in schizophrenia is confined to cognitive functions such as self-recognition, or whether it pertains to automatic lower-level perceptual processes. Visual face processing was tested in patients with schizophrenia (n=36) and healthy controls (n=33). Using a change detection paradigm (self, famous, unknown faces), we tested whether self-related stimuli gain access to awareness preferentially...
December 24, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059764/microstructural-proliferation-in-human-cortex-is-coupled-with-the-development-of-face-processing
#11
Jesse Gomez, Michael A Barnett, Vaidehi Natu, Aviv Mezer, Nicola Palomero-Gallagher, Kevin S Weiner, Katrin Amunts, Karl Zilles, Kalanit Grill-Spector
How does cortical tissue change as brain function and behavior improve from childhood to adulthood? By combining quantitative and functional magnetic resonance imaging in children and adults, we find differential development of high-level visual areas that are involved in face and place recognition. Development of face-selective regions, but not place-selective regions, is dominated by microstructural proliferation. This tissue development is correlated with specific increases in functional selectivity to faces, as well as improvements in face recognition, and ultimately leads to differentiated tissue properties between face- and place-selective regions in adulthood, which we validate with postmortem cytoarchitectonic measurements...
January 6, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054821/multimodal-emotion-processing-deficits-are-present-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#12
Sophie C Andrews, Mathew Staios, Jim Howe, Katrina Reardon, Fiona Fisher
OBJECTIVE: Emotion processing abilities might be reduced in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Previous studies of emotion processing in ALS have inconsistent results, and are limited by variations in task difficulty, modalities examined, and participants' cognitive status. The current study used a battery of emotion processing tasks at differing levels of difficulty and across different modalities (facial affect and voice prosody) to assess the extent of emotion processing deficits in nondemented ALS...
January 5, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054796/robust-social-categorization-emerges-from-learning-the-identities-of-very-few-faces
#13
Robin S S Kramer, Andrew W Young, Matthew G Day, A Mike Burton
Viewers are highly accurate at recognizing sex and race from faces-though it remains unclear how this is achieved. Recognition of familiar faces is also highly accurate across a very large range of viewing conditions, despite the difficulty of the problem. Here we show that computation of sex and race can emerge incidentally from a system designed to compute identity. We emphasize the role of multiple encounters with a small number of people, which we take to underlie human face learning. We use highly variable everyday 'ambient' images of a few people to train a Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) model on identity...
January 5, 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052103/bmi-and-whr-are-reflected-in-female-facial-shape-and-texture-a-geometric-morphometric-image-analysis
#14
Christine Mayer, Sonja Windhager, Katrin Schaefer, Philipp Mitteroecker
Facial markers of body composition are frequently studied in evolutionary psychology and are important in computational and forensic face recognition. We assessed the association of body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) with facial shape and texture (color pattern) in a sample of young Middle European women by a combination of geometric morphometrics and image analysis. Faces of women with high BMI had a wider and rounder facial outline relative to the size of the eyes and lips, and relatively lower eyebrows...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051770/disentangling-the-representation-of-identity-from-head-view-along-the-human-face-processing-pathway
#15
J Swaroop Guntupalli, Kelsey G Wheeler, M Ida Gobbini
Neural models of a distributed system for face perception implicate a network of regions in the ventral visual stream for recognition of identity. Here, we report a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) neural decoding study in humans that shows that this pathway culminates in the right inferior frontal cortex face area (rIFFA) with a representation of individual identities that has been disentangled from variable visual features in different images of the same person. At earlier stages in the pathway, processing begins in early visual cortex and the occipital face area with representations of head view that are invariant across identities, and proceeds to an intermediate level of representation in the fusiform face area in which identity is emerging but still entangled with head view...
November 23, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049026/memory-consolidation-of-socially-relevant-stimuli-during-sleep-in-healthy-children-and-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-oppositional-defiant-disorder-what-you-can-see-in-their-eyes
#16
Alexander Prehn-Kristensen, Ina Molzow, Alexandra Förster, Nadine Siebenhühner, Maxime Gesch, Christian D Wiesner, Lioba Baving
Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) display deficits in sleep-dependent memory consolidation, and being comorbid with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), results in deficits in face processing. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of sleep in recognizing faces in children with ADHD+ODD. Sixteen healthy children and 16 children diagnosed with ADHD+ODD participated in a sleep and a wake condition. During encoding (sleep condition at 8p.m.; wake condition at 8a.m...
December 31, 2016: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047382/mo-fg-campus-tep1-02-facial-recognition-and-recall-using-kinect-v2-for-patient-verification
#17
E Silverstein, M Snyder
PURPOSE: Investigate capability and accuracy of the Kinect v2 camera for facial recognition to use as a tool for patient check-in upon arrival, as well as patient verification when entering treatment vault. METHODS: The Kinect software has a native facial recognition feature which recognizes major facial landmarks (eyes, nose, mouth, etc). 1347 facial vertices are automatically generated, each located at a specific facial point at standardized distances between points...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045276/evaluating-the-feature-comparison-strategy-for-forensic-face-identification
#18
Alice Towler, David White, Richard I Kemp
Face recognition is thought to rely on representations that encode holistic properties. Paradoxically, professional forensic examiners who identify unfamiliar faces by comparing facial images are trained to adopt a feature-by-feature comparison strategy. Here we tested the effectiveness of this strategy by asking participants to rate facial feature similarity prior to making same/different identity decisions to pairs of face images. Experiment 1 provided preliminary evidence that rating feature similarity improves unfamiliar face matching accuracy in novice participants...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044013/contributions-of-low-and-high-level-properties-to-neural-processing-of-visual-scenes-in-the-human-brain
#19
REVIEW
Iris I A Groen, Edward H Silson, Chris I Baker
Visual scene analysis in humans has been characterized by the presence of regions in extrastriate cortex that are selectively responsive to scenes compared with objects or faces. While these regions have often been interpreted as representing high-level properties of scenes (e.g. category), they also exhibit substantial sensitivity to low-level (e.g. spatial frequency) and mid-level (e.g. spatial layout) properties, and it is unclear how these disparate findings can be united in a single framework. In this opinion piece, we suggest that this problem can be resolved by questioning the utility of the classical low- to high-level framework of visual perception for scene processing, and discuss why low- and mid-level properties may be particularly diagnostic for the behavioural goals specific to scene perception as compared to object recognition...
February 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040801/the-influence-of-music-on-facial-emotion-recognition-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-neurotypical-children
#20
Laura S Brown
BACKGROUND: Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often struggle with social skills, including the ability to perceive emotions based on facial expressions. Research evidence suggests that many individuals with ASD can perceive emotion in music. Examining whether music can be used to enhance recognition of facial emotion by children with ASD would inform development of music therapy interventions. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of music with a strong emotional valance (happy; sad) on children with ASD's ability to label emotions depicted in facial photographs, and their response time...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Music Therapy
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