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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343304/geometry-calibration-between-x-ray-source-and-detector-for-tomosynthesis-with-a-portable-x-ray-system
#1
Kohei Sato, Takashi Ohnishi, Masashi Sekine, Hideaki Haneishi
PURPOSE: Tomosynthesis is attracting attention as a low-dose tomography technology compared with X-ray CT. However, conventional tomosynthesis imaging devices are large and stationary. Furthermore, there is a limitation in the working range of the X-ray source during image acquisition. We have previously proposed the use of a portable X-ray device for tomosynthesis that can be used for ward rounds and emergency medicine. The weight of this device can be reduced by using a flat panel detector (FPD), and flexibility is realized by the free placement of the X-ray source and FPD...
March 25, 2017: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343279/the-independent-influences-of-heat-strain-and-dehydration-upon-cognition
#2
Anne M J van den Heuvel, Benjamin J Haberley, David J R Hoyle, Nigel A S Taylor, Rodney J Croft
PURPOSE: Many researchers have addressed the potential effects of hyperthermia and dehydration on cognition, often revealing contradictory outcomes. A possible reason for this inconsistency is that experiments may have been inadequately designed for such effects. In this study, the impact of hyperthermia, dehydration and their combination on cognition were evaluated in eight young males, after accounting for a range of experimental limitations. METHODS: Passive heating and thermal clamping at two mean body temperatures (36...
March 25, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343260/urethral-lumen-occlusion-by-artificial-sphincteric-devices-a-computational-biomechanics-approach
#3
Arturo Nicola Natali, Emanuele Luigi Carniel, Chiara Giulia Fontanella, Silvia Todros, Giulia Maria De Benedictis, Maria Angela Cerruto, Walter Artibani
The action induced by artificial sphincteric devices to provide urinary continence is related to the problem of evaluating the interaction between the occlusive cuff and the urethral duct. The intensity and distribution of the force induced within the region of application determine a different occlusion process and potential degradation of the urethral tissue, mostly at the borders of the cuff. This problem is generally considered in the light of clinical and surgical operational experience, while a valid cooperation is established with biomechanical competences by means of experimental and numerical investigation...
March 25, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343259/numerical-and-experimental-analysis-of-the-transitional-flow-across-a-real-stenosis
#4
R Agujetas, C Ferrera, A C Marcos, J P Alejo, J M Montanero
In this paper, we present a numerical study of the pulsatile transitional flow crossing a severe real stenosis located right in front of the bifurcation between the right subclavian and right common carotid arteries. The simulation allows one to determine relevant features of this subject-specific flow, such as the pressure waves in the right subclavian and right common carotid arteries. We explain the subclavian steal syndrome suffered by the patient in terms of the drastic pressure drop in the right subclavian artery...
March 25, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343214/moderate-grade-germinal-matrix-haemorrhage-activates-cell-division-in-the-neonatal-mouse-subventricular-zone
#5
William J Dawes, Xinyu Zhang, Stephen P J Fancy, David Rowitch, Silvia Marino
Precise temporal and spatial control of the neural stem/progenitor cells within the subventricular zone (SVZ) germinal matrix of the brain is important for normal development in the third trimester and the early postnatal period. The high metabolic demands of proliferating germinal matrix precursors, coupled with the flimsy structure of the germinal matrix cerebral vasculature, are thought to account for the high rates of haemorrhage in extremely- and very-low-birth-weight preterm infants. Germinal matrix haemorrhage can commonly extend to intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH)...
March 25, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343130/computational-study-of-ibuprofen-removal-from-water-by-adsorption-in-realistic-activated-carbons
#6
Daniel Bahamon, Leticia Carro, Sonia Guri, Lourdes F Vega
Molecular simulations using the Grand Canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) method have been performed in order to obtain physical insights on how the interaction between ibuprofen (IBP) and activated carbons (ACs) in aqueous mixtures affects IBP removal from water by ACs. A nanoporous carbon model based on units of polyaromatic molecules with different number of rings, defects and polar-oxygenated sites is described. Individual effects of factors such as porous features and chemical heterogeneities in the adsorbents are investigated and quantified...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343129/nano-sized-molecularly-imprinted-polymer-for-selective-ultrasound-assisted-microextraction-of-pesticide-carbaryl-from-water-samples-spectrophotometric-determination
#7
A A Bazrafshan, M Ghaedi, Z Rafiee, S Hajati, A Ostovan
Ultrasound-assisted dispersive solid phase microextraction followed by UV-Vis spectrophotometry (UA-DSPME UV-Vis) was designed for the extraction and preconcentration of Carbaryl using nano-sized molecularly-imprinted polymer (MIP-NP). Nano-sized Carbaryl-imprinted polymer was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. A preliminary Plackett-Burman design was applied for screening. Subsequently, central composite design under response surface methodology was used to investigate and model the Carbaryl adsorption as response as well as to optimize this response versus variables such as Carbaryl MIP-NP mass, sonication time, temperature, eluent volume, pH and vortex time...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343124/effects-of-acute-alcohol-consumption-on-measures-of-simulated-driving-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
Christopher Irwin, Elizaveta Iudakhina, Ben Desbrow, Danielle McCartney
Driving simulators are used in a wide range of research settings to help develop an understanding of driver behavior in complex environments. Acute alcohol impairment is an important research topic for traffic safety and a large number of studies have indicated levels of simulated driving impairment imposed by alcohol across a range of performance outcome variables. The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of acute alcohol consumption on simulated driving performance by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available evidence...
March 23, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343080/ring-artifact-correction-in-gamma-ray-process-tomography-imaging
#9
Lakshminarayana Yenumula, Rajesh V Acharya, Umesh Kumar, T Palani Selvam, Kallol Roy, V H Patankar, Soumitra Kar
Ring artifacts have been studied for X-ray based Computed Tomography (CT) systems but not on γ-ray based in-situ applications. This paper discusses application of recently proposed automatic ring artifact reduction method (Yoon et al., 2016) on previously obtained experimental projection data from a γ-ray based Industrial Process Tomography (IPT) system for a prototype catalytic column. Studies include qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the method. It is observed that ring artifacts are suppressed without loss of significant information in γ-ray PT images...
March 18, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343003/essential-design-considerations-for-the-resazurin-reduction-assay-to-noninvasively-quantify-cell-expansion-within-perfused-extracellular-matrix-scaffolds
#10
Joseph S Uzarski, Michael D DiVito, Jason A Wertheim, William M Miller
Precise measurement of cellularity within bioartificial tissues and extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffolds is necessary to augment rigorous characterization of cellular behavior, as accurate benchmarking of tissue function to cell number allows for comparison of data across experiments and between laboratories. Resazurin, a soluble dye that is reduced to highly fluorescent resorufin in proportion to the metabolic activity of a cell population, is a valuable, noninvasive tool to measure cell number. We investigated experimental conditions in which resazurin reduction is a reliable indicator of cellularity within three-dimensional (3D) ECM scaffolds...
February 16, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342974/after-total-knee-replacement-younger-patients-demonstrate-superior-balance-control-compared-to-older-patients-when-recovering-from-a-forward-fall
#11
Brian D Street, William Gage
BACKGROUND: National joint replacement registries have reported a substantial growth in younger knee osteoarthritic patients (<55years old) undergoing total knee replacement, however this younger population is generally understudied. Importantly, studies examining experimentally controlled perturbation have shown age-related differences between younger and older healthy adults, whether similar age-related differences exist among total knee replacement patients is unknown. METHODS: A total of 59 participants, including 29 unilateral total knee replacement patients (six-months post-surgery) made up the four experimental groups: 1) younger patient (54...
March 16, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342907/active-placebo-control-groups-of-pharmacological-interventions-were-rarely-used-but-merited-serious-consideration-a-methodological-overview
#12
Jakob Solgaard Jensen, Andreas Ørsted Bielefeldt, Asbjørn Hróbjartsson
OBJECTIVES: Active placebos are control interventions that mimic the side-effects of the experimental interventions in randomised trials and are sometimes used to reduce the risk of unblinding. We wanted to assess how often randomised clinical drug trials implement active placebo control groups; to provide a catalogue, and a characterisation, of such trials; and to analyse methodological arguments for and against use of active placebo. STUDY DESIGN: An overview consisting of three thematically linked sub-studies...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342888/effect-of-exogenous-tgf-%C3%AE-1-on-the-cadmium-induced-nephrotoxicity-by-inhibiting-apoptosis-of-proximal-tubular-cells-through-pi3k-akt-mtor-signaling-pathway
#13
Minyi Huang, Li Su, Limin Yang, Liangliang Zhu, Zhaowen Liu, Renyan Duan
Heavy metal polluted soils have been a serious problem for the global ecological balance and people's health. Cadmium (Cd), one of the heavy metals, could induce apoptosis of proximal tubular cells in many experimental models and lead to damage the human kidney. Here, we reported a potent chemokine TGF-β1 which could ameliorate cadmium-induced nephrotoxicity. Interestingly, western blotting and TUNEL staining assays indicated that PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling pathway was involved in the protective mechanism of TGF-β1 in vitro and in vivo...
March 22, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342883/kinetic-and-mechanistic-study-of-the-ph-dependent-activation-epoxidation-of-prodrug-treosulfan-including-the-reaction-inhibition-in-a-borate-buffer
#14
Michał Romański, Whitney Ratajczak, Franciszek Główka
A prodrug treosulfan (T) undergoes a pH-dependent activation to epoxide derivatives. The process seems to involve an intramolecular Williamson reaction (IWR) but clear kinetic evidence is lacking. Moreover, a cis-diol system present in the T structure is expected to promote complexation with boric acid. As a result, the prodrug epoxidation would be inhibited, however this phenomenon has not been investigated. In this paper, the effect of pH on the kinetics of T conversion to its monoepoxide was studied from a mechanistic point of view...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342873/relationships-of-braf-mutation-and-hmgb1-to-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma
#15
Xiaolei Guan, Ping Wang, Jingwei Chi, Shihua Zhao, Fei Wang
A poor papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) prognosis is strongly associated with the BRAF V600E mutation. During tumor progression, levels of the high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein are often dysregulated. Results herein demonstrate that HMGB1 protein levels differ between tumor and adjacent non-tumor tissue and that HMGB1 mRNA levels were higher in wild-type BRAF PTC tissues than in BRAF V600E PTC tissues (2-△Ct 0.31 ± 0.25 vs. 0.16 ± 0.12; P < 0.05). HMGB1 protein levels also differed in the same manner (wild-type BRAF PTC tissues 0...
March 22, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342866/the-t47d-cell-line-is-an-ideal-experimental-model-to-elucidate-the-progesterone-specific-effects-of-a-luminal-a-subtype-of-breast-cancer
#16
Sungryul Yu, Taemook Kim, Kyung Hyun Yoo, Keunsoo Kang
Cell lines are often used as in vitro tools to mimic certain types of in vivo system; several cell lines, including MCF-7 and T47D, have been widely used in breast cancer studies without investigating the cell lines' characteristics. In this study, we compared the genome-wide binding profiles of ERα, PR, and P300, and the gene expression changes between MCF-7 and T47D cell lines that represent the luminal A subtype of breast cancer. Surprisingly, several thousand genes were differentially expressed under estrogenic condition...
March 22, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342847/na-k-atpase-interaction-with-methylglyoxal-as-reactive-metabolic-side-product
#17
Marika Svrckova, Martina Zatloukalova, Petra Dvorakova, Dominika Coufalova, David Novak, Lenka Hernychova, Jan Vacek
Proteins are subject to oxidative modification and the formation of adducts with a broad spectrum of reactive species via enzymatic and non-enzymatic mechanisms. Here we report that in vitro non-enzymatic methylglyoxal (MGO) binding causes the inhibition and formation of MGO advanced glycation end-products (MAGEs) in Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA). Concretely, MGO adducts with NKA amino acid residues (mainly Arg) and N(ε)-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) formation were found. MGO is not only an inhibitor for solubilized NKA (IC50 = 91±16 μM), but also for reconstituted NKA in the lipid bilayer environment, which was clearly demonstrated using a DPPC/DPPE liposome model in the presence or absence of the NKA-selective inhibitor ouabain...
March 22, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342831/inference-of-direct-and-multistep-effective-connectivities-from-functional-connectivity-of-the-brain-and-of-relationships-to-cortical-geometry
#18
Grishma Mehta-Pandejee, P A Robinson, James A Henderson, K M Aquino, Somwrita Sarkar
BACKGROUND: The problem of inferring effective brain connectivity from functional connectivity is under active investigation, and connectivity via multistep paths is poorly understood. NEW METHOD: A method is presented to calculate the direct effective connection matrix (deCM), which embodies direct connection strengths between brain regions, from functional CMs (fCMs) by minimizing the difference between an experimental fCM and one calculated via neural field theory from an ansatz deCM based on an experimental anatomical CM...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342829/effects-of-peer-mentoring-on-self-efficacy-and-hospital-readmission-following-inpatient-rehabilitation-of-individuals-with-spinal-cord-injury-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Julie Gassaway, Michael L Jones, W Mark Sweatman, Minna Hong, Peter Anziano, Karen DeVault
OBJECTIVE: Investigate the effect of intensive peer mentoring on patient reported outcomes of self-efficacy and unplanned hospital readmissions for persons with spinal cord injury/disease (SCI/D) within the first 6 months after discharge from inpatient rehabilitation DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial; SETTING: Non-profit inpatient rehabilitation hospital specializing in care of persons with SCI/D and brain injury PARTICIPANTS: 158 patients admitted to the SCI rehabilitation program whose discharge location was a community setting...
March 22, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342805/phosphoethanolamine-addition-to-the-heptose-i-of-the-lipopolysaccharide-modifies-the-inner-core-structure-and-has-an-impact-on-the-binding-of-polymyxin-b-to-the-escherichia-coli-outer-membrane
#20
Javier Salazar, Mackarenna Alarcon, Jaime Huerta, Belén Navarro, Daniel Aguayo
Phosphoethanolamine (pEtN) decoration of E. coli Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) provides resistance to the antimicrobial Polymyxin B (PolB). While EptA and EptB enzymes catalyze the addition of pEtN to the Lipid A and Kdo (pEtN-Kdo-Lipid A), EptC catalyzes the pEtN addition to the Heptose I (pEtN-HeptI). In this study, we investigated the contribution of pEtN-HeptI to PolB resistance using eptA/eptB and eptC deficient E. coli K12 and its wild-type parent strains. These mutations were shown to decrease the antimicrobial activity of PolB on cells grown under pEtN-addition inducing conditions...
March 22, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
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