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Aprotinin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818113/respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-entry-is-inhibited-by-serine-protease-inhibitor-aebsf-when-present-during-an-early-stage-of-infection
#1
Winke Van der Gucht, Annelies Leemans, Marjorie De Schryver, Annick Heykers, Guy Caljon, Louis Maes, Paul Cos, Peter L Delputte
BACKGROUND: Host proteases have been shown to play important roles in many viral activities such as entry, uncoating, viral protein production and disease induction. Therefore, these cellular proteases are putative targets for the development of antivirals that inhibit their activity. Host proteases have been described to play essential roles in Ebola, HCV, HIV and influenza, such that specific protease inhibitors are able to reduce infection. RSV utilizes a host protease in its replication cycle but its potential as antiviral target is unknown...
August 17, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798096/activation-of-tissue-plasminogen-activator-by-metastasis-inducing-s100p-protein
#2
Christopher Clarke, Stephane R Gross, Thamir M Ismail, Philip S Rudland, Morteta Al-Medhtiy, Michael Santangeli, Roger Barraclough
S100P protein in human breast cancer cells is associated with reduced patient survival and, in a model system of metastasis, it confers a metastatic phenotype upon benign mammary tumour cells. S100P protein possesses a C-terminal lysine residue. Using a multiwell in vitro assay, S100P is now shown for the first time to exhibit a strong, C-terminal-lysine-dependent activation of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), but not of urokinase-catalysed plasminogen activation.  The presence of 10 mM calcium ions stimulates tPA activation of plasminogen 2-fold in an S100P-dependent manner...
August 10, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762531/purification-and-characterization-of-trypsin-produced-by-gut-bacteria-from-anticarsia-gemmatalis
#3
Franciny Martins Pilon, Camila da Rocha Silva, Liliane Evangelista Visôtto, Rafael de Almeida Barros, Neilier Rodrigues da Silva Júnior, Wellington Garcia Campos, Maria Goreti de Almeida Oliveira
Purification of active trypsin in the digestive process of insects is essential for the development of potent protease inhibitors (PIs) as an emerging pest control technology and research into insect adaptations to dietary PIs. An important aspect is the presence of proteolytic microorganisms, which contribute to host nutrition. Here, we purified trypsins produced by bacteria Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus mundtii, Enterococcus gallinarum, and Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from the midgut of Anticarsia gemmatalis...
August 1, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754559/enzymatic-cleavage-promotes-disassembly-of-gii-3-norovirus-virus-like-particles-and-its-binding-to-salivary-histo-blood-group-antigens
#4
Yuqi Huo, Wenhui Wang, Lijun Zheng, Xuhui Chen, Shuo Shen, Mingchen Wang
In this study, we found that addition of fecal extract significantly promoted the binding of GII.3 NoV VLPs to salivary HBGAs. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that major capsid proteins (VP1) were cleaved into two major bands with molecular weights of 26 and 31kD, respectively. Pretreatment of fecal extract by boiling or addition of protease inhibitor cocktail or type specific protease inhibitor (leupeptin and aprotinin) during incubation all decreased VP1 cleavage and its binding to salivary HBGAs. Trypsin digestion led to cleavage of VP1 and promoted its binding to HBGAs, suggesting that the active enzyme(s) might be trypsin or trypsin-like enzymes...
July 25, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694438/stress-induces-more-serious-barrier-dysfunction-in-follicle-associated-epithelium-than-villus-epithelium-involving-mast-cells-and-protease-activated-receptor-2
#5
Lei Zhang, Jun Song, Tao Bai, Wei Qian, Xiao-Hua Hou
Psychological stress has been associated with intestinal epithelial hyperpermeability, the basic process in various functional and organic bowel diseases. In the present study, we aimed to clarify the differences and underlining mechanisms in stress-induced barrier disruption in functionally and structurally distinct epitheliums, including the villus epithelium (VE) and follicle-associated epithelium (FAE), a specialized epithelium overlaid the domes of Peyer's lymphoid follicles. Employing an Ussing Chamber system, the epithelial permeability was assessed in rats following water avoidance stress (WAS) in vivo and in mucosa tissues exposed to corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) ex vivo...
July 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691229/desmopressin-use-for-minimising-perioperative-blood-transfusion
#6
REVIEW
Michael J Desborough, Kathryn Oakland, Charlotte Brierley, Sean Bennett, Carolyn Doree, Marialena Trivella, Sally Hopewell, Simon J Stanworth, Lise J Estcourt
BACKGROUND: Blood transfusion is administered during many types of surgery, but its efficacy and safety are increasingly questioned. Evaluation of the efficacy of agents, such as desmopressin (DDAVP; 1-deamino-8-D-arginine-vasopressin), that may reduce perioperative blood loss is needed. OBJECTIVES: To examine the evidence for the efficacy of DDAVP in reducing perioperative blood loss and the need for red cell transfusion in people who do not have inherited bleeding disorders...
July 10, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678070/tranexamic-acid-does-not-influence-cardioprotection-by-ischemic-preconditioning-and-remote-ischemic-preconditioning
#7
Patrick van Caster, Sandra Eiling, Yvonne Boekholt, Friederike Behmenburg, Marianne Dorsch, André Heinen, Markus W Hollmann, Ragnar Huhn
Prior studies have suggested that the antifibrinolytic drug aprotinin increases the infarct size after ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) and attenuates the effect of ischemic preconditioning (IPC). Aprotinin was replaced by tranexamic acid (TXA) in clinical practice. Here, we investigated whether TXA influences I/R injury and/or cardioprotection initiated by IPC and/or remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC). Anesthetized male Wistar rats were randomized to 6 groups. Control animals were not further treated. Administration of TXA was combined with and without IPC and RIPC...
July 1, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648705/an-aprotinin-containing-fibrin-sealant-does-not-reduce-blood-loss-in-total-hip-arthroplasty
#8
Sean M Kearns, Hannah N Kuhar, Daniel D Bohl, Brett R Levine
BACKGROUND: Fibrin sealants are topical agents used to reduce perioperative blood loss; however, their efficacy in total hip arthroplasty (THA) remains uncertain. The purpose of this study was to determine if a fibrin sealant containing aprotinin as an antifibrinolytic agent, TISSEEL (Baxter, Deerfield, IL), reduces postoperative blood loss and transfusion during THA when compared with intravenous (IV) tranexamic acid (TXA) and control groups. METHODS: Three retrospective uniform cohorts of primary THA procedures were identified, from a prospectively maintained database: 1 group who received TISSEEL, 1 group who received 1 g IV TXA, and 1 group who received neither (control)...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630289/green-mamba-peptide-targets-type-2-vasopressin-receptor-against-polycystic-kidney-disease
#9
Justyna Ciolek, Helen Reinfrank, Loïc Quinton, Say Viengchareun, Enrico A Stura, Laura Vera, Sabrina Sigismeau, Bernard Mouillac, Hélène Orcel, Steve Peigneur, Jan Tytgat, Laura Droctové, Fabrice Beau, Jerome Nevoux, Marc Lombès, Gilles Mourier, Edwin De Pauw, Denis Servent, Christiane Mendre, Ralph Witzgall, Nicolas Gilles
Polycystic kidney diseases (PKDs) are genetic disorders that can cause renal failure and death in children and adults. Lowering cAMP in cystic tissues through the inhibition of the type-2 vasopressin receptor (V2R) constitutes a validated strategy to reduce disease progression. We identified a peptide from green mamba venom that exhibits nanomolar affinity for the V2R without any activity on 155 other G-protein-coupled receptors or on 15 ionic channels. Mambaquaretin-1 is a full antagonist of the V2R activation pathways studied: cAMP production, beta-arrestin interaction, and MAP kinase activity...
July 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625450/vasoplegic-syndrome-an-update-on-perioperative-considerations
#10
REVIEW
Henry Liu, Ling Yu, Longqiu Yang, Michael S Green
Vasoplegic syndrome (VS) is increasingly recognized as an important clinical entity in perioperative medicine. VS is characterized by significant arterial hypotension, normal or high cardiac output, low systemic vascular resistance, and increased requirements for intravenous volume and vasopressors. Tremendous variations exist regarding incidence reported in the literature and management at different institutions; and the incidence of VS is likely significantly higher than many anesthesiologists believe. Thus the aims of this article are to review the pertinent aspects related to VS and alert clinical anesthesiologists to this under-recognized yet very challenging clinical condition...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472911/formulation-optimization-of-human-insulin-loaded-microspheres-for-controlled-oral-delivery-using-response-surface-methodology
#11
Gaurav Agrawal, Pravin Wakte, Santosh Shelke
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the present investigation were to prepare recombinant human insulin entrapped Eudragit-S100 microspheres containing protease inhibitors and to precisely analyze the outcome of different formulation variables on the microspheres properties using a response surface methodology to develop an optimized formulation with desirable features. METHODS: A central composite design was employed to produce microspheres of therapeutic protein by w/o/w multiple emulsion solvent evaporation technique using Eudragit S-100 as coating material and polyvinyl alcohol as a stabilizer...
May 3, 2017: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460544/pulmonary-vascular-resistance-index-during-coronary-artery-bypass-surgery-with-aprotinin
#12
Vesa Toikkanen, Timo Rinne, Jari Laurikka, Helena Porkkala, Matti Tarkka, Ari Mennander
Low pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRI) reflects favorable redundant pulmonary circulation following coronary artery bypass grafting with cardiopulmonary bypass surgery (CPB). This randomized study investigated whether aprotinin given in different modalities impacts PVRI after coronary artery bypass grafting. A total of 40 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting were randomized to four groups according to aprotinin dose: (1) high dose, (2) early low dose, (3) late low dose, and (4) without aprotinin...
May 2, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431202/pharmacological-interventions-for-acute-pancreatitis
#13
REVIEW
Elisabetta Moggia, Rahul Koti, Ajay P Belgaumkar, Federico Fazio, Stephen P Pereira, Brian R Davidson, Kurinchi Selvan Gurusamy
BACKGROUND: In people with acute pancreatitis, it is unclear what the role should be for medical treatment as an addition to supportive care such as fluid and electrolyte balance and organ support in people with organ failure. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of different pharmacological interventions in people with acute pancreatitis. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, 2016, Issue 9), MEDLINE, Embase, Science Citation Index Expanded, and trial registers to October 2016 to identify randomised controlled trials (RCTs)...
April 21, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366297/aprotinin-as-an-alternative-to-tranexamic-acid-in-cardiac-surgery-is-this-where-we-started-from
#14
EDITORIAL
Anne Godier, Beverley J Hunt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Anaesthesia, Critical Care & Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363354/management-of-major-bleeding-in-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation-treated-with-non-vitamin-k-antagonist-oral-anticoagulants-compared-with-warfarin-in-clinical-practice-from-phase-ii-of-the-outcomes-registry-for-better-informed-treatment-of-atrial-fibrillation
#15
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Benjamin A Steinberg, DaJuanicia N Simon, Laine Thomas, Jack Ansell, Gregg C Fonarow, Bernard J Gersh, Peter R Kowey, Kenneth W Mahaffey, Eric D Peterson, Jonathan P Piccini
Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are effective at preventing stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). However, little is known about the management of bleeding in contemporary, clinical use of NOACs. We aimed to assess the frequency, management, and outcomes of major bleeding in the setting of community use of NOACs. Using the Outcomes Registry for Better Informed Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation II registry, we analyzed rates of International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis major bleeding and subsequent outcomes in patients treated with NOACs versus warfarin...
May 15, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298600/dengue-virus-ns2b-ns3-protease-inhibitors-exploiting-the-prime-side
#16
Kuan-Hung Lin, Akbar Ali, Linah Rusere, Djade I Soumana, Nese Kurt Yilmaz, Celia A Schiffer
The mosquito-transmitted dengue virus (DENV) infects millions of people in tropical and subtropical regions. Maturation of DENV particles requires proper cleavage of the viral polyprotein, including processing of 8 of the 13 substrate cleavage sites by dengue virus NS2B/NS3 protease. With no available direct-acting antiviral targeting DENV, NS2/NS3 protease is a promising target for inhibitor design. Current design efforts focus on the nonprime side of the DENV protease active site, resulting in highly hydrophilic and nonspecific scaffolds...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263046/seizures-associated-with-tranexamic-acid-for-cardiac-surgery-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-and-non-randomized-studies
#17
Hisato Takagi, Tomo Ando, Takuya Umemoto
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess whether tranexamic acid (TXA) therapy for adult cardiac surgery is associated with an increase in the risk of seizures, and we performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-randomized observational studies. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched through December 2016 using PubMed and OVID. Eligible studies were RCTs and non-randomized observational studies on TXA versus control (no TXA, placebo, or active control such as low-dose TXA, aprotinin, and epsilon aminocaproic acid) enrolling adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery and reporting the postoperative incidence of seizures as an outcome...
August 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221207/aprotinin-vs-tranexamic-acid-in-isolated-coronary-artery-bypass-surgery-a-multicentre-observational-study
#18
Elsa Deloge, Julien Amour, Sophie Provenchère, Bertrand Rozec, Bruno Scherrer, Alexandre Ouattara
BACKGROUND: Aprotinin appears to be more efficacious than lysine analogues to reduce bleeding and transfusion of blood products in high-transfusion-risk cardiac surgical patients. However, in isolated coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery, the results from head-to-head trials remain less conclusive. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to compare the efficacies and safety of aprotinin and tranexamic acid (TXA) in patients undergoing isolated on-pump CABG. DESIGN: A multicentre before-and-after study pooling individual data from published trials and unpublished data from three other databases...
May 2017: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215980/a-special-article-following-the-relicence-of-aprotinin-injection-in-europe
#19
David Royston, Stefan De Hert, Jan van der Linden, Alexandre Ouattara, Kai Zacharowski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Anaesthesia, Critical Care & Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166379/reference-values-for-rotational-thromboelastometry-rotem-in-clinically-healthy-cats
#20
Charlotte Marly-Voquer, Barbara Riond, Rahel Jud Schefer, Annette P N Kutter
OBJECTIVE: To establish reference intervals for rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) using feline blood. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: University teaching hospital. ANIMALS: Twenty-three clinically healthy cats between 1 and 15 years. INTERVENTION: For each cat, whole blood was collected via jugular or medial saphenous venipuncture, and blood was placed into a serum tube, a tube containing potassium-EDTA, and tubes containing 3...
March 2017: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
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