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Social cohesion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423116/-experiences-of-street-harassment-and-associations-with-perceptions-of-social-cohesion-among-women-in-mexico-city
#1
Paola A Campos, Kathryn L Falb, Sara Hernández, Claudia Díaz-Olavarrieta, Jhumka Gupta
Objective: To document the frequency and forms of street harassment and examine the association between street harassment experiences and perceptions of social cohesion. Materials and methods: Baseline survey data collected among women seeking care in public health clinics in Mexico City were used for analysis. Results: Nearly two-thirds (62.8%) of women reported experiencing some form of street harassment in the prior month; women with street harassment experiences reported significantly lower perceived social cohesion (b=-0...
January 2017: Salud Pública de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421014/group-rumination-social-interactions-around-music-in-people-with-depression
#2
Sandra Garrido, Tuomas Eerola, Katrina McFerran
One of the most important roles that music serves in human society is the promotion of social relationships and group cohesion. In general, emotional experiences tend to be amplified in group settings through processes of social feedback. However, previous research has established that listening to sad music can intensify negative emotions in people with tendencies to rumination and depression. This study therefore investigated the phenomenon of ruminating with music, and the question of whether listening to sad music in group settings provides social benefits for emotionally vulnerable listeners, or whether it further exaggerates depressive tendencies...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420452/fathering-moderates-the-effects-of-maternal-depression-on-the-family-process
#3
Adam Vakrat, Yael Apter-Levy, Ruth Feldman
Maternal depression negatively impacts children's development, yet few studies have focused on fathering and the family process in cases of maternal depression. A community cohort of married/cohabitating women was recruited on the second postbirth day (N = 1,983) and maternal depression repeatedly assessed across the first year and again at 6 years to form two cohorts: mothers chronically depressed from birth to 6 (N = 46) and nondepressed controls (N = 103). At 6 years, mother-child, father-child, and family interactions were observed...
April 19, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418198/stress-is-associated-with-an-increased-risk-of-recurrent-seizures-in-adults
#4
Elisa Baldin, W Allen Hauser, Alison Pack, Dale C Hesdorffer
OBJECTIVE: The literature is sparse on the complex interrelationships between stressors, depression, anxiety disorders, and epilepsy. We hypothesized that a relationship exists between stress and epilepsy. We evaluated whether markers of stress are associated with seizure recurrence in a low income community-based cohort of adults with single unprovoked seizure or newly diagnosed epilepsy. METHODS: We ascertained adult residents of Northern Manhattan and Harlem, New York City, with a first unprovoked seizure or newly diagnosed epilepsy, between December 2010 and January 2013...
April 18, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409485/cohesion-network-analysis-of-cscl-participation
#5
Mihai Dascalu, Danielle S McNamara, Stefan Trausan-Matu, Laura K Allen
The broad use of computer-supported collaborative-learning (CSCL) environments (e.g., instant messenger-chats, forums, blogs in online communities, and massive open online courses) calls for automated tools to support tutors in the time-consuming process of analyzing collaborative conversations. In this article, the authors propose and validate the cohesion network analysis (CNA) model, housed within the ReaderBench platform. CNA, grounded in theories of cohesion, dialogism, and polyphony, is similar to social network analysis (SNA), but it also considers text content and discourse structure and, uniquely, uses automated cohesion indices to generate the underlying discourse representation...
April 13, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404782/signatures-of-optimal-control-in-pairs-of-schooling-zebrafish
#6
Andress Laan, Raul Gil de Sagredo, Gonzalo G de Polavieja
Animals moving in groups coordinate their motion to remain cohesive. A large amount of data and analysis of movement coordination has been obtained in several species, but we are lacking theoretical frameworks that can derive the form of coordination rules. Here, we examine whether optimal control theory can predict the rules underlying social interactions from first principles. We find that a control rule which is designed to minimize the time it would take a pair of schooling fish to form a cohesively moving unit correctly predicts the characteristics of social interactions in fish...
April 12, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395037/moral-panic-and-social-justice-a-guide-for-analyzing-social-problems
#7
Michael H Eversman, Jason D P Bird
Professional social work has long been concerned with social justice, social policy, and the relationship between social treatment and social control. However, at times, potential threats to social cohesion become exaggerated in the service of supporting suppressive policies. British sociologist Stanley Cohen referred to such periods as moral panics, which assign unwarranted blame and stigma to sociopolitically weaker, unpopular groups. By constructing those associated with a given social problem as deviant and downplaying underlying structural causes, moral panics foster the enactment of social policies that entrench social disparity and injustice...
January 1, 2017: Social Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394059/cultural-minority-students-experiences-with-intercultural-competency-in-medical-education
#8
Hannah Leyerzapf, Tineke Abma
CONTEXT: Medical schools increasingly value and focus on teaching students intercultural competency within present-day multicultural society. Little is known about the experiences of cultural minority students in intercultural competence activities. OBJECTIVES: This article discusses the intercultural competence activities of medical education in a Dutch university from the perspective of cultural minority students. We will formulate recommendations for how to stimulate intercultural competency in, as well as inclusiveness of, medical education...
May 2017: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389844/neighbourhood-green-space-social-environment-and-mental-health-an-examination-in-four-european-cities
#9
Annemarie Ruijsbroek, Sigrid M Mohnen, Mariël Droomers, Hanneke Kruize, Christopher Gidlow, Regina Gražulevičiene, Sandra Andrusaityte, Jolanda Maas, Mark J Nieuwenhuijsen, Margarita Triguero-Mas, Daniel Masterson, Naomi Ellis, Elise van Kempen, Wim Hardyns, Karien Stronks, Peter P Groenewegen
OBJECTIVES: This study examines the relationship between neighbourhood green space, the neighbourhood social environment (social cohesion, neighbourhood attachment, social contacts), and mental health in four European cities. METHODS: The PHENOTYPE study was carried out in 2013 in Barcelona (Spain), Stoke-on-Trent (United Kingdom), Doetinchem (The Netherlands), and Kaunas (Lithuania). 3771 adults living in 124 neighbourhoods answered questions on mental health, neighbourhood social environment, and amount and quality of green space...
April 7, 2017: International Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379114/stress-of-home-life-and-gender-role-socializations-family-cohesion-and-symptoms-of-anxiety-and-depression
#10
Frederick Anyan, Odin Hjemdal
This cross-sectional study investigated the relation of sociocultural prescriptions of gender role socializations to differences in stress at home and to anxiety and depressive symptoms for adolescent girls and boys, with family cohesion as a mediator. A total of 244 boys and 285 girls aged 13-17 years recruited from Accra, Ghana completed the Short Mood Feeling Questionnaire, Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory, Stress of Home Life and Family Cohesion self-report scales in April, 2015. In each sample, two mediation analyses were conducted using Structural Equation Modelling...
April 5, 2017: Women & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373567/unraveling-the-disease-consequences-and-mechanisms-of-modular-structure-in-animal-social-networks
#11
Pratha Sah, Stephan T Leu, Paul C Cross, Peter J Hudson, Shweta Bansal
Disease risk is a potential cost of group living. Although modular organization is thought to reduce this cost in animal societies, empirical evidence toward this hypothesis has been conflicting. We analyzed empirical social networks from 43 animal species to motivate our study of the epidemiological consequences of modular structure in animal societies. From these empirical studies, we identified the features of interaction patterns associated with network modularity and developed a theoretical network model to investigate when and how subdivisions in social networks influence disease dynamics...
April 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372560/fish-sharing-as-a-risk-factor-for-opisthorchis-viverrini-infection-evidence-from-two-villages-in-north-eastern-thailand
#12
Parichat Saenna, Cameron Hurst, Pierre Echaubard, Bruce A Wilcox, Banchob Sripa
BACKGROUND: Foodborne trematodiasis (FBT) is a significant global health problem, with the liver flukes Opisthorchis viverrini, O. felineus, and Clonorchis sinensis contributing to half of the global burden of FBT. North-eastern Thailand where O. viverrini is endemic and un-cooked fish dishes remain an integral part of the food culture has the highest reported incidence of opisthorchiasis, including associated cholangiocarcinoma. Both food sharing and eating practices are potentially important factors in FTB, suggesting an important role for the social ecology of disease transmission in these rural communities...
April 4, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371952/-interrelations-of-objective-conditions-on-psychiatric-wards-and-ward-climate-characteristics
#13
Norbert Schalast, Julia Sieß
Objective Investigate inter-relations of objective conditions and a ward's social climate. Method Staff and patients on 104 wards filled in the short Essen Climate Evaluation Schema (EssenCES). Assessments were related to setting variables (like open vs. closed wards, forensic vs. general psychiatric wards, ward size, staffing). Results Setting variables and climate characteristics are strongly associated. Conclusions The EssenCES, originally catered for forensic settings, proved to be useful to characterize general psychiatric wards...
April 3, 2017: Psychiatrische Praxis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369434/social-skills-in-youth-with-spina-bifida-a-longitudinal-multimethod-investigation-comparing-biopsychosocial-predictors
#14
Christina E Holbein, James L Peugh, Grayson N Holmbeck
To examine the relative contributions of neuropsychological (attention and executive function), family (cohesion and conflict), and health (body mass index, lesion level, gross motor function) domains on social skills over time in youth with spina bifida (SB). In all, 140 youth with SB (T1 mean age = 11.43 years) and their families participated in the study at baseline with an additional visit 2 years later. Study variables were assessed with multiple methods (questionnaire, medical chart review, observation, neuropsychological tests) and reporters (parents, teachers)...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364474/the-neighborhood-social-environment-and-objective-measures-of-sleep-in-the-multi-ethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis
#15
Dayna A Johnson, Guido Simonelli, Kari Moore, Martha Billings, Mahasin S Mujahid, Michael Rueschman, Ichiro Kawachi, Susan Redline, Ana V Diez Roux, Sanjay R Patel
Study objectives: To investigate cross-sectional associations of neighborhood social environment (social cohesion, safety) with objective measures of sleep duration, timing, and disturbances. Methods: A racially/ethnically diverse population of men and women (N = 1949) aged 54 to 93 years participating in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Sleep and Neighborhood Ancillary studies. Participants underwent 1-week actigraphy between 2010 and 2013. Measures of sleep duration, timing, and disruption were averaged over all days...
January 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362064/leveraging-social-capital-multilevel-stigma-associated-hiv-vulnerabilities-and-social-resilience-strategies-among-transgender-women-in-lima-peru
#16
Amaya G Perez-Brumer, Sari L Reisner, Sarah A McLean, Alfonso Silva-Santisteban, Leyla Huerta, Kenneth H Mayer, Jorge Sanchez, Jesse L Clark, Matthew J Mimiaga, Javier R Lama
INTRODUCTION: In Peru, transgender women (TW) experience unique vulnerabilities for HIV infection due to factors that limit access to, and quality of, HIV prevention, treatment and care services. Yet, despite recent advances in understanding factors associated with HIV vulnerability among TW globally, limited scholarship has examined how Peruvian TW cope with this reality and how existing community-level resilience strategies are enacted despite pervasive social and economic exclusion facing the community...
February 27, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355643/regional-inequalities-in-self-reported-conditions-and-non-communicable-diseases-in-european-countries-findings-from-the-european-social-survey-2014-special-module-on-the-social-determinants-of-health
#17
Katie H Thomson, Ann-Christin Renneberg, Courtney L McNamara, Nasima Akhter, Nadine Reibling, Clare Bambra
Within the European Union (EU), substantial efforts are being made to achieve economic and social cohesion, and the reduction of health inequalities between EU regions is integral to this process. This paper is the first to examine how self-reported conditions and non-communicable diseases (NCDs) vary spatially between and within countries. : Using 2014 European Social Survey (ESS) data from 20 countries, this paper examines how regional inequalities in self-reported conditions and NCDs vary for men and women in 174 regions (levels 1 and 2 Nomenclature of Statistical Territorial Units, 'NUTS')...
February 1, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351425/assessing-the-psychometric-and-ecometric-properties-of-neighborhood-scales-using-adolescent-survey-data-from-urban-and-rural-scotland
#18
Gina Martin, Joanna Inchley, Gerry Humphris, Candace Currie
BACKGROUND: Despite the well-established need for specific measurement instruments to examine the relationship between neighborhood conditions and adolescent well-being outcomes, few studies have developed scales to measure features of the neighborhoods in which adolescents reside. Moreover, measures of neighborhood features may be operationalised differently by adolescents living in different levels of urban/rurality. This has not been addressed in previous studies. The objectives of this study were to: 1) establish instruments to measure adolescent neighborhood features at both the individual and neighborhood level, 2) assess their psychometric and ecometric properties, 3) test for invariance by urban/rurality, and 4) generate neighborhood level scores for use in further analysis...
March 28, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341623/twenty-miles-per-hour-speed-limits-a-sustainable-solution-to-public-health-problems-in-wales
#19
Sarah J Jones, Huw Brunt
BACKGROUND: Prevention, rather than treatment, is the key to longer healthier lives. Identifying interventions that will impact positively on road traffic injuries, air quality and encourage active travel is a significant public health challenge. This paper aimed to explore whether 20 mph limits could be useful in achieving this. METHODS: Research evidence was reviewed to identify the effect of 20 mph zones and limits on health and well-being. The evidence was then used to estimate the effect of a change to a 20 mph limit on road traffic casualties and air pollution...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334933/disrupted-in-schizophrenia-1is-essential-for-normal-hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal-hpi-axis-function
#20
Helen Eachus, Charlotte Bright, Vincent T Cunliffe, Marysia Placzek, Jonathan D Wood, Penelope J Watt
Psychiatric disorders arise due to an interplay of genetic and environmental factors, including stress. Studies in rodents have shown that mutants for Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia-1 (DISC1), a well-accepted genetic risk factor for mental illness, display abnormal behaviours in response to stress, but the mechanisms through which DISC1 affects stress responses remain poorly understood. Using two lines of zebrafish homozygous mutant for disc1, we investigated behaviour and functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis, the fish equivalent of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis...
March 1, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
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