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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921033/new-tools-to-study-contact-activation
#1
Steffen Rosén
The recent availability of a sensitive chromogenic method approach for determination of FXIa activity has been explored for designing sensitive methods for FXIIa and kallikrein, both using FXa formation as the read-out. For both enzymes the assay range 1-10 nmol/L provides a resolution of about 0.8 absorbance units with a total assay time of about 20 min. For studies on activation kinetics, subsampling and extensive dilution can be performed in MES-bovine serum albumin (BSA) buffer pH 5.7 for quenching of enzyme activity and with ensuing determination of FXa generation in a chromogenic FXIa method...
2016: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895370/lower-red-cell-transfusion-rates-with-use-of-tranexamic-acid-in-single-stage-bilateral-total-knee-arthroplasty-a-retrospective-audit
#2
Muhammad Aziz, Salman Bin Mahmood, Riaz Hussain Lakdawala, Tashfeen Ahmad
Bilateral total knee arthroplasty (BTKA) patients may require blood transfusion which has its risks. Anti-fibrinolytic drugs such as aprotinin, aminocaproic acid and tranexamic acid (TXA) have reduced transfusion requirements in major surgery. This retrospective audit was performed to assess effectiveness of TXA in reducing blood transfusion rate in single-stage sequential BTKA cases operated by a single surgeon. Records of 91 patients given TXA and 80 controls who were operated before 2012 and not given TXA were reviewed...
October 2016: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797450/s2-subsite-variations-between-human-and-mouse-enzymes-plasmin-factor-xia-kallikrein-elucidate-inhibition-differences-by-tfpi-2-domain1-wildtype-leu17arg-mutant-and-aprotinin
#3
K Vadivel, Y Kumar, G I Ogueli, S M Ponnuraj, P Wongkongkathep, J A Loo, M S Bajaj, S P Bajaj
BACKGROUND: Using TFPI-2 Kunitz domain1 (KD1), we obtained a bifunctional antifibrinolytic molecule (KD1L17R -KT ) with C-terminal lysine (kringle domain binding) and P2'-residue arginine (improved specificity towards plasmin). KD1L17R -KT strongly inhibited human plasmin (hPm), with no inhibition of human kallikrein (hKLK) or factor XIa (hXIa). Furthermore, KD1L17R -KT reduced blood loss comparable to aprotinin in a mouse liver-laceration model of organ hemorrhage. However, effectiveness of these antifibrinolytic agents in a model of hemorrhage mimicking extremity trauma and their inhibition efficiencies for mouse enzymes (mPm, mKLK or mXIa) remain to be determined...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27772757/recombinant-tissue-plasminogen-activator-enhances-microparticle-release-from-mouse-brain-derived-endothelial-cells-through-plasmin
#4
Marie Garraud, Kahina Khacef, Anne-Clémence Vion, Claire Leconte, Min Yin, Jean-Marie Renard, Catherine Marchand-Leroux, Chantal M Boulanger, Isabelle Margaill, Virginie Beray-Berthat
Thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) is currently the only approved pharmacological strategy for acute ischemic stroke. However, rt-PA exhibits vascular toxicity mainly due to endothelial damage. To investigate the mechanisms underlying rt-PA-induced endothelial alterations, we assessed the role of rt-PA in the generation of endothelial microparticles (EMPs), emerging biological markers and effectors of endothelial dysfunction. The mouse brain-derived endothelial cell line bEnd...
November 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749350/spine-surgery-and-blood-loss-systematic-review-of-clinical-evidence
#5
Dafna Willner, Valeria Spennati, Shelly Stohl, Giulia Tosti, Simone Aloisio, Federico Bilotta
Spine surgery has been growing rapidly as a neurosurgical operation, with an increase of 220% over a 15-year period. Intraoperative blood transfusion is a major outcome determinant of spine procedures. Various approaches, including pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic therapies, have been tested to decrease both intraoperative and postoperative blood loss. The aim of this systematic review is to report clinical evidence on the relationship between intraoperative blood loss (primary outcome) and on transfusion requirements and postoperative complications (secondary outcomes) in patients undergoing spine surgery...
November 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27705885/annals-express-the-pre-analytical-stability-of-glucagon-as-measured-by-lc-ms-ms-and-two-commercially-available-immunoassays
#6
Jaimini Cegla, Ben Jones, James Howard, Richard Kay, Colin S Creaser, Stephen R Bloom, Tricia Tan
BACKGROUND: One of the main challenges in the measurement of glucagon is the premise that it is unstable in human plasma. Traditionally, protease inhibitors have been used to prevent its degradation, however, their use is controversial. Here we investigated the optimal method of sample collection for glucagon, with measurement by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and two commercially available immunoassays. METHODS: Blood from healthy fasting volunteers (n=10) was processed under a variety of pre-analytical condition including collection in EDTA vs lithium heparin tubes and the addition of aprotinin and/or a DPPIV inhibitor...
October 4, 2016: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704740/correlation-of-glypican-4-level-with-basal-active-glucagon-like-peptide-1-level-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#7
Sang Ah Lee, Gwanpyo Koh, Suk Ju Cho, So Yeon Yoo, Sang Ouk Chin
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported that glypican-4 (GPC4) regulates insulin signaling by interacting with insulin receptor and through adipocyte differentiation. However, GPC4 has not been studied with regard to its effects on clinical factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We aimed to identify factors associated with GPC4 level in T2DM. METHODS: Between January 2010 and December 2013, we selected 152 subjects with T2DM and collected serum and plasma into tubes pretreated with aprotinin and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor to preserve active gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1)...
September 2016: Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693206/randomized-evidence-for-reduction-of-perioperative-mortality-an-updated-consensus-process
#8
Giovanni Landoni, Antonio Pisano, Vladimir Lomivorotov, Gabriele Alvaro, Ludhmila Hajjar, Gianluca Paternoster, Caetano Nigro Neto, Nicola Latronico, Evgeny Fominskiy, Laura Pasin, Gabriele Finco, Rosetta Lobreglio, Maria Luisa Azzolini, Giuseppe Buscaglia, Alberto Castella, Marco Comis, Adele Conte, Massimiliano Conte, Francesco Corradi, Erika Dal Checco, Giovanni De Vuono, Marco Ganzaroli, Eugenio Garofalo, Gordana Gazivoda, Rosalba Lembo, Daniele Marianello, Martina Baiardo Redaelli, Fabrizio Monaco, Valentina Tarzia, Marta Mucchetti, Alessandro Belletti, Paolo Mura, Mario Musu, Giovanni Pala, Massimiliano Paltenghi, Vadim Pasyuga, Desiderio Piras, Claudio Riefolo, Agostino Roasio, Laura Ruggeri, Francesco Santini, Andrea Székely, Luigi Verniero, Antonella Vezzani, Alberto Zangrillo, Rinaldo Bellomo
OBJECTIVE: Of the 230 million patients undergoing major surgical procedures every year, more than 1 million will die within 30 days. Thus, any nonsurgical interventions that help reduce perioperative mortality might save thousands of lives. The authors have updated a previous consensus process to identify all the nonsurgical interventions, supported by randomized evidence, that may help reduce perioperative mortality. DESIGN AND SETTING: A web-based international consensus conference...
August 2, 2016: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677178/plasmin-a-modulator-of-immune-function
#9
Dominik F Draxler, Maithili Sashindranath, Robert L Medcalf
Plasmin is the effector protease of the fibrinolytic system, well known for its involvement in fibrin degradation and clot removal. However, plasmin is also recognized as a potent modulator of immunological processes by directly interacting with various cell types including leukocytes (monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells) and cells of the vasculature (endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells) as well as soluble factors of the immune system and components of the extracellular matrix. In fact, the removal of misfolded proteins and maintenance of tissue homeostasis seem to be major physiological functions of plasmin...
September 27, 2016: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671279/efficacy-of-antifibrinolytic-agents-on-surgical-bleeding-and-transfusion-requirements-in-spine-surgery-a-meta-analysis
#10
Guang Li, Tian-Wei Sun, Gan Luo, Chao Zhang
PURPOSE: Spine surgery is usually associated with large amount of blood loss and blood transfusion. Excessive blood loss may cause hypotension, inadequate oxygenation of organs, necessitate allogeneic blood transfusion, and spinal epidural hematoma formation. Aprotinin, TXA, and EACA are antifibrinolytics currently offered as prophylactic agents to reduce surgery-associated blood loss. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of using antifibrinolytic agents in reducing blood loss and blood transfusions in spine surgery...
September 26, 2016: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643712/antifibrinolytic-agents-for-reducing-blood-loss-in-scoliosis-surgery-in-children
#11
Ewan D McNicol, Aikaterini Tzortzopoulou, Roman Schumann, Daniel B Carr, Aman Kalra
BACKGROUND: This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review first published in 2008. Scoliosis surgery is often associated with substantial blood loss and potentially detrimental effects in children. Antifibrinolytic agents are often used to reduce perioperative blood loss. Clinical trials have evaluated their efficacy in children undergoing surgical correction of scoliosis, but no systematic review has been published. This review was first published in 2008 and was updated in 2016...
September 19, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642126/biochemical-characterization-of-a-novel-fibrinolytic-enzyme-from-cordyceps-militaris
#12
Xiaolan Liu, Narasimha-Kumar Kopparapu, Yao Li, Yongping Deng, Xiqun Zheng
A fibrinolytic enzyme was produced by the medicinal mushroom, Cordyceps militaris using submerged fermentation. The enzyme was purified from culture supernatant by hydrophobic interaction, ion exchange and gel filtration chromatographies. It was purified by 36 fold, with a specific activity of 1,467.4U/mg protein and the final yield was 5.8%. The molecular weight of the enzyme as determined by SDS-PAGE and gel filtration was 28kDa and 24.5kDa, respectively, and its isoelectric point (pI) was 9.0±0.2. It was found to be a glycoprotein with carbohydrate content of 1...
September 15, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27593170/the-effectiveness-of-temperature-versus-aprotinin-in-maintaining-the-preanalytical-stability-of-adrenocorticotrophin
#13
Hakan Turkon, Burak Toprak, Hulya Yalcin, Ayfer Colak, Nurinnisa Ozturk
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of temperature and protease inhibitor on adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH) stability. METHODS: We collected blood specimens from 10 donors into K3 EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) and K3 EDTA + aprotinin tubes. Plasma specimens were held at room temperature and at 2 °C to 8[Formula: see text] for 0, 2, 4, 8, 24, and 72 hours. ACTH concentrations in 4 storage conditions were compared with repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) at each time point...
November 2016: Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27477877/use-of-an-absorbable-embolization-material-for-reversible-portal-vein-embolization-in-an-experimental-model
#14
P B Olthof, F Huisman, R F van Golen, K P Cieslak, K P van Lienden, T Plug, J C M Meijers, M Heger, J Verheij, T M van Gulik
BACKGROUND: Portal vein embolization (PVE) is used to increase future remnant liver size in patients requiring major hepatic resection. PVE using permanent embolization, however, predisposes to complications and excludes the use of PVE in living donor liver transplantation. In the present study, an absorbable embolization material containing fibrin glue and different concentrations of the fibrinolysis inhibitor aprotinin was used in an experimental animal model. METHODS: PVE of the cranial liver lobes was performed in 30 New Zealand White rabbits, which were divided into five groups, fibrin glue + 1000, 700, 500, 300 or 150 kunits/ml aprotinin, and were compared with a previous series of permanent embolization using the same experimental set-up...
September 2016: British Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27468495/-infusion-therapy-in-reconstructive-maxillofacial-surgery
#15
Zajcev A Yu, K V Dubrovin, V A Svetlov
UNLABELLED: Restricted infusion strategy in combination with antifibrinolytic agents such as aprotinin and tranexamic acid is effective for blood saving in maxillofacial surgery. But reduction of infusion volume can lead to intraoperative hypovolemia. The goal of this study was to assess compensative effect of different regimes of infusion therapy and antifibrinolytics on intraoperative volume status and electrolyte balance in reconstructive maxillofacial surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 65 patients were included in the study...
March 2016: Anesteziologiia i Reanimatologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27468462/captopril-augments-acetylcholine-induced-bronchial-smooth-muscle-contractions-in-vitro-via-kinin-dependent-mechanisms
#16
Naman Agrawal, Aparna Akella, Shripad B Deshpande
Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors therapy is aassociated with bothersome dry cough as an adverse effect. The mechanisms underlying this adverse effect are not clear. Therefore, influence of captopril (an ACE inhibitor) on acetylcholine (ACh)-induced bronchial smooth muscle contractions was investigated. Further, the mechanisms underlying the captopril-induced changes were also explored. In vitro contractions of rat bronchial smooth muscle to cumulative concentrations of ACh were recorded before and after exposure to captopril...
June 2016: Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27463548/influence-of-storage-conditions-on-in-vitro-stability-of-atrial-natriuretic-peptide-and-of-anesthesia-on-plasma-atrial-natriuretic-peptide-concentration-in-cats
#17
Yasuhiro Heishima, Yasutomo Hori, Seishiro Chikazawa, Kazutaka Kanai, Fumio Hoshi, Naoyuki Itoh
OBJECTIVE To investigate the in vitro stability of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in plasma samples under various storage conditions and the influence of anesthesia on plasma ANP concentration in cats. ANIMALS 1 cat with congestive heart failure and 5 healthy adult mixed-breed cats. PROCEDURES A plasma sample from the cat with heart failure was serially diluted, and dilutional parallelism of ANP concentration was evaluated. Plasma samples containing aprotinin or serum samples from the 5 healthy cats were kept at room temperature (27°C) for ≤ 12 hours...
August 2016: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27329933/the-role-of-myoglobin-degradation-in-nephrotoxicity-after-rhabdomyolysis
#18
Ljubava D Zorova, Irina B Pevzner, Anastasia A Chupyrkina, Savva D Zorov, Denis N Silachev, Egor Y Plotnikov, Dmitry B Zorov
The fate of myoglobin in renal cells was explored in an animal model of rhabdomyolysis known as the pathology highly related to oxidative stress resulting in impairment of renal functioning. The working hypothesis was that the proper degradation of myoglobin in rhabdomyolytic kidney can activate the reparative processes in the tissue. We found that incubation of myoglobin with kidney cells causes its accumulation in the cytoplasm. In rhabdomyolytic rats, the level of heme and free iron in cytoplasm and mitochondria of kidney cells is remarkably increased while inhibition of proteolysis results in further elevation of myoglobin content in the renal tissue...
August 25, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27280436/optimization-of-cyclic-plasmin-inhibitors-from-benzamidines-to-benzylamines
#19
Stefan Hinkes, André Wuttke, Sebastian M Saupe, Teodora Ivanova, Sebastian Wagner, Anna Knörlein, Andreas Heine, Gerhard Klebe, Torsten Steinmetzer
New macrocyclic plasmin inhibitors based on our previously optimized P2-P3 core segment have been developed. In the first series, the P4 residue was modified, whereas the 4-amidinobenzylamide in P1 position was maintained. The originally used P4 benzylsulfonyl residue could be replaced by various sulfonyl- or urethane-like protecting groups. In the second series, the P1 benzamidine was modified and a strong potency and excellent selectivity was retained by incorporation of p-xylenediamine. Several analogues inhibit plasmin in the subnanomolar range, and their potency against related trypsin-like serine proteases including trypsin itself could be further reduced...
July 14, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27254642/pharmacologic-strategies-to-prevent-blood-loss-and-transfusion-in-orthotopic-liver-transplantation
#20
Sarah Tischer, James T Miller
Patients undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation are at risk of both life-threatening blood loss and thrombosis due to preexisting liver dysfunction and major intra- and postoperative coagulopathy. Traditional laboratory markers of hemostasis and coagulopathy are often inadequate to describe the alterations. Whole blood global viscoelastic tests, thromboelastography, and thromboelastometry may provide more complete pictures of the hematologic derangements and allow for more targeted therapy to prevent blood loss and massive transfusion...
July 2016: Critical Care Nursing Quarterly
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