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Academic interventions

Ninja Ritter Klejnstrup, Julie Buhl-Wiggers, Sam Jones, John Rand
Malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. It is also a dynamic contributor to poverty through its effects on children's cognitive development. This paper examines the degree to which malaria in early childhood impacts on educational achievement in later childhood. The substantial decline in malaria in the region over recent years allows an assessment of its impact to be made. Focusing on Tanzania, we combine data from the Malaria Atlas Project and the 2010-2014 Uwezo household surveys (N = 246,325)...
2018: PloS One
Aled Jones, Ben Hannigan, Michael Coffey, Alan Simpson
CONTEXT: In response to political and social factors over the last sixty years mental health systems internationally have endeavoured to transfer the delivery of care from hospitals into community settings. As a result, there has been increased emphasis on the need for better quality care planning and care coordination between hospital services, community services and patients and their informal carers. The aim of this systematic review of international research is to explore which interventions have proved more or less effective in promoting personalized, recovery oriented care planning and coordination for community mental health service users...
2018: PloS One
Noelle E Carlozzi, Robin Hanks, Rael T Lange, Tracey A Brickell D Psych, Phillip A Ianni, Jennifer A Miner, Louis M French Psy D, Michael A Kallen, Angelle M Sander
OBJECTIVE: To provide important reliability and validity data to support the use of the PROMIS Mental Health measures in caregivers of civilians or service members/veterans with traumatic brain injury (TBI). DESIGN: Patient-reported outcomes surveys administered through an electronic data collection platform. SETTING: Three TBI Model Systems rehabilitation hospitals, an academic medical center, and a military medical treatment facility. PARTICIPANTS: 560 caregivers of individuals with a documented TBI (344 civilians and 216 military) INTERVENTION: Not Applicable MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: PROMIS Anxiety, Depression, and Anger Item Banks RESULTS: Internal consistency for all of the PROMIS Mental Health item banks was very good (all α > ...
June 19, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Tara Kumaraswami, Kristin M Rankin, Britt Lunde, Allison Cowett, Rachel Caskey, Bryna Harwood
Objectives The postpartum period is a high-risk time for unintended pregnancy, and additional opportunities to provide contraception are needed. Our objective was to evaluate the acceptability of providing postpartum contraceptive counseling at a pediatric well baby visit, and compare it to counseling at the routine postpartum visit. Methods Postpartum women (100 per group) were recruited for this cohort study at pediatric well baby visits and obstetric postpartum visits at an academic medical center. Well baby participants completed a baseline survey followed by contraceptive counseling by an obstetrician or midwife and a post-counseling survey...
June 21, 2018: Maternal and Child Health Journal
Sharon Hewner, Sabrina Casucci, Suzanne Sullivan, Francine Mistretta, Yuqing Xue, Barbara Johnson, Rebekah Pratt, Li Lin, Chester Fox
Context: Care continuity during transitions between the hospital and home requires reliable communication between providers and settings and an understanding of social determinants that influence recovery. Case Description: The coordinating transitions intervention uses real time alerts, delivered directly to the primary care practice for complex chronically ill patients discharged from an acute care setting, to facilitate nurse care coordinator led telephone outreach...
July 4, 2017: EGEMS
Sean P Mikles, Jennifer L Wiltz, Lori Reed-Fourquet, Ian S Painter, William B Lober
Context: Obesity is a significant health issue in the United States that both clinical and public health systems struggle to address. Electronic health record data could help support multi-sectoral interventions to address obesity. Standards have been identified and created to support the electronic exchange of weight-related data across many stakeholder groups. Case Description: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention initiated a public-private partnership including government, industry, and academic technology partners to develop workflow scenarios and supporting systems to exchange weight-related data through standard transactions...
December 6, 2017: EGEMS
Deepa Kulkarni, Jayme Heath, Amanda Kosack, Nicholas J Jackson, Audrey Crummey
OBJECTIVES: Diagnoses extracted from physician notes are used to calculate hospital quality metrics; failure to document high-risk diagnoses may lead to the appearance of worse-than-expected outcomes for complex patients. Academic hospitals often rely on documentation authored by trainees, yet residents receive little training in this regard. In this study, we evaluate inpatient pediatric resident notes to determine which high-risk diagnoses are commonly missed and assess the efficacy of a multitiered intervention to improve the documentation of these diagnoses...
June 21, 2018: Hospital Pediatrics
Linda H Pololi, Arthur T Evans, Janet T Civian, Sandy Shea, Robert T Brennan
OBJECTIVE: To clarify our understanding of how the culture of residency training influences the well-being of residents, this study reports on the vitality of residents at 34 programs across the United States and identifies characteristics of the programs, institutions and residents that are associated with high resident vitality. DESIGN: In 2014 to 2015, residents nationally were surveyed using the validated C - Change Resident Survey. The survey assessed residents' vitality and 12 other dimensions that characterize residents' perspectives of the culture of the residency training programs: Self-efficacy, Institutional/program support, Relationships/inclusion/trust, Values alignment, Ethical/moral distress, Respect, Leadership aspirations, Mentoring, Work-life integration, Gender equity, Racial/ethnic minority equity, and self-assessed Competencies...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Surgical Education
Carla M Sevin, Sarah L Bloom, James C Jackson, Li Wang, E Wesley Ely, Joanna L Stollings
PURPOSE: To describe the design and initial implementation of an Intensive Care Unit Recovery Center (ICU-RC) in the United States. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective, observational feasibility study was undertaken at an academic hospital between July 2012 and December 2015. Clinical criteria were used to develop the ICU-RC, identify patients at high risk for post intensive care syndrome (PICS), and offer them post-ICU care. RESULTS: 218/307 referred patients (71%) survived to hospital discharge; 62 (28% of survivors) were seen in clinic...
August 2018: Journal of Critical Care
Kirsti Malterud, Aase Aamland, Kristina Riis Iden
BACKGROUND: Research often fails to impose substantial shifts in clinical practice. Evidence-based health care requires implementation of documented interventions, with implementation research as a science-informed strategy to identify core experiences from the process and share preconditions for achievement. Evidence developed in hospital contexts is often neither relevant nor feasible for primary care. Different evidence types may constitute a point of departure, stretching and testing the transferability of the intervention by piloting it in primary care...
June 21, 2018: BMC Family Practice
Tracey Covassin, Kyle M Petit, Jennifer L Savage, Abigail C Bretzin, Meghan E Fox, Lauren F Walker, Daniel Gould
BACKGROUND: Sports-related concussion (SRC) injury rates, and identifying those athletes at the highest risk, have been a primary research focus. However, no studies have evaluated at which time point during an athletic event athletes are most susceptible to SRCs. PURPOSE: To determine the clinical incidence of SRCs during the start, middle, and end of practice and competition among high school male and female athletes in the state of Michigan. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiological study...
June 1, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Fanny-Alexandra Guimond, Mara Brendgen, Stephanie Correia, Lyse Turgeon, Frank Vitaro
This study examined the moderating role of classroom injunctive norms salience regarding social withdrawal and regarding aggression in the longitudinal association between these behaviors and peer victimization. A total of 1,769 fourth through sixth graders (895 girls, M = 10.25 years, SD = 1.03) from 23 schools (67 classrooms) completed a peer nomination inventory in the fall (T1) and spring (T2) of the same academic year. Participants circled the name of each student who fit the description provided for social withdrawal, aggression, and peer victimization at T1 and T2...
June 21, 2018: Developmental Psychology
Serena L Orr, Marielle A Kabbouche, Paul S Horn, Hope L O'Brien, Joanne Kacperski, Susan LeCates, Shannon White, Jessica Weberding, Mimi N Miller, Scott W Powers, Andrew D Hershey
OBJECTIVES: To characterize a population of pediatric patients visiting an infusion center for acute migraine and determine predictors of first-line treatment success in this population. BACKGROUND: Though migraine is common in the pediatric emergency department and specialized infusion centers, little is known about this patient population and whether or not clinical data can be used to predict treatment response. METHODS: This was an observational study involving a retrospective analysis of data from visits to the Cincinnati Children's Hospital infusion center for treatment of an acute migraine...
June 21, 2018: Headache
Lucas B Chartier, Samuel Vaillancourt, Amy H Y Cheng, Antonia S Stang
CLINICIAN'S CAPSULE What is known about the topic? The first two articles of this quality improvement (QI) Primer Series for emergency medicine (EM) clinicians reviewed foundational steps to prepare for and execute a QI project. What did this study ask? This article focused on the measurement, evaluation, and sustainability of QI projects. What did this study find? Run charts are used to represent the temporal relationship visually between interventions and the measures of interest. Sustainability of projects can be achieved through the use of specific frameworks, tools, and cultural change...
June 21, 2018: CJEM
Ilana R Yurkiewicz, Pamela Simon, Michaela Liedtke, Gary Dahl, Tamara Dunn
PURPOSE: Adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients with cancer face significant challenges with regard to fatigue, reduced physical activity, and social isolation, which may negatively impact quality of life. This study investigated whether the use of digital wearable technology (Fitbits, along with synced iPads) can affect health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in AYA aged patients with cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study that offered Fitbits and iPads to all AYA patients aged 15 to 29 at an academic medical center at the time of cancer diagnosis...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology
Arianne Teherani, Karen E Hauer, Alicia Fernandez, Talmadge E King, Catherine Lucey
While students entering medical schools are becoming more diverse, trainees in residency programs in competitive specialties and academic medicine faculty have not increased in diversity. As part of an educational continuous quality improvement (ECQI) process at the University of California, San Francisco, School of Medicine, the authors examined data for the classes of 2013-2016 to determine whether differences existed between underrepresented in medicine (UIM) and not-UIM students' clinical performance (clerkship director ratings and number of clerkship honors grades awarded) and honor society membership--all of which influence residency selection and academic career choices...
June 19, 2018: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Keith R Cole, Shauna Dudley-Javoroski, Richard K Shields
Objective After spinal cord injury (SCI), hybrid stimulation patterns that interpose paired-pulse doublets over a constant-frequency background may enhance the metabolic "work" (muscle torque) performed by paralyzed muscle. This study examined the effect of background stimulation frequency on the torque contribution of the doublet before and after fatigue. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Research laboratory in an academic medical center. Participants Five men with chronic sensory and motor-complete SCI and ten non-SCI controls (6 males, 4 females)...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
Kyung Wan Lee, Yoon Hee Choi, Jae Hee Lee
Purpose: To reduce problems caused by alcohol drinking, it is necessary to identify those with 'at-risk drinking' behavior to maximize therapeutic access or intervention. To this end, we sought to determine the cut-off point for screening of at-risk drinking by the Korean version of the AUDIT-C (Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test-Consumption). Materials and methods: We obtained data from the scientific research project of "the supervision of the Korea Center for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDCP)" in 2010...
June 2018: Turkish Journal of Emergency Medicine
Julie E Reed, Cathy Howe, Cathal Doyle, Derek Bell
BACKGROUND: Ensuring patients benefit from the latest medical and technical advances remains a major challenge, with rational-linear and reductionist approaches to translating evidence into practice proving inefficient and ineffective. Complexity thinking, which emphasises interconnectedness and unpredictability, offers insights to inform evidence translation theories and strategies. Drawing on detailed insights into complex micro-systems, this research aimed to advance empirical and theoretical understanding of the reality of making and sustaining improvements in complex healthcare systems...
June 20, 2018: BMC Medicine
Alia Januwalla, Ariel Pulver, Susitha Wanigaratne, Patricia O'Campo, Marcelo L Urquia
BACKGROUND: Immigrants to Western countries increasingly originate from countries with pervasive gender inequalities, where women experience disproportionately high rates of threats to their well-being. Health and social services in countries of settlement encounter several adverse outcomes linked to gender bias among immigrant groups. Little is known about interventions implemented to address manifestations of gender bias among immigrant populations. METHODS: A scoping review was undertaken to describe the literature on existing interventions and determine knowledge gaps...
June 19, 2018: BMC Women's Health
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