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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732227/atm-supports-gammaherpesvirus-replication-by-attenuating-type-i-interferon-pathway
#1
Eric J Darrah, Kyle P Stoltz, Mitchell Ledwith, Vera L Tarakanova
Ataxia-Telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase participates in multiple networks, including DNA damage response, oxidative stress, and mitophagy. ATM also supports replication of diverse DNA and RNA viruses. Gammaherpesviruses are prevalent cancer-associated viruses that benefit from ATM expression during replication. This proviral role of ATM had been ascribed to its signaling within the DNA damage response network; other functions of ATM have not been considered. In this study increased type I interferon (IFN) responses were observed in ATM deficient gammaherpesvirus-infected macrophages...
July 18, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732203/antiviral-immunity-and-circular-rna-no-end-in-sight
#2
Cristhian Cadena, Sun Hur
In this issue of Molecular Cell, two papers by Chen et al. (2017) and Li et al. (2017) describe new insights into circRNA biogenesis and function, connecting circRNAs to innate immune pathways.
July 20, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731907/oral-nucleos-t-ide-analogs-alone-after-liver-transplantation-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-with-preexisting-rt204-mutation
#3
James Fung, Tiffany Wong, Kenneth Chok, Albert Chan, Sui-Ling Sin, Tan-To Cheung, Wing-Chiu Dai, Kelvin Ng, Kevin Ng, Kwan Man, Wai-Kay Seto, Ching-Lung Lai, Man-Fung Yuen, Chung-Mau Lo
BACKGROUND: There is currently limited data regarding the use of oral antiviral therapy alone without HBIG for CHB patients with preexisting LAM-resistance (LAM-R) undergoing liver transplantation. METHODS: This is a cohort study determining the effectiveness and long-term outcome in this group of patients. RESULTS: Fifty-seven consecutive CHB patients with preexisting rt204 LAM-R mutations or virological load refractory to LAM undergoing liver transplantation were included, with a median follow-up of 73 months...
July 21, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731786/high-post-treatment-%C3%AE-fetoprotein-levels-and-aspartate-aminotransferase-to-platelet-ratio-index-predict-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-hepatitis-c-virus-decompensated-cirrhotic-patients-with-sustained-virological-response-after-antiviral-therapy
#4
Fanpu Ji, Rui Zhou, Wenjun Wang, Dan Bai, Caini He, Zhifang Cai, Yuan Shen, Shengbang Wang, Hong Deng, Zongfang Li
Although eradication of hepatitis C virus (HCV) decreases the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development, a considerable level of risk remains in cirrhotic patients with advanced liver disease. Yet, data for the effect of serum markers on HCC development in this population after viral eradication are still lacking. Seventy-eight consecutive patients with HCV infection and decompensated cirrhosis were administered interferon-based regimens at our hospital between August 2008 and December 2013. Thirty-four achieved sustained virological response and were enrolled in the study...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731677/an-evaluation-of-optimal-pegylation-strategies-for-maximizing-the-lymphatic-exposure-and-antiviral-activity-of-interferon-after-subcutaneous-administration
#5
Linda J Chan, Orlagh M Feeney, Nathania J Leong, Victoria M Mcleod, Christopher J H Porter, Charlotte C Williams, Lisa M Kaminskas
Interferon α2 is an antiviral/antiproliferative protein that is currently used to treat hepatitis C infections and several forms of cancer. Two PEGylated variants of interferon α2 (containing 12 and 40 kDa PEGs) are currently marketed and display longer plasma circulation times than unmodified interferon. With increasing realization that the lymphatic system plays an important role in the extrahepatic replication of the hepatitis C virus and in the metastatic dissemination of cancers, this study sought to evaluate PEGylation strategies to optimally enhance the antiviral activity and plasma and lymphatic exposure of interferon after subcutaneous administration in rats...
July 21, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731142/nlrc3-promotes-host-resistance-against-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-induced-keratitis-by-promoting-the-degradation-of-irak1
#6
Litao Guo, Qingzhu Kong, Zhijun Dong, Weili Dong, Xiaoxiao Fu, Leqi Su, Xiaobo Tan
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA)-induced keratitis is one of the most common and destructive bacterial diseases. The pathogenesis of PA infections is closely associated with excessive inflammatory responses. Nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor (NLR) family with caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARD) containing 3 (NLRC3) protein has been implicated as a negative regulator of inflammation and antiviral response, but the role of NLRC3 in PA-induced keratitis has not been described...
July 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730994/baseline-and-post-treatment-hepatitis-c-ns5a-resistance-in-relapsed-patients-from-a-multicentric-real-life-cohort
#7
Philippe Halfon, Caroline Scholtès, Jacques Izopet, Sylvie Larrat, Pascale Trimoulet, Fabien Zoulim, Laurent Alric, Sophie Métivier, Vincent Leroy, Denis Ouzan, Victor de Lédinghen, Sofiane Mohamed, Guillaume Pénaranda, Hacène Khiri, Marie-Ange Thélu, Anne Plauzolles, Laurent Chiche, Marc Bourlière, Florence Abravanel
BACKGROUND: Recent data have suggested that failure to achieve sustained virological response with direct-acting antiviral therapy is usually due to relapse and is primarily associated with the emergence of resistance-associated substitutions. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and characterization of non-structural-5A resistance-associated substitutions in patients infected with hepatitis C virus genotypes 1, 3, and 4 treated by direct-acting antiviral therapy, including anti- non-structural-5A, and to characterize the preexisting resistance-associated substitutions in subjects treated with anti- non-structural-5A inhibitors...
July 21, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729867/exposure-to-the-epstein-barr-viral-antigen-latent-membrane-protein-1-induces-myelin-reactive-antibodies-in-vivo
#8
Yakov Lomakin, Georgii Pavlovich Arapidi, Alexander Chernov, Rustam Ziganshin, Evgenii Tcyganov, Irina Lyadova, Ivan Olegovich Butenko, Maria Osetrova, Natalia Ponomarenko, Georgy Telegin, Vadim Markovich Govorun, Alexander Gabibov, Alexey Belogurov
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Cross-reactivity of neuronal proteins with exogenous antigens is considered one of the possible mechanisms of MS triggering. Previously, we showed that monoclonal myelin basic protein (MBP)-specific antibodies from MS patients cross-react with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1). In this study, we report that exposure of mice to LMP1 results in induction of myelin-reactive autoantibodies in vivo...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729706/sudan-ebolavirus-long-recovered-survivors-produce-gp-specific-abs-that-are-of-the-igg1-subclass-and-preferentially-bind-fc%C3%AE-ri
#9
Olga Radinsky, Avishay Edri, Michael Brusilovsky, Shlomit Fedida-Metula, Ariel Sobarzo, Orly Gershoni-Yahalom, Julius Lutwama, John Dye, Leslie Lobel, Angel Porgador
Ebolavirus is a highly lethal pathogen, causing a severe hemorrhagic disease with a high fatality rate. To better understand immune correlates of protection by virus specific IgG, we investigated the evolution of the Fcγ receptors (FcγRs)-activating capabilities of antiviral IgG in serum samples of long recovered survivors. To this end, longitudinal serum samples from survivors of Sudan ebolavirus (SUDV) infection, studied over years, were examined for the presence of Ebola-GP specific IgG subclasses, and for their binding to FcγRs...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729212/the-influence-of-temperature-on-viral-replication-and-antiviral-related-genes-response-in-hirame-rhabdovirus-infected-flounder-paralichthys-olivaceus
#10
Jialin Zhang, Xiaoqian Tang, Xiuzhen Sheng, Jing Xing, Wenbin Zhan
Hirame rhabdovirus (HIRRV) is a rhabdovirus that causes severe disease in fish. The mortality due to HIRRV infection occurs at temperatures below 15 °C, but no mortality is observed over 20 °C. In this study, Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) was artificially infected with the HIRRV CNPo2015 strain at 10 °C or 20 °C. Absolute quantitative real-time PCR was employed to examine the viral replication in spleens after HIRRV infection. Expression profiles of four interferon-related genes (type I IFN, Mx, ISG15, MDA5) and two proinflammatory genes (TNF-α and IL-1β) were also investigated by quantitative real-time PCR...
July 17, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729050/an-infant-with-concurrent-serotype-6c-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-and-infectious-mononucleosis
#11
Naoko Nishikawa-Nakamura, Takafumi Okada, Keiko Nishimura, Tsuyako Iwai, Kimiko Ubukata, Satoshi Iwata, Asayuki Iwai
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a main causative agent of serious invasive bacterial infections. However, concurrent infection with invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and viral infectious mononucleosis (IM) is rare. We report an infant with serotype 6C infection causing IPD occurring simultaneously with IM. A previously healthy 11-month-old girl referred to our hospital because of fever, leukopenia, and elevated C-reactive protein presented to us with disturbance of consciousness, tachycardia, tachypnea and agranulocytosis...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728927/hcv-infected-and-hiv-hcv-co-infected-individuals-treated-with-direct-acting-antivirals-to-what-extent-do-they-differ
#12
Giuseppe Bruno, Annalisa Saracino, Luigia Scudeller, Claudia Fabrizio, Raffaele Dell'Acqua, Eugenio Milano, Michele Milella, Nicoletta Ladisa, Laura Monno, Gioacchino Angarano
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: DAA-based anti-HCV treatment has been associated with high rates of sustained virological response (SVR) and good tolerability in clinical randomized trials. To assess safety and effectiveness of DAAs in both HCV mono-infected and HIV/HCV co-infected patients. METHODS: All consecutive HCV-infected patients, including HIV/HCV co-infected, receiving DAA-based treatment from February 2015 until September 2016 in our Clinic, were included. Clinical, virological and biochemical data were retrieved...
July 17, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728846/the-effects-of-type-i-interferon-on-glioblastoma-cancer-stem-cells
#13
Ziyun Du, Chun Cai, Michelle Sims, Frederick A Boop, Andrew M Davidoff, Lawrence M Pfeffer
Glioblastomas (GBMs) are highly invasive brain tumors that are extremely deadly. The highly aggressive nature of GBM as well as its heterogeneity at the molecular and cellular levels has been attributed to a rare subpopulation of GBM stem-like cells (GSCs). Interferons (IFNs) are a family of endogenous antiviral proteins that have anticancer activity in vitro, and have been used clinically to treat GBM. IFN inhibits the proliferation of various established GBM cell lines, but the effects of IFNs on GSCs remain relatively unknown...
July 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728831/hepatitis-b-reactivation-in-a-patient-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-treated-with-direct-acting-antivirals
#14
M Dolores Antón, Ana Polanco, Inmaculada Ferrando, Patricia Latorre, Andrea Pascual, Eduardo Moreno Osset
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 17, 2017: Gastroenterología y Hepatología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728590/chikungunya-virus-infection-in-cynomolgus-macaques-following-intradermal-and-aerosol-exposure
#15
Chris M Cirimotich, Eric M Vela, Jennifer Garver, Roy E Barnewall, Brian D Miller, Gabriel T Meister, James V Rogers
BACKGROUND: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is transmitted via mosquito bite and potentially by aerosol, causing chikungunya fever and arthritic disease in humans. There are currently no licensed vaccines or antiviral therapeutics to protect against CHIKV infection in humans. Animal models recapitulating human disease, especially for transmission by aerosol, are needed for licensure of such medical countermeasures. METHODS: Cynomolgus macaques (CMs) were challenged by intradermal (ID) inoculation or exposure to an aerosol containing CHIKV Ross strain at different target infectious doses (10(3)-10(7) plaque forming units (PFU))...
July 20, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727933/genotype-specific-acquisition-evolution-and-adaptation-of-characteristic-mutations-in-hepatitis-e-virus
#16
Aqsa Ikram, Mohamad S Hakim, Jian-Hua Zhou, Wenshi Wang, Maikel P Peppelenbosch, Qiuwei Pan
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a major cause of acute hepatitis but also provokes chronic infection in immunocompromised patients. Although the pathogenesis and treatment outcome involve complex interplay between the virus and host, the nature of adaptive responses of HEV to the host immune system remain obscure at best. In this study, we employed large-scale proteomic bioinformatics to profile characteristic mutations in human HEV isolates associated to ribavirin treatment failure, chronic hepatitis, hepatic failure or altered immunoreactivity...
July 20, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727810/cucumber-mosaic-virus-coat-protein-modulates-the-accumulation-of-2b-protein-and-antiviral-silencing-that-causes-symptom-recovery-in-planta
#17
Xiao-Peng Zhang, De-Shui Liu, Teng Yan, Xiao-Dong Fang, Kai Dong, Jin Xu, Ying Wang, Jia-Lin Yu, Xian-Bing Wang
Shoot apical meristems (SAM) are resistant to most plant viruses due to RNA silencing, which is restrained by viral suppressors of RNA silencing (VSRs) to facilitate transient viral invasion of the SAM. In many cases chronic symptoms and long-term virus recovery occur, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we found that wild-type Cucumber mosaic virus (CMVWT) invaded the SAM transiently, but was subsequently eliminated from the meristems. Unexpectedly, a CMV mutant, designated CMVRA that harbors an alanine substitution in the N-terminal arginine-rich region of the coat protein (CP) persistently invaded the SAM and resulted in visible reductions in apical dominance...
July 20, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727764/vaccinia-virus-and-cowpox-virus-are-not-susceptible-to-the-interferon-induced-antiviral-protein-mxa
#18
María M Lorenzo, Juana M Sanchez-Puig, Rafael Blasco
MxA protein is expressed in response to type I and type III Interferon and constitute an important antiviral factor with broad antiviral activity to diverse RNA viruses. In addition, some studies expand the range of MxA antiviral activity to include particular DNA viruses like Monkeypox virus (MPXV) and African Swine Fever virus (ASFV). However, a broad profile of activity of MxA to large DNA viruses has not been established to date. Here, we investigated if some well characterized DNA viruses belonging to the Poxviridae family are sensitive to human MxA...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727702/subcutaneous-injection-of-triamcinolone-and-lidocaine-to-prevent-postherpetic-neuralgia
#19
Jiaxiang Ni, Xiaoping Wang, Yuanzhang Tang, Liqiang Yang, Yuanjie Zeng, Yuna Guo
BACKGROUND: Herpes zoster (HZ) is associated with inflammation of the peripheral nerves, which is considered to be an important cause of postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). Interventions aimed at reducing this inflammation could prevent PHN. One option is the epidural administration of corticosteroid and local anesthetic. However, several authors have reported a risk of arachnoiditis with epidural corticosteroids. Subcutaneous injection in an outpatient setting is a safer option. However, there is limited evidence of the effectiveness of this alternative for preventing PHN...
July 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727498/new-perspectives-regarding-the-antiviral-effect-of-vitamin-a-on-norovirus-using-modulation-of-gut-microbiota
#20
Heetae Lee, GwangPyo Ko
Gut microbiota has been revealed to play an important role in various health conditions, and recent studies have suggested the modulation of gut microbiota as a therapeutic strategy. There is no effective treatment for norovirus infection, though vitamin A has been suggested to have an antiviral effect in an epidemiological study. We demonstrated that vitamin A significantly inhibited murine norovirus replication. Vitamin A supplementation significantly increased the abundance of Lactobacillus sp. during norovirus infection, which played a crucial role in antiviral efficacy, inhibiting murine norovirus...
July 20, 2017: Gut Microbes
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