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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535284/cumulative-effects-of-neighborhood-social-adversity-and-personal-crime-victimization-on-adolescent-psychotic-experiences
#1
Joanne Newbury, Louise Arseneault, Avshalom Caspi, Terrie E Moffitt, Candice L Odgers, Helen L Fisher
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the impact of urbanicity, adverse neighborhood conditions and violent crime victimization on the emergence of adolescent psychotic experiences. METHODS: Participants were from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally-representative cohort of 2232 British twins who were interviewed about adolescent psychotic experiences at age 18. Urbanicity, neighborhood characteristics, and personal victimization by violent crime were measured during childhood and adolescence via geocoded census data, surveys of over 5000 immediate neighbors of the E-Risk participants, and interviews with participants themselves...
May 22, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525801/social-and-built-environment-factors-related-to-children-s-independent-mobility-the-importance-of-neighbourhood-cohesion-and-connectedness
#2
En-Yi Lin, Karen Witten, Melody Oliver, Penelope Carroll, Lanuola Asiasiga, Hannah Badland, Karl Parker
This study examines aspects of neighbourhood social environments (namely, neighbourhood safety, cohesion and connection) and child-specific built environment attributes in relation to children's independent mobility. The results suggest that children aged 8-13 years with parents who perceive their neighbourhood as more cohesive and more connected, and are located closer to school, engaged in higher levels of independently mobile trips. The qualitative component of this research revealed that for NZ European, Māori, Samoan and other Pacific parents, 'people danger' was the most common concern for letting their children go out alone, whereas for Asian and Indian parents, 'traffic danger' was the most common reason for their concern...
May 17, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508069/high-predation-habitats-affect-the-social-dynamics-of-collective-exploration-in-a-shoaling-fish
#3
Christos C Ioannou, Indar W Ramnarine, Colin J Torney
Collective decisions play a major role in the benefits that animals gain from living in groups. Although the mechanisms of how groups collectively make decisions have been extensively researched, the response of within-group dynamics to ecological conditions is virtually unknown, despite adaptation to the environment being a cornerstone in biology. We investigate how within-group interactions during exploration of a novel environment are shaped by predation, a major influence on the behavior of prey species...
May 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501814/a-scoping-review-protocol-on-social-participation-of-indigenous-elders-intergenerational-solidarity-and-their-influence-on-individual-and-community-wellness
#4
Chantal Viscogliosi, Hugo Asselin, Suzy Basile, Yves Couturier, Marie-Josée Drolet, Dominique Gagnon, Jill Torrie, Mélanie Levasseur
INTRODUCTION: Indigenous elders have traditionally played an important role in maintaining social cohesion within their communities. Today, part of this role has been taken over by government social and healthcare services, but they are having limited success in addressing social challenges. Increasing elders' social participation and intergenerational solidarity might foster community development and benefit young people, families, communities and the elders themselves. However, knowledge of the contribution of elders' social participation and intergenerational solidarity to wellness is scattered and needs to be synthesised...
May 12, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484628/group-cohesion-in-foraging-meerkats-follow-the-moving-vocal-hot-spot
#5
Gabriella E C Gall, Marta B Manser
Group coordination, when 'on the move' or when visibility is low, is a challenge faced by many social living animals. While some animals manage to maintain cohesion solely through visual contact, the mechanism of group cohesion through other modes of communication, a necessity when visual contact is reduced, is not yet understood. Meerkats (Suricata suricatta), a small, social carnivore, forage as a cohesive group while moving continuously. While foraging, they frequently emit 'close calls', soft close-range contact calls...
April 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481712/respect-the-technique-status-based-respect-increases-minority-group-social-cohesion-with-majority-groups-while-also-increasing-minority-collective-action-tendencies
#6
Demis E Glasford, Brian Johnston
The present work explores the implications of respect for social change. Social change can be achieved via improved attitudes between minority and majority groups (i.e., social cohesion) or via action taken by minority groups (i.e., collective action). Recent work suggests that the social cohesion route to social change, in particular an emphasis on commonality, may be incompatible with the collective action route to social change. We suggest that social-cohesion strategies rooted in status-based respect may allow for social cohesion and collective action...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475962/neighborhood-social-environment-as-risk-factors-to-health-behavior-among-african-americans-the-jackson-heart-study
#7
Xu Wang, Amy H Auchincloss, Sharrelle Barber, Stephanie L Mayne, Michael E Griswold, Mario Sims, Ana V Diez Roux
BACKGROUND: Few studies have focused on the impact of neighborhood social environment on changes in smoking and alcohol use over time among African Americans. METHOD: Jackson Heart Study participants were recruited from the Jackson, MS metropolitan area from 2000 to 2004. Neighborhood social environment was characterized using census-based neighborhood socio-economic status (NSES) and survey-derived perceptions of neighborhood social cohesion, disorder, and violence...
May 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467419/meerkat-close-calling-patterns-are-linked-to-sex-social-category-season-and-wind-but-not-fecal-glucocorticoid-metabolite-concentrations
#8
Jelena Mausbach, Ines Braga Goncalves, Michael Heistermann, André Ganswindt, Marta B Manser
It is well established that animal vocalizations can encode information regarding a sender's identity, sex, age, body size, social rank and group membership. However, the association between physiological parameters, particularly stress hormone levels, and vocal behavior is still not well understood. The cooperatively breeding African meerkats (Suricata suricatta) live in family groups with despotic social hierarchies. During foraging, individuals emit close calls that help maintain group cohesion. These contact calls are acoustically distinctive and variable in rate across individuals, yet, information on which factors influence close calling behavior is missing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453117/-learning-about-social-determinants-of-health-through-chronicles-using-a-virtual-learning-environment
#9
Sonia Restrepo-Palacio, Jairo Amaya-Guio
Objective: To describe the contributions of a pedagogical strategy based on the construction of chronicles, using a Virtual Learning Environment for training medical students from Universidad de La Sabana on social determinants of health. Methodology: Descriptive study with a qualitative approach. Design and implementation of a Virtual Learning Environment based on the ADDIE instructional model. Results: A Virtual Learning Environment was implemented with an instructional design based on the five phases of the ADDIE model, on the grounds of meaningful learning and social constructivism, and through the narration of chronicles or life stories as a pedagogical strategy...
September 2016: Revista de Salud Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444316/oxytocin-facilitates-reciprocity-in-social-communication
#10
Franny B Spengler, Dirk Scheele, Nina Marsh, Charlotte Kofferath, Aileen Flach, Sarah Schwarz, Birgit Stoffel-Wagner, Wolfgang Maier, René Hurlemann
Synchrony in social groups may confer significant evolutionary advantages by improving group cohesion and social interaction. However, the neurobiological mechanisms translating social synchrony into refined social information transmission between interacting individuals are still elusive. In two successively conducted experiments involving a total of 199 healthy volunteers, we explored the involvement of the neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) in reciprocal social interaction. First, we show that synchronous social interactions evoke heightened endogenous OXT release in dyadic partners...
April 21, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423116/-experiences-of-street-harassment-and-associations-with-perceptions-of-social-cohesion-among-women-in-mexico-city
#11
Paola A Campos, Kathryn L Falb, Sara Hernández, Claudia Díaz-Olavarrieta, Jhumka Gupta
Objective: To document the frequency and forms of street harassment and examine the association between street harassment experiences and perceptions of social cohesion. Materials and methods: Baseline survey data collected among women seeking care in public health clinics in Mexico City were used for analysis. Results: Nearly two-thirds (62.8%) of women reported experiencing some form of street harassment in the prior month; women with street harassment experiences reported significantly lower perceived social cohesion (b=-0...
January 2017: Salud Pública de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421014/group-rumination-social-interactions-around-music-in-people-with-depression
#12
Sandra Garrido, Tuomas Eerola, Katrina McFerran
One of the most important roles that music serves in human society is the promotion of social relationships and group cohesion. In general, emotional experiences tend to be amplified in group settings through processes of social feedback. However, previous research has established that listening to sad music can intensify negative emotions in people with tendencies to rumination and depression. This study therefore investigated the phenomenon of ruminating with music, and the question of whether listening to sad music in group settings provides social benefits for emotionally vulnerable listeners, or whether it further exaggerates depressive tendencies...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420452/fathering-moderates-the-effects-of-maternal-depression-on-the-family-process
#13
Adam Vakrat, Yael Apter-Levy, Ruth Feldman
Maternal depression negatively impacts children's development, yet few studies have focused on fathering and the family process in cases of maternal depression. A community cohort of married/cohabitating women was recruited on the second postbirth day (N = 1,983) and maternal depression repeatedly assessed across the first year and again at 6 years to form two cohorts: mothers chronically depressed from birth to 6 (N = 46) and nondepressed controls (N = 103). At 6 years, mother-child, father-child, and family interactions were observed...
April 19, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418198/stress-is-associated-with-an-increased-risk-of-recurrent-seizures-in-adults
#14
Elisa Baldin, W Allen Hauser, Alison Pack, Dale C Hesdorffer
OBJECTIVE: The literature is sparse on the complex interrelationships between stressors, depression, anxiety disorders, and epilepsy. We hypothesized that a relationship exists between stress and epilepsy. We evaluated whether markers of stress are associated with seizure recurrence in a low income community-based cohort of adults with single unprovoked seizure or newly diagnosed epilepsy. METHODS: We ascertained adult residents of Northern Manhattan and Harlem, New York City, with a first unprovoked seizure or newly diagnosed epilepsy, between December 2010 and January 2013...
April 18, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409485/cohesion-network-analysis-of-cscl-participation
#15
Mihai Dascalu, Danielle S McNamara, Stefan Trausan-Matu, Laura K Allen
The broad use of computer-supported collaborative-learning (CSCL) environments (e.g., instant messenger-chats, forums, blogs in online communities, and massive open online courses) calls for automated tools to support tutors in the time-consuming process of analyzing collaborative conversations. In this article, the authors propose and validate the cohesion network analysis (CNA) model, housed within the ReaderBench platform. CNA, grounded in theories of cohesion, dialogism, and polyphony, is similar to social network analysis (SNA), but it also considers text content and discourse structure and, uniquely, uses automated cohesion indices to generate the underlying discourse representation...
April 13, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404782/signatures-of-optimal-control-in-pairs-of-schooling-zebrafish
#16
Andress Laan, Raul Gil de Sagredo, Gonzalo G de Polavieja
Animals moving in groups coordinate their motion to remain cohesive. A large amount of data and analysis of movement coordination has been obtained in several species, but we are lacking theoretical frameworks that can derive the form of coordination rules. Here, we examine whether optimal control theory can predict the rules underlying social interactions from first principles. We find that a control rule which is designed to minimize the time it would take a pair of schooling fish to form a cohesively moving unit correctly predicts the characteristics of social interactions in fish...
April 12, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395037/moral-panic-and-social-justice-a-guide-for-analyzing-social-problems
#17
Michael H Eversman, Jason D P Bird
Professional social work has long been concerned with social justice, social policy, and the relationship between social treatment and social control. However, at times, potential threats to social cohesion become exaggerated in the service of supporting suppressive policies. British sociologist Stanley Cohen referred to such periods as moral panics, which assign unwarranted blame and stigma to sociopolitically weaker, unpopular groups. By constructing those associated with a given social problem as deviant and downplaying underlying structural causes, moral panics foster the enactment of social policies that entrench social disparity and injustice...
January 1, 2017: Social Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394059/cultural-minority-students-experiences-with-intercultural-competency-in-medical-education
#18
Hannah Leyerzapf, Tineke Abma
CONTEXT: Medical schools increasingly value and focus on teaching students intercultural competency within present-day multicultural society. Little is known about the experiences of cultural minority students in intercultural competence activities. OBJECTIVES: This article discusses the intercultural competence activities of medical education in a Dutch university from the perspective of cultural minority students. We will formulate recommendations for how to stimulate intercultural competency in, as well as inclusiveness of, medical education...
May 2017: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389844/neighbourhood-green-space-social-environment-and-mental-health-an-examination-in-four-european-cities
#19
Annemarie Ruijsbroek, Sigrid M Mohnen, Mariël Droomers, Hanneke Kruize, Christopher Gidlow, Regina Gražulevičiene, Sandra Andrusaityte, Jolanda Maas, Mark J Nieuwenhuijsen, Margarita Triguero-Mas, Daniel Masterson, Naomi Ellis, Elise van Kempen, Wim Hardyns, Karien Stronks, Peter P Groenewegen
OBJECTIVES: This study examines the relationship between neighbourhood green space, the neighbourhood social environment (social cohesion, neighbourhood attachment, social contacts), and mental health in four European cities. METHODS: The PHENOTYPE study was carried out in 2013 in Barcelona (Spain), Stoke-on-Trent (United Kingdom), Doetinchem (The Netherlands), and Kaunas (Lithuania). 3771 adults living in 124 neighbourhoods answered questions on mental health, neighbourhood social environment, and amount and quality of green space...
April 7, 2017: International Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379114/stress-of-home-life-and-gender-role-socializations-family-cohesion-and-symptoms-of-anxiety-and-depression
#20
Frederick Anyan, Odin Hjemdal
This cross-sectional study investigated the relation of sociocultural prescriptions of gender role socializations to differences in stress at home and to anxiety and depressive symptoms for adolescent girls and boys, with family cohesion as a mediator. A total of 244 boys and 285 girls aged 13-17 years recruited from Accra, Ghana completed the Short Mood Feeling Questionnaire, Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory, Stress of Home Life and Family Cohesion self-report scales in April 2015. In each sample, two mediation analyses were conducted using Structural Equation Modelling...
April 5, 2017: Women & Health
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