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Forensic Anthropology

Pamela L Geller, Christopher M Stojanowksi
OBJECTIVES: This article uses craniometric allocation as a platform for discussing the legacy of Samuel G. Morton's collection of crania, the process of racialization, and the value of contextualized biohistoric research perspectives in biological anthropology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Standard craniometric measurements were recorded for seven Seminoles in the Samuel G. Morton Crania Collection and 10 European soldiers from the Fort St. Marks Military Cemetery; all individuals were men and died in Florida during the 19th century...
October 18, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Steven J Walden, Sam L Evans, Jacqui Mulville
The purpose of this study was to determine how the Vickers hardness (HV) of bone varies during soft tissue putrefaction. This has possible forensic applications, notably for determining the postmortem interval. Experimental porcine bone samples were decomposed in surface and burial deposition scenarios over a period of 6 months. Although the Vickers hardness varied widely, it was found that when transverse axial hardness was subtracted from longitudinal axial hardness, the difference showed correlations with three distinct phases of soft tissue putrefaction...
September 28, 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Tao Sun, Haitao Zhao, Lingxiang Wang, Wenjuan Wu, Wenhai Hu
PURPOSE: Our aim was to identify the incidence and distribution of sesamoid bones plantar to the metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints in adults, and to evaluate patterns of coincidence among these sesamoid bones. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of 7949 plain radiographs obtained from patients evaluated for foot trauma or symptomology. Associations between the distributions of MTP sesamoid bones as well as the association of age, sex, and laterality with identified prevalence, distribution, and coincidence were evaluated using Spearman's correlation coefficient...
October 14, 2016: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Natalie R Langley, Sandra Cridlin
Secular changes refer to short-term biological changes ostensibly due to environmental factors. Two well-documented secular trends in many populations are earlier age of menarche and increasing stature. This study synthesizes data on maximum clavicle length and fusion of the medial epiphysis in 1840-1980 American birth cohorts to provide a comprehensive assessment of developmental and morphological change in the clavicle. Clavicles from the Hamann-Todd Human Osteological Collection (n = 354), McKern and Stewart Korean War males (n = 341), Forensic Anthropology Data Bank (n = 1,239), and the McCormick Clavicle Collection (n = 1,137) were used in the analysis...
January 2016: Human Biology
Caroline Fournet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
Jing Chen, Bingbing Xie, Yaran Yang, Meng Yang, Chao Liu, Yuexin Lv, Chuguang Chen, Xiu Liu, Xiangdong Fang, Huijuan Wu, Jiangwei Yan
BACKGROUND: Investigation of allele and genotype frequencies of microsatellite loci in various populations is an essential prerequisite in forensic application. AIM: In the present study, we obtained population genetic data and forensic parameters of 39 autosomal Short Tandem Repeats (STRs) loci from Chinese Li ethnic group and estimated the genetic relationships between Li and other reference populations. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Thirty-nine STR loci, which include D19S433, D5S818, D21S11, D18S51, D6S1043, D3S1358, D13S317, D7S820, D16S539, CSF1PO, Penta D, D2S441, vWA, D8S1179, TPOX, Penta E, TH01, D12S391, D2S1338, FGA, D6S477, D18S535, D19S253, D15S659, D11S2368, D20S470, D1S1656, D22-GATA198B05, D8S1132, D4S2366, D21S1270, D13S325, D9S925, D3S3045, D14S608, D10S1435, D7S3048, D17S1290 and D5S2500, were amplified two multiplex DNA-STR fluorescence detection systems for 189 unrelated healthy individuals of Chinese Li ethnic group...
September 26, 2016: Annals of Human Biology
Policarp Hortolà
Apart from their forensic significance in crime investigation, human bloodstains have an anthropological interest due to their occurrence on certain traditional weapons and ritual objects. Previously, a guiding study of erythrocytes in experimental samples including domestic sheep (Ovis aries) tibia was carried out using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Here, a comparative SEM study to reveal the potential differences in bloodstain surface morphology as a function of intra-sample (smear region) and inter-sample (individual smear, smearing mechanism, bone origin) parameters is reported...
November 2016: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
Ailadda Kaewma, Apichakan Sampannang, Panya Tuamsuk, Jaturat Kanpittaya, Sitthichai Iamsaard
The rhomboid fossa of clavicle is used to determine the age and sex in anthropology and forensic sciences. The variant types of rhomboid fossa on inferior surface have been reported in many races except in Thais. This study therefore was aimed at classifying the types of the rhomboid fossa in Northeastern Thais. The identified 476 Northeastern Thais dried clavicles (270 males and 206 females) were observed and recorded for the types of rhomboid fossa. The results showed that Thai-rhomboid fossa could be classified into 4 types: Type 1: smooth; Type 2: flat; Type 3: elevated; and Type 4: depressed, respectively...
2016: Anatomy Research International
Chiara Villa, Jo Buckberry, Niels Lynnerup
Age at death estimation of human skeletal remains is one of the key issues in constructing a biological profile both in forensic and archaeological contexts. The traditional adult osteological methods evaluate macroscopically the morphological changes that occur with increasing age of specific skeletal indicators, such as the cranial sutures, the pubic bone, the auricular surface of the ilium and the sternal end of the ribs. Technologies such as computed tomography and laser scanning are becoming more widely used in anthropology, and several new methods have been developed...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
Supawon Srettabunjong, Panida Patompakdeesakul, Suvit Limawongpranee
Human scalp hair is one of the most common trace materials found at violent crime scenes. Accordingly, scalp hair is critical evidential material in forensic investigations for identifying relations and persons, which could result in solving cases. Knowledge about micro-morphological variations of scalp hair in the Thai population, however, is scarce, and information on age changes and sex differences with respect to these traits is limited. The present study was thus undertaken to explore three micro-morphological parameters of Thai scalp hair-hair index (HI), hair area (HA), medullary index (MI)-relative to age and sex differences...
October 2016: Forensic Science International
Maryam Paknahad, Mehrdad Vossoughi, Fatemeh Ahmadi Zeydabadi
OBJECTIVE: It has been suggested that the level of sexual dimorphism in deciduous dentition is relatively lower than that in permanent dentition. However, in sub adult skeletal remains whose osseous morphological traits of the sex have not defined yet, predicting sex on the basis of odontometric features may be the most precise technique. The aim of the present study was to assess the degree of sexual dimorphism in marginal enamel, dentin and pulp dimensions of second molar deciduous teeth in a pediatric population...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Daniele Gibelli, Federica Collini, Davide Porta, Matteo Zago, Claudia Dolci, Cristina Cattaneo, Chiarella Sforza
Facial approximation techniques used in forensic anthropology are based on soft-tissue thickness databases. However most of articles deal with adult populations, and very few studies were conducted on minors. This study aims at providing data concerning facial thickness for George reconstruction, preliminary to the 3D facial approximation. Diagnostic cephalometric X-ray films were obtained from 222 healthy Caucasoid children (91 boys and 131 girls), aged between 6 and 18years, treated in a Department of Orthodontics of Northern Italy...
September 2016: Legal Medicine
Elisa Cerutti, Laura Spagnoli, Nadezhda Araujo, Daniele Gibelli, Debora Mazzarelli, Cristina Cattaneo
One of the main issues in forensic anthropology consists of the identification of signs of trauma in skeletal remains, including sharp-force injuries. So far, several studies have been performed to assess differences between injuries caused by different instruments, not, however, through light microscopy.In this study, 152 sharp-force injuries were performed by 5 different tools through 2 different orientations on 2 humeral diaphyses and were analyzed by stereo and light microscopy to assess possible morphological differences...
August 31, 2016: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
Fabio Cavalli, Luca Lusnig, Edmondo Trentin
Sex determination on skeletal remains is one of the most important diagnosis in forensic cases and in demographic studies on ancient populations. Our purpose is to realize an automatic operator-independent method to determine the sex from the bone shape and to test an intelligent, automatic pattern recognition system in an anthropological domain. Our multiple-classifier system is based exclusively on the morphological variants of a curve that represents the sagittal profile of the calvarium, modeled via artificial neural networks, and yields an accuracy higher than 80 %...
August 29, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
P Anita, P D Madankumar, Shyam Sivasamy, I Nanda Balan
BACKGROUND: Stature is considered to be one of the "big fours" in forensic anthropology. Though Carrea's Index was published as early as 1920 it has not been validated in any other population apart from the Brazilians. AIM: The present study was conducted to validate Carrea's index in stature estimation in two different racial populations in India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was carried out in a sample of 100 persons comprising of 25 Aryan males, 25 Aryan females, 25 Dravidian males, and 25 Dravidian females in the age group of 18-30 years...
May 2016: Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences
Ajit Damera, Jonnala Mohanalakhsmi, Pavan Kumar Yellarthi, Begum Mohammed Rezwana
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Gender estimation is a very important part of a study in the field of anthropology and forensic sciences. In the skeleton, gender estimation is the first step of the identification process as subsequent methods for age and stature estimation are sex-dependent. Skeletal components such as the pelvis and skull are investigated for gender estimation and the mandible is a practical element to analyze sexual dimorphism in fragmented bones. The aim of the present study is to measure, compare, and evaluate various measurements of the mandibular ramus, observed in digital orthopantomographs and also to assess the usefulness of the mandibular ramus as an aid in gender estimation...
May 2016: Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences
Meng Tu, Ying-zhen Luo, Fei Fan, Li-bing Yun, Zhen-hua Deng
OBJECTIVE: To establish regression model between craniofacial lines and body height by measuring craniofacial lines in Southwest Han males using CT and to accumulate data for the study of forensic anthropology. METHODS: Head CT data of 273 Han males in Southwest were collected and 7 craniofacial lines were determined. Multiplanar reconstruction and volume rendering were performed by image post-processing software and the selected lines were measured. The relationship between each measuring indicator and body height was analyzed using SPSS 21...
April 2016: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
Joseph T Hefner, Brian F Spatola, Nicholas V Passalacqua, Timothy P Gocha
Anatomical crania are occasionally encountered in forensic anthropology laboratories when that material is mistaken for forensically significant human remains. Using craniometric analyses and statistical measures of sample homogeneity, we determine whether anatomical material can be described as a single, homogenous group or as a diverse mix of populations. Twenty-one interlandmark distances were collected from 85 anatomical preparations. Distance measures were calculated between all pairs using a pooled within-sample variance/covariance matrix and then subjected to a Defrise-Gussenhoven test between each paired distance to test whether each pair was drawn randomly from the same population...
August 8, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Zheng Wang, Di Zhou, Zhenjun Jia, Luyao Li, Wei Wu, Chengtao Li, Yiping Hou
STRs, scattered throughout the genome with higher mutation rate, are attractive to genetic application like forensic, anthropological and population genetics studies. STR profiling has now been applied in various aspects of human identification in forensic investigations. This work described the developmental validation of a novel and universal assay, the Huaxia Platinum System, which amplifies all markers in the expanded CODIS core loci and the Chinese National Database in one single PCR system. Developmental validation demonstrated that this novel assay is accurate, sensitive, reproducible and robust...
2016: Scientific Reports
Anežka Kotěrová, Jana Velemínská, Ján Dupej, Hana Brzobohatá, Aleš Pilný, Jaroslav Brůžek
Forensic anthropology has developed classification techniques for sex estimation of unknown skeletal remains, for example population-specific discriminant function analyses. These methods were designed for populations that lived mostly in the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Their level of reliability or misclassification is important for practical use in today's forensic practice; it is, however, unknown. We addressed the question of what the likelihood of errors would be if population specificity of discriminant functions of the tibia were disregarded...
July 20, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
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