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Forensic Anthropology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919516/a-newly-assembled-human-skeletal-reference-collection-of-modern-and-identified-filipinos
#1
Matthew C Go, Amanda B Lee, Jana Andrea D Santos, Nicole Marie C Vesagas, Rebecca Crozier
A collection of 75 modern skeletons from the Philippines has recently been created, and is being housed at the Archaeological Studies Program of the University of the Philippines, Diliman, Philippines. All individuals lived during the 20th century, and almost all died within the 21st century. These individuals were accessioned from exhumed and abandoned tombs at the Manila North Cemetery, and most have documented age and sex from tombstone inscriptions. This paper describes the first season of recovery and the collection's current demographic composition, with the future addition of more individuals to the collection expected to follow...
November 25, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907240/photo-realistic-statistical-skull-morphotypes-new-exemplars-for-ancestry-and-sex-estimation-in-forensic-anthropology
#2
Jodi Caple, Carl N Stephan
Graphic exemplars of cranial sex and ancestry are essential to forensic anthropology for standardizing casework, training analysts, and communicating group trends. To date, graphic exemplars have comprised hand-drawn sketches, or photographs of individual specimens, which risks bias/subjectivity. Here, we performed quantitative analysis of photographic data to generate new photo-realistic and objective exemplars of skull form. Standardized anterior and left lateral photographs of skulls for each sex were analyzed in the computer graphics program Psychomorph for the following groups: South African Blacks, South African Whites, American Blacks, American Whites, and Japanese...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907238/an-assessment-of-how-facial-mimicry-can-change-facial-morphology-implications-for-identification
#3
Daniele Gibelli, Danilo De Angelis, Pasquale Poppa, Chiarella Sforza, Cristina Cattaneo
The assessment of facial mimicry is important in forensic anthropology; in addition, the application of modern 3D image acquisition systems may help for the analysis of facial surfaces. This study aimed at exposing a novel method for comparing 3D profiles in different facial expressions. Ten male adults, aged between 30 and 40 years, underwent acquisitions by stereophotogrammetry (VECTRA-3D(®) ) with different expressions (neutral, happy, sad, angry, surprised). The acquisition of each individual was then superimposed on the neutral one according to nine landmarks, and the root mean square (RMS) value between the two expressions was calculated...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904428/a-cross-sectional-anthropometric-study-of-cranial-capacity-among-ukwuani-people-of-south-nigeria
#4
Dennis Erhisenebe Eboh, Ewaen Churchill Okoro, Kingsley Afoke Iteire
BACKGROUND: Cranial capacity is used as a measure of brain volume and has a relationship with age and gender. The purpose of this study was to provide normative data and population-, age- and gender-specific regression formulae related to cranial capacity using head dimensions among the Ukwuani people of Nigeria. METHODS: This study included 605 subjects grouped according to age as follows: 6-12 years, 13-19 years and ≥20 years. A cross-sectional study design using multistage sampling technique was adopted...
September 2016: Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences: MJMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900264/a-genomic-study-on-distribution-of-human-leukocyte-antigen-hla-a-and-hla-b-alleles-in-lak-population-of-iran
#5
Farhad Shahsavar, Ali-Mohammad Varzi, Seyyed Amir Yasin Ahmadi
Anthropological studies based on the highly polymorphic gene, human leukocyte antigen (HLA), provide useful information for bone marrow donor registry, forensic medicine, disease association studies, as well as infertility treatment, designing peptide vaccines against tumors, and infectious or autoimmune diseases. The aim of this study was to determine HLA-A and HLA-B allele frequencies in 100 unrelated Lak/lᴂk/individuals from Lorestan province of Iran. Finally, we compared the results with that previously described in Iranian population...
March 2017: Genomics Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885654/historical-trends-in-graduate-research-and-training-of-diplomates-of-the-american-board-of-forensic-anthropology
#6
Jonathan D Bethard
The history of forensic anthropology has been documented by numerous scholars. These contributions have described the work of early pioneers in the field and have described important milestones, such as the founding of the Physical Anthropology Section of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences (AAFS) in 1972 and the American Board of Forensic Anthropology (ABFA) in 1977. This paper contributes to the growing literature on the history of forensic anthropology by documenting the academic training of all individuals who have been granted diplomate status by the ABFA (n = 115)...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883982/exocranial-surfaces-for-sex-assessment-of-the-human-cranium
#7
Barbora Musilová, Ján Dupej, Jana Velemínská, Kathia Chaumoitre, Jaroslav Bruzek
Determination of sex is one of the most important and challenging disciplines in biological anthropology. Creating a robust tool for sexing crania is crucial for forensic anthropology, especially in this period of migration, travel, and globalization, when different populations are mixed together in one region. Many different approaches to sex estimation using the skull have been published; however, population specificity and oscillation of variable sexual dimorphism typically reduces their effectiveness. The aim of this study was to create a robust classifier using virtual anthropology without the use of a CT scanner...
December 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864949/multimethod-resolution-of-a-small-scale-case-of-commingling
#8
Janet E Finlayson, Eric J Bartelink, Alexandra Perrone, Kevin Dalton
This study highlights the use of multiple methods for resolving a case of commingled human remains. Skeletal remains were located in a marijuana field in rural northern California by law enforcement. Although initially buried in shallow graves, the remains of two decedents were disturbed by large carnivores and scattered over a wide area. The remains were submitted by law enforcement for forensic anthropological analysis and resolution of commingling. To segregate the remains of the two individuals, a number of methods were employed, including: (i) physical matching of fragmented remains; (ii) articulation to evaluate joint congruence; (iii) visual pair-matching of bilateral elements; (iv) osteometric pair-matching; (v) evaluation of taphonomic patterns; (vi) DNA analysis; and (vii) portable X-ray spectrometry (pXRF)...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861910/case-of-fatal-starvation-can-stable-isotope-analysis-serve-to-support-morphological-diagnosis-and-approximate-the-length-of-starvation
#9
Marija Baković, Polona Vreča, Davor Mayer
The diagnosis of death as a result of starvation is established on anthropological measurements, visual appearance of the deceased on external and internal examination, microscopic analysis, laboratory testing, and exclusion of other causes of death. Herein, we present our findings on a case of 95-year-old man who died of starvation. After the diagnosis of starvation was established by traditional forensic medicine methods, we have conducted retrospective segmental analysis of stable carbon (δ(13) C) and nitrogen (δ(15) N) isotope ratios in hair sample...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856048/sex-determination-using-the-dsp-probabilistic-sex-diagnosis-method-on-the-coxal-bone-efficiency-of-method-according-to-number-of-available-variables
#10
Gérald Quatrehomme, Irina Radoman, Luísa Nogueira, Philippe du Jardin, Véronique Alunni
The DSP method (probabilistic sex diagnosis) was applied to100 contemporary coxal bones from elderly individuals of the South of France. Ten variables with a posterior probability greater or equal to a 0.95 threshold were used. There was no statistical difference between right side and left side measurements. There was no mistake for sex assignment but the level of indetermination varied a great deal. It was higher in females than in males. The best combinations were obtained when using all 10 variables, some combination of 9 variables (all except SS or SIS or VEAC) or the first 8 variables...
November 1, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833335/the-role-of-dentistry-in-disaster-management-and-victim-identification-an-overview-of-challenges-in-indo-nepal-scenario
#11
REVIEW
Shubha Ranjan Dutta, Purnima Singh, Deepak Passi, Don Varghese, Sarang Sharma
BACKGROUND: Recently, natural disasters and terrorist activities have been leading to mass casualty situations unexpectedly around the globe. In addition to the traditional emergency medical services centering around medically trained and paramedic personnel, dental practitioners having vital skills and attributes may be important in responding to a mass casualty situation. OBJECTIVE: This paper aims at discussing the role of dentists in disaster management and the role of forensic odontology in the disaster victim identification (DVI), its status in India and some suggestions to develop the plans for same...
December 2016: Journal of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822642/bone-age-estimation-based-on-multislice-computed-tomography-study-of-the-scapula
#12
Florence Nougarolis, Fatima-Zohra Mokrane, Nicolas Sans, Hervé Rousseau, Fabrice Dedouit, Norbert Telmon
Progress in medical imaging has opened new areas of research in forensic anthropology, especially in the context of the study of bone age assessment. The study of bone age has become a useful tool for age estimation at death or age of young adult migrants in an anthropological context. We retrospectively evaluated multislice computed tomography (MSCT) explorations focused on scapulae of 232 individuals (123 males; 109 females) aged between 8 and 30 years old. Computed tomography (CT) scans were viewed in axial and multiplanar reconstructed images using OsiriX 5...
November 7, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817057/the-y-chromosome-as-the-most-popular-marker-in-genetic-genealogy-benefits-interdisciplinary-research
#13
REVIEW
Francesc Calafell, Maarten H D Larmuseau
The Y chromosome is currently by far the most popular marker in genetic genealogy that combines genetic data and family history. This popularity is based on its haploid character and its close association with the patrilineage and paternal inherited surname. Other markers have not been found (yet) to overrule this status due to the low sensitivity and precision of autosomal DNA for genetic genealogical applications, given the vagaries of recombination, and the lower capacities of mitochondrial DNA combined with an in general much lower interest in maternal lineages...
November 5, 2016: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810383/mesiodistal-and-faciolingual-diameters-of-the-permanent-teeth-in-a-jordanian-population
#14
Ashraf I Shaweesh
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to provide, for a Jordanian population, the first norms of the faciolingual diameters of the permanent dentition and the mesiodistal diameters of the second molars and to provide and review previously published data on the mesiodistal diameters of the permanent teeth up to the first molars in order to investigate any secular trends. DESIGN: Mesiodistal and faciolingual diameters of the permanent teeth were manually measured on 204 archival pretreatment study casts of adolescents (80 males and 124 females) aged 11-18 years...
January 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802306/mutation-rates-and-discriminating-power-for-13-rapidly-mutating-y-strs-between-related-and-unrelated-individuals
#15
Alessio Boattini, Stefania Sarno, Carla Bini, Valeria Pesci, Chiara Barbieri, Sara De Fanti, Andrea Quagliariello, Luca Pagani, Qasim Ayub, Gianmarco Ferri, Davide Pettener, Donata Luiselli, Susi Pelotti
Rapidly Mutating Y-STRs (RM Y-STRs) were recently introduced in forensics in order to increase the differentiation of Y-chromosomal profiles even in case of close relatives. We estimate RM Y-STRs mutation rates and their power to discriminate between related individuals by using samples extracted from a wide set of paternal pedigrees and by comparing RM Y-STRs results with those obtained from the Y-filer set. In addition, we tested the ability of RM Y-STRs to discriminate between unrelated individuals carrying the same Y-filer haplotype, using the haplogroup R-M269 (reportedly characterised by a strong resemblance in Y-STR profiles) as a case study...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792240/a-new-approach-of-juvenile-age-estimation-using-measurements-of-the-ilium-and-multivariate-adaptive-regression-splines-mars-models-for-better-age-prediction
#16
Louise Corron, François Marchal, Silvana Condemi, Kathia Chaumoître, Pascal Adalian
Juvenile age estimation methods used in forensic anthropology generally lack methodological consistency and/or statistical validity. Considering this, a standard approach using nonparametric Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS) models were tested to predict age from iliac biometric variables of male and female juveniles from Marseilles, France, aged 0-12 years. Models using unidimensional (length and width) and bidimensional iliac data (module and surface) were constructed on a training sample of 176 individuals and validated on an independent test sample of 68 individuals...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787632/proposal-of-new-regression-formulae-for-the-estimation-of-age-in-infant-skeletal-remains-from-the-metric-study-of-the-pars-basilaris
#17
Javier Irurita Olivares, Inmaculada Alemán Aguilera
In the context of physical and forensic anthropology, when a child's skeleton is damaged or in poor condition, which is common, many of the metric methods for the estimation of skeletal age cannot be used. In these circumstances, those more resistant bones, such as the pars basilaris, will be most useful. The aims of this study were to test existing methods for estimating skeletal age from the metric study of the pars basilaris and to propose new regression formulae. One hundred fourteen individuals aged between 5 months of gestation and 6 years were analyzed; seven measures were taken from each pars basilaris using a digital caliper...
October 27, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766958/more-comprehensive-forensic-genetic-marker-analyses-for-accurate-human-remains-identification-using-massively-parallel-dna-sequencing
#18
Angie D Ambers, Jennifer D Churchill, Jonathan L King, Monika Stoljarova, Harrell Gill-King, Mourad Assidi, Muhammad Abu-Elmagd, Abdelbaset Buhmeida, Bruce Budowle
BACKGROUND: Although the primary objective of forensic DNA analyses of unidentified human remains is positive identification, cases involving historical or archaeological skeletal remains often lack reference samples for comparison. Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) offers an opportunity to provide biometric data in such cases, and these cases provide valuable data on the feasibility of applying MPS for characterization of modern forensic casework samples. In this study, MPS was used to characterize 140-year-old human skeletal remains discovered at a historical site in Deadwood, South Dakota, United States...
October 17, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753072/the-vanishing-black-indian-revisiting-craniometry-and-historic-collections
#19
Pamela L Geller, Christopher M Stojanowksi
OBJECTIVES: This article uses craniometric allocation as a platform for discussing the legacy of Samuel G. Morton's collection of crania, the process of racialization, and the value of contextualized biohistoric research perspectives in biological anthropology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Standard craniometric measurements were recorded for seven Seminoles in the Samuel G. Morton Crania Collection and 10 European soldiers from the Fort St. Marks Military Cemetery; all individuals were men and died in Florida during the 19th century...
October 18, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743942/changes-in-vickers-hardness-during-the-decomposition-of-bone-possibilities-for-forensic-anthropology
#20
Steven J Walden, Sam L Evans, Jacqui Mulville
The purpose of this study was to determine how the Vickers hardness (HV) of bone varies during soft tissue putrefaction. This has possible forensic applications, notably for determining the postmortem interval. Experimental porcine bone samples were decomposed in surface and burial deposition scenarios over a period of 6 months. Although the Vickers hardness varied widely, it was found that when transverse axial hardness was subtracted from longitudinal axial hardness, the difference showed correlations with three distinct phases of soft tissue putrefaction...
September 28, 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
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