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Ovarian cancer treatment personalized

Veda N Giri, Jennifer L Beebe-Dimmer
Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among men in the United States as well as most Western countries. A significant proportion of men report having a positive family history of prostate cancer in a first-degree relative (father, brother, son), which is important in that family history is one of the only established risk factors for the disease and plays a role in decision-making for prostate cancer screening. Familial aggregation of prostate cancer is considered a surrogate marker of genetic susceptibility to developing the disease, but shared environment cannot be excluded as an explanation for clustering of cases among family members...
October 2016: Seminars in Oncology
Kim A Decker
Six years ago, I was diagnosed with stage IIIA ovarian low malignant cell potential cancer. It was the most shocking situation I have ever experienced. I didn't realize I had any symptoms, except occasional back pain, which I attributed to starting a new workout program. I had scheduled an abdominal computerized tomography (CT) scan for recurrent microscopic hematuria, which my internist wanted to check. I was told I would hear the results in two days. Two hours after my CT scan, while I was eating ice cream and watching television, an on-call genitourinary doctor (who I did not personally know) called to tell me the good news-that I had kidney stones, thus the microscopic hematuria...
December 1, 2016: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
Luigi Rossi, Monica Verrico, Eleonora Zaccarelli, Anselmo Papa, Maria Colonna, Martina Strudel, Patrizia Vici, Vincenzo Bianco, Federica Tomao
Bevacizumab (BV) is a humanized monoclonal antibody targeting vascular endothelial growth factor and it is the first molecular-targeted agent to be used for the treatment of ovarian cancer (OC). Randomized Phase III trials evaluated the combination of BV plus standard chemotherapy for first-line treatment of advanced OC and for platinum-sensitive and platinum-resistant recurrent OC. These trials reported a statistically significant improvement in progression-free survival but not in overall survival. Furthermore, BV effectively improved the quality of life with regard to abdominal symptoms in recurrent OC patients...
November 11, 2016: Oncotarget
Alice Bergamini, Simone Ferrero, Umberto Leone Roberti Maggiore, Carolina Scala, Francesca Pella, Valerio Gaetano Vellone, Micaela Petrone, Emanuela Rabaiotti, Raffaella Cioffi, Massimo Candiani, Giorgia Mangili
The prognosis of patients affected by ovarian cancer has not substantially changed in the last decades and improving survival still remains a challenge. In the promising era of "personalized therapy" several new biologic therapies are currently being investigated: in this setting, targeting the folate receptor (FR) has been considered a new potential strategy for biologic therapy. Areas covered. The aim of the current review is to summarize, giving a critical overview,promising folate receptor alpha antagonists under preclinical or early clinical development for ovarian cancer...
October 31, 2016: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
Nicoletta Staropoli, Domenico Ciliberto, Silvia Chiellino, Francesca Caglioti, Teresa Del Giudice, Simona Gualtieri, Angela Salvino, Alessandra Strangio, Cirino Botta, Sandro Pignata, Pierfrancesco Tassone, Pierosandro Tagliaferri
OBJECTIVES: The current gold-standard for the first-line treatment in IIIb/IV stages of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the combination of carboplatin and paclitaxel plus bevacizumab in some countries. In the era of personalized medicine, there is still uncertainty on the impact of several molecularly targeted agents, which have been investigated for the management of this disease. To shed light on the actual role of targeted therapy in EOC, a systematic review and meta-analysis was performed...
October 13, 2016: Oncotarget
Justin Sapiezynski, Oleh Taratula, Lorna Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Tamara Minko
The review is aimed at describing modern approaches to detection as well as precision and personalized treatment of ovarian cancer. Modern methods and future directions of nanotechnology-based targeted and personalized therapy are discussed.
October 14, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Stephen Murata, Catherine Zhang, Nathan Finch, Kevin Zhang, Loredana Campo, Eun-Kyoung Breuer
Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors have proven to be successful agents in inducing synthetic lethality in several malignancies. Several PARP inhibitors have reached clinical trial testing for treatment in different cancers, and, recently, Olaparib (AZD2281) has gained both United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) and the European Commission (EC) approval for use in BRCA-mutated advanced ovarian cancer treatment. The need to identify biomarkers, their interactions in DNA damage repair pathways, and their potential utility in identifying patients who are candidates for PARP inhibitor treatment is well recognized...
2016: BioMed Research International
Kara Long Roche, Ana M Angarita, Angelica Cristello, Melissa Lippitt, Adil H Haider, Janice V Bowie, Amanda N Fader, Ana I Tergas
PURPOSE: Navigation of a complex and ever-changing health care system can be stressful and detrimental to psychosocial well-being for patients with serious illness. This study explored women's experiences with navigating the health care system during treatment for ovarian cancer. METHODS: Focus groups moderated by trained investigators were conducted with ovarian cancer survivors at an academic cancer center. Personal experiences with cancer treatment, provider relationships, barriers to care, and the health care system were explored...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Oncology Practice
Junli Deng, Li Wang, Jie Ni, Julia Beretov, Valerie Wasinger, Duojia Wu, Wei Duan, Peter Graham, Yong Li
INTRODUCTION: Chemoresistance is a major challenge to current ovarian cancer chemotherapy. It is important to identify biomarkers to distinguish chemosensitive and chemoresistant patients. AREAS COVERED: We review the medical literature, discuss MS-based technologies with respect to chemoresistant ovarian cancer and summarize the promising chemoresistant biomarkers identified. In addition, the challenges and future perspectives of biomarker discovery research are explored...
September 21, 2016: Expert Review of Proteomics
Carlos Gual-Castro
Pregnancy interruption or abortion may be spontaneous or induced for medical, legal, demographic, and personal reasons. Different events that are present during the woman´s gravid period were described, paying attention to the differences in between fertilization and conception. These issues are very important because people or institutions mix these concepts and posit that pregnancy or conception starts at fertilization in opposition to the actual medical and scientific knowledge. In Mexico there are several millions of spontaneous and induced abortions without medical care, responsible for the high maternal-infant mortality rates...
July 2016: Gaceta Médica de México
Michael T Zimmermann, Guoqian Jiang, Chen Wang
Platinum-based chemotherapies are first-line treatments for ovarian cancer (OC) patients. Although chemotherapy has a high initial response rate, some patients exhibit inherent chemo-resistance. With advancements of molecular and genomic profiling, it is of high interest to identify molecular and genomic signatures predictive of chemo- sensitivity priori to treatment initiation in order to better personalize care decisions. Previous efforts have made use of mRNA expression levels of selected genes responsible for repairing DNA damage, under the hypothesis that chemo efficacy is associated with their proficiency...
2016: AMIA Summits on Translational Science Proceedings
L Seibaek, C Delmar, L Hounsgaard
Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from a gynaecological malignancy in the Western World. To explore if experiences of physical comfort influenced hope and life courage during final diagnosis and early treatment, qualitative research interviews were performed with women undergoing surgery for ovarian cancer. By applying a phenomenological-hermeneutic methodology, the findings were systematically identified, put into meaning-structures, interpreted and critically discussed. The empirical material constituted a main theme concerning "Hope and life courage are created in the interplay between body and mind," where findings dealt with personal reflections and experiences in relation to the subthemes: "Experiencing discomfort," "The impact of care" and "Comfort and hope...
August 23, 2016: European Journal of Cancer Care
Elisa V Bandera, Valerie S Lee, Lorna Rodriguez-Rodriguez, C Bethan Powell, Lawrence H Kushi
PURPOSE: Among patients with ovarian cancer, African American (AA) women experience poorer survival compared with other race/ethnicity groups. This has been attributed to differences in access to health care. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We evaluated racial/ethnic differences in chemotherapy dosing and survival in a cohort study among members of Kaiser Permanente Northern California, and thus with equivalent access to health care. Analyses included epithelial-invasive ovarian cancer cases (n = 793) receiving adjuvant first-line therapy of carboplatin and paclitaxel with curative intent, with median follow-up of 50 months...
December 1, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Paul Tappenden, Sue Harnan, Shijie Ren, Praveen Thokala, Ruth Wong, Clara Mukuria, Clare Green, Simon Pledge, John Tidy
As part of its Single Technology Appraisal process, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited the manufacturer of olaparib (AstraZeneca) to submit evidence on the clinical and cost effectiveness of olaparib for the maintenance treatment of BRCA1/2 mutated (BRCAm), platinum-sensitive relapsed (PSR) ovarian, fallopian tube and peritoneal cancer in people whose relapsed disease has responded to platinum-based chemotherapy. The Evidence Review Group (ERG) produced a critical review of the evidence contained within the company's submission (CS) to NICE...
August 9, 2016: PharmacoEconomics
Tommaso A Dragani, Antoni Castells, Vathany Kulasingam, Eleftherios P Diamandis, Helena Earl, Wade T Iams, Christine M Lovly, J P Michiel Sedelaar, Jack A Schalken
Translational oncology represents a bridge between basic research and clinical practice in cancer medicine. Today, translational research in oncology benefits from an abundance of knowledge resulting from genome-scale studies regarding the molecular pathways involved in tumorigenesis. In this Forum article, we highlight the state of the art of translational oncology in five major cancer types. We illustrate the use of molecular profiling to subtype colorectal cancer for both diagnosis and treatment, and summarize the results of a nationwide screening program for ovarian cancer based on detection of a tumor biomarker in serum...
2016: BMC Medicine
Mirjam Tonheim Augestad, Hildegunn Høberg-Vetti, Cathrine Bjorvatn, Ragnhild Johanne Tveit Sekse
Genetic testing for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer is increasingly being offered in newly diagnosed breast and ovarian cancer patients. This genetic information may influence treatment decisions. However, there are some concerns that genetic testing offered in an already vulnerable situation might be an extra burden to these women. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of women who had been offered and accepted genetic testing when newly diagnosed with breast or ovarian cancer. Four semi-structured focus-group interviews were conducted with 17 women recruited from a Norwegian multicenter study...
July 28, 2016: Journal of Genetic Counseling
Henan Zhao, Xiaotang Yu, Yanfang Ding, Jinyao Zhao, Guang Wang, Xian Wu, Jiyong Jiang, Chun Peng, Gordon Zhuo Guo, Shiying Cui
In this study, we examined the role of the miRNA miR-770-5p in cisplatin chemotherapy resistance in ovarian cancer (OVC) patients. miR-770-5p expression was reduced in platinum-resistant patients. Using a 6.128-fold in expression as the cutoff value, miR-770-5p expression served as a prognostic biomarker and predicted the response to cisplatin treatment and survival among OVC patients. Overexpression of miR-770-5p in vitro reduced survival in chemoresistant cell lines after cisplatin treatment. ERCC2, a target gene of miR-770-5p that participates in the NER system, was negatively regulated by miR-770-5p...
July 20, 2016: Oncotarget
Junli Deng, Li Wang, Hongmin Chen, Jingli Hao, Jie Ni, Lei Chang, Wei Duan, Peter Graham, Yong Li
Chemoresistance is the main challenge for the recurrent ovarian cancer therapy and responsible for treatment failure and unfavorable clinical outcome. Understanding mechanisms of chemoresistance in ovarian cancer would help to predict disease progression, develop new therapies and personalize systemic therapy. In the last decade, accumulating evidence demonstrates that epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cells play important roles in ovarian cancer chemoresistance and metastasis. Treatment of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cells holds promise for improving current ovarian cancer therapies and prolonging the survival of recurrent ovarian cancer patients in the future...
June 9, 2016: Oncotarget
Filipa Lynce, Claudine Isaacs
The traditional model by which an individual was identified as harboring a hereditary susceptibility to cancer was to test for a mutation in a single gene or a finite number of genes associated with a particular syndrome (e.g., BRCA1 and BRCA2 for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer or mismatch repair genes for Lynch syndrome). The decision regarding which gene or genes to test for was based on a review of the patient's personal medical history and their family history. With advances in next-generation DNA sequencing technology, offering simultaneous testing for multiple genes associated with a hereditary susceptibility to cancer is now possible...
2016: American Society of Clinical Oncology Educational Book
Ghim Siong Ow, Zhiqun Tang, Vladimir A Kuznetsov
The era of big data and precision medicine has led to accumulation of massive datasets of gene expression data and clinical information of patients. For a new patient, we propose that identification of a highly similar reference patient from an existing patient database via similarity matching of both clinical and expression data could be useful for predicting the prognostic risk or therapeutic efficacy.Here, we propose a novel methodology to predict disease/treatment outcome via analysis of the similarity between any pair of patients who are each characterized by a certain set of pre-defined biological variables (biomarkers or clinical features) represented initially as a prognostic binary variable vector (PBVV) and subsequently transformed to a prognostic signature vector (PSV)...
May 24, 2016: Oncotarget
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