keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Social cohesion

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334933/disrupted-in-schizophrenia-1is-essential-for-normal-hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal-hpi-axis-function
#1
Helen Eachus, Charlotte Bright, Vincent T Cunliffe, Marysia Placzek, Jonathan D Wood, Penelope J Watt
Psychiatric disorders arise due to an interplay of genetic and environmental factors, including stress. Studies in rodents have shown that mutants for Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia-1 (DISC1), a well-accepted genetic risk factor for mental illness, display abnormal behaviours in response to stress, but the mechanisms through which DISC1 affects stress responses remain poorly understood. Using two lines of zebrafish homozygous mutant for disc1, we investigated behaviour and functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis, the fish equivalent of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis...
March 1, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332293/beyond-the-dyadic-perspective-10-reasons-for-using-social-network-analysis-in-intergroup-contact-research
#2
Ralf Wölfer, Miles Hewstone
This article presents 10 reasons why social network analysis, a novel but still surprisingly underused approach in social psychology, can advance the analysis of intergroup contact. Although intergroup contact has been shown to improve intergroup relations, conventional methods leave some questions unanswered regarding the underlying social mechanisms that facilitate social cohesion between different groups in increasingly diverse societies. We will therefore explain the largely unknown conceptual and methodological advantages of social network analysis for studying intergroup contact in naturally existing groups, which are likely to help contact researchers to gain a better understanding of intergroup relations and guide attempts to overcome segregation, prejudice, discrimination, and intergroup conflict...
March 23, 2017: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327273/factors-affecting-orthopedic-residency-selection-a-cross-sectional-survey
#3
Jason Strelzow, Robert Petretta, Henry M Broekhuyse
BACKGROUND: Annually, orthopedic residency programs rank and recruit the best possible candidates. Little evidence exists identifying factors that potential candidates use to select their career paths. Recent literature from nonsurgical programs suggests hospital, social and program-based factors influence program selection. We sought to determine what factors influence the choice of an orthopedic career and a candidate's choice of orthopedic residency program. METHODS: We surveyed medical student applicants to orthopedic programs and current Canadian orthopedic surgery residents (postgraduate year [PGY] 1-5)...
April 1, 2017: Canadian Journal of Surgery. Journal Canadien de Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324812/the-effects-of-ovarian-biopsy-and-blood-sampling-methods-on-salivary-cortisol-and-behaviour-in-sows
#4
Jinhyeon Yun, Stefan Björkman, Merja Pöytäkangas, Olli Peltoniemi
In reproductive physiology research, experimental animals are often subjected to stressful procedures, including blood sampling and biopsy. In this present study, presence of pain or distress induced by four different procedures was examined using a measurement of salivary cortisol levels and activity observations in sows. The treatments were: 1) PAL: The ovary was palpated through the rectum without snaring, 2) TUB: transvaginal ultrasound-guided biopsy of the ovary was conducted without snaring, 3) SNA: a soft rope snare was placed around the maxilla, 4) CAT: A soft rope snare was placed around the maxilla, and an intravenous catheter was inserted through the ear vein of the sows...
March 11, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323578/anxiety-and-its-correlates-among-young-adults-with-a-history-of-parental-cancer
#5
Christina A Metcalf, Joanna J Arch, Joseph A Greer
PURPOSE: We assessed whether experiencing parental cancer during childhood was associated with anxiety levels during young adulthood-and whether parental survival status moderated anxiety or related psychosocial outcomes. METHODS: Young adults who experienced parental cancer during their childhood (n = 68) and those who did not (n = 298) completed measures of current anxiety and family functioning. The parental cancer group completed measures of social support and life changes during the parental cancer and posttraumatic growth...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Psychosocial Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298593/learning-and-robustness-to-catch-and-release-fishing-in-a-shark-social-network
#6
Johann Mourier, Culum Brown, Serge Planes
Individuals can play different roles in maintaining connectivity and social cohesion in animal populations and thereby influence population robustness to perturbations. We performed a social network analysis in a reef shark population to assess the vulnerability of the global network to node removal under different scenarios. We found that the network was generally robust to the removal of nodes with high centrality. The network appeared also highly robust to experimental fishing. Individual shark catchability decreased as a function of experience, as revealed by comparing capture frequency and site presence...
March 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288664/injured-bodies-damaged-lives-experiences-and-narratives-of-kenyan-women-with-obstetric-fistula-and-female-genital-mutilation-cutting
#7
Lillian Mwanri, Glory Joy Gatwiri
BACKGROUND: It is well acknowledged that Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C/C) leads to medical, psychological and sociocultural sequels. Over 200 million cases of FGM/C exist globally, and in Kenya alone, a total of 12,418,000 (28%) of women have undergone FGM/C, making the practice not only a significant national, but also a global health catastrophe. FGM/C is rooted in patriarchal and traditional cultures as a communal experience signifying a transition from girlhood to womanhood...
March 14, 2017: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285183/examination-of-neighborhood-disadvantage-and-sleep-in-a-multi-ethnic-cohort-of-adolescents
#8
Wendy M Troxel, Regina A Shih, Brett Ewing, Joan S Tucker, Alvin Nugroho, Elizabeth J D'Amico
PURPOSE: Neighborhood-level socioeconomic disadvantage and lower individual-level socioeconomic status are associated with poorer sleep health in adults. However, few studies have examined the association between neighborhood-level disadvantage and sleep in adolescents, a population at high-risk for sleep disturbances. METHODS: The current study is the first to examine how objective (i.e. via census tract-level data) and subjective measures of neighborhood disadvantage are associated with sleep in a racially/ ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of 2493 youth [Non-Hispanic White (20%), Hispanic (46%), Asian (21%), and Multiracial/ Other (13%)]...
March 9, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282942/the-role-of-age-friendly-environments-on-quality-of-life-among-thai-older-adults
#9
Sariyamon Tiraphat, Karl Peltzer, Kriengsak Thamma-Aphiphol, Kawinarat Suthisukon
Studies on the significance of age-friendly environments towards quality of life among older adults have been limited. This study aimed to examine the association between age-friendly environments and quality of life among Thai older adults. Cross-sectional interview survey data were collected from 4183 older adults (≥60 years) using multistage stratified systematic sampling from all four regions in Thailand. The outcome variable was the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) scale, while independent variables included sociodemographic factors, having a health problem, and neighbourhood age-friendly environment variables...
March 9, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280350/residents-experiences-of-relationships-with-nurses-in-community-based-supported-housing-a-qualitative-study-based-on-giorgi-s-method-of-analysis-and-self-psychology
#10
Solrun Brenk Rønning, Stål Bjørkly
One of the prioritizations in the World Health Organization's (WHO) Mental Health Action Plan 2013-2020 is the provision of community mental health and social care services, such as supported housing. The ongoing process of such deinstitutionalization has raised issues concerning the impact on users' quality of life. The purpose of this study was to explore how residents in supported housing experience receiving professional help and how they perceived their relationships with nurses. The second aim was to investigate the relevance of Giorgi's method of analysis and self psychology in analyzing these experiences...
2017: Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279573/depressive-symptomatology-and-fall-risk-among-community-dwelling-older-adults
#11
Geoffrey J Hoffman, Ron D Hays, Steven P Wallace, Martin F Shapiro, Susan L Ettner
RATIONALE: Falls are common among older adults and may be related to depressive symptoms (DS). With advancing age, there is an onset of chronic conditions, sensory impairments, and activity limitations that are associated with falls and with depressive disorders. Prior cross-sectional studies have observed significant associations between DS and subsequent falls as well as between fractures and subsequent clinical depression and DS. OBJECTIVE: The directionality of these observed relationship between falls and DS is in need of elaboration given that cross-sectional study designs can yield biased estimates of the DS-falls relationship...
April 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254708/the-relationship-between-natural-outdoor-environments-and-cognitive-functioning-and-its-mediators
#12
Wilma L Zijlema, Margarita Triguero-Mas, Graham Smith, Marta Cirach, David Martinez, Payam Dadvand, Mireia Gascon, Marc Jones, Christopher Gidlow, Gemma Hurst, Daniel Masterson, Naomi Ellis, Magdalena van den Berg, Jolanda Maas, Irene van Kamp, Peter van den Hazel, Hanneke Kruize, Mark J Nieuwenhuijsen, Jordi Julvez
BACKGROUND: Urban residents may experience cognitive fatigue and little opportunity for mental restoration due to a lack of access to nature. Natural outdoor environments (NOE) are thought to be beneficial for cognitive functioning, but underlying mechanisms are not clear. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the long-term association between NOE and cognitive function, and its potential mediators. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was based on adult participants of the Positive Health Effects of the Natural Outdoor Environment in Typical Populations in Different Regions in Europe (PHENOTYPE) project...
February 27, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253005/the-effects-of-gender-composition-on-women-s-experience-in-math-work-groups
#13
Sarah S Grover, Tiffany A Ito, Bernadette Park
The present studies tested a model outlining the effects of group gender composition on self- and others' perceptions of women's math ability in a truly interactive setting with groups composed entirely of naïve participants (N = 158 4-person groups across 3 studies). One woman in each group was designated to be the "expert" by having her complete a tutorial that gave her task-relevant knowledge for a subsequent group task. Group gender composition was hypothesized to influence perceptions of women's math ability through intrapersonal processes (stereotype threat effects on performance) and interpersonal processes (social cohesion between the expert and other group members)...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242370/victimizations-of-mexican-youth-12-17-years-old-a-2014-national-survey
#14
Sonia M Frías, David Finkelhor
Victimization of Mexican youth (aged 12-17) has received little attention compared to that of adults. Using the 2014 Social Survey on Social Cohesion for the Prevention of Violence and Delinquency, we examine prevalence and types of victimization; describe the characteristics of incidents in terms of relationship with perpetrator(s) and places where took place; and study significant correlates of forms of victimization and poly-victimization. During 2014 alone, more than 2.8 million minors were victims of bullying, cyberbullying, theft, sexual abuse, physical assault, threats, robbery, or extortion...
February 24, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237745/brood-size-can-influence-maternal-behaviour-and-chick-s-development-in-precocial-birds
#15
Nadège Aigueperse, Florent Pittet, Emmanuel de Margerie, Céline Nicolle, Cécilia Houdelier, Sophie Lumineau
Mothers have a crucial influence on offspring development. Variations of maternal behaviour can be due to numerous parameters, for instance costs are related to the size of a brood/litter, which in turn can influence the level of mothers' investment in each offspring. Here we investigated the influence of brood size on the behaviour of Japanese quail mothers and chicks during the mothering period and on offspring development. We compared two types of broods: small broods of three chicks (N=9) and large broods of six chicks (N=9)...
February 22, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237375/maternal-mental-health-and-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-discharge-readiness-in-mothers-of-preterm-infants
#16
Elisabeth C McGowan, Nan Du, Katheleen Hawes, Richard Tucker, Melissa O'Donnell, Betty Vohr
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate associations between maternal mental health disorders (MHDs) and discharge readiness for mothers of infants born preterm (<37 weeks). We hypothesized that mothers with a history of MHDs would report decreased perceptions of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) discharge readiness compared with mothers without a history. STUDY DESIGN: Mothers of infants born preterm in the NICU >5 days between 2012 and 2015 and participating in a transition home program completed a discharge readiness questionnaire measuring perceptions of staff support, infant well-being (medical stability), maternal well-being (emotional readiness/competency), and maternal comfort (worry about infant)...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236688/interventions-and-working-relationships-of-voluntary-organisations-for-diabetes-self-management-a-cross-national-study
#17
Mari Carmen Portillo, Anne Kennedy, Elka Todorova, Elena Regaira, Michel Wensing, Christina Foss, Christos Lionis, Ivaylo Vassilev, Valentin Goev, Anne Rogers
BACKGROUND: Diabetes has become a challenging health priority globally. Given the tensions of financially burdened health systems in Europe the mobilisation of community resources like voluntary organisations and community groups is seen as a health policy strategy to sustain the management of long-term conditions like diabetes. However, little is known about how this is happening in practice in Europe. OBJECTIVES: To explore diabetes self-management interventions undertaken or promoted by voluntary organisations and community groups in Europe; and describe the types of working relationships between these organisations, European health systems and users when implementing diabetes self-management programmes in different areas...
February 3, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223529/social-ecological-network-analysis-of-scale-mismatches-in-estuary-watershed-restoration
#18
Jesse S Sayles, Jacopo A Baggio
Resource management boundaries seldom align with environmental systems, which can lead to social and ecological problems. Mapping and analyzing how resource management organizations in different areas collaborate can provide vital information to help overcome such misalignment. Few quantitative approaches exist, however, to analyze social collaborations alongside environmental patterns, especially among local and regional organizations (i.e., in multilevel governance settings). This paper develops and applies such an approach using social-ecological network analysis (SENA), which considers relationships among and between social and ecological units...
March 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216609/is-the-association-between-park-proximity-and-recreational-physical-activity-among-mid-older-aged-adults-moderated-by-park-quality-and-neighborhood-conditions
#19
Jelle Van Cauwenberg, Ester Cerin, Anna Timperio, Jo Salmon, Benedicte Deforche, Jenny Veitch
Previous studies have reported mixed findings on the relationship between park proximity and recreational physical activity (PA), which could be explained by park quality and the surrounding neighborhood environment. We examined whether park quality and perceptions of the neighborhood physical and social environment moderated associations between park proximity and recreational PA among mid-older aged adults. Cross-sectional self-reported data on park proximity, park quality, neighborhood physical and social environmental factors, recreational walking and other moderate- to vigorous-intensity recreational physical activity (MVPA) were collected among 2700 Australian adults (57-69 years) in 2012...
February 14, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214249/perceived-neighborhood-social-cohesion-and-preventive-healthcare-use
#20
Eric S Kim, Ichiro Kawachi
INTRODUCTION: Neighborhood social cohesion has been linked with better health and health behaviors, but its association with patterns of preventive healthcare use remains understudied. The hypothesis was that people with higher perceived neighborhood social cohesion would display increased use of preventive healthcare services. METHODS: Participants (N=7,168) were drawn from the 2006 wave of the Health and Retirement Study-a prospective and nationally representative panel study of American adults aged >50 years-and tracked for one wave (2 years)...
February 14, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
keyword
keyword
24346
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"