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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161282/altruistic-behavior-in-cohesive-social-groups-the-role-of-target-identifiability
#1
Ilana Ritov, Tehila Kogut
People's tendency to be more generous toward identifiable victims than toward unidentifiable or statistical victims is known as the Identifiable Victim Effect. Recent research has called the generality of this effect into question, showing that in cross-national contexts, identifiability mostly affects willingness to help victims of one's own "in-group." Furthermore, in inter-group conflict situations, identifiability increased generosity toward a member of the adversary group, but decreased generosity toward a member of one's own group...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158658/examining-neighborhood-social-cohesion-in-the-context-of-community-based-participatory-research-descriptive-findings-from-an-academic-community-partnership
#2
Lori Brand Bateman, Mona N Fouad, Bianca Hawk, Tiffany Osborne, Sejong Bae, Sequoya Eady, Joanice Thompson, Wendy Brantley, Lovie Crawford, Laura Heider, Yu-Mei M Schoenberger
Objective: The purpose of this article is to describe the process of conducting an assessment of neighborhood perceptions and cohesion by a community coalition-academic team created in the context of community-based participatory research (CBPR), to guide the design of locally relevant health initiatives. Methods: Guided by CBPR principles, a collaborative partnership was established between an academic center and a local, urban, underserved neighborhood in Birmingham, Alabama to identify and address community concerns and priorities...
2017: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128685/unravelling-positive-aspects-of-caregiving-in-dementia-an-integrative-review-of-research-literature
#3
REVIEW
Doris S F Yu, Sheung-Tak Cheng, Jungfang Wang
BACKGROUND: Family caregiving is the crucial informal care resource to lessen the burdens associated with dementia. Research in this field has focused on reducing the caregiver's burden, but little attention has been given to promoting the positive aspects of caregiving. OBJECTIVES: To conduct a systematic critical review of research on the nature of positive aspects of caregiving, and the factors predicting this phenomenon among family caregivers of dementia patients, with the ultimate purpose of gaining insights to explain how and why it emerges...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122393/how-do-professional-relationships-influence-surgical-antibiotic-prophylaxis-decision-making-a-qualitative-study
#4
Jennifer K Broom, Alex F Broom, Emma R Kirby, Jeffrey J Post
BACKGROUND: Surgical antibiotic prophylaxis (SAP) is a critical area to optimize to reduce the escalation of antimicrobial resistance. This article explores the ways by which interpersonal relationships influence SAP decision making. METHODS: Twenty surgeons and anesthetists participated in in-depth semistructured interviews on SAP prescribing. Results were analyzed using the framework approach. RESULTS: Analysis revealed 3 ways by which interpersonal relationships influence SAP: relationship dynamics between the surgeon and the anesthetist determine appropriateness of SAP, particularly operative risk ownership; perceived hierarchies within, and between, surgical and anesthetist specialties influence antibiotic prescribing decisions; and surgical distance from the antimicrobial stewardship team, which influences use of antimicrobial stewardship principles...
November 7, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120319/-it-makes-us-really-look-inferior-to-outsiders-coping-with-psychosocial-experiences-associated-with-the-lack-of-access-to-safe-water-and-sanitation
#5
Elijah Bisung, Susan J Elliott
OBJECTIVE: This paper explores daily experiences and coping resources related to the lack of access to safe water and adequate sanitation in Usoma, a lakeshore community in Western Kenya. METHODS: A qualitative approach that involved 10 focus group discussions and 9 key informant interviews with community leaders, volunteers and professionals was used to explore the research objectives. Data were collected from June to August 2013. RESULTS: Daily practices and experiences around water and sanitation, such as water collection, open defecation and shared toilets, were a major concern to residents...
November 9, 2017: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119453/neighborhood-structural-differences-and-women-s-mental-health-an-empirical-study-in-accra-ghana
#6
Elijah Bisung, Joseph Kangmennaang, Isaac Luginaah
PURPOSE: This study explores the relationships between neighborhood structural differences such as socioeconomic status (SES), income inequality, and ethnic diversity on women's mental health in Accra, Ghana. METHODS: The study used secondary data from the 2009 Women Health Survey Accra II, linked with the 2010 sub-metro level census figures on income inequality. The analytical sample consists of 2814 women nested within 195 enumeration areas (clusters) in the Accra Metropolitan Area (AMA)...
November 8, 2017: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117730/difficulty-and-independence-in-shopping-among-older-americans-more-than-just-leaving-the-house
#7
Allison B Brenner, Philippa J Clarke
BACKGROUND: The built, social and economic environments are associated with disability, but knowledge of how these environmental characteristics simultaneously influence older adults' ability to shop independently is limited. OBJECTIVE: We investigated cross-sectional associations between the outdoor home, local neighborhood and macrosocioeconomic levels of the environment and shopping difficulty and interactions between environmental factors and shopping difficulty...
November 9, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113616/correlates-of-physical-activity-among-community-dwelling-individuals-aged-65-years-or-older-with-anxiety-in-six-low-and-middle-income-countries
#8
Davy Vancampfort, Brendon Stubbs, Mats Hallgren, Nicola Veronese, James Mugisha, Michel Probst, Ai Koyanagi
BACKGROUND: Given the important health benefits of physical activity (PA) and the higher risk for physical inactivity in people with anxiety, and the high prevalence of anxiety and low PA among the elderly, there is a need for research to investigate what factors influence PA participation among anxious older individuals. We investigated PA correlates among community-dwelling adults aged ≥ 65 years with anxiety symptoms in six low- and middle-income countries. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from the World Health Organization's Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health were analyzed...
November 8, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100136/the-dark-side-of-social-capital-a-systematic-review-of-the-negative-health-effects-of-social-capital
#9
E Villalonga-Olives, I Kawachi
There is a growing literature demonstrating the health benefits of social capital (defined as the resources accessed through social connections). However, social capital is also acknowledged to be a "double-edged" phenomenon, whose effects on health are not always positive. We sought to systematically review studies that have found a negative (i.e. harmful) association between social capital and health outcomes. Our objective was to classify the different types of negative effects, following a framework originally proposed by Portes (1998)...
October 21, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091780/social-connectedness-stressful-life-events-and-self-injurious-thoughts-and-behaviors-among-young-adults
#10
Natalia Macrynikola, Regina Miranda, Ariella Soffer
OBJECTIVES: Preventing self-injurious thoughts and behaviors (SITBs) is particularly challenging on commuter campuses, given lower social cohesion and higher levels of stress than among traditional college populations. The present study examined the relationship between stressful life events (SLEs) and risk for different forms of SITBs, along with the potential buffering role of social connectedness, in a diverse sample of young adults from a commuter college. METHODS: Participants were 1712 (81% female; 61% racial/ethnic minority; 20% sexual minority) undergraduate and graduate students from a public commuter college in New York City...
September 19, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091281/developmental-social-isolation-affects-adult-behavior-social-interaction-and-dopamine-metabolite-levels-in-zebrafish
#11
Soaleha Shams, Shahid Amlani, Christine Buske, Diptendu Chatterjee, Robert Gerlai
The zebrafish is a social vertebrate and an excellent translational model for a variety of human disorders. Abnormal social behavior is a hallmark of several human brain disorders. Social behavioral problems can arise as a result of adverse early social environment. Little is known about the effects of early social isolation in adult zebrafish. We compared zebrafish that were isolated for either short (7 days) or long duration (180 days) to socially housed zebrafish, testing their behavior across ontogenesis (ages 10, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180 days), and shoal cohesion and whole-brain monoamines and their metabolites in adulthood...
November 1, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081761/imagined-steps-mental-simulation-of-coordinated-rhythmic-movements-effects-on-pro-sociality
#12
Liam Cross, Gray Atherton, Andrew D Wilson, Sabrina Golonka
Rhythmically coordinating with a partner can increase pro-sociality, but pro-sociality does not appear to change in proportion to coordination success, or particular classes of coordination. Pro-social benefits may have more to do with simply coordinating in a social context than the details of the actual coordination (Cross et al., 2016). This begs the question, how stripped down can a coordination task be and still affect pro-sociality? Would it be sufficient simply to imagine coordinating with others? Imagining a social interaction can lead to many of the same effects as actual interaction (Crisp and Turner, 2009)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076569/assessing-the-impact-of-vulnerability-on-perceptions-of-social-cohesion-in-the-context-of-community-resilience-to-disaster-in-the-blue-mountains
#13
Sarah Redshaw, Valerie Ingham, Marion McCutcheon, John Hicks, Oliver Burmeister
OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of network communications, community participation and elements of vulnerability on the perception of social cohesiveness in the Blue Mountains local government area (Blue Mountains LGA). DESIGN: A questionnaire was administered to residents of the Blue Mountains LGA. Econometric analysis of the resulting data was undertaken. SETTING: Blue Mountains LGA, Australia. PARTICIPANTS: One thousand one hundred and three residents of the Blue Mountains LGA responded to the questionnaire...
October 27, 2017: Australian Journal of Rural Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075623/new-frontiers-in-heart-rate-variability-and-social-coherence-research-techniques-technologies-and-implications-for-improving-group-dynamics-and-outcomes
#14
Rollin McCraty
Concepts embraced by the term coherence have been identified as central to fields such as quantum physics, physiology, and social science. There are different types of coherence, although the term always implies a harmonious relationship, correlations and connections between the various parts of a system. A specific measure derived from heart rate variability (HRV) provides a measure of physiological coherence. Another type of coherence, social coherence, relates to the harmonious alignment between couples or pairs, family units, small groups, or larger organizations in which a network of relationships exists among individuals who share common interests and objectives...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057496/media-coverage-of-the-uk-flooding-crisis-a-social-panorama
#15
Norma Valencio, Arthur Valencio
A disaster referred to by the press as the 'UK flooding crisis' occurred between December 2015 and January 2016. This study employed three different levels of analysis to identify a multidimensional perspective adopted in the disaster reporting of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). These levels revealed details about the social actors and their interactions. The set of news exposed diverse viewpoints on the crisis, from loss and damage to distinct affected subgroups to the various social engagement actions of aid and the multiplicity of technical response measures...
October 23, 2017: Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055381/mimetic-theory-and-the-evolutionary-paradox-of-schizophrenia-the-archetypal-scapegoat-hypothesis
#16
Daniel Vincent Riordan
Schizophrenia poses an evolutionary paradox, being genetically mediated yet associated with reduced fecundity. Numerous hypotheses have attempted to address this, but few describe how the schizophrenic phenotype itself might constitute an evolutionary adaptation. This paper draws on René Girard's theory on human origins, which claims that humans evolved a tendency to mimic both the desires and the behaviours of each other (mimetic theory). This would have promoted social cohesion and co-operation, but at the cost of intra-group rivalry and conflict...
October 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053720/vocalizations-of-adult-male-asian-koels-eudynamys-scolopacea-in-the-breeding-season
#17
Abdul Aziz Khan, Irfan Zia Qureshi
Defining the vocal repertoire provides a basis for understanding the role of acoustic signals in sexual and social interactions of an animal. The Asian koel (Eudynamys scolopacea) is a migratory bird which spends its summer breeding season in the plains of Pakistan. The bird is typically wary and secretive but produces loud and distinct calls, making it easily detected when unseen. Like the other birds in the wild, presumably Asian koels use their calls for social cohesion and coordination of different behaviors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049792/psychosocial-and-family-functioning-among-latino-youth-with-spina-bifida
#18
Jaclyn Lennon Papadakis, Laura Acevedo, Sonia Ramirez, Alexa Stern, Colleen F Driscoll, Grayson N Holmbeck
This study examined differences in psychosocial and family functioning between Latino and non-Latino Caucasian youth with spina bifida (SB), and examined family functioning as a predictor of youth psychosocial functioning as moderated by ethnicity. Participants were part of a larger, longitudinal study ( Devine, Holbein, Psihogios, Amaro, & Holmbeck, 2012 ) and included 74 non-Latino Caucasian youth with SB and 39 Latino youth with SB ( M age = 11.53, 52.2% female). Data were collected at Time 1 and 2 years later, and included questionnaire and observational data of psychosocial and family functioning...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046222/a-social-network-analysis-of-the-goal-scoring-passing-networks-of-the-2016-european-football-championships
#19
Scott Mclean, Paul M Salmon, Adam D Gorman, Nicholas J Stevens, Colin Solomon
In the current study, social network analysis (SNA) and notational analysis (NA) methods were applied to examine the goal scoring passing networks (GSPN) for all goals scored at the 2016 European Football Championships. The aim of the study was to determine the GSPN characteristics for the overall tournament, between the group and knock out stages, and for the successful and unsuccessful teams. The study also used degree centrality (DC) metrics as a novel method to determine the relative contributions of the pitch locations involved in the GSPN...
October 16, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043912/latina-young-adults-use-of-health-care-during-initial-months-in-the-united-states
#20
Frank R Dillon, Melissa M Ertl, Dylan A Corp, Rosa Babino, Mario De La Rosa
We examined social ecological predictors of health care utilization among Latina young adults during their initial year after immigration to the United States. Participants were 530 Latinas (ages 18-23) who immigrated to Miami-Dade County, Florida, 11.5 months before assessment. We used multiple logistic regression to test predictors of health care usage. Approximately 36% utilized care. Dimensions of marianismo differentially associated with usage. Usage also was more likely for participants who reported more social network attachment, better health, greater neighborhood cohesion, and possessed a job and health insurance...
October 18, 2017: Health Care for Women International
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