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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723999/moving-towards-south-south-international-health-debts-and-challenges-in-the-regional-health-agenda
#1
María Belén Herrero
The aim of this paper is twofold. First, it aims to investigate the increased interest in health as an important dimension of the foreign policy and diplomatic concerns together with the emergence of a new framework for regional health integration and regional health diplomacy. Second, it seeks to understand the role and practices of new regional blocs in the field of health and whether they are conducting to the emergence of new strategies for addressing health regional policies in South America. The regional policy process relates to health as a right...
July 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719988/experiences-of-integrated-care-for-dementia-from-family-and-carer-perspectives-a-framework-analysis-of-massive-open-online-course-discussion-board-posts
#2
David Robertshaw, Ainslea Cross
Background Integrated Care for dementia is an increasingly popular approach to supporting people with dementia, bringing services together to form a single cohesive provision for service users. This approach is still in its infancy but has the potential to improve the management of dementia, social care and to enhance the patient experience. Aims To understand views and experiences of integrated health and social care for dementia from the perspective of carers, families, healthcare professionals and researchers...
January 1, 2017: Dementia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708245/health-equity-issues-related-to-childhood-obesity-a-scoping-review
#3
Clemencia M Vargas, Elsie M Stines, Herta S Granado
PURPOSE: The purpose of this scoping review was to determine the health-equity issues that relate to childhood obesity. METHODS: Health-equity issues related to childhood obesity were identified by analyzing food environment, natural and built environment, and social environment. The authors searched Medline, PubMed, and Web of Science, using the keywords "children" and "obesity." Specific terms for each environment were added: "food desert," "advertising," "insecurity," "price," "processing," "trade," and "school" for food environment; "urban design," "land use," "transportation mode," "public facilities," and "market access" for natural and built environment; and "financial capacity/poverty," "living conditions," "transport access," "remoteness," "social support," "social cohesion," "working practices," "eating habits," "time," and "social norms" for social environment...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Public Health Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705165/on-the-plausibility-of-socioeconomic-mortality-estimates-derived-from-linked-data-a-demographic-approach
#4
Mathias Lerch, Adrian Spoerri, Domantas Jasilionis, Francisco Viciana Fernandèz
BACKGROUND: Reliable estimates of mortality according to socioeconomic status play a crucial role in informing the policy debate about social inequality, social cohesion, and exclusion as well as about the reform of pension systems. Linked mortality data have become a gold standard for monitoring socioeconomic differentials in survival. Several approaches have been proposed to assess the quality of the linkage, in order to avoid the misclassification of deaths according to socioeconomic status...
July 14, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689476/the-role-of-music-therapy-in-rehabilitation-improving-aphasia-and-beyond
#5
Simona Leonardi, Alberto Cacciola, Rosaria De Luca, Bianca Aragona, Veronica Andronaco, Demetrio Milardi, Placido Bramanti, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò
Music is part of the human nature, and it is also philogenically relevant to language evolution. Language and music are bound together in the enhancement of important social functions, such as communication, cooperation and social cohesion. In the last few years, there has been growing evidence that music and music therapy may improve communication skills (but not only) in different neurological disorders. One of the plausible reasons concerning the rational use of sound and music in neurorehabilitation is the possibility to stimulate brain areas involved in emotional processing and motor control, such as the fronto-parietal network...
July 10, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688750/it-takes-a-village-fixed-effects-analysis-of-neighborhood-collective-efficacy-and-children-s-development
#6
Kayoko Ichikawa, Takeo Fujiwara, Ichiro Kawachi
BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest that neighborhood social capital is associated with children's mental health. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between neighborhood collective efficacy and children's psychosocial development. METHODS: We used data on children and their parents (n = 918) who were part of the Japanese study of Stratification, Health, Income, and Neighborhood (JSHINE) from 2010 to 2013 (wave 1 and wave 2). Households were recruited from the Tokyo metropolitan area through clustered random sampling...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678593/neighborhood-characteristics-influence-dna-methylation-of-genes-involved-in-stress-response-and-inflammation-the-multi-ethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis
#7
Jennifer A Smith, Wei Zhao, Xu Wang, Scott M Ratliff, Bhramar Mukherjee, Sharon L R Kardia, Yongmei Liu, Ava V Diez Roux, Belinda L Needham
Living in a disadvantaged neighborhood is associated with poor health outcomes even after accounting for individual-level socioeconomic factors. The chronic stress of unfavorable neighborhood conditions may lead to dysregulation of the stress reactivity and inflammatory pathways, potentially mediated through epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation. We used multi-level models to examine the relationship between two neighborhood conditions and methylation levels of 18 genes related to stress reactivity and inflammation in purified monocytes from 1,226 participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), a population-based sample of US adults...
July 5, 2017: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673920/why-are-there-so-many-explanations-for-primate-brain-evolution
#8
REVIEW
R I M Dunbar, Susanne Shultz
The question as to why primates have evolved unusually large brains has received much attention, with many alternative proposals all supported by evidence. We review the main hypotheses, the assumptions they make and the evidence for and against them. Taking as our starting point the fact that every hypothesis has sound empirical evidence to support it, we argue that the hypotheses are best interpreted in terms of a framework of evolutionary causes (selection factors), consequences (evolutionary windows of opportunity) and constraints (usually physiological limitations requiring resolution if large brains are to evolve)...
August 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673915/collective-foraging-in-spatially-complex-nutritional-environments
#9
Mathieu Lihoreau, Michael A Charleston, Alistair M Senior, Fiona J Clissold, David Raubenheimer, Stephen J Simpson, Jerome Buhl
Nutrition impinges on virtually all aspects of an animal's life, including social interactions. Recent advances in nutritional ecology show how social animals often trade-off individual nutrition and group cohesion when foraging in simplified experimental environments. Here, we explore how the spatial structure of the nutritional landscape influences these complex collective foraging dynamics in ecologically realistic environments. We introduce an individual-based model integrating key concepts of nutritional geometry, collective animal behaviour and spatial ecology to study the nutritional behaviour of animal groups in large heterogeneous environments containing foods with different abundance, patchiness and nutritional composition...
August 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673911/the-role-of-physiological-traits-in-assortment-among-and-within-fish-shoals
#10
REVIEW
Shaun S Killen, Stefano Marras, Lauren Nadler, Paolo Domenici
Individuals of gregarious species often group with conspecifics to which they are phenotypically similar. This among-group assortment has been studied for body size, sex and relatedness. However, the role of physiological traits has been largely overlooked. Here, we discuss mechanisms by which physiological traits-particularly those related to metabolism and locomotor performance-may result in phenotypic assortment not only among but also within animal groups. At the among-group level, varying combinations of passive assortment, active assortment, phenotypic plasticity and selective mortality may generate phenotypic differences among groups...
August 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673909/physiological-mechanisms-underlying-animal-social-behaviour
#11
Frank Seebacher, Jens Krause
Many species of animal live in groups, and the group represents the organizational level within which ecological and evolutionary processes occur. Understanding these processes, therefore, relies on knowledge of the mechanisms that permit or constrain group formation. We suggest that physiological capacities and differences in physiology between individuals modify fission-fusion dynamics. Differences between individuals in locomotor capacity and metabolism may lead to fission of groups and sorting of individuals into groups with similar physiological phenotypes...
August 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672128/exploring-pathways-linking-greenspace-to-health-theoretical-and-methodological-guidance
#12
REVIEW
Iana Markevych, Julia Schoierer, Terry Hartig, Alexandra Chudnovsky, Perry Hystad, Angel M Dzhambov, Sjerp de Vries, Margarita Triguero-Mas, Michael Brauer, Mark J Nieuwenhuijsen, Gerd Lupp, Elizabeth A Richardson, Thomas Astell-Burt, Donka Dimitrova, Xiaoqi Feng, Maya Sadeh, Marie Standl, Joachim Heinrich, Elaine Fuertes
BACKGROUND: In a rapidly urbanizing world, many people have little contact with natural environments, which may affect health and well-being. Existing reviews generally conclude that residential greenspace is beneficial to health. However, the processes generating these benefits and how they can be best promoted remain unclear. OBJECTIVES: During an Expert Workshop held in September 2016, the evidence linking greenspace and health was reviewed from a transdisciplinary standpoint, with a particular focus on potential underlying biopsychosocial pathways and how these can be explored and organized to support policy-relevant population health research...
June 30, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666359/cognition-in-context-the-role-of-objective-and-subjective-measures-of-neighborhood-and-household-in-cognitive-functioning-in-later-life
#13
Haena Lee, Linda J Waite
Background and Objectives: Although the role of place on health is not new, less is known about how place matters for cognition. By investigating both neighborhood and home as the sociospatial realms of older adults, we explore associations between health and place across multiple contexts. We also distinguish objective and subjective measures of place and disentangle their differential associations with cognition. Research Design and Methods: We analyzed place effects on cognition from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (N = 2,260) linked to neighborhood characteristics and crime data...
June 28, 2017: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664241/the-epidemiology-of-current-depression-in-macau-china-towards-a-plan-for-mental-health-action
#14
Brian J Hall, Agnes Iok Fong Lam, Tat Leong Wu, Wai-Kai Hou, Carl Latkin, Sandro Galea
PURPOSE: Macau is a Special Administrative Region in China that has experienced tremendous development in its gambling industry during its post-colonial years. To inform mental health planning, this study presents the first population estimates and correlates of the current depression in Macau. METHODS: A population-representative sample of 1068 Macau Chinese citizens aged 18 or above responded to a household telephone survey in January, 2015. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 measured the current depression...
June 29, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661770/beyond-health-effects-examining-the-social-consequences-of-community-levels-of-uninsurance-pre-aca
#15
Tara McKay, Stefan Timmermans
The lack of health insurance is traditionally considered a problem faced by individuals and their families. However, because of the geographically bounded organization and funding of healthcare in the United States, levels of uninsurance in a community may affect everyone living there. Health economists have examined how the effects of uninsurance spillover from the uninsured to the insured, negatively affecting healthcare access and quality for the insured. We extend research on uninsurance into the domain of sociologists by theorizing how uninsurance might exacerbate social inequalities and undermine social cohesion within communities...
March 2017: Journal of Health and Social Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659653/effects-of-semantic-context-on-access-to-words-of-low-imageability-in-deep-phonological-dysphasia-a-treatment-case-study
#16
Laura Mary McCarthy, Michelene Kalinyak-Fliszar, Francine Kohen, Nadine Martin
BACKGROUND: Deep dysphasia is a relatively rare subcategory of aphasia, characterised by word repetition impairment and a profound auditory-verbal short-term memory (STM) limitation. Repetition of words is better than nonwords (lexicality effect) and better for high-image than low-image words (imageability effect). Another related language impairment profile is phonological dysphasia, which includes all of the characteristics of deep dysphasia except for the occurrence of semantic errors in single word repetition...
2017: Aphasiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656775/advocacy-coalition-for-safer-sex-in-the-adult-film-industry-the-case-of-los-angeles-county-s-measure-b
#17
Adam Carl Cohen, Paula Tavrow, Mark Roy McGrath
BACKGROUND: Performers in the adult film industry are routinely exposed to bloodborne pathogens. In 2012, public health advocates in Los Angeles County convinced voters to pass a ballot initiative-Measure B-to mandate condom use on adult film sets. This article presents a case study of the advocacy coalition's strategies used to achieve greater workplace safety using the advocacy coalition framework. METHOD: The authors were given access to all memoranda, market research, and campaign tools used to promote Measure B...
June 1, 2017: Health Promotion Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647008/trajectories-of-neighborhood-cohesion-in-childhood-and-psychotic-and-depressive-symptoms-at-age-13-and-18-years
#18
Francesca Solmi, Ian Colman, Murray Weeks, Glyn Lewis, James B Kirkbride
OBJECTIVE: Exposure to adverse social environments has been associated with psychotic and depressive symptoms in adolescence in cross-sectional studies, but the longitudinal relation is unclear. This study examined whether longitudinal trajectories of exposure to adverse social environments across childhood are associated with psychotic experiences and depressive symptoms in adolescence. METHOD: Data on participants from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) were used to estimate longitudinal trajectories of childhood exposure to neighborhood cohesion (NC), discord (ND), and stress (NS) using latent class growth modeling...
July 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642208/assessing-the-efficacy-of-imagery-enhanced-cognitive-behavioral-group-therapy-for-social-anxiety-disorder-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Peter M McEvoy, Michelle L Moulds, Jessica R Grisham, Emily A Holmes, David A Moscovitch, Delia Hendrie, Lisa M Saulsman, Ottmar V Lipp, Robert T Kane, Ronald M Rapee, Matthew P Hyett, David M Erceg-Hurn
Cognitive behavior group therapy (CBGT) is effective for social anxiety disorder (SAD), but a substantial proportion of patients do not typically achieve normative functioning. Cognitive behavioral models of SAD emphasize negative self-imagery as an important maintaining factor, and evidence suggests that imagery is a powerful cognitive mode for facilitating affective change. This study will compare two group CBGT interventions, one that predominantly uses verbally-based strategies (VB-CBGT) and another that predominantly uses imagery-enhanced strategies (IE-CBGT), in terms of (a) efficacy, (b) mechanisms of change, and (c) cost-effectiveness...
June 19, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641585/cancer-bereaved-siblings-positive-and-negative-memories-and-experiences-of-illness-and-death-a-nationwide-follow-up
#20
Mary-Elizabeth Bradley Eilertsen, Malin Lövgren, Alexandra Eilegård Wallin, Ulrika Kreicbergs
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to explore bereaved siblings' positive and negative memories and experiences of their brother's or sister's illness and death. METHOD: In our nationwide Swedish study, 174 of 240 (73%) bereaved siblings participated, and 70% responded to two open-ended statements, which focused on siblings' positive and negative memories and experiences of illness and death. The data were analyzed using systematic text condensation. RESULTS: The bereaved siblings' responses were categorized into four different themes: (1) endurance versus vulnerability, (2) family cohesion versus family conflicts, (3) growth versus stagnation, and (4) professional support versus lack of professional support...
June 23, 2017: Palliative & Supportive Care
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