Read by QxMD icon Read

Social cohesion

Ellen Generaal, Erik J Timmermans, Jasper E C Dekkers, Johannes H Smit, Brenda W J H Penninx
BACKGROUND: Which neighbourhood factors most consistently impact on depression and anxiety remains unclear. This study examines whether objectively obtained socioeconomic, physical and social aspects of the neighbourhood in which persons live are associated with the presence and severity of depressive and anxiety disorders. METHODS: Cross-sectional data are from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety including participants (n = 2980) with and without depressive and anxiety disorders in the past year (based on DSM-based psychiatric interviews)...
March 15, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Rachel C Garthe, Deborah Gorman-Smith, Joshua Gregory, Michael E Schoeny
The link between relationship violence and aspects of neighborhood concentrated disadvantage (e.g., percent of unemployed adults, percent of families below poverty level), has been established. However, the literature examining neighborhood social processes, including informal social control and social cohesion, in relation to adolescent dating violence has shown mixed results with a limited theoretical foundation and methodology. Using a social disorganization theoretical framework, this study examined the mediating role of these neighborhood social processes in the relation between concentrated disadvantage and adolescent dating violence within an urban context...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Community Psychology
Daniel W Russell, Frederick D Clavél, Carolyn E Cutrona, W Todd Abraham, Rebecca G Burzette
This study examined the impact of neighborhood racial discrimination on the development of major depressive disorder (MDD) in a sample of African American women. Participants were 499 women from Georgia and Iowa with no history of MDD who were followed for 9 to 11 years. Several neighborhood characteristics (community social disorder, community cohesion, and community racism) and individual characteristics (negative life events, financial strain, personal outlook, religious involvement, relationship quality, negative affectivity, and individual experiences of racism) were employed as predictors of whether or not the women met criteria for MDD during this period of time...
February 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Davy Vancampfort, Brendon Stubbs, James Mugisha, Joseph Firth, Felipe B Schuch, Ai Koyanagi
OBJECTIVE: Sedentary behaviour (SB) is harmful for health and well-being and may be associated with depression. However, little is known about the correlates of SB in people with depression. Thus, we investigated SB correlates among community-dwelling adults with depression in six low- and middle-income countries. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from the World Health Organization's Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health were analyzed. The analysis was restricted to those with DSM-IV Depression or receiving depression treatment in the last 12 months...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Masahiro Yamamoto, Hyerim Jo
Despite the accumulated evidence for the environmental correlates of physical activity, social processes underlying this association are not entirely clear. This study positions communication characterized by weak ties as a social mechanism linking neighborhood walkability with physical exercise. Data from a survey of Chicago residents show that perceived neighborhood walkability is positively related to frequency of weak-tie communication. Frequency of weak-tie communication is related positively to perceived social cohesion and negatively to anonymity, both of which are significantly related to frequency of physical exercise in the neighborhood...
March 5, 2018: Health & Place
Jennifer DuBose, Lorissa MacAllister, Khatereh Hadi, Bonnie Sakallaris
Evidence-based design (EBD) research has demonstrated the power of environmental design to support improved patient, family, and staff outcomes and to minimize or avoid harm in healthcare settings. While healthcare has primarily focused on fixing the body, there is a growing recognition that our healthcare system could do more by promoting overall wellness, and this requires expanding the focus to healing. This article explores how we can extend what we know from EBD about health impacts of spatial design to the more elusive goal of healing...
January 2018: HERD
Calum Hartley, Sophie Fisher
This study investigated whether children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and typically developing children matched on receptive language share resources fairly and reciprocally. Children completed age-appropriate versions of the Ultimatum and Dictator Games with real stickers and an interactive partner. Both groups offered similar numbers of stickers (preferring equality over self-interest), offered more stickers in the Ultimatum Game, and verbally referenced 'fairness' at similar rates. However, children with ASD were significantly more likely to accept unfair offers and were significantly less likely to reciprocate the puppet's offers...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Katarzyna Orlewska, Andrzej Sliwczynski, Ewa Orlewska
OBJECTIVES: To assess the link between the risks of most frequent cancer sites in Poland and selected socioeconomic variables that potentially affect health outcomes throughout the life course. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional ecological study. Incidence of lung, breast, and colon cancer by voivodeships in 2014 was calculated based on Polish National Cancer Registry. Socioeconomic variables in individual voivodeships were assessed based on Polish Social Cohesion Survey for 2015...
March 5, 2018: International Journal of Public Health
Katherine Smith Fornili
The purpose of this column is to summarize important aspects of the racialized War on Drugs, including (a) the school-to-prison pipeline, (b) the for-profit prison system ("prison industrial complex"), (c) racialized mass incarceration, and (d) the disproportionately negative impact of the War on Drugs on families and communities of color. Analysis of critical race theory (CRT), the study of the relationships between race, racism, and power, will provide a cohesive framework for examining these four aspects...
January 2018: Journal of Addictions Nursing
Nothando Ngwenya, Dumile Gumede, Maryam Shahmanesh, Nuala McGrath, Alison Grant, Janet Seeley
Following calls for targeted HIV prevention interventions in so-called "hotspots", we explored subjective perceptions of community members in places considered to be high HIV and tuberculosis (TB) transmission areas and those with low prevalence. Although more people now have access to antiretroviral therapy (ART), some areas are still experiencing high HIV transmission rates, presenting a barrier to the elimination of HIV. A rapid qualitative assessment approach was used to access a sample of 230 people who contributed narratives of their experiences and perceptions of transmission, treatment and prevention of HIV and TB in their communities...
March 2018: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
Adobea Y Owusu, Amos Laar
As of December 2015 there were 37 million persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs), 70% of whom are in sub-Saharan Africa. Ghana, which contributes a relatively small number to Africa's HIV burden, has a generalised HIV epidemic. The current national prevalence is 1.47%. Agormanya, one of the HIV sentinel sites in the county and where this study was conducted, has current prevalence of 11.6%. This makes it critical to explore how persons infected with HIV manage their lives, especially in the midst of entrenched stigma and discrimination...
March 2018: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
Julianna M Nemeth, Tiffany L Thomson, Bo Lu, Juan Peng, Valdis Krebs, Nathan J Doogan, Amy K Ferketich, Douglas M Post, Christopher R Browning, Electra D Paskett, Mary E Wewers
INTRODUCTION: The social-contextual model of tobacco control and the potential mechanisms of the maintenance or cessation of smoking behavior among disadvantaged women, including rural residents, have yet to be comprehensively studied. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between selected individual, interpersonal, workplace, and neighborhood characteristics and smoking status among women in Appalachia, a US region whose residents experience a disproportionate prevalence of tobacco-related health disparities...
March 2018: Rural and Remote Health
So Hee Lee, Eun Ji Kim, Jin Won Noh, Jeong Ho Chae
BACKGROUND: The Sewol ferry disaster caused national shock and grief in Korea. The present study examined the prevalence and associated factors of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms among the surviving students 20 months after that disaster. METHODS: This study was conducted using a cross-sectional design and a sample of 57 students (29 boys and 28 girls) who survived the Sewol ferry disaster. Data were collected using a questionnaire, including instruments that assessed psychological status...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Antony S R Manstead
Drawing on recent research on the psychology of social class, I argue that the material conditions in which people grow up and live have a lasting impact on their personal and social identities and that this influences both the way they think and feel about their social environment and key aspects of their social behaviour. Relative to middle-class counterparts, lower/working-class individuals are less likely to define themselves in terms of their socioeconomic status and are more likely to have interdependent self-concepts; they are also more inclined to explain social events in situational terms, as a result of having a lower sense of personal control...
February 28, 2018: British Journal of Social Psychology
Emma J Dunston, Jackie Abell, Rebecca E Doyle, Jacqui Kirk, Victoria B Hilley, Andrew Forsyth, Emma Jenkins, Rafael Freire
The wild population of the African lion Panthera leo continues to decline, requiring alternate conservation programs to be considered. One such program is ex situ reintroduction. Prior to release, long-term monitoring and assessment of behavior is required to determine whether prides and coalitions behave naturally and are sufficiently adapted to a wild environment. Social network analysis (SNA) can be used to provide insight into how the pride as a whole and individuals within it, function. Our study was conducted upon 2 captive-origin prides who are part of an ex situ reintroduction program, and 1 wild pride of African lion...
June 2017: Current Zoology
Tatiana Colchen, Fabrice Teletchea, Pascal Fontaine, Alain Pasquet
A host of abiotic factors modify fish social behavior. However, few studies have characterized the effects of temperature on behavior. In this study, brown trout Salmo trutta fry were reared at 5 different temperatures (4°C, 6°C, 8°C, 10°C, and 12°C). In order to characterize group structure, 3 behavioral parameters were investigated: group social structure (based on inter-individual distances), inter-individual relationships (based on physical contacts), and individual activity. These behavioral parameters were studied at the emergence stage, which corresponds to a switch from a social gregarious life in the gravel to a solitary one in the water column...
April 2017: Current Zoology
Svetlana Nikitina, Daniele Didino, Marcos Baez, Fabio Casati
BACKGROUND: Regular physical activity has a positive effect on physical health, well-being, and life satisfaction of older adults. However, engaging in regular physical activity can be challenging for the elderly population because of reduced mobility, low motivation, or lack of the proper infrastructures in their communities. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper was to study the feasibility of home-based online group training-under different group cohesion settings-and its effects on adherence and well-being among Russian older adults...
February 27, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Fabian Winter, Nan Zhang
Recent waves of immigration to Western nations have fueled a debate over the consequences of ethnic diversity for social cohesion. One prominent argument in this debate holds that diversity is detrimental to trust and cooperation because individuals in heterogeneous communities face difficulties in enforcing social norms across ethnic lines. We examine this proposition in a field experiment involving real-life interactions among residents of multiethnic German neighborhoods. We find significant ethnic asymmetries in the pattern of norm enforcement: Members of the majority "native" German population are more active in sanctioning norm violations, while ethnic minorities are more likely to find themselves the target of sanctions...
February 26, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Ade Kearns, Elise Whitley
This article examines whether perceived neighborhood ethnic diversity is associated with a range of social outcomes in a postindustrial city undergoing regeneration. The research included a survey in 3 types of deprived area in Glasgow: those undergoing regeneration, those directly adjoining regeneration areas, and those further removed from regeneration areas. In areas undergoing regeneration, perceived diversity was positively associated with many residential, cohesion, safety, and empowerment outcomes. This was also true, although to a lesser extent, in deprived areas at some distance from regeneration areas...
2018: Journal of Urban Affairs
So Hee Lee, Hee Sun Nam, Hak Beom Kim, Eun Ji Kim, Jin-Won Noh, Jeong-Ho Chae
Objective: The Sewol ferry disaster caused shock and grief in South Korea. The aim of this study was to identify the factors associated with symptoms of complicated grief (CG) among the surviving students 20 months after that disaster. Methods: This study was conducted using a cross-sectional design and a sample of 57 students who survived the Sewol ferry disaster. Data were collected using the following instruments: Inventory of Complicated Grief (ICG), the Lifetime Incidence of Traumatic Events-Child, the Child Report of Post-Traumatic Symptoms (CROPS), KIDSCREEN-27, Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales-III, the Peri-traumatic Dissociation-Post-traumatic Negative Beliefs-Post-traumatic Social Support scale, and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire...
February 22, 2018: Psychiatry Investigation
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"