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Akihiko Hasegawa, Tomo Yonezawa, Noboru Taniguchi, Koji Otabe, Yukio Akasaki, Tetsuya Matsukawa, Masahiko Saito, Masashi Neo, Lihua Y Marmorstein, Martin K Lotz
OBJECTIVES: The EFEMP1 gene encoding fibulin-3 is specifically expressed in the superficial zone of articular cartilage. This study examined fibulin-3 expression patterns in joint aging and osteoarthritis (OA) and the role of fibulin-3 in OA pathogenesis. METHODS: Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on normal and OA human and mouse knee cartilage. Experimental OA was induced in wild type and fibulin-3(-/-) mice and OA severity was evaluated by histological scoring...
October 25, 2016: Arthritis & Rheumatology
Dae Woo Park, Andrea Sebastiani, Choon Hwai Yap, Marc A Simon, Kang Kim
Mechanical and structural changes of right ventricular (RV) in response to pulmonary hypertension (PH) are inadequately understood. While current standard biaxial testing provides information on the mechanical behavior of RV tissues using surface markers, it is unable to fully assess structural and mechanical properties across the full tissue thickness. In this study, the mechanical and structural properties of normotensive and pulmonary hypertension right ventricular (PHRV) myocardium through its full thickness were examined using mechanical testing combined with 3D ultrasound speckle tracking (3D-UST)...
2016: PloS One
Atesh Koul, Andrea Cavallo, Caterina Ansuini, Cristina Becchio
Individuals show significant variations in performing a motor act. Previous studies in the action observation literature have largely ignored this ubiquitous, if often unwanted, characteristic of motor performance, assuming movement patterns to be highly similar across repetitions and individuals. In the present study, we examined the possibility that individual variations in motor style directly influence the ability to understand and predict others' actions. To this end, we first recorded grasping movements performed with different intents and used a two-step cluster analysis to identify quantitatively 'clusters' of movements performed with similar movement styles (Experiment 1)...
2016: PloS One
Hui Ren, Nigel P Birch, Vinod Suresh
Robust and reproducible in vitro models are required for investigating the pathways involved in fluid homeostasis in the human alveolar epithelium. We performed functional and phenotypic characterisation of ion transport in the human pulmonary epithelial cell lines NCI-H441 and A549 to determine their similarity to primary human alveolar type II cells. NCI-H441 cells exhibited high expression of junctional proteins ZO-1, and E-cadherin, seal-forming claudin-3, -4, -5 and Na+-K+-ATPase while A549 cells exhibited high expression of pore-forming claudin-2...
2016: PloS One
Petra D Cravens, Rehana Z Hussain, William A Miller-Little, Li-Hong Ben, Benjamin M Segal, Emily Herndon, Olaf Stüve
BACKGROUND: Interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-23 are heterodimers that share the p40 subunit, and both cytokines are critical in the differentiation of T helper (Th)1 and Th17 cells, respectively. Th1 and Th17 effector cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE), an animal model of the human central nervous system (CNS) autoimmune demyelinating disorder multiple sclerosis (MS). However, ustekinumab, a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against p40 failed to show efficacy over placebo in a phase II clinical trial in patients with MS...
2016: PloS One
Xiang Li, Handong Wang, Yongyue Gao, Liwen Li, Chao Tang, Guodao Wen, Yuan Zhou, Mengliang Zhou, Lei Mao, Youwu Fan
The present investigation was carried out to elucidate a possible molecular mechanism related to the protective effect of quercetin administration against oxidative stress on various mitochondrial respiratory complex subunits with special emphasis on the role of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in mitochondrial biogenesis. Recently, quercetin has been proved to have a protective effect against mitochondria damage after traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, its precise role and underlying mechanisms in traumatic brain injury are not yet fully understood...
2016: PloS One
Alexander A Maini, Marc J George, Madhur P Motwani, Richard M Day, Derek W Gilroy, Alastair J O'Brien
Defects in neutrophil function have been implicated in a wide spectrum of clinical conditions. Several models are employed to study activated human neutrophils akin to those found at a site of inflammation. These include whole blood (WB) ex vivo stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and in vivo techniques: cantharidin blister, skin windows and intra-dermal injection of UV-killed E.coli (UVKEc). Neutrophils obtained from these have never been compared. We compared the activation status of neutrophils from each technique in order to inform the optimal model for use in human studies...
2016: PloS One
Olivia Langhamer, Håkon Holand, Gunilla Rosenqvist
Worldwide growth of offshore renewable energy production will provide marine organisms with new hard substrate for colonization in terms of artificial reefs. The artificial reef effect is important when planning offshore installations since it can create habitat enhancement. Wind power is the most advanced technology within offshore renewable energy sources and there is an urgent need to study its impacts on the marine environment. To test the hypothesis that offshore wind power increases the abundance of reef species relative to a reference area, we conduct an experiment on the model species common shore crab (Carcinus maenas)...
2016: PloS One
Max Schelker, Caroline Maria Mair, Fabian Jolmes, Robert-William Welke, Edda Klipp, Andreas Herrmann, Max Flöttmann, Christian Sieben
After endocytic uptake, influenza viruses transit early endosomal compartments and eventually reach late endosomes. There, the viral glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA) triggers fusion between endosomal and viral membrane, a critical step that leads to release of the viral segmented genome destined to reach the cell nucleus. Endosomal maturation is a complex process involving acidification of the endosomal lumen as well as endosome motility along microtubules. While the pH drop is clearly critical for the conformational change and membrane fusion activity of HA, the effect of intracellular transport dynamics on the progress of infection remains largely unclear...
October 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
Nayeon Lee, M F Horstemeyer, R Prabhu, Jun Liao, Hongjoo Rhee, Youssef Hammi, Robert D Moser, Lakiesha N Williams
In this study a woodpecker's hyoid apparatus was characterized to determine its impact mitigation mechanism using finite element (FE) analysis. The woodpecker's hyoid apparatus, comprising bone and muscle, has a unique geometry compared to those of other birds. The hyoid starts at the beak tip, surrounds the woodpecker's skull, and ends at the upper beak/front head intersection while being surrounded by muscle along the whole length. A FE model of the hyoid apparatus was created based on the geometry, microstructure, and mechanical properties garnered from our experimental measurements...
October 25, 2016: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
H Lu, K B Lua, Y J Lee, T T Lim, K S Yeo
This paper reports the results of combined experimental and numerical studies on the ground effect on a pair of three-dimensional (3D) hovering wings. Parameters investigated include hovering kinematics, wing shapes, and Reynolds numbers (Re). The results are consistent with the observation by another study (Gao and Lu, 2008 Phys. Fluids, 20 087101) which shows that the cycle-averaged aerodynamic forces generated by two-dimensional (2D) wings in close proximity to the ground can be broadly categorized into three regimes with respect to the ground clearance; force enhancement, force reduction, and force recovery...
October 25, 2016: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Bakhta Aouey, Amira Mahjoubi Samet, Hamadi Fetoui, Monique S J Simmonds, Mohamed Bouaziz
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The leaves of Vitis vinifera is used in traditional medicine for diarrhea, hepatitis and stomachaches. The objective of this study was to investigate the anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic properties of the hydroalcoholic leaf extract of Vitis vinifera (EVV) on experimental models to provide scientific basis for its use. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The EVV was chemically characterized by LC-MS/MS analyses. The in vitro antioxidant activities of the EVV extract were measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and Ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP)...
October 22, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Elixabet Díaz-de-Cerio, Federica Pasini, Vito Verardo, Alberto Fernández-Gutiérrez, Antonio Segura-Carretero, Maria Fiorenza Caboni
Due to the importance of the proanthocyanidins (PAs) bioactivity and its relationship with the PAs degree of polymerization (DP), an experimental design was carried out to establish the best extraction conditions in order to evaluate the proanthocyanidins content and their degree of polymerization in Psidium guajava leaves at different oxidation state. Optimal conditions achieved by response surface methodology were 50% acetone/water (v/v), 48°C, 30min, and 0% acetic acid (v/v). The highest DP has been found in the low oxidized state (DP 13 plus the polymers)...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
J L Santiago, R Borge, F Martin, D de la Paz, A Martilli, J Lumbreras, B Sanchez
The distribution of pollutants is spatially heterogeneous within urban streets making difficult to build a realistic concentration map. In this paper, a methodology based on computational fluid dynamic modeling with Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes approach is used to compute maps of concentration for a period of several weeks. The methodology is evaluated by comparing simulation results against experimental data from two different campaigns where a large number of passive samplers deployed in an area with heavy vehicular traffic in Madrid (Spain)...
October 22, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
D Bolton, M Mayer-Pinto, G F Clark, K A Dafforn, W A Brassil, A Becker, E L Johnston
Urban land and seascapes are increasingly exposed to artificial lighting at night (ALAN), which is a significant source of light pollution. A broad range of ecological effects are associated with ALAN, but the changes to ecological processes remain largely unstudied. Predation is a key ecological process that structures assemblages and responds to natural cycles of light and dark. We investigated the effect of ALAN on fish predatory behaviour, and sessile invertebrate prey assemblages. Over 21days fish and sessile assemblages were exposed to 3 light treatments (Day, Night and ALAN)...
October 22, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Darryl T Gwynne
In a role-reversed beetle, in which sexual selection acts primarily on females, females evolved to more rapidly court and copulate after many generations of experimentally increased female sexual competition.
October 24, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Ting Wen, Marc E Rothenberg
Eosinophils are a minority circulating granulocyte classically viewed as being involved in host defense against parasites and promoting allergic reactions. However, a series of new regulatory functions for these cells have been identified in the past decade. During homeostasis, eosinophils develop in the bone marrow and migrate from the blood into target tissues following an eotaxin gradient, with interleukin-5 being a key cytokine for eosinophil proliferation, survival, and priming. In multiple target tissues, eosinophils actively regulate a variety of immune functions through their vast arsenal of granule products and cytokines, as well as direct cellular interaction with cells in proximity...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Servet Kilic, Kadri Kulualp
This study compared the endodontic absorbent paper point test (EAPTT) and the phenol red thread test (PRTT) for the assessment of tear production rate in a mouse model of dry eye. Fourteen BALB/c breed female mice were allocated into experimental and control groups of equal number. For 6 wk, the experimental group was kept in dry-eye cabinets, whereas the control group was kept in normal cages under ambient conditions. In both groups, the tear production rate was measured by using EAPTT and PRTT before the study, at study baseline, and at weeks 2, 4, and 6...
2016: Comparative Medicine
James A Turner, Colin N E Ruscoe, Trevor R Perrior
This report provides an outline of a program for the discovery of new public health insecticides for malaria vector control. The status of malaria vector control is first reviewed in terms of the chemical, physical chemical, and biochemical properties of the current WHOPES-recommended and approved vector control agents. This review provides a basis for a discussion on the critical need for discovery and development of multiple new chemical malaria vector control agents with novel and diverse modes of action...
October 2016: Chimia
Tijl Grootswagers, Susan G Wardle, Thomas A Carlson
Multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) or brain decoding methods have become standard practice in analyzing fMRI data. Although decoding methods have been extensively applied in brain-computer interfaces, these methods have only recently been applied to time series neuroimaging data such as MEG and EEG to address experimental questions in cognitive neuroscience. In a tutorial style review, we describe a broad set of options to inform future time series decoding studies from a cognitive neuroscience perspective...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
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