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Forensic Anthropology

Qutsia Tabasum, Jagmahender Singh Sehrawat, Manjit Kaur Talwar, Raj Kamal Pathak
Background: Different dental features have contributed significantly toward sex determination in the forensic anthropological contexts. Population-specific standards (discriminant functions or regression formulae) have been suggested for various population groups to identify the sex of an unknown individual from dental dimensions and other odontometric features. The main purpose of the present investigation was to examine the degree of sexual dimorphism exhibited by the human teeth of North Indians and identify importance as a forensic tool in sex determination...
September 2017: Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences
Sandipamu Thabitha Rani
Background: Teeth morphology varies among different population groups as they are exposed to various environmental conditions. Teeth being the most stable and hard tissue, human identification can be made when the other tissues are unavailable. Odontometric analysis can be considered for anthropological and forensic investigations. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the reliability of odontometric mesiodistal (MD) width dimensions and indices in sexual dimorphism among Nalgonda population...
September 2017: Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences
Ankita Singh, Gadiputi Sreedhar, Jiji George, Abhilasha Shukla, Vaibhav Vashishta, M P S Negi
Background: Gender is one of the main characteristics analyzed for positive human identification in forensic medicine. The methods involving physical anthropology present high rate of accuracy for human identification and gender estimation. Aim: This study aimed to determine gender through different craniofacial variables using physical anthropometric methods. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 100 individuals (50 males and 50 females) in Lucknow...
September 2017: Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences
Guanglin He, Zheng Wang, Xing Zou, Xu Chen, Jing Liu, Mengge Wang, Yiping Hou
Non-CODIS STRs, with high polymorphism and allele frequency difference among ethnically and geographically different populations, play a crucial role in population genetics, molecular anthropology, and human forensics. In this work, 332 unrelated individuals from Sichuan Province (237 Tibetan individuals and 95 Yi individuals) are firstly genotyped with 21 non-CODIS autosomal STRs, and phylogenetic relationships with 26 previously investigated populations (9,444 individuals) are subsequently explored. In the Sichuan Tibetan and Yi, the combined power of discrimination (CPD) values are 0...
April 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Eun Jin Woo, Hyunwoo Jung, Tanvaa Tansatit
The present research aims to examine the cranial index in a modern people of Thai ancestry. Ultimately, this study will help to create a databank containing a cranial index for the classifications of the people from Asia. In this study, 185 modern crania of people of supposed Thai ancestry were examined. They were collected from the Department of Anatomy at Chulalongkorn University in Bangkok, Thailand. The maximum cranial length and breadth were measured using standard anthropometric instruments based on Martin's methods...
March 2018: Anatomy & Cell Biology
Nicola Carrara, Cinzia Scaggion, Emily Holland
OBJECTIVE: Documented and undocumented skeletal collections offer unique windows into life in the past and are integral for research in biological anthropology. The objective of this article is to describe the documented and undocumented collections curated by the Museum of Anthropology at Padua University (Italy) to demonstrate their potential for research and encourage researchers to consider them for future projects. MATERIALS: The collection was established by Prof...
April 1, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Shudong Xie, Wee Kheng Leow, Hanjing Lee, Thiam Chye Lim
Skull reconstruction is an important and challenging task in craniofacial surgery planning, forensic investigation and anthropological studies. Existing methods typically reconstruct approximating surfaces that regard corresponding points on the target skull as soft constraints, thus incurring non-zero error even for non-defective parts and high overall reconstruction error. This paper proposes a novel geometric reconstruction method that non-rigidly registers an interpolating reference surface that regards corresponding target points as hard constraints, thus achieving low reconstruction error...
March 30, 2018: International Journal of Medical Robotics + Computer Assisted Surgery: MRCAS
Angela Dautartas, Michael W Kenyhercz, Giovanna M Vidoli, Lee Meadows Jantz, Amy Mundorff, Dawnie Wolfe Steadman
While nonhuman animal remains are often utilized in forensic research to develop methods to estimate the postmortem interval, systematic studies that directly validate animals as proxies for human decomposition are lacking. The current project compared decomposition rates among pigs, rabbits, and humans at the University of Tennessee's Anthropology Research Facility across three seasonal trials that spanned nearly 2 years. The Total Body Score (TBS) method was applied to quantify decomposition changes and calculate the postmortem interval (PMI) in accumulated degree days (ADD)...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
René Gapert
Unidentified bones were donated to the Buchenwald Memorial Museum in Weimar, Germany. The donor thought the bones may have belonged to internees of the concentration camp and had been decoratively carved by camp personnel. Non-destructive forensic anthropological examination was carried out on the bones to identify their possible origin. Comparative human and non-human bones samples were used to determine the provenance of the bones and the anatomical region they may have come from. Literature and internet searches were conducted to trace the origin of the carved motifs on the bones...
March 28, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Enrique José Estévez Campo, Sandra López-Lázaro, Claudia López-Morago Rodríguez, Inmaculada Alemán Aguilera, Miguel Cecilio Botella López
Sex determination of unknown individuals is one of the primary goals of Physical and Forensic Anthropology. The adult skeleton can be sexed using both morphological and metric traits on a large number of bones. The human pelvis is often used as an important element of adult sex determination. However, studies carried out about the pelvic bone in subadult individuals present several limitations due the absence of sexually dimorphic characteristics. In this study, we analyse the sexual dimorphism of the immature pubis and ischium bones, attending to their shape (Procrustes residuals) and size (centroid size), using an identified sample of subadult individuals composed of 58 individuals for the pubis and 83 for the ischium, aged between birth and 1year of life, from the Granada osteological collection of identified infants (Granada, Spain)...
March 16, 2018: Forensic Science International
Douglas H Ubelaker
Forensic anthropology represents a dynamic and rapidly evolving complex discipline within anthropology and forensic science. Academic roots extend back to early European anatomists but development coalesced in the Americas through high-profile court testimony, assemblage of documented collections and focused research. Formation of the anthropology section of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences in 1972, the American Board of Forensic Anthropology in 1977/1978 and other organizational advances provided important stimuli for progress...
April 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Katharina Jellinghaus, Katharina Hoeland, Carolin Hachmann, Andreas Prescher, Michael Bohnert, Richard Jantz
Studying secular changes on human skulls is a central issue in anthropological research, which is however insufficiently investigated for modern German populations. With our study, we focus on morphological cranial variations within Germans during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. To study this, we recorded different facial landmarks from a cohort study of about 540 German individuals of different age and sex by calculating their cranial size, shape dimensions, and cranial module and cranial capacity to get information about variations occurring during the decades...
March 22, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Monia Messoussi, Endika Prieto-Fernández, Miriam Baeta, Carolina Núñez, Amel Ben Ammar-El Gaaied, Marian M de Pancorbo, Karima Fadhlaoui-Zid
In the present study, the genetic variations of 17 X-STR markers (DXS8378, DXS9898, DXS7133, GATA31E08, GATA172D05, DXS6801, DXS7423, DXS6809, DXS6799, DXS7132, DXS9902, DXS6800, DXS6789, DXS10075, DXS10079, DXS6807, and DXS6803) were analyzed in 139 unrelated individuals in Nabeul, aiming to perform an X-STR database for anthropological and forensic purposes. Our results indicate that DXS6809 was the most polymorphic locus, whereas DXS6807 was the least informative marker. In addition, the obtained values for the statistical parameters of forensic interest, i...
March 22, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Qi Wang, Wei Li, Ruina Liu, Kai Zhang, Haohui Zhang, Shuanliang Fan, Zhenyuan Wang
Human and non-human identification of unknown skeletal remains is of great importance in forensic and anthropologic contexts. However, the traditional morphological methods for bone species identification are subjective or time-consuming. Here, we utilized Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and chemometric methods to determinate the spectral variances between human and non-human (i.e., pig, goat, and cow) bones. To simulate real forensic situations as much as possible, fresh, boiled, and decomposed bones were included in this study...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
K L Colman, M C L Janssen, K E Stull, R R van Rijn, R J Oostra, H H de Boer, A E van der Merwe
Sex estimation techniques are frequently applied in forensic anthropological analyses of unidentified human skeletal remains. While morphological sex estimation methods are able to endure population differences, the classification accuracy of metric sex estimation methods are population-specific. No metric sex estimation method currently exists for the Dutch population. The purpose of this study is to create Dutch population specific sex estimation formulae by means of osteometric analyses of the proximal femur...
December 23, 2017: Forensic Science International
Alberto Zanatta, Luca Bezzi, Nicola Carrara, Cicero Moraes, Gaetano Thiene, Fabio Zampieri
Morgagni is considered the father of pathological anatomy. He died in 1771, 89 years old, and was buried in Saint Maxim church in Padua, where his wife and five of his 15 children were already buried. In 2011, an anthropological analysis confirmed that one of the skulls belonged to the oldest individuals among those found in Morgagni's tomb. A genetic analysis proved a kinship between this skull and the fragments of young individuals (one male and two females), supporting the hypothesis that they were Morgagni and his children...
March 14, 2018: Anthropologischer Anzeiger; Bericht über die Biologisch-anthropologische Literatur
Nazli Bozman, Cemal Gurkan, Huseyin Sevay, Damla Kanliada Demirdov, Filiz Ozbas-Gerceker
BACKGROUND: Southeastern Anatolia is the smallest, yet the most densely populated region among the seven major geographic constituents of Turkey. Situated in the Upper Mesopotamia, Southeastern Anatolia was also the northernmost extension of the Fertile Crescent, which is often considered as the earliest cradle of civilisation. AIM: To investigate the autosomal STR polymorphisms associated with a truly representative population sample pool from Southeastern Anatolia...
March 14, 2018: Annals of Human Biology
A Biedermann, S Bozza, F Taroni
There is ongoing discussion in forensic science and the law about the nature of the conclusions reached based on scientific evidence, and on how such conclusions - and conclusion criteria - may be justified by rational argument. Examples, among others, are encountered in fields such as fingermarks (e.g., 'this fingermark comes from Mr. A's left thumb'), handwriting examinations (e.g., 'the questioned signature is that of Mr. A'), kinship analyses (e.g., 'Mr. A is the father of child C') or anthropology (e.g...
March 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
Arwin Ralf, Diego Montiel González, Kaiyin Zhong, Manfred Kayser
Next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies offer immense possibilities given the large genomic data they simultaneously deliver. The human Y chromosome serves as good example how NGS benefits various applications in evolution, anthropology, genealogy and forensics. Prior to NGS, the Y-chromosome phylogenetic tree consisted of a few hundred branches, based on NGS data it now contains many thousands. The complexity of both, Y tree and NGS data provide challenges for haplogroup assignment. For effective analysis and interpretation of Y-chromosome NGS data, we present Yleaf, a publically available, automated, user-friendly software for high-resolution Y-chromosome haplogroup inference independently of library and sequencing methods...
March 6, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Angie Ambers, Jitka Votrubova, Daniel Vanek, Antti Sajantila, Bruce Budowle
Bones are a valuable source of DNA in forensic, anthropological, and archaeological investigations. There are a number of scenarios in which the only samples available for testing are highly degraded and/or skeletonized. Often it is necessary to perform more than one type of marker analysis on such samples in order to compile sufficient data for identification. Lineage markers, such as Y-STRs and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), represent important systems to complement autosomal DNA markers and anthropological metadata in making associations between unidentified remains and living relatives or for characterization of the remains for historical and archaeological studies...
February 23, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
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