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Social cohesion

Yusuf Ransome, Ichiro Kawachi, Lorraine T Dean
High neighborhood social capital could facilitate earlier diagnosis of HIV and higher rates of linkage and HIV care engagement. Multivariate analysis was used to examine whether social capital (social cohesion, social participation, and collective engagement) in 2004/2006 was associated with lower 5-year average (2007-2011) prevalence of (a) late HIV diagnosis, (b) linked to HIV care, and (c) engaged in HIV care within Philadelphia, PA, United States. Census tracts (N = 332). Higher average neighborhood social participation was associated with higher prevalence of late HIV diagnosis (b = 1...
October 17, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
Sharrelle Barber, DeMarc A Hickson, Xu Wang, Mario Sims, Cheryl Nelson, Ana V Diez-Roux
OBJECTIVES: To examine the impact of neighborhood conditions resulting from racial residential segregation on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in a socioeconomically diverse African American sample. METHODS: The study included 4096 African American women (n = 2652) and men (n = 1444) aged 21 to 93 years from the Jackson Heart Study (Jackson, Mississippi; 2000-2011). We assessed neighborhood disadvantage with a composite measure of 8 indicators from the 2000 US Census...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Public Health
Ruth Dolado, Catherine Cooke, Francesc S Beltran
For group-living primates, social organization hinges upon multiple factors, including group size, group cohesion, and the group's age and sex composition. Fission-fusion dynamics reduce the risks of living in a large group, which can include feeding competition related to the seasonality of resources. Here we report on the group dynamics (i.e. formation of parties) of a population of red-capped mangabeys (Cercocebus torquatus) located in Sentier Nature forest, South Loango National Park, Gabon, and examine the role of fruit availability in episodes of fission-fusion and shifting range use during the peak fruiting season of 2014...
October 12, 2016: Folia Primatologica; International Journal of Primatology
Jennifer Karas Montez, Anna Zajacova, Mark D Hayward
Inequalities in women's mortality between U.S. states are large and growing. It is unknown whether they reflect differences between states in their population characteristics, contextual characteristics, or both. This study systematically examines the large inequalities in women's mortality between U.S. states using a multilevel approach. It focuses on "fundamental" social determinants of mortality at the individual and state levels as potential explanations. We analyze data from the 2013 public-use National Longitudinal Mortality Study on women aged 45-89 years and estimate multilevel logistic regression models...
December 2016: SSM—Population Health
Heather Douglas, Andrew Georgiou, Johanna Westbrook
Objectives Social participation has generated a wealth of research in gerontology, but the concept suffers from a lack of conceptual clarity that renders it difficult to define and measure. This means that research on social participation is difficult to compare directly. The aim of the present study was to draw the literature on social participation in older adults together to inform health services researchers seeking to investigate social participation as an indicator of successful aging.Methods A narrative review of studies investigating the association between social participation and health in adults aged 65 years and older was conducted...
October 7, 2016: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
Martin Lindström
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 10, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Kaitlyn Hornik, Bethany Cutts, Andrew Greenlee
Environmental justice and sustainability are compatible lenses, yet action toward equity is often missing from urban sustainability initiatives. This study aims to assess the cohesion of these frameworks in practice. To do this, we parse individuals' theories of change, or how they identify and propose to resolve environmental injustices in the pursuit of sustainability. We posit that these theories of change are comprised of three main components: (1) perceived environmental benefits and burdens; (2) the causal pathways of environmental and social injustice; and (3) visions for positive change...
September 30, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Amy M Rapp, Anna Lau, Denise A Chavira
The proposed research seeks to introduce a novel model relating Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) and suicide outcomes (i.e., passive suicidal ideation, active suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts) in diverse adolescents. This model posits that family cohesion is one pathway by which suicide risk is increased for socially anxious youth, and predicts that the relationships between these variables may be of different strength in Latino and White subgroups and across gender. Data from a sample of Latino (n=1922) and non-Hispanic White (hereafter referred to as White throughout) (n=5648) male and female adolescents who participated in the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent were used for this study...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Sophie van Baalen, Annamaria Carusi, Ian Sabroe, David G Kiely
In recent years there has been growing attention to the epistemology of clinical decision-making, but most studies have taken the individual physicians as the central object of analysis. In this paper we argue that knowing in current medical practice has an inherently social character and that imaging plays a mediating role in these practices. We have analyzed clinical decision-making within a medical expert team involved in diagnosis and treatment of patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH), a rare disease requiring multidisciplinary team involvement in diagnosis and management...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
Kathleen S J Preston, Allen W Gottfried, Pamella H Oliver, Adele Eskeles Gottfried, Danielle E Delany, Sirena M Ibrahim
The construct of positive family relationships (PFR), defined as family members getting along well and supporting each other, was investigated in a long-term prospective study. A newly constructed scale of positive family relationships developed using the nominal response model of item-response theory, was subject to a longitudinal network of relations analysis. The conceptualization for this research was founded on a positive psychology framework. Data derived from the Fullerton Longitudinal Study and spanned 20 years from middle childhood (age 9 years) to early adulthood (age 29 years)...
October 2016: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
Peng-Fei Fan, Chang-Yong Ma, Paul A Garber, Wen Zhang, Han-Lan Fei, Wen Xiao
Dance is a universal art form practiced by all human societies and has many functions including sexual attraction, social cohesion, and the therapeutic release of energy. Dance also has been reported in a small number of non-human primate species, in particular apes. However, its function has not been systematically evaluated. We observed 357 intentional, rhythmic, and nonverbal dance displays performed by four adult female cao vit gibbons (Nomascus nasutus) residing in four polygynous groups during 3000 h of observation in Bangliang, Guangxi, China...
September 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
Yasuyuki Muroyama
Individual spatial positioning plays an important role in mediating the costs and benefits of group living, and thus shapes different aspects of animal social systems including group structure and cohesiveness. I aimed to quantify variation in individual spacing behavior and its correlates in a group of wild patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) living in north Cameroon. I collected data on inter-individual distances during group scans when following subject females. Individuals had longer inter-individual distances during the non-birth season than during the birth season...
September 29, 2016: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Erica G Soltero, Ester Cerin, Rebecca E Lee, Teresia M O'Connor
Differences in subjective and objective safety may be explained by moderators that shape parental perceptions of the environment. This study examined associations between subjective and objective measures of traffic and crime safety in preschool parents (N = 240) and potential moderators. Community cohesion, social control, and physical activity parenting practices were measured. Objective measures of crime and traffic were measured at the block-group level. Linear models revealed perceived traffic was negatively associated with the traffic hazards (b = -0...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
Evan Senreich
BACKGROUND: There is a large body of literature regarding the need for culturally-informed practice with non-white populations in substance abuse treatment. Virtually nothing, however, has been written regarding the needs of white clients when they represent a small minority in treatment programs. OBJECTIVES: The primary purpose of this study is to compare perceptions of treatment and completion rates between white and nonwhite clients in a substance abuse treatment program where white clients represent a small minority...
September 28, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Joreintje D Mackenbach, Jeroen Lakerveld, Yavanna van Oostveen, Sofie Compernolle, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, Helga Bárdos, Harry Rutter, Ketevan Glonti, Jean-Michel Oppert, Helene Charreire, Johannes Brug, Giel Nijpels
BACKGROUND: Neighbourhood income inequality may contribute to differences in body weight. We explored whether neighbourhood social capital mediated the association of neighbourhood income inequality with individual body mass index (BMI). METHODS: A total of 4126 adult participants from 48 neighbourhoods in France, Hungary, the Netherlands and the UK provided information on their levels of income, perceptions of neighbourhood social capital and BMI. Factor analysis of the 13-item social capital scale revealed two social capital constructs: social networks and social cohesion...
September 27, 2016: European Journal of Public Health
Christos C Ioannou, Sasha R X Dall
It is well established that living in groups helps animals avoid predation and locate resources, but maintaining a group requires collective coordination, which can be difficult when individuals differ from one another. Personality variation (consistent behavioural differences within a population) is already known to be important in group interactions. Growing evidence suggests that individuals also differ in their consistency, i.e. differing in how variable they are over time, and theoretical models predict that this consistency can be beneficial in social contexts...
September 27, 2016: Scientific Reports
Callista A Ottoni, Joanie Sims-Gould, Meghan Winters, Myrthe Heijnen, Heather A McKay
Neighbourhood environments significantly influence health and well-being, especially as people age. Our study uniquely highlights how one microscale feature (benches) influence older adults experiences of mobility and well-being, from their perspective. We also explore how these experiences affect and are affected by the social environment of the neighbourhoods where older adults live. We conducted one-on-one seated and walk-along interviews with individuals aged 60+ that live in three adjacent neighbourhoods in Vancouver, Canada...
September 13, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Maria A Carrasco, Usama Bilal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 10, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Nicolas Zdanowicz, Thomas Dubois, Christine Reynaert, Denis Jacques, Pauline Manceaux
BACKGROUND: In a previous study, we investigated the risk of admission to emergency (ER) of depressed patients prior to their hospitalization in psychiatry in comparison with hospitalized patients transferred from the consultations department (Cdpt). In the present study, we compare among the same patients variables affecting the intensity of depression in each group. METHOD: All patients with Major depressive disorder admitted in our department through emergencies (N=146) or consultations (N=2172) between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2012 were included in an open study...
September 2016: Psychiatria Danubina
Chia-Nan Chiu, Huei-Huang Chen
Many studies on the significance of knowledge management (KM) in the business world have been performed in recent years. Public sector KM is a research area of growing importance. Findings show that few authors specialize in the field and there are several obstacles to developing a cohesive body of literature. In order to examine their effect of the knowledge management capability [which consists of knowledge infrastructure capability (KIC) and knowledge process capability (KPC)] and organizational effectiveness (OE), this study conducted structural equation modeling to test the hypotheses with 302 questionnaires of Taipei Water Department staffs in Taiwan...
2016: SpringerPlus
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