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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150976/salt-bridge-interactions-within-the-%C3%AE-2-integrin-%C3%AE-7-helix-mediate-force-induced-binding-and-shear-resistance-ability
#1
Xiao Zhang, Linda Li, Ning Li, Xinyu Shu, Lüwen Zhou, Shouqin Lü, Shenbao Chen, Debin Mao, Mian Long
The functional performance of αI domain α7 helix in β2 integrin activation depends on the allostery of the α7 helix, which axially slides down; therefore, it is critical to elucidate what factors regulate the allostery. In this study, we determined that there were two conservative salt bridge interaction pairs that constrain both the upper and bottom ends of the α7 helix. Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations for three β2 integrin members of LFA-1 (αL β2 ), Mac-1 (αM β2 ) and αx β2 indicated that the magnitude of the salt bridge interaction is related to the stability of the αI domain and the strength of the corresponding force-induced allostery...
November 18, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150953/new-algorithm-for-simulation-of-proteoglycan-loss-and-collagen-degeneration-in-the-knee-joint-data-from-the-osteoarthritis-initiative
#2
Mika E Mononen, Petri Tanska, Hanna Isaksson, Rami K Korhonen
Osteoarthritis is a harmful joint disease but prediction of disease progression is problematic. Currently, there is only one modeling framework which can be applied to predict the progression of knee osteoarthritis but it only considers degenerative changes in the collagen fibril network. Here, we have developed the framework further by considering all of the major tissue changes (proteoglycan content, fluid flow and collagen fibril network) occurring in osteoarthritis. While excessive levels of tissue stresses controlled degeneration of the collagen fibril network, excessive levels of tissue strains controlled the decrease in proteoglycan content and the increase in permeability...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150937/cgmp-production-and-analysis-of-bg505-sosip-664-an-extensively-glycosylated-trimeric-hiv-1-envelope-glycoprotein-vaccine-candidate
#3
Antu K Dey, Albert Cupo, Gabriel Ozorowski, Vaneet K Sharma, Anna-Janina Behrens, Eden P Go, Thomas J Ketas, Anila Yasmeen, Per J Klasse, Eddy Sayeed, Heather Desaire, Max Crispin, Ian A Wilson, Rogier W Sanders, Thomas Hassell, Andrew Ward, John P Moore
We describe the properties of BG505 SOSIP.664 HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein trimers produced under current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) conditions. These proteins are the first of a new generation of native-like trimers that are the basis for many structure-guided immunogen development programs aimed at devising how to induce broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) to HIV-1 by vaccination. The successful translation of this prototype demonstrates the feasibility of producing similar immunogens on an appropriate scale and of an acceptable quality for Phase I experimental medicine clinical trials...
November 18, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150933/design-of-a-novel-continuous-flow-reactor-for-low-ph-viral-inactivation
#4
Stephanie A Parker, Linus Amarikwa, Kevin Vehar, Raquel Orozco, Scott Godfrey, Jon Coffman, Parviz Shamlou, Cameron L Bardliving
Insufficient mixing in laminar flow reactors due to diffusion-dominated flow limits their use in applications where narrow residence time distribution (RTD) is required. The aim of this study was to design and characterize a laminar flow (Re 187.7-375.5) tubular reactor for low pH viral inactivation with enhanced radial mixing via the incorporation of curvature and flow inversions. Towards this aim, the reactor described here, Jig in a Box (JIB), was designed with a flow path consisting of alternating 270° degree turns...
November 18, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150926/viral-short-orfs-and-their-possible-functions
#5
REVIEW
Yaara Finkel, Noam Stern-Ginossar, Michal Schwartz
Definition of functional genomic elements is one of the greater challenges of the genomic era. Traditionally, putative short Open Reading Frames (sORFs) coding for less than 100 amino acids were disregarded due to computational and experimental limitations, however it has become clear over the past several years that translation of sORFs is pervasive and serves diverse functions. The development of ribosome profiling, allowing identification of translated sequences genome-wide, revealed wide-spread, previously unidentified translation events...
November 18, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150925/one-pot-synthesis-of-a-multi-template-molecularly-imprinted-polymer-for-the-extraction-of-six-sulfonamide-residues-from-milk-before-hplc-with-diode-array-detection
#6
Maria Kechagia, Victoria Samanidou, Abuzar Kabir, Kenneth G Furton
A highly selective molecularly imprinted polymer sorbent was synthesized and employed for the simultaneous determination of six sulfonamide antibiotic residues (sulfanilamide, sulfacetamide, sulfadiazine, sulfathiazole, sulfamerazine and sulfamethizole) in milk samples. Multi-analyte imprinted particles were used as sorbent in solid phase extraction. Sulfonamides were separated on a high-performance liquid chromatography column (Merck-Lichrospher RP18e, 5 μm 250 × 4 mm) and further identified and quantified by diode array detection...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150919/a-focus-on-the-beneficial-effects-of-alpha-synuclein-and-a-re-appraisal-of-synucleinopathies
#7
Larisa Ryskalin, Carla L Busceti, Fiona Limanaqi, Francesca Biagioni, Stefano Gambardella, Francesco Fornai
Alpha synuclein (α-syn) belongs to a class of proteins which are commonly considered to play a detrimental role in neuronal survival. This assumption is based on the occurrence of a severe neuronal degeneration in patients carrying a multiplication of the α-syn gene (SNCA) and in a variety of experimental models, where overexpression of α-syn leads to cell death and neurological impairment. In these conditions, a higher amount of normally structured α-syn produces a damage, which is even worse compared with that produced by α-syn owing an abnormal structure (as occurring following point gene mutations)...
November 16, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150843/liver-fibrosis-is-associated-with-cutaneous-inflammation-in-the-imiquimod-induced-murine-model-of-psoriasiform-dermatitis
#8
P Vasseur, M Pohin, J F Jégou, L Favot, N Venisse, J Mcheik, F Morel, J C Lecron, C Silvain
BACKGROUND: Psoriasis associates several extra-cutaneous manifestations. Little is known about hepatic parameters specifically associated with psoriasis. OBJECTIVE: To study whether psoriasiform dermatitis is associated with liver injury. METHODS: We studied liver parameters of inflammation and fibrosis in a murine model of psoriasiform dermatitis induced by topical application of imiquimod for nine weeks. RESULTS: Topical treatment with imiquimod induced a form of psoriasiform dermatitis reminiscent of the human disorder, characterized by thickened and scaly skin, psoriasiform epidermal hyperplasia, altered keratinocyte differentiation, and cutaneous overexpression of interleukin-17A...
November 18, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150802/ion-imprinted-electrospun-nanofibers-of-chitosan-1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium-tetrafluoroborate-for-the-dynamic-expulsion-of-thorium-iv-ions-from-mimicked-effluents
#9
Prakash Macchindra Gore, Latika Khurana, Suhail Siddique, Anjana Panicker, Balasubramanian Kandasubramanian
The present study explores the innocuous, biocompatible, and extremely competent molecularly imprinted chitosan/RTIL electrospun nanofibers having average diameter of 30 nm for the expulsion of thorium (IV) ions from the mimicked effluent waste. The extended Flory-Huggins theory and three-dimensional molecular modeling have been effectively premeditated via Materials Studio software for enumerating the inter-miscibility and compatibility (Chi parameter (χ) = 1.019, mixing energy (Emix) = 0.603 kcal/mol) of the chitosan/RTIL (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate)...
November 17, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150777/glibenclamide-and-therapeutic-hypothermia-have-comparable-effect-on-attenuating-global-cerebral-edema-following-experimental-cardiac-arrest
#10
Shin Nakayama, Noriko Taguchi, Yumi Isaka, Takako Nakamura, Makoto Tanaka
BACKGROUND: Cerebral edema is one of the major causes of mortality following cardiac arrest (CA) and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). A subunit of the sulfonylurea receptor 1-transient receptor potential M4 (Sur1-TRPM4) channel has been implicated in the pathogenesis of ischemia-evoked cerebral edema. In this study, we examined whether glibenclamide (GBC), a Sur1-TRPM4 channel inhibitor, attenuates cerebral edema following CA/CPR and further examined the efficacy of GBC combined with therapeutic hypothermia...
November 17, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150771/occurrence-and-partition-of-perfluorinated-compounds-pfcs-in-water-and-sediment-from-the-songhua-river-china
#11
Weihua Dong, Baolin Liu, Yang Song, Hong Zhang, Juying Li, Xiaoyu Cui
This study provided the first evidence that perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were widely detected in the Songhua River, China. Seventeen surface water and sediment samples were collected and analyzed for the determination of 14 PFCs. The total concentrations of PFCs (Σ PFCs) ranged from 0.143 to 1.41 ng L(-1) in water samples. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was detected with the highest detection frequency (%) ranging from below LOQ to 0.678 ng L(-1). Σ PFCs were relatively low in sediments, and only four individual homologues were detected...
November 17, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150767/cell-migration-in-1d-and-2d-nanofiber-microenvironments
#12
Horacio M Estabridis, Aniket Jana, Amrinder Nain, David J Odde
Understanding how cells migrate in fibrous environments is important in wound healing, immune function, and cancer progression. A key question is how fiber orientation and network geometry influence cell movement. Here we describe a quantitative, modeling-based approach toward identifying the mechanisms by which cells migrate in fibrous geometries having well controlled orientation. Specifically, U251 glioblastoma cells were seeded onto non-electrospinning Spinneret based tunable engineering parameters fiber substrates that consist of networks of suspended 400 nm diameter nanofibers...
November 17, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150759/from-experiment-to-theory-what-can-we-learn-from-growth-curves
#13
Irina Kareva, Georgy Karev
Finding an appropriate functional form to describe population growth based on key properties of a described system allows making justified predictions about future population development. This information can be of vital importance in all areas of research, ranging from cell growth to global demography. Here, we use this connection between theory and observation to pose the following question: what can we infer about intrinsic properties of a population (i.e., degree of heterogeneity, or dependence on external resources) based on which growth function best fits its growth dynamics? We investigate several nonstandard classes of multi-phase growth curves that capture different stages of population growth; these models include hyperbolic-exponential, exponential-linear, exponential-linear-saturation growth patterns...
November 17, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150739/cell-therapy-in-stroke-cautious-steps-towards-a-clinical-treatment
#14
REVIEW
Olivier Detante, Keith Muir, Jukka Jolkkonen
In the future, stroke patients may receive stem cell therapy as this has the potential to restore lost functions. However, the development of clinically deliverable therapy has been slower and more challenging than expected. Despite recommendations by STAIR and STEPS consortiums, there remain flaws in experimental studies such as lack of animals with comorbidities, inconsistent approaches to experimental design, and concurrent rehabilitation that might lead to a bias towards positive results. Clinical studies have typically been small, lacking control groups as well as often without clear biological hypotheses to guide patient selection...
November 17, 2017: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150691/mechanical-regulation-of-organ-asymmetry-in-leaves
#15
Jiyan Qi, Binbin Wu, Shiliang Feng, Shouqin Lü, Chunmei Guan, Xiao Zhang, Dengli Qiu, Yingchun Hu, Yihua Zhou, Chuanyou Li, Mian Long, Yuling Jiao
How appendages, such as plant leaves or animal limbs, develop asymmetric shapes remains a fundamental question in biology. Although ongoing research has revealed the genetic regulation of organ pattern formation, how gene activity ultimately directs organ shape remains unclear. Here, we show that leaf dorsoventral (adaxial-abaxial) polarity signals lead to mechanical heterogeneity of the cell wall, related to the methyl-esterification of cell-wall pectins in tomato and Arabidopsis. Numerical simulations predicate that mechanical heterogeneity is sufficient to produce the asymmetry seen in planar leaves...
September 2017: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150674/quantum-steerability-based-on-joint-measurability
#16
Zhihua Chen, Xiangjun Ye, Shao-Ming Fei
Occupying a position between entanglement and Bell nonlocality, Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering has attracted increasing attention in recent years. Many criteria have been proposed and experimentally implemented to characterize EPR-steering. Nevertheless, only a few results are available to quantify steerability using analytical results. In this work, we propose a method for quantifying the steerability in two-qubit quantum states in the two-setting EPR-steering scenario, using the connection between joint measurability and steerability...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150667/a-molecular-mechanism-of-symmetry-breaking-in-the-early-chick-embryo
#17
Clemente F Arias, Miguel A Herrero, Claudio D Stern, Federica Bertocchini
The first obvious sign of bilateral symmetry in mammalian and avian embryos is the appearance of the primitive streak in the future posterior region of a radially symmetric disc. The primitive streak marks the midline of the future embryo. The mechanisms responsible for positioning the primitive streak remain largely unknown. Here we combine experimental embryology and mathematical modelling to analyse the role of the TGFβ-related molecules BMP4 and Vg1/GDF1 in positioning the primitive streak. Bmp4 and Vg1 are first expressed throughout the embryo, and then become localised to the future anterior and posterior regions of the embryo, where they will, respectively, inhibit or induce formation of the primitive streak...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150649/non-empirical-atomistic-dipole-interaction-model-for-quantum-plasmon-simulation-of-nanoparticles
#18
Jaechang Lim, Sungwoo Kang, Jaewook Kim, Woo Youn Kim, Seol Ryu
Plasmonic nanoparticles in the quantum regime exhibit characteristic optical properties that cannot be described by classical theories. Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) is rising as a versatile tool for study on such systems, but its application has been limited to very small clusters due to rapidly growing computational costs. We propose an atomistic dipole-interaction-model for quantum plasmon simulations as a practical alternative. Namely the atomic dipole approximation represents induced dipoles with atomic polarizabilities obtained from TDDFT without empirical parameters...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150644/therapeutic-effects-of-hepatocyte-growth-factor-overexpressing-dental-pulp-stem-cells-on-liver-cirrhosis-in-a-rat-model
#19
Xiao-Fang Cao, Shi-Zhu Jin, Liang Sun, Yuan-Bo Zhan, Feng Lin, Ying Li, Ying-Lian Zhou, Xiu-Mei Wang, Li Gao, Bin Zhang
Cirrhosis is the terminal stage of hepatic diseases and is prone to develop into hepatocyte carcinoma. Increasing evidence suggests that the transplantation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) may promote recovery from cirrhosis, but the key regulatory mechanisms involved remain to be determined. In this study, we overexpressed human hepatocyte growth factor (hHGF) in primary rat DPSCs and evaluated the effects of HGF overexpression on the biological behaviors and therapeutic efficacy of grafted DPSCs in cirrhosis...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150630/inhibition-of-myeloid-differentiation-primary-response-protein-88-provides-neuroprotection-in-early-brain-injury-following-experimental-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#20
Huiying Yan, Dingding Zhang, Yongxiang Wei, Hongbin Ni, Weibang Liang, Huasheng Zhang, Shuangying Hao, Wei Jin, Kuanyu Li, Chun-Hua Hang
Accumulating of evidence suggests that activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) exacerbates early brain injury (EBI) following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) by provoking pro-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic signaling. Myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88 (MyD88) is an endogenous adaptor protein in the toll-like receptors (TLRs) and interleukin (IL) -1β family signaling pathways and acts as a bottle neck in the NF-κB and MAPK pathways. Here, we used ST2825, a selective inhibitor of MyD88, to clarify whether inhibiting MyD88 could provide neuroprotection in EBI following SAH...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
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