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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107160/groupthink-how-should-clinicians-respond-to-human-trafficking
#1
William Polk Cheshire
Human trafficking is a pervasive problem that exceeds the capacity of social and organizational resources to restrain and for which guidelines are inadequate to assist medical professionals in responding to the special needs of victims when they present as patients. One obstacle to appropriate disagreement with an inadequate status quo is the lure of group cohesion. "Groupthink" is a social psychological phenomenon in which presumed group consensus prevails despite potentially adverse consequences. In the context of the medical response to human trafficking, groupthink may foster complacency, rationalize acquiescence with inaction on the basis of perceived futility, create an illusion of unanimity, and accommodate negative stereotyping...
January 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103765/depression-and-suicidality-in-gay-men
#2
Carrie Lee, John L Oliffe, Mary T Kelly, Olivier Ferlatte
Gay men are a subgroup vulnerable to depression and suicidality. The prevalence of depression among gay men is three times higher than the general adult population. Because depression is a known risk factor for suicide, gay men are also at high risk for suicidality. Despite the high prevalence of depression and suicidality, health researchers and health care providers have tended to focus on sexual health issues, most often human immunodeficiency virus in gay men. Related to this, gay men's health has often been defined by sexual practices, and poorly understood are the intersections of gay men's physical and mental health with social determinants of health including ethnicity, locale, education level, and socioeconomic status...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Men's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095933/understanding-older-adults-resilience-during-the-brisbane-floods-social-capital-life-experience-and-optimism
#3
Lauren Brockie, Evonne Miller
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to explore how social capital or the impact of life and previous disaster experience facilitated resilience in older adults who experienced the 2011 and 2013 floods in Brisbane, Australia. METHODS: Data were drawn from in-depth interviews of 10 older adults from Brisbane who were evacuated in both the 2011 and 2013 floods. A combined qualitative approach drawing from the methods of constructivist grounded theory and narrative inquiry was applied and the data were analyzed by using (inductive) line-by-line and axial coding...
January 18, 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095305/fertility-kinship-and-the-evolution-of-mass-ideologies
#4
Tamas David-Barrett, Robin I M Dunbar
Traditional human societies are organised around kinship, and use kinship networks to generate large scale community projects. This is made possible by a combination of linguistic kin recognition, a uniquely human trait, which is mediated by the reliability of kin as collaborators. When effective fertility falls, this results in two simultaneous effects on social networks: there are fewer kin that can be relied on, and the limiting effect of the local kin-clustering becomes stronger. To capture this phenomenon, we used a model of kinship lineages to build populations with a range of fertility levels combined with a behavioural synchrony model to measure the efficiency of collective action generated on kin networks within populations...
January 14, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081043/the-human-immunodeficiency-virus-endemic-maintaining-disease-transmission-in-at-risk-urban-areas
#5
Richard B Rothenberg, Dajun Dai, Mary Anne Adams, John Wesley Heath
OBJECTIVES: A study of network relationships, geographic contiguity, and risk behavior was designed to test the hypothesis that all 3 are required to maintain endemicity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in at-risk urban communities. Specifically, a highly interactive network, close geographic proximity, and compound risk (multiple high-risk activities with multiple partners) would be required. METHODS: We enrolled 927 participants from two contiguous geographic areas in Atlanta, GA: a higher-risk area and lower-risk area, as measured by history of HIV reporting...
February 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077430/successful-aging-as-the-intersection-of-individual-resources-age-environment-and-experiences-of-well-being-in-daily-activities
#6
Shannon T Mejía, Lindsay H Ryan, Richard Gonzalez, Jacqui Smith
OBJECTIVE: We conceptualize successful aging as a cumulative index of individual resources (the absence of disease and disability, high cognitive and physical functioning, social embeddedness) in the service of successful aging outcomes (global well-being, experienced well-being, and vital status), and conditioned by age, social structure, and environment. METHOD: The study used baseline and follow-up data from the 2008-2014 waves of the Health and Retirement Study (N = 17,230; age = 51-101)...
January 10, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062472/is-having-a-family-member-with-chronic-health-concerns-bad-for-young-people-s-health-cross-sectional-evidence-from-a-national-survey-of-young-australians
#7
Anna K Moffat, Gerry Redmond
OBJECTIVES: Young people's perspectives on the association between having a family member with a chronic health concern (FHC) and their own health are under-researched. This study used young people's reports to assess the prevalence of FHCs and their association with negative health outcomes, with an aim of identifying potential inequalities between marginalised and non-marginalised young people. Family cohesion was examined as a moderating factor. DESIGN: Cross-sectional data from the Australian Child Wellbeing Project survey were used...
January 6, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033588/neighborhood-social-and-physical-environments-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-african-americans-the-jackson-heart-study
#8
Samson Y Gebreab, DeMarc A Hickson, Mario Sims, Sharon B Wyatt, Sharon K Davis, Adolfo Correa, Ana V Diez-Roux
Using data from Jackson Heart Study, we investigated the associations of neighborhood social and physical environments with prevalence and incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in African Americans (AA). Among non-diabetic participants at baseline (n=3670), 521 (14.2%) developed T2DM during a median follow-up of 7.3 years. Measures of neighborhood social environments, and food and physical activity resources were derived using survey-and GIS-based methods. Prevalence ratios (PR) and Hazard ratios (HR) were estimated using generalized estimating equations and Cox proportional hazards models...
December 26, 2016: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033564/neighborhood-age-structure-and-cognitive-function-in-a-nationally-representative-sample-of-older-adults-in-the-u-s
#9
Esther M Friedman, Regina A Shih, Mary E Slaughter, Margaret M Weden, Kathleen A Cagney
Recent evidence suggests that living in a neighborhood with a greater percentage of older adults is associated with better individual health, including lower depression, better self-rated health, and a decreased risk of overall mortality. However, much of the work to date suffers from four limitations. First, none of the U.S.-based studies examine the association at the national level. Second, no studies have examined three important hypothesized mechanisms - neighborhood socioeconomic status and neighborhood social and physical characteristics - which are significantly correlated with both neighborhood age structure and health...
December 5, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028227/oxytocin-reactivity-during-intergroup-conflict-in-wild-chimpanzees
#10
Liran Samuni, Anna Preis, Roger Mundry, Tobias Deschner, Catherine Crockford, Roman M Wittig
Intergroup conflict is evident throughout the history of our species, ubiquitous across human societies, and considered crucial for the evolution of humans' large-scale cooperative nature. Like humans, chimpanzee societies exhibit intragroup coordination and coalitionary support during violent intergroup conflicts. In both species, cooperation among group members is essential for individuals to gain access to benefits from engaging in intergroup conflict. Studies suggest that a contributive mechanism regulating in-group cooperation during intergroup conflicts in humans involves the neuropeptide hormone oxytocin, known to influence trust, coordination, and social cognition, although evidence from natural settings is lacking...
December 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018121/adaptive-behaviors-in-multi-agent-source-localization-using-passive-sensing
#11
Mansoor Shaukat, Mandar Chitre
In this paper, the role of adaptive group cohesion in a cooperative multi-agent source localization problem is investigated. A distributed source localization algorithm is presented for a homogeneous team of simple agents. An agent uses a single sensor to sense the gradient and two sensors to sense its neighbors. The algorithm is a set of individualistic and social behaviors where the individualistic behavior is as simple as an agent keeping its previous heading and is not self-sufficient in localizing the source...
December 2016: Adaptive Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017180/comparison-of-12-step-groups-to-mutual-help-alternatives-for-aud-in-a-large-national-study-differences-in-membership-characteristics-and-group-participation-cohesion-and-satisfaction
#12
Sarah E Zemore, Lee Ann Kaskutas, Amy Mericle, Jordana Hemberg
BACKGROUND: Many studies suggest that participation in 12-step groups contributes to better recovery outcomes, but people often object to such groups and most do not sustain regular involvement. Yet, research on alternatives to 12-step groups is very sparse. The present study aimed to extend the knowledge base on mutual help group alternatives for those with an alcohol use disorder (AUD), sampling from large, active, abstinence-focused groups including Women for Sobriety (WFS), LifeRing, and SMART Recovery (SMART)...
February 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009839/parental-perceptions-of-the-social-environment-are-inversely-related-to-constraint-of-adolescents-neighborhood-physical-activity
#13
Maura Kepper, Stephanie Broyles, Richard Scribner, Tung-Sung Tseng, Jovanny Zabaleta, Lauren Griffiths, Melinda Sothern
BACKGROUND: The current study examined relationships between the neighborhood social environment (parental perceived collective efficacy (PCE)), constrained behaviors (e.g., avoidance or defensive behaviors) and adolescent offspring neighborhood physical activity in low- versus high-incivility neighborhoods. METHODS: Adolescents (n = 71; 11-18 years (14.2, SD ± 1.6); male = 37 (52%); non-white = 24 (33.8%); low-income = 20 (29%); overweight/obese = 40 (56%)) and their parents/guardians enrolled in the Molecular and Social Determinants of Obesity in Developing Youth study were included in the current study...
December 21, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007536/conspecific-alarm-substance-differently-alters-group-behavior-of-zebrafish-populations-putative-involvement-of-cholinergic-and-purinergic-signaling-in-anxiety-and-fear-like-responses
#14
Julia Canzian, Barbara D Fontana, Vanessa A Quadros, Denis B Rosemberg
The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an emergent model organism for assessing fear and anxiety-like phenotypes. The short fin wild type (WT), and leopard (leo) are two zebrafish populations that present several behavioral differences, in which leo displays pronounced defensive responses. Mounting evidence suggests a modulatory role for cholinergic and purinergic signaling in fear and anxiety, but the involvement of these neurotransmitter systems in the behavioral profile of zebrafish is obscure. Here we tested whether the acute exposure to conspecific alarm substance (AS), an experimental protocol that induces fear, alters shoaling behavior, diving response, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, and nucleotide hydrolysis in brain tissue of WT and leo...
December 19, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000151/the-impact-of-provider-networks-on-the-co-prescriptions-of-interacting-drugs-a-claims-based-analysis
#15
Mei-Sing Ong, Karen L Olson, Laura Chadwick, Chunfu Liu, Kenneth D Mandl
INTRODUCTION: Multiple provider prescribing of interacting drugs is a preventable cause of morbidity and mortality, and fragmented care is a major contributing factor. We applied social network analysis to examine the impact of provider patient-sharing networks on the risk of multiple provider prescribing of interacting drugs. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of commercial healthcare claims (years 2008-2011), including all non-elderly adult beneficiaries (n = 88,494) and their constellation of care providers...
December 20, 2016: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999991/the-impact-of-perceived-need-and-relational-factors-on-mental-health-service-use-among-generations-of-asian-americans
#16
Minsun Lee, David Takeuchi, Zvi Gellis, Philip Kendall, Lin Zhu, Shanyang Zhao, Grace X Ma
The present study examined generational differences in the patterns and predictors of formal and informal mental health service utilization among a nationally representative sample of 1850 Asian Americans from the National Latino and Asian American Study. We focused on the effects of perceived need and relational factors on service utilization among 1st-, 1.5-, and 2nd-generation Asian Americans. Results of hierarchical logistic regression showed significant intergenerational differences. Specifically, 1.5-generation Asian Americans exhibited distinctive pattern of service use, with perceived need being associated with a higher likelihood of using formal mental health services, but only for those with high level of social support...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974140/an-update-on-risk-communication-in-the-arctic
#17
Eva-Maria Krümmel, Andrew Gilman
BACKGROUND: Arctic residents can be exposed to a wide range of contaminants through consumption of traditional (country) foods (i.e. food from wild animals and plants that are hunted, caught or collected locally in the Arctic). Yet these foods provide excellent nutrition, promote social cohesion, meet some spiritual needs for connectedness to the land and water, reinforce cultural ties, are economically important and promote overall good health for many. The risk and benefit balance associated with the consumption of traditional Arctic foods is complicated to communicate and has been referred to as the "Arctic Dilemma"...
2016: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938987/social-cohesion-the-missing-factor-required-for-a-successful-hand-hygiene-program
#18
Yen Lee Angela Kwok, Peter Harris, Mary-Louise McLaws
BACKGROUND: There are limited explorations into hospital staff reactions to automated hand hygiene surveillance or hand hygiene interventions. METHODS: An automated surveillance system with daily feedback and a behavioral intervention component was trialed in 2 wards in an Australian tertiary teaching hospital. After 9 months, 12 clinicians from each ward were interviewed prior to the completion of the trial to explore satisfaction with the system and behavioral component of nudging each other with a reminder to comply...
December 9, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930613/project-shikamana-baseline-findings-from-a-community-empowerment-based-combination-hiv-prevention-trial-among-female-sex-workers-in-iringa-tanzania
#19
Deanna Kerrigan, Jessie Mbwambo, Samuel Likindikoki, Sarah Beckham, Ard Mwampashi, Catherine Shembilu, Andrea Mantsios, Anna Leddy, Wendy Davis, Noya Galai
BACKGROUND: Community empowerment approaches have been found to be effective in responding to HIV among female sex workers (FSWs) in South Asia and Latin America. To date, limited rigorous evaluations of these approaches have been conducted in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: A phase II community randomized controlled trial is being conducted in Iringa, Tanzania, to evaluate the effectiveness of a community empowerment-based combination HIV prevention model (Project Shikamana) among a stratified sample of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected FSWs...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930284/racial-ethnic-differences-in-associations-between-neighborhood-social-cohesion-and-meeting-physical-activity-guidelines-united-states-2013-2014
#20
Stella S Yi, Chau Trinh-Shevrin, Irene H Yen, Simona C Kwon
INTRODUCTION: Neighborhood factors are increasingly recognized as determinants of health. Neighborhood social cohesion may be associated with physical activity, but previous studies examined data aggregated across racial/ethnic groups. We assessed whether neighborhood social cohesion was associated with physical activity in a nationally representative data set and explored the role of race/ethnicity. METHODS: We combined National Health Interview Survey data from 2013 and 2014 (n = 64,754) and constructed a neighborhood social cohesion score by summing responses to 4 questions...
December 8, 2016: Preventing Chronic Disease
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