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Auditory head injury

Justin E R E Wong Chung, Desderius C Chussi, Niels van Heerbeek
BACKGROUND: The auricles are easily injured or amputated in case of head trauma. Inadequate treatment of the external auditory canal (EAC) after auricular injury is often seen and can lead to significant complications of the EAC. CASE REPORT: The authors report 4 cases of auricular injury or amputations. In all patients inadequate first treatment led to stenosis of the EAC. Three patients required recanalization of the EAC because of hearing loss and the risk of further complications...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Sohum K Desai, Da'Marcus Baymon, Eric Sieloff, Kenneth Maynard, Marc Moisi, Achal P Patel, Joel T Patterson
AIMS: Lateral transtemporal approaches are useful for addressing lesions located ventral to the brainstem, especially when the pathologic diagnosis of the tumor dictates that a gross or near total resection improves outcomes. One approach, the presigmoid approach receives little attention in the pediatric population thus far. We sought to characterize morphometric changes, particularly the clival depth and the petroclival Cobb angle, that occur in the temporal bones of children and draw implications about doing a presigmoid approach in children...
April 2016: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
Stephanie M Beeman, Andrew R Kemper, Stefan M Duma
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to quantify the effects of active muscles (e.g. conscious bracing, resting tone, and reflex response) and acceleration severity on the neck forces and moments generated during low-speed frontal sled tests with adult male human volunteers and post mortem human surrogates (PMHSs). METHODS: A total of 24 frontal sled tests were analyzed including male volunteers of approximately 50th percentile height and weight (n = 5) and PMHSs (n = 2)...
September 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
S D Schubl, T R Klein, R J Robitsek, S Trepeta, K Fretwell, D Seidman, M Gottlieb
BACKGROUND: Temporal bone fractures (TBFs) are harbingers of high energy head trauma that can result in a variety of significant complications of the auditory, vestibular, nervous, and vascular systems. Multiple cohort studies have identified the incidence and proper evaluation of these fractures. We hypothesize that these have changed with the advent of modern high resolution computer tomography (CT) imaging. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of all TBFs admitted to an urban level one trauma center between June 1, 2011 and May 31, 2015...
September 2016: Injury
Štěpánka Kučerová, Petr Hejna, Martin Dobiáš
The otoscopy is an examination of the external auditory canal, the eardrum, and the middle ear with an instrument called an otoscope. It is a simple, inexpensive, and time-saving endoscopic method typically used by general practitioners and otorhinolaryngologists. Authors present a prospective study of otoscopic findings investigated consecutively at autopsy. Of the 250 examined persons, 50 positive findings were identified: 38 cases with petechial hemorrhages and 12 cases with tympanic membrane perforation or hemotympanon...
2016: Soudní Lékarství
Serena Vanzan, David Wilkinson, Heather Ferguson, Patrick Pullicino, Mohamed Sakel
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether caloric vestibular stimulation, a non-invasive form of neuro-modulation, alters the level of awareness in people residing in a minimally conscious state. DESIGN: Single-case (n = 2), prospective, controlled (ABAB) efficacy study. SETTING: Tertiary, neuro-rehabilitation inpatient ward within a university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Two individuals in a minimally conscious state. INTERVENTION: Left ear caloric vestibular stimulation was performed in two four/five-week blocks interleaved with two four/five-week blocks of sham stimulation...
April 27, 2016: Clinical Rehabilitation
Judith Kempfle, Elliott D Kozin, Aaron K Remenschneider, Andreas Eckhard, Albert Edge, Daniel J Lee
Contemporary operative approaches to the internal auditory canal (IAC) require the creation of large surgical portals for visualization with associated morbidity, including hearing loss, vestibular dysfunction, facial nerve injury, and skull base defects that increase the risk of cerebrospinal fluid leak. Transcanal approaches to the IAC have been possible only via a transcochlear technique. To preserve cochlear function, we describe a novel endoscopic transcanal infracochlear approach to the IAC in cadaveric temporal bones...
May 2016: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Susan E Shore, Larry E Roberts, Berthold Langguth
Tinnitus is a phantom auditory sensation that reduces quality of life for millions of people worldwide, and for which there is no medical cure. Most cases of tinnitus are associated with hearing loss caused by ageing or noise exposure. Exposure to loud recreational sound is common among the young, and this group are at increasing risk of developing tinnitus. Head or neck injuries can also trigger the development of tinnitus, as altered somatosensory input can affect auditory pathways and lead to tinnitus or modulate its intensity...
March 2016: Nature Reviews. Neurology
SungHo Jang, SeongHo Kim, HanDo Lee
In this study, we attempted to demonstrate the change of the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS) concurrent with the recovery from a vegetative state (VS) to a minimally conscious state (MCS) in a patient with brain injury. A 54-year-old male patient had suffered from head trauma and underwent cardiopulmonary resuscitation immediately after head trauma. At 10 months after onset, the patient exhibited impaired consciousness, with a Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R) score of 7 (auditory function: 1, visual function: 2, motor function: 1, verbal function: 1, communication: 0, and arousal: 2) and underwent the ventriculoperitoneal shunt operation for hydrocephalus...
May 2016: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Rong Z Gan, Don Nakmali, Xiao D Ji, Kegan Leckness, Zachary Yokell
Mechanical damage to middle ear components in blast exposure directly causes hearing loss, and the rupture of the tympanic membrane (TM) is the most frequent injury of the ear. However, it is unclear how the severity of injury graded by different patterns of TM rupture is related to the overpressure waveforms induced by blast waves. In the present study, the relationship between the TM rupture threshold and the impulse or overpressure waveform has been investigated in chinchillas. Two groups of animals were exposed to blast overpressure simulated in our lab under two conditions: open field and shielded with a stainless steel cup covering the animal head...
January 22, 2016: Hearing Research
Arnaud P J Giese, Jess G Guarnaschelli, Jonette A Ward, Daniel I Choo, Saima Riazuddin, Zubair M Ahmed
Radiotherapy of individuals suffering with head & neck or brain tumors subserve the risk of sensorineural hearing loss. Here, we evaluated the protective effect of Aminothiol PrC-210 (3-(methyl-amino)-2-((methylamino)methyl)propane-1-thiol) on the irradiated inner ear of guinea pigs. An intra-peritoneal or intra-tympanic dose of PrC-210 was administered prior to receiving a dose of gamma radiation (3000 cGy) to each ear. Auditory Brainstem Responses (ABRs) were recorded one week and two weeks after the radiation and compared with the sham animal group...
2015: PloS One
Sophie J Taylor, Lynne A Barker, Lisa Heavey, Sue McHale
Our earlier work suggests that, executive functions and social cognition show protracted development into late adolescence and early adulthood (Taylor et al., 2013). However, it remains unknown whether these functions develop linearly or non-linearly corresponding to dynamic changes to white matter density at these age ranges. Executive functions are particularly in demand during the transition to independence and autonomy associated with this age range (Ahmed and Miller, 2011). Previous research examining executive function (Romine and Reynolds, 2005) and social cognition (Dumontheil et al...
2015: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Kim S Griswold, Paula A Del Regno, Roseanne C Berger
Psychosis is a symptom complex that may include hallucinations, delusions, disorders of thought, and disorganized speech or behavior. Acute psychosis is primary if it is symptomatic of a psychiatric disorder, or secondary if caused by a specific medical condition. Patients with primary psychiatric disorders are likely to have auditory hallucinations, prominent cognitive disorders, and complicated delusions. If psychosis is caused by a medical condition, the patient may exhibit cognitive changes and abnormal vital signs, and may have visual hallucinations...
June 15, 2015: American Family Physician
Zhihai Li, Zhiyi Cai, Jinyao Lv, Kaiyu Zhou, Qiaozhi Jin, Baohong Tao
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety of the circular round window and discus anatomic landmarks of posterior wall of internal auditory canal by investigating the microscopic anatomy of internal auditory canal area of the retrosigmold approach, which can provide the anatomical basis for acoustic neutrinomas surgery. METHOD: Fifteen adult cadaver heads (30 sides) fixed with formalin were used in the study. The retrosigmold approach operations were imitated to dissect the blood vessels and nerves in internal auditory canal area by opening round bony window and removing posterior wall of internal auditory canal...
February 2015: Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery
Jonathan P Miller, Jennifer A Sweet, Christopher M Bailey, Charles N Munyon, Hans O Luders, Philip S Fastenau
Memory loss after brain injury can be a source of considerable morbidity, but there are presently few therapeutic options for restoring memory function. We have previously demonstrated that burst stimulation of the fornix is able to significantly improve memory in a rodent model of traumatic brain injury. The present study is a preliminary investigation with a small group of cases to explore whether theta burst stimulation of the fornix might improve memory in humans. Four individuals undergoing stereo-electroencephalography evaluation for drug-resistant epilepsy were enrolled...
July 2015: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Qing Zhang, Xinda Xu, Min Xu, Juan Hu, Jianmin Liang, Kimitaka Kaga
OBJECTIVE: To observe the ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP) and the cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) in patients with vestibular diseases. METHOD: From March, 2011 to March, 2012, 13 patients (14 ears) with peripheral vestibular diseases were recruited. Each patient underwent conventional oVEMP and cVEMP examinations elicited by intensive air conducted sound (short tone burst, 500 Hz) in bilateral ears. RESULT: Thirteen cases (14 ears) were included in this study...
January 2015: Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery
Melissa C Lipford, David J Sandness, Erik K St Louis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2015: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
Hamed Shateri, Duane S Cronin
OBJECTIVE: Whiplash injuries can occur in automotive crashes and may cause long-term health issues such as neck pain, headache, and visual and auditory disturbance. Evidence suggests that nonneutral head posture can significantly increase the potential for injury in a given impact scenario, but epidemiological and experimental data are limited and do not provide a quantitative assessment of the increased potential for injury. Although there have been some attempts to evaluate this important issue using finite element models, none to date have successfully addressed this complex problem...
2015: Traffic Injury Prevention
J-C Cors, A D Gruber, R Günther, B Meyer-Kühling, K-H Esser, S Rautenschlein
Euthanasia of small numbers of birds in case of injury or other illness directly on the farm may be necessary for welfare reasons. This should be done without transportation of the moribund animals in order to minimize pain and distress. Blood loss has to be avoided to minimize the risk of contaminating the environment. Cervical dislocation in combination with a blunt trauma may be an appropriate way to achieve this aim but the bird's age and body weight may influence the practicability of this method in the field...
February 2015: Poultry Science
T Shah, G Verdile, H Sohrabi, A Campbell, E Putland, C Cheetham, S Dhaliwal, M Weinborn, P Maruff, D Darby, R N Martins
Physical exercise interventions and cognitive training programs have individually been reported to improve cognition in the healthy elderly population; however, the clinical significance of using a combined approach is currently lacking. This study evaluated whether physical activity (PA), computerized cognitive training and/or a combination of both could improve cognition. In this nonrandomized study, 224 healthy community-dwelling older adults (60-85 years) were assigned to 16 weeks home-based PA (n=64), computerized cognitive stimulation (n=62), a combination of both (combined, n=51) or a control group (n=47)...
2014: Translational Psychiatry
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