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Forensic Anthropology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261788/introducing-human-mandible-identification-hu-manid-a-free-web-based-gui-to-classify-human-mandibles
#1
Gregory E Berg, Michael W Kenyhercz
Statistical programs have revolutionized the way in which forensic anthropologists conduct casework by allowing practitioners to use computationally complex analytics at the click of a button. Importantly, the products of these statistical programs are reproducible and contain measures of error or uncertainty, thereby strengthening conclusions. This paper is an introduction to (hu)MANid, a free, web-based application that uses linear and mixture discriminant function analyses to classify human mandibles into one of many worldwide and/or periodic reference groups...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249201/genome-wide-screening-for-highly-discriminative-snps-for-personal-identification-and-their-assessment-in-world-populations
#2
Liming Li, Yi Wang, Shuping Yang, Mingying Xia, Yajun Yang, Jiucun Wang, Daru Lu, Xingwei Pan, Teng Ma, Pei Jiang, Ge Yu, Ziqin Zhao, Yuan Ping, Huaigu Zhou, Xueying Zhao, Hui Sun, Bing Liu, Dongtao Jia, Chengtao Li, Rile Hu, Hongzhou Lu, Xiaoyang Liu, Wenqing Chen, Qin Mi, Fuzhong Xue, Yongdong Su, Li Jin, Shilin Li
The applications of DNA profiling aim to identify perpetrators, missing family members and disaster victims in forensic investigations. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) based forensic applications are emerging rapidly with a potential to replace short tandem repeats (STRs) based panels which are now being used widely, and there is a need for a well-designed SNP panel to meet such challenge for this transition. Here we present a panel of 175 SNP markers (referred to as Fudan ID Panel or FID), selected from ∼3...
February 16, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244105/a-computational-framework-for-age-at-death-estimation-from-the-skeleton-surface-and-outline-analysis-of-3d-laser-scans-of-the-adult-pubic-symphysis
#3
Detelina K Stoyanova, Bridget F B Algee-Hewitt, Jieun Kim, Dennis E Slice
In forensic anthropology, age-at-death estimation typically requires the macroscopic assessment of the skeletal indicator and its association with a phase or score. High subjectivity and error are the recognized disadvantages of this approach, creating a need for alternative tools that enable the objective and mathematically robust assessment of true chronological age. We describe, here, three fully computational, quantitative shape analysis methods and a combinatory approach that make use of three-dimensional laser scans of the pubic symphysis...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242603/optimization-and-validation-of-analysis-method-based-on-27-plex-snp-panel-for-ancestry-inference
#4
Jiang Li, Sun Qifan, Ma Quan, Zhao Wenting, Liu Jing, Zhao Lei, Ji Anquan, Li Caixia
Anthropology generally divides the individuals into the East Asian Mongolia race, European Caucasian race and African Nigro race. The 27-plex single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) panel for ancestry information has been established to differentiate samples from East Asian, European, African and admixture populations of East Asian and European origin by genotyping and ancestry inference. To infer ancestry for unknown individuals, we established an optimized analysis pipeline based on the likelihood ratio, ancestry component and individual ancestry assignment...
February 20, 2017: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237440/the-precision-of-micro-tomography-in-bone-taphonomic-experiments-and-the-importance-of-registration
#5
Erwan Le Garff, Vadim Mesli, Yann Delannoy, Thomas Colard, Julien De Jonckheere, Xavier Demondion, Valéry Hédouin
Micro-computed tomography (μCT) provides micrometric 3D images and has been used in forensic studies for anthropology pubis measurement or insect description for post mortem interval estimation. Studies have suggested using registration, a superimposing images method between a reference and a target. This technique avoids positioning bias and increase the precision of μCT. However, no clear study has reported the precision with μCT analysis before or after registration in a forensic field. One fresh post mortem sample of a human cranial vault was collected...
February 15, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230893/the-effect-of-body-mass-on-outdoor-adult-human-decomposition
#6
Lindsey G Roberts, Jessica R Spencer, Gretchen R Dabbs
Forensic taphonomy explores factors impacting human decomposition. This study investigated the effect of body mass on the rate and pattern of adult human decomposition. Nine males and three females aged 49-95 years ranging in mass from 73 to 159 kg who were donated to the Complex for Forensic Anthropology Research between December 2012 and September 2015 were included in this study. Kelvin accumulated degree days (KADD) were used to assess the thermal energy required for subjects to reach several total body score (TBS) thresholds: early decomposition (TBS ≥6...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213907/optimizing-the-analysis-of-dental-enamel-microstructure-in-intact-teeth
#7
Zulieth López Arrieta, Sergio Roberto Peres Line
In most mammalian species enamel prisms are regularly arranged in layers of alternating directions forming an angle of approximately 90°. These successive layers of prisms are known as Hunter-Schreger bands (HSBs). The analysis of HSBs may provide valuable information regarding the species life history, taxon and personal identification, with evident applicability in physical anthropology and forensics. Obtaining good quality digital images of HSBs in intact specimens is not always a feasible task. The major problems are the low contrast of images; the reflection of incident light, which may create areas of intense shine in digital images; and the abrupt decrease in the degree of illumination that occurs after light crosses the vertical cracks, frequently present in enamel...
February 17, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213868/elliptical-fourier-analysis-fundamentals-applications-and-value-for-forensic-anthropology
#8
REVIEW
Jodi Caple, John Byrd, Carl N Stephan
The numerical description of skeletal morphology enables forensic anthropologists to conduct objective, reproducible, and structured tests, with the added capability of verifying morphoscopic-based analyses. One technique that permits comprehensive quantification of outline shape is elliptical Fourier analysis. This curve fitting technique allows a form's outline to be approximated via the sum of multiple sine and cosine waves, permitting the profile perimeter of an object to be described in a dense (continuous) manner at a user-defined level of precision...
February 17, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185072/the-geometrical-precision-of-virtual-bone-models-derived-from-clinical-computed-tomography-data-for-forensic-anthropology
#9
Kerri L Colman, Johannes G G Dobbe, Kyra E Stull, Jan M Ruijter, Roelof-Jan Oostra, Rick R van Rijn, Alie E van der Merwe, Hans H de Boer, Geert J Streekstra
Almost all European countries lack contemporary skeletal collections for the development and validation of forensic anthropological methods. Furthermore, legal, ethical and practical considerations hinder the development of skeletal collections. A virtual skeletal database derived from clinical computed tomography (CT) scans provides a potential solution. However, clinical CT scans are typically generated with varying settings. This study investigates the effects of image segmentation and varying imaging conditions on the precision of virtual modelled pelves...
February 10, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144937/a-comparative-taphonomic-analysis-of-24-trophy-skulls-from-modern-forensic-cases
#10
Josephine M Yucha, James T Pokines, Eric J Bartelink
Cranial remains retained from fallen enemies are commonly referred to as "trophy skulls," and many such crania were acquired as souvenirs by U.S. servicemembers during WWII and the Vietnam conflict. These remains increasingly have become the subject of forensic anthropological analysis as their possessors, typically veterans or their relatives, try to discard or repatriate them. The present research uses a qualitative analytical approach to review 24 cases of reported trophy skulls (14 previously unpublished cases and 10 from the literature) to determine which perimortem and postmortem characteristics are most useful for generating a taphonomic profile...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139940/mitochondrial-dna-control-region-sequences-may-differentiate-yanbian-koreans-in-china-from-other-asian-populations
#11
Xiao-Na Li, Ji-Long Zheng, Jun Yao, Yue Dong, Zhang-Sen Shi, Bao-Jie Wang
BACKGROUND: Sequence polymorphisms of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are valuable in forensic medicine and anthropological genetics. AIM: We investigated the mtDNA control region sequences in 295 unrelated individuals living in the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture in the People's Republic of China. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: DNA was extracted from blood stained filter papers. Hypervariable regions of the mtDNA control region (HVI and HVII) were amplified and sequenced...
January 31, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138758/luminol-chemiluminescence-contribution-to-postmortem-interval-determination-of-skeletonized-remains-in-portuguese-forensic-context
#12
Catarina Ermida, David Navega, Eugénia Cunha
Postmortem interval (PMI) determination is one of the main challenges of forensic anthropology, and there are several referenced methods that consider intrinsic and extrinsic factors to the skeletonized remains. Therefore, there is an important need to develop a precise, economic, easy and reproducible technique, which will operate as a presumptive test. The chemical reaction that occurs in the presence of luminol, chemiluminescence, is used as a work tool to evaluate the PMI. This is given by luminol high affinity for haemoglobin, which is secured in bone tissue by its high mineral content, after the blood supply ceases postmortem...
January 30, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133721/accuracy-rates-of-ancestry-estimation-by-forensic-anthropologists-using-identified-forensic-cases
#13
Richard M Thomas, Connie L Parks, Adam H Richard
A common task in forensic anthropology involves the estimation of the ancestry of a decedent by comparing their skeletal morphology and measurements to skeletons of individuals from known geographic groups. However, the accuracy rates of ancestry estimation methods in actual forensic casework have rarely been studied. This article uses 99 forensic cases with identified skeletal remains to develop accuracy rates for ancestry estimations conducted by forensic anthropologists. The overall rate of correct ancestry estimation from these cases is 90...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129584/bone-natural-autofluorescence-and-confocal-laser-scanning-microscopy-preliminary-results-of-a-novel-useful-tool-to-distinguish-between-forensic-and-ancient-human-skeletal-remains
#14
Luigi Capasso, Ruggero D'Anastasio, Simone Guarnieri, Joan Viciano, Maria Mariggiò
The fast, high-throughput distinction between palaeoanthropological/archaeological remains and recent forensic/clinical bone samples is of vital importance in the field of medico-legal science. In this paper, a novel dating method was developed using the autofluorescence of human bones and the confocal laser scanning microscope as the means to distinguish between archaeological and forensic anthropological skeletal findings. Human bones exhibit fluorescence, typically induced by natural antibiotics that are absorbed by collagen, and provide secondary, exogenous fluorophores...
January 22, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123276/is-there-enough-evidence-so-that-mandible-can-be-used-as-a-tool-for-sex-dimorphism-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Puja Hazari, Rakesh S Hazari, Sunil Kumar Mishra, Surendra Agrawal, Mukesh Yadav
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: One of the most challenging tasks for forensic science is to identify the unknown human skeletal remains of deceased individuals. Study of sex by distinguishing the various morphological characteristics of bones is utmost important in forensic anthropology and for medico-legal assessment. PURPOSE: The purpose of this article is to review the literature, to find if there is sufficient evidence to establish the use of mandible in sex identification...
September 2016: Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123265/quantitative-and-qualitative-analysis-of-palatal-rugae-patterns-in-gujarati-population-a-retrospective-cross-sectional-study
#16
Jayasankar Pillai, Alka Banker, Amit Bhattacharya, Radha Gandhi, Nupur Patel, Sarthak Parikh
INTRODUCTION: Palatal rugae are irregular and nonidentical mucosal elevations seen on the anterior third of palate. They are arranged in transverse direction on either side of the median palatine raphe (MPR) and are protected from high temperature and trauma because of their rational position in the oral cavity. Their number and patterns are not uniform in all the individuals, and they appear to vary in different population subsets. The study of palatal rugae is termed as "Rugoscopy" or "Palatoscopy", and it finds its application in various fields such as anthropology, orthodontics, forensic sciences; including forensic odonto-stomatology...
September 2016: Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105649/reanalysis-of-korean-war-anthropological-records-to-support-the-resolution-of-cold-cases
#17
Emily K Wilson
Re-investigation of previously unidentified remains from the Korean War has yielded 55 new identifications, each with corresponding records of prior anthropological analyses. This study compares biological assessments for age at death, stature, and ancestry across (i) anthropological analyses from the 1950s, (ii) recent anthropological analyses of those same sets of remains, and (iii) the reported antemortem biological information for the identified individual. A comparison of long bone measurements from both the 1950s and during reanalysis is also presented...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081518/development-of-a-biometric-method-to-estimate-age-on-hand-radiographs
#18
Floriane Remy, Gabriela Hossu, Romain Cendre, Emilien Micard, Laurence Mainard-Simard, Jacques Felblinger, Laurent Martrille, Loïc Lalys
Age estimation of living individuals aged less than 13, 18 or 21 years, which are some relevant legal ages in most European countries, is currently problematic in the forensic context. Thus, numerous methods are available for legal authorities, although their efficiency can be discussed. For those reasons, we aimed to propose a new method, based on the biometric analysis of hand bones. 451 hand radiographs of French individuals under the age of 21 were retrospectively analyzed. This total sample was divided into three subgroups bounded by the relevant legal ages previously mentioned: 0-13, 13-18 and 18-21 years...
February 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052096/sex-determination-from-fragmented-and-degenerated-dna-by-amplified-product-length-polymorphism-bidirectional-snp-analysis-of-amelogenin-and-sry-genes
#19
Kotoka Masuyama, Hideki Shojo, Hiroaki Nakanishi, Shota Inokuchi, Noboru Adachi
Sex determination is important in archeology and anthropology for the study of past societies, cultures, and human activities. Sex determination is also one of the most important components of individual identification in criminal investigations. We developed a new method of sex determination by detecting a single-nucleotide polymorphism in the amelogenin gene using amplified product-length polymorphisms in combination with sex-determining region Y analysis. We particularly focused on the most common types of postmortem DNA damage in ancient and forensic samples: fragmentation and nucleotide modification resulting from deamination...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032532/the-missing-the-martyred-and-the-disappeared-global-networks-technical-intensification-and-the-end-of-human-rights-genetics
#20
Lindsay A Smith
In 1984, a group of Argentine students, trained by US academics, formed the Argentine Forensic Anthropology Team to apply the latest scientific techniques to the excavation of mass graves and identification of the dead, and to work toward transitional justice. This inaugurated a new era in global forensic science, as groups of scientists in the Global South worked outside of and often against local governments to document war crimes in post-conflict settings. After 2001, however, with the inauguration of the war on terror following the September 11(th) attacks on the World Trade Center in New York, global forensic science was again remade through US and European investment to increase preparedness in the face of potential terrorist attacks...
December 1, 2016: Social Studies of Science
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