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Social cohesion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918688/racial-ethnic-and-income-differences-in-obesity-among-older-adults-the-role-of-leisure-time-physical-activity-and-neighborhood-social-cohesion
#1
Chia-Yuan Yu
BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined the associations among social cohesion, physical activity, and obesity in older adults. This study explored the influences of social cohesion and leisure-time physical activity on obesity in older adults, and tested whether these relationships varied by race/ethnicity and income level. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis of adults in the 2013 National Health Interview Study (NHIS) who were over 65 years of age (N=7714) was used...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911478/modulation-of-whistle-production-related-to-training-sessions-in-bottlenose-dolphins-tursiops-truncatus-under-human-care
#2
Juliana Lopez Marulanda, Olivier Adam, Fabienne Delfour
Bottlenose dolphins are highly social cetaceans with an extensive sound production including clicks, burst-pulsed sounds, and whistles. Some whistles, known as signature whistles, are individually specific. These acoustic signatures are commonly described as being emitted in contexts of stress during forced isolation and as group cohesion calls. Interactions between humans and captive dolphins is largely based on positive reinforcement conditioning within several training/feeding sessions per day. Vocal behavior of dolphins during these interactions might vary...
November 2016: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910919/group-benefit-associated-with-polymorphic-trichromacy-in-a-malagasy-primate-propithecus-verreauxi
#3
Carrie C Veilleux, Clara J Scarry, Anthony Di Fiore, E Christopher Kirk, Deborah A Bolnick, Rebecca J Lewis
In some primate lineages, polymorphisms in the X-linked M/LWS opsin gene have produced intraspecific variation in color vision. In these species, heterozygous females exhibit trichromacy, while males and homozygous females exhibit dichromacy. The evolutionary persistence of these polymorphisms suggests that balancing selection maintains color vision variation, possibly through a 'trichromat advantage' in detecting yellow/orange/red foods against foliage. We identified genetic evidence of polymorphic trichromacy in a population of Verreaux's sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi) at Kirindy Mitea National Park in Madagascar, and explored effects of color vision on reproductive success and feeding behavior using nine years of morphological, demographic, and feeding data...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907996/probabilistic-information-transmission-in-a-network-of-coupled-oscillators-reveals-speed-accuracy-trade-off-in-responding-to-threats
#4
Amanda Chicoli, Derek A Paley
Individuals in a group may obtain information from other group members about the environment, including the location of a food source or the presence of a predator. Here, we model how information spreads in a group using a susceptible-infected-removed epidemic model. We apply this model to a simulated shoal of fish using the motion dynamics of a coupled oscillator model, in order to test the biological hypothesis that polarized or aligned shoaling leads to faster and more accurate escape responses. The contributions of this study are the (i) application of a probabilistic model of epidemics to the study of collective animal behavior; (ii) testing the biological hypothesis that group cohesion improves predator escape; (iii) quantification of the effect of social cues on startle propagation; and (iv) investigation of the variation in response based on network connectivity...
November 2016: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907143/increased-exploration-capacity-promotes-group-fission-in-gregarious-foraging-herbivores
#5
Sophie Lardy, Daniel Fortin, Olivier Pays
Many gregarious species display rapid fission-fusion dynamics with individuals frequently leaving their groups to reunite or to form new ones soon after. The adaptive value of such ephemeral associations might reflect a frequent tilt in the balance between the costs and benefits of maintaining group cohesion. The lack of information on the short-term advantages of group fission, however, hampers our understanding of group dynamics. We investigated the effect of group fission on area-restricted search, a search tactic that is commonly used when food distribution is spatially autocorrelated...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895699/resilience-and-burnout-status-among-nurses-working-in-oncology
#6
Sevinc Kutluturkan, Elif Sozeri, Nese Uysal, Figen Bay
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to identify the resilience and burnout status of nurses working in the field of oncology. METHODS: This descriptive study was conducted with 140 oncology nurses. The data were collected using a socio-demographic attributes form, Resilience Scale for Adults, and the Maslach's Burnout Inventory. Percentage ratios, mean and median values, Kruskal-Wallis test, Mann-Whitney U test, correlation analysis, and multiple stepwise linear regression analysis were used to evaluate the data...
2016: Annals of General Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895050/social-signals-and-aversive-learning-in-honey-bee-drones-and-workers
#7
Arian Avalos, Eddie Pérez, Lianna Vallejo, María E Pérez, Charles I Abramson, Tugrul Giray
The dissemination of information is a basic element of group cohesion. In honey bees (Apis mellifera Linnaeus 1758), like in other social insects, the principal method for colony-wide information exchange is communication via pheromones. This medium of communication allows multiple individuals to conduct tasks critical to colony survival. Social signaling also establishes conflict at the level of the individual who must tradeoff between attending to the immediate environment or the social demand. In this study we examined this conflict by challenging highly social worker honey bees, and less social male drone honey bees undergoing aversive training by presenting them with a social stress signal (isopentyl acetate, IPA)...
November 28, 2016: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886636/the-impact-of-social-support-unit-cohesion-and-trait-resilience-on-ptsd-in-treatment-seeking-military-personnel-with-ptsd-the-role-of-posttraumatic-cognitions
#8
Yinyin Zang, Thea Gallagher, Carmen P McLean, Hallie S Tannahill, Jeffrey S Yarvis, Edna B Foa
BACKGROUND: The personal resources of social support, unit cohesion, and trait resilience have been found to be associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity among military personnel. However, the underlying mechanisms of these relationships are unclear. We hypothesized that negative posttraumatic cognitions, which are associated with PTSD, mediate the relationships between these personal resources and PTSD. METHODS: The relationship between PTSD symptom severity and a latent factor comprised of social support, unit cohesion, and trait resilience was evaluated using cross-sectional data from 366 treatment-seeking active duty military personnel with PTSD following deployments to or near Iraq or Afghanistan...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885651/barossa-night-cohesion-in-the-british-army-officer-corps
#9
Patrick Bury
Contrasting the classical explanation of military group cohesion as sustained by interpersonal bonds, recent scholars have highlighted the importance of ritualized communication, training and drills in explaining effective military performance in professional armies. While this has offered a welcome addition to the cohesion literature and a novel micro-sociological method of examining cohesion, its primary evidential base has been combat groups. Indeed, despite their prominent role in directing operations over the past decade, the British Army's officer corps has received relatively little attention from sociologists during this period...
November 25, 2016: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885147/-you-can-t-just-walk-down-the-street-and-meet-someone-the-intersection-of-social-sexual-networking-technology-stigma-and-health-among-gay-and-bisexual-men-in-the-small-city
#10
Jaclyn M White Hughto, John E Pachankis, Adam I Eldahan, Danya E Keene
Social-sexual networking technologies have been reported to yield both psychosocial benefits and sexual risks for gay and bisexual men, yet little research has explored how technology interacts with the social-geographical environment to shape the health of gay and bisexual men in the relatively understudied environment of small cities. This article draws on 29 semistructured interviews examining the use of social-sexual networking technologies among racially diverse gay and bisexual men in two small cities...
November 23, 2016: American Journal of Men's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885050/cross-sectional-and-longitudinal-associations-of-neighbourhood-social-environment-and-smoking-behaviour-the-multiethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis
#11
Stephanie L Mayne, Amy H Auchincloss, Kari A Moore, Yvonne L Michael, Loni Philip Tabb, Sandra E Echeverria, Ana V Diez Roux
BACKGROUND: Social features of neighbourhood environments may influence smoking by creating a stressful environment or by buffering stress through social cohesion. However, the association of the overall neighbourhood social environment (NSE) with smoking, and the association of specific neighbourhood social factors with change in smoking behaviour over time, has rarely been examined. METHODS: This study included 5856 adults aged 45-84 years from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (2000-2012, average follow-up: 7...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870759/-please-don-t-just-hang-a-feather-on-a-program-or-put-a-medicine-wheel-on-your-logo-and-think-oh-well-this-will-work-theoretical-perspectives-of-american-indian-and-alaska-native-substance-abuse-prevention-programs
#12
Margaret L Walsh-Buhi
Many current theories guiding substance abuse prevention (SAP) programs stem from Western ideologies, leading to a scarcity of research on theories from, and a disconnect with, Indigenous perspectives. This qualitative research study explored perceptions of theory by SAP researchers (N = 22) working with American Indian and Alaska Native communities. In-depth interviews identified components of Indigenous theoretical perspectives, including cultural elements such as balance, social cohesion, and belonging as being particularly significant and currently absent from many SAP programs...
January 2017: Family & Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867282/is-group-singing-special-health-well-being-and-social-bonds-in-community-based-adult-education-classes
#13
Eiluned Pearce, Jacques Launay, Anna Machin, Robin I M Dunbar
Evidence demonstrates that group singing improves health and well-being, but the precise mechanisms remain unknown. Given that cohesive social networks also positively influence health, we focus on the social aspects of singing, exploring whether improvements in health and well-being are mediated by stronger social bonds, both to the group as a whole (collective-bonding) and to individual classmates (relational-bonding). To do so, seven newly-formed community-based adult education classes (four singing, N=84, and three comparison classes studying creative writing or crafts, N=51) were followed over seven months...
November 2016: Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864356/the-social-gradient-of-sleep-in-adolescence-results-from-the-youth-hordaland-survey
#14
Mari Hysing, Keith J Petrie, Tormod Bøe, Tea Lallukka, Børge Sivertsen
BACKGROUND: A social gradient of sleep problems has been demonstrated in both children and adults, but our knowledge about possible social determinants of adolescent sleep problems remains limited. METHODS: A large population-based study in Norway surveyed 10 220 adolescents aged 16-19 years in 2012. Multiple socioeconomic status (SES) indicators and assessment of sleep, including DSM-5 insomnia, sleep duration, weekend-weekdays differences, as well as sleep deficit and delayed sleep phase were included...
November 17, 2016: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849264/association-between-disability-and-social-capital-among-community-dwelling-elderly
#15
Cristina Franco Gontijo, Juliana Vaz de Melo Mambrini, Tatiana Chama Borges da Luz, Antônio Ignácio de Loyola
Objective: To assess the prevalence of disability and its association with social capital among community-dwelling elderly. Methods: The study was based on 2nd Health Survey of Belo Horizonte Metropolitan Region - 2010, that included 1,995 community-dwelling elderly, randomly sampled. The exposure of interest was social capital, measured by confidence in neighborhood, perception of the physical environment, sense of cohesion in housing, and neighborhood perception of help...
July 2016: Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia, Brazilian Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835683/cohesion-and-coalition-formation-in-the-european-parliament-roll-call-votes-and-twitter-activities
#16
Darko Cherepnalkoski, Andreas Karpf, Igor Mozetič, Miha Grčar
We study the cohesion within and the coalitions between political groups in the Eighth European Parliament (2014-2019) by analyzing two entirely different aspects of the behavior of the Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) in the policy-making processes. On one hand, we analyze their co-voting patterns and, on the other, their retweeting behavior. We make use of two diverse datasets in the analysis. The first one is the roll-call vote dataset, where cohesion is regarded as the tendency to co-vote within a group, and a coalition is formed when the members of several groups exhibit a high degree of co-voting agreement on a subject...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834250/cohesive-neighborhoods-where-social-expectations-are-shared-may-have-positive-impact-on-adolescent-mental-health
#17
Louis Donnelly, Sara McLanahan, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Irwin Garfinkel, Brandon G Wagner, Wade C Jacobsen, Sarah Gold, Lauren Gaydosh
Adolescent mental health problems are associated with poor health and well-being in adulthood. We used data from a cohort of 2,264 children born in large US cities in 1998-2000 to examine whether neighborhood collective efficacy (a combination of social cohesion and control) is associated with improvements in adolescent mental health. We found that children who grew up in neighborhoods with high collective efficacy experienced fewer depressive and anxiety symptoms during adolescence than similar children from neighborhoods with low collective efficacy...
November 1, 2016: Health Affairs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834180/exploring-beliefs-around-physical-activity-among-older-adults-in-rural-canada
#18
Laurie Schmidt, Gwen Rempel, Terra C Murray, Tara-Leigh McHugh, Jeff K Vallance
OBJECTIVE: As physical activity can improve health and reduce the risk of chronic disease, it is important to understand the contributing factors to physical activity engagement among older adults, particularly those living in rural communities to assist in remaining active and healthy as long as possible. The purpose of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of the socio-ecological factors that influence or contribute to physical activity among rural-dwelling older adults in rural Saskatchewan, Canada...
2016: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828679/innovation-in-healthcare-services-notes-on-the-limits-of-field-research
#19
Laís Silveira Costa
The contemporary context of population aging, itsthe population's different health and disease characteristics, and the growing incorporation of technologies by healthcare systems have highlighted the need to adjust the healthcare structure as a whole. The defense of a democratic and sustainable system reveals the importance of understanding how changes in healthcare take place. The current article aims to contribute to the understanding of innovation in healthcare services. The study's results indicate that the existence of certain knowledge gaps means that public policies tend to overlook a whole rangeseries of innovations normally associated with social changes, with a consequentwith an impact on human development, social cohesion, equality, and equity, allcentral issues that are central toin the field of collective public healthcare field...
November 3, 2016: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827568/to-neither-target-capture-surveille-nor-wage-war-on-going-need-for-attention-to-metaphor-theory-in-care-and-prevention-for-people-who-use-drugs
#20
David C Perlman, Ashly E Jordan
Metaphors, and the frames they evoke, potently influence how people understand issues. These concepts of discourse, metaphor, and framing have been productively used in a range of studies including in the field of addiction. In public health and clinical discourse on people who use drugs, use of terms such as "targeting," "surveilling," and "capturing," along with "war on drugs" frames and referring to drug treatment as "substitution" may reinforce negative perceptions of people who use drugs. Avoiding military metaphors and explicitly leveraging metaphors that emphasize humanity, social cohesion, and agency have the potential to improve public health for people who use drugs...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Addictive Diseases
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