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Social cohesion

Brendon Stubbs, Davy Vancampfort, Joseph Firth, Felipe B Schuch, Mats Hallgren, Lee Smith, Benjamin Gardner, Kai G Kahl, Nicola Veronese, Marco Solmi, André F Carvalho, Ai Koyanagi
BACKGROUND: Sedentary behavior (SB) is associated with diabetes, cardiovascular disease and low mood. There is a paucity of multi-national research investigating SB and depression, particularly among low- and middle-income countries. This study investigated the association between SB and depression, and factors which influence this. METHODS: Cross-sectional data were analyzed from the World Health Organization's Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health. Depression was based on the Composite International Diagnostic Interview...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Joshua Conrad Jackson, Jonathan Jong, David Bilkey, Harvey Whitehouse, Stefanie Zollmann, Craig McNaughton, Jamin Halberstadt
Separate research streams have identified synchrony and arousal as two factors that might contribute to the effects of human rituals on social cohesion and cooperation. But no research has manipulated these variables in the field to investigate their causal - and potentially interactive - effects on prosocial behaviour. Across four experimental sessions involving large samples of strangers, we manipulated the synchronous and physiologically arousing affordances of a group marching task within a sports stadium...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Bipin Adhikari, Koukeo Phommasone, Palingnaphone Kommarasy, Xayaphone Soundala, Phonesavanh Souvanthong, Tiengkham Pongvongsa, Gisela Henriques, Paul N Newton, Nicholas J White, Nicholas P J Day, Arjen M Dondorp, Lorenz von Seidlein, Mayfong Mayxay, Phaik Yeong Cheah, Christopher Pell
BACKGROUND: As a part of targeted malaria elimination (TME) in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS), mass drug administration (MDA) with anti-malarials was conducted in four villages in Nong District, Savannakhet Province, Lao PDR (Laos). A high proportion of the target population participated in the MDA, with over 87% agreeing to take the anti-malarial. Drawing on qualitative data collected alongside the MDA, this article explores the factors that led to this high population coverage...
January 9, 2018: Malaria Journal
Johanne Eliacin, Mindy Flanagan, Maria Monroe-DeVita, Sarah Wasmuth, Michelle P Salyers, Angela L Rollins
BACKGROUND: Provider burnout is a critical problem in mental health services. Contributing factors have been explicated across three domains: personal, job and organizational characteristics. Of these, organizational characteristics, including workplace environment, appear to be particularly important given that most interventions addressing burnout via the other domains (e.g. bolstering personal coping skills) have been modestly effective at best. AIMS: This study builds on previous research by using social capital as a framework for the experience of work social milieu, and aims to provide a richer understanding of how workplace social environment might impact burnout and help create more effective ways to reduce burnout...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Mental Health
Ida Frugård Strøm, Ole Kristian Hjemdal, Mia C Myhre, Tore Wentzel-Larsen, Siri Thoresen
Multiple factors may influence the risk of exposure to childhood violence and repeated victimization, although most research has focused on individual rather than contextual factors. Moreover, it is unclear whether family background factors associated with exposure to childhood violence also are associated with revictimization in young adulthood. This article investigates individual and contextual factors associated with childhood abuse and revictimization. Data from a community telephone survey, collected at two different time points ( N = 1,011, 16-33 years of age), were used...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Christopher Harshaw, Joseph K Leffel, Jeffrey R Alberts
Oxytocin is a social and reproductive hormone that also plays critical roles in a range of homeostatic processes, including thermoregulation. Here, we examine the role of oxytocin (OT) as a mediator of brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis, cold-induced huddling, and positive thermotaxis in eight-day-old (PD8) OT 'knock out' (OTKO) mouse pups. We tested OTKO and wildtype (WT) pups in single- and mixed-genotype groups of six, exposing these to a period of ambient warmth (~35°C) followed by a period of cold (~21...
December 22, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
Emanuel Alcala, Ricardo Cisneros, John A Capitman
BACKGROUND: California's San Joaquin Valley is a region with a history of poverty, low health care access, and high rates of pediatric asthma. It is important to understand the potential barriers to care that challenge vulnerable populations. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to describe pediatric asthma-related utilization patterns in the emergency department (ED) and hospital by insurance coverage as well as to identify contributing individual-level indicators (age, sex, race/ethnicity, and insurance coverage) and neighborhood-level indicators of health care access...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
Gabriella Olsson, Sara Brolin Låftman, Bitte Modin
As with other forms of violent behaviour, bullying is the result of multiple influences acting on different societal levels. Yet the majority of studies on bullying focus primarily on the characteristics of individual bullies and bullied. Fewer studies have explored how the characteristics of central contexts in young people's lives are related to bullying behaviour over and above the influence of individual-level characteristics. This study explores how teacher-rated school collective efficacy is related to student-reported bullying behaviour (traditional and cyberbullying victimization and perpetration)...
December 20, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Daisuke Machida, Tohru Yoshida
Objectives The aims of the study were as follows: 1) to investigate the relationship between community fruit and vegetable (FV) gardening and perceived changes in health-related factors by utilizing community gardens and 2) to determine the relationship of community FV gardening and other types of gardening on health-related factors among men aged 50-74 years living in a suburban area of Japan.Methods In this cross-sectional study, we targeted men aged 50-74 years living in a city in Gunma Prefecture. A survey solicited demographic characteristics, FV gardening information, and health-related factors [BMI, self-rated health status, FV intake, physical activity (PA), and perceived neighborhood social cohesion (PNSC)]...
2017: [Nihon Kōshū Eisei Zasshi] Japanese Journal of Public Health
Alexia D M Sawyer, Russell Jones, Marcella Ucci, Lee Smith, Ade Kearns, Abi Fisher
BACKGROUND: Understanding the environmental determinants of physical activity in populations at high risk of inactivity could contribute to the development of effective interventions. Socioecological models of activity propose that environmental factors have independent and interactive effects of physical activity but there is a lack of research into interactive effects. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to explore independent and interactive effects of social and physical environmental factors on self-reported physical activity in income-deprived communities...
2017: PloS One
Dieneke Schram-Bijkerk, Piet Otte, Liesbet Dirven, Anton M Breure
Urban gardening is part of a trend towards more parks and green areas in cities, consumption of organic, locally grown products, and a closer relationship with one's own living environment. Our literature review shows that urban gardens provide opportunities for physical activity and allow people to consume homegrown fruit and vegetables. Urban gardens may also reduce stress levels of gardeners and improve social cohesion. In this way, they can help to prevent health problems. Good quality of urban soil and the functioning of soil ecosystems are indispensable prerequisites for these...
December 4, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Hafiz T A Khan, Shereen Hussein, John Deane
Population ageing is a phenomenon affecting the whole world. The countries that make up the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) are no exception but transitions in population ageing are still in the early stages of the process. With current demographic dividends experienced by the GCC and the rest of the Middle-East, the pace of population ageing will be faster than that experienced by many European countries. The purpose of this paper is to explore the population ageing experience of different GCC countries while situating this within a context of social policies that still at the very early stages of acknowledging such change...
2017: Ageing International
Amanda C Perofsky, Rebecca J Lewis, Laura A Abondano, Anthony Di Fiore, Lauren Ancel Meyers
In wild primates, social behaviour influences exposure to environmentally acquired and directly transmitted microorganisms. Prior studies indicate that gut microbiota reflect pairwise social interactions among chimpanzee and baboon hosts. Here, we demonstrate that higher-order social network structure-beyond just pairwise interactions-drives gut bacterial composition in wild lemurs, which live in smaller and more cohesive groups than previously studied anthropoid species. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and social network analysis of grooming contacts, we estimate the relative impacts of hierarchical (i...
December 6, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Preeti Chauhan, Amie M Schuck, Cathy Spatz Widom
Using data from a prospective cohort design study of a group of children with documented histories of abuse and neglect (n = 908) and matched controls (n = 667), this paper examines whether problem behaviors (e.g., prostitution, crime, school problems, and homelessness) in young adulthood explain the link between maltreatment in childhood and living in high-risk neighborhoods in middle adulthood. Problem behaviors were assessed at mean age of 29 and neighborhood characteristics were assessed at mean age of 40...
December 6, 2017: American Journal of Community Psychology
Pamela Abbott, Claire Wallace, Roger Sapsford
This article is concerned with how social processes and social provision are conceptualised and measured in societies in order to offer guidance on how to improve developmental progress. Significant advances have been made in developing multidimensional measures of development, but they provide little guidance to governments on how to build sustainable societies. We argue for the need to develop a theoretically informed social and policy framework that permits the foundations for building decent societies to be put in place by governments...
2017: Applied Research in Quality of Life
Katherine A Grisanzio, Andrea N Goldstein-Piekarski, Michelle Yuyun Wang, Abdullah P Rashed Ahmed, Zoe Samara, Leanne M Williams
Importance: The symptoms that define mood, anxiety, and trauma disorders are highly overlapping across disorders and heterogeneous within disorders. It is unknown whether coherent subtypes exist that span multiple diagnoses and are expressed functionally (in underlying cognition and brain function) and clinically (in daily function). The identification of cohesive subtypes would help disentangle the symptom overlap in our current diagnoses and serve as a tool for tailoring treatment choices...
December 3, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
Michelle S Wong, Kitty S Chan, Jessica C Jones-Smith, Elizabeth Colantuoni, Roland J Thorpe, Sara N Bleich
Neighborhood characteristics have been associated with obesity, but less is known whether relationships vary by race/ethnicity. This study examined the relationship between soda consumption - a behavior strongly associated with obesity - and weight status with neighborhood sociodemographic, social, and built environments by race/ethnicity. We merged data on adults from the 2011-2013 California Health Interview Survey, U.S. Census data, and InfoUSA (n=62,396). Dependent variables were soda consumption and weight status outcomes (body mass index and obesity status)...
November 29, 2017: Preventive Medicine
Stacey B Scott, Elizabeth Munoz, Jacqueline A Mogle, Alyssa A Gamaldo, Joshua M Smyth, David M Almeida, Martin J Sliwinski
RATIONALE: Neighborhood characteristics may influence health and well-being outcomes through stressors in daily life. OBJECTIVES: This study tested whether a varied set of perceived characteristics of neighborhood (i.e., social cohesion, safety, aesthetic quality, violence) predicted stressor frequency and severity as well as negative emotional responses to stressors. We predicted greater reported cohesion and safety and less violence would be associated with less frequent stressor exposure and severity and less intense negative affect following stressors; we conducted subsequent tests of neighborhood aesthetic quality as a predictor...
November 9, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
Alfonso Pérez-Escudero, Gonzalo G de Polavieja
Decision-making theories explain animal behaviour, including human behaviour, as a response to estimations about the environment. In the case of collective behaviour, they have given quantitative predictions of how animals follow the majority option. However, they have so far failed to explain that in some species and contexts social cohesion increases when conditions become more adverse (i.e. individuals choose the majority option with higher probability when the estimated quality of all available options decreases)...
November 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Raquel Peña, Oscar E Suman, Marta Rosenberg, Clark R Andersen, David N Herndon, Walter J Meyer
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of long term psychosocial functioning and mental health of a "Day-Hospital" Based Exercise Program (DAYEX) versus a Community Based Exercise Program (COMBEX). DESIGN: This was a prospective design that consisted of two groups (DAYEX and COMBEX). SETTING: A children's hospital specialized in burn care (Shriner's Hospitals for Children, Inc., Galveston, Texas) PARTICIPANTS: A total of 18 patients, (n=9 DAYEX and n=9 COMBEX) were assessed at Intensive Care Unit (ICU) discharge and up to 1 year post burn...
November 25, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
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