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Forensic Anthropology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213907/optimizing-the-analysis-of-dental-enamel-microstructure-in-intact-teeth
#1
Zulieth López Arrieta, Sergio Roberto Peres Line
In most mammalian species enamel prisms are regularly arranged in layers of alternating directions forming an angle of approximately 90°. These successive layers of prisms are known as Hunter-Schreger bands (HSBs). The analysis of HSBs may provide valuable information regarding the species life history, taxon and personal identification, with evident applicability in physical anthropology and forensics. Obtaining good quality digital images of HSBs in intact specimens is not always a feasible task. The major problems are the low contrast of images; the reflection of incident light, which may create areas of intense shine in digital images; and the abrupt decrease in the degree of illumination that occurs after light crosses the vertical cracks, frequently present in enamel...
February 17, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213868/elliptical-fourier-analysis-fundamentals-applications-and-value-for-forensic-anthropology
#2
REVIEW
Jodi Caple, John Byrd, Carl N Stephan
The numerical description of skeletal morphology enables forensic anthropologists to conduct objective, reproducible, and structured tests, with the added capability of verifying morphoscopic-based analyses. One technique that permits comprehensive quantification of outline shape is elliptical Fourier analysis. This curve fitting technique allows a form's outline to be approximated via the sum of multiple sine and cosine waves, permitting the profile perimeter of an object to be described in a dense (continuous) manner at a user-defined level of precision...
February 17, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185072/the-geometrical-precision-of-virtual-bone-models-derived-from-clinical-computed-tomography-data-for-forensic-anthropology
#3
Kerri L Colman, Johannes G G Dobbe, Kyra E Stull, Jan M Ruijter, Roelof-Jan Oostra, Rick R van Rijn, Alie E van der Merwe, Hans H de Boer, Geert J Streekstra
Almost all European countries lack contemporary skeletal collections for the development and validation of forensic anthropological methods. Furthermore, legal, ethical and practical considerations hinder the development of skeletal collections. A virtual skeletal database derived from clinical computed tomography (CT) scans provides a potential solution. However, clinical CT scans are typically generated with varying settings. This study investigates the effects of image segmentation and varying imaging conditions on the precision of virtual modelled pelves...
February 10, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144937/a-comparative-taphonomic-analysis-of-24-trophy-skulls-from-modern-forensic-cases
#4
Josephine M Yucha, James T Pokines, Eric J Bartelink
Cranial remains retained from fallen enemies are commonly referred to as "trophy skulls," and many such crania were acquired as souvenirs by U.S. servicemembers during WWII and the Vietnam conflict. These remains increasingly have become the subject of forensic anthropological analysis as their possessors, typically veterans or their relatives, try to discard or repatriate them. The present research uses a qualitative analytical approach to review 24 cases of reported trophy skulls (14 previously unpublished cases and 10 from the literature) to determine which perimortem and postmortem characteristics are most useful for generating a taphonomic profile...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139940/mitochondrial-dna-control-region-sequences-may-differentiate-yanbian-koreans-in-china-from-other-asian-populations
#5
Xiao-Na Li, Ji-Long Zheng, Jun Yao, Yue Dong, Zhang-Sen Shi, Bao-Jie Wang
BACKGROUND: Sequence polymorphisms of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are valuable in forensic medicine and anthropological genetics. AIM: We investigated the mtDNA control region sequences in 295 unrelated individuals living in the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture in the People's Republic of China. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: DNA was extracted from blood stained filter papers. Hypervariable regions of the mtDNA control region (HVI and HVII) were amplified and sequenced...
January 31, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138758/luminol-chemiluminescence-contribution-to-postmortem-interval-determination-of-skeletonized-remains-in-portuguese-forensic-context
#6
Catarina Ermida, David Navega, Eugénia Cunha
Postmortem interval (PMI) determination is one of the main challenges of forensic anthropology, and there are several referenced methods that consider intrinsic and extrinsic factors to the skeletonized remains. Therefore, there is an important need to develop a precise, economic, easy and reproducible technique, which will operate as a presumptive test. The chemical reaction that occurs in the presence of luminol, chemiluminescence, is used as a work tool to evaluate the PMI. This is given by luminol high affinity for haemoglobin, which is secured in bone tissue by its high mineral content, after the blood supply ceases postmortem...
January 30, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133721/accuracy-rates-of-ancestry-estimation-by-forensic-anthropologists-using-identified-forensic-cases
#7
Richard M Thomas, Connie L Parks, Adam H Richard
A common task in forensic anthropology involves the estimation of the ancestry of a decedent by comparing their skeletal morphology and measurements to skeletons of individuals from known geographic groups. However, the accuracy rates of ancestry estimation methods in actual forensic casework have rarely been studied. This article uses 99 forensic cases with identified skeletal remains to develop accuracy rates for ancestry estimations conducted by forensic anthropologists. The overall rate of correct ancestry estimation from these cases is 90...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129584/bone-natural-autofluorescence-and-confocal-laser-scanning-microscopy-preliminary-results-of-a-novel-useful-tool-to-distinguish-between-forensic-and-ancient-human-skeletal-remains
#8
Luigi Capasso, Ruggero D'Anastasio, Simone Guarnieri, Joan Viciano, Maria Mariggiò
The fast, high-throughput distinction between palaeoanthropological/archaeological remains and recent forensic/clinical bone samples is of vital importance in the field of medico-legal science. In this paper, a novel dating method was developed using the autofluorescence of human bones and the confocal laser scanning microscope as the means to distinguish between archaeological and forensic anthropological skeletal findings. Human bones exhibit fluorescence, typically induced by natural antibiotics that are absorbed by collagen, and provide secondary, exogenous fluorophores...
January 22, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123276/is-there-enough-evidence-so-that-mandible-can-be-used-as-a-tool-for-sex-dimorphism-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
Puja Hazari, Rakesh S Hazari, Sunil Kumar Mishra, Surendra Agrawal, Mukesh Yadav
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: One of the most challenging tasks for forensic science is to identify the unknown human skeletal remains of deceased individuals. Study of sex by distinguishing the various morphological characteristics of bones is utmost important in forensic anthropology and for medico-legal assessment. PURPOSE: The purpose of this article is to review the literature, to find if there is sufficient evidence to establish the use of mandible in sex identification...
September 2016: Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123265/quantitative-and-qualitative-analysis-of-palatal-rugae-patterns-in-gujarati-population-a-retrospective-cross-sectional-study
#10
Jayasankar Pillai, Alka Banker, Amit Bhattacharya, Radha Gandhi, Nupur Patel, Sarthak Parikh
INTRODUCTION: Palatal rugae are irregular and nonidentical mucosal elevations seen on the anterior third of palate. They are arranged in transverse direction on either side of the median palatine raphe (MPR) and are protected from high temperature and trauma because of their rational position in the oral cavity. Their number and patterns are not uniform in all the individuals, and they appear to vary in different population subsets. The study of palatal rugae is termed as "Rugoscopy" or "Palatoscopy", and it finds its application in various fields such as anthropology, orthodontics, forensic sciences; including forensic odonto-stomatology...
September 2016: Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105649/reanalysis-of-korean-war-anthropological-records-to-support-the-resolution-of-cold-cases
#11
Emily K Wilson
Re-investigation of previously unidentified remains from the Korean War has yielded 55 new identifications, each with corresponding records of prior anthropological analyses. This study compares biological assessments for age at death, stature, and ancestry across (i) anthropological analyses from the 1950s, (ii) recent anthropological analyses of those same sets of remains, and (iii) the reported antemortem biological information for the identified individual. A comparison of long bone measurements from both the 1950s and during reanalysis is also presented...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081518/development-of-a-biometric-method-to-estimate-age-on-hand-radiographs
#12
Floriane Remy, Gabriela Hossu, Romain Cendre, Emilien Micard, Laurence Mainard-Simard, Jacques Felblinger, Laurent Martrille, Loïc Lalys
Age estimation of living individuals aged less than 13, 18 or 21 years, which are some relevant legal ages in most European countries, is currently problematic in the forensic context. Thus, numerous methods are available for legal authorities, although their efficiency can be discussed. For those reasons, we aimed to propose a new method, based on the biometric analysis of hand bones. 451 hand radiographs of French individuals under the age of 21 were retrospectively analyzed. This total sample was divided into three subgroups bounded by the relevant legal ages previously mentioned: 0-13, 13-18 and 18-21 years...
February 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052096/sex-determination-from-fragmented-and-degenerated-dna-by-amplified-product-length-polymorphism-bidirectional-snp-analysis-of-amelogenin-and-sry-genes
#13
Kotoka Masuyama, Hideki Shojo, Hiroaki Nakanishi, Shota Inokuchi, Noboru Adachi
Sex determination is important in archeology and anthropology for the study of past societies, cultures, and human activities. Sex determination is also one of the most important components of individual identification in criminal investigations. We developed a new method of sex determination by detecting a single-nucleotide polymorphism in the amelogenin gene using amplified product-length polymorphisms in combination with sex-determining region Y analysis. We particularly focused on the most common types of postmortem DNA damage in ancient and forensic samples: fragmentation and nucleotide modification resulting from deamination...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032532/the-missing-the-martyred-and-the-disappeared-global-networks-technical-intensification-and-the-end-of-human-rights-genetics
#14
Lindsay A Smith
In 1984, a group of Argentine students, trained by US academics, formed the Argentine Forensic Anthropology Team to apply the latest scientific techniques to the excavation of mass graves and identification of the dead, and to work toward transitional justice. This inaugurated a new era in global forensic science, as groups of scientists in the Global South worked outside of and often against local governments to document war crimes in post-conflict settings. After 2001, however, with the inauguration of the war on terror following the September 11(th) attacks on the World Trade Center in New York, global forensic science was again remade through US and European investment to increase preparedness in the face of potential terrorist attacks...
December 1, 2016: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004788/multi-indel-analysis-for-ancestry-inference-of-sub-populations-in-china
#15
Kuan Sun, Yi Ye, Tao Luo, Yiping Hou
Ancestry inference is of great interest in diverse areas of scientific researches, including the forensic biology, medical genetics and anthropology. Various methods have been published for distinguishing populations. However, few reports refer to sub-populations (like ethnic groups) within Asian populations for the limitation of markers. Several InDel loci located very tightly in physical positions were treated as one marker by us, which is multi-InDel. The multi-InDel shows potential as Ancestry Inference Marker (AIM)...
December 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000408/ancestral-variations-in-the-shape-and-size-of-the-zygoma
#16
Anna C Oettlé, Fabrice P Demeter, Ericka N L'abbé
The variable development of the zygoma, dictating its shape and size variations among ancestral groups, has important clinical implications and valuable anthropological and evolutionary inferences. The purpose of the study was to review the literature regarding the variations in the zygoma with ancestry. Ancestral variation in the zygoma reflects genetic variations because of genetic drift as well as natural selection and epigenetic changes to adapt to diet and climate variations with possible intensification by isolation...
January 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957269/morphological-patterns-of-lip-prints-in-an-iranian-population
#17
Mahkameh Moshfeghi, Amirreza Beglou, Hamed Mortazavi, Nazanin Bahrololumi
BACKGROUND: Lip prints are verified to be unique to an individual and stable over time; hence they have potential for human identification purposes. The aim of this study was to assess the individuality and variability of lip prints in an Iranian population for the first time. We also sought to assess the possibility of sex determination via lip printing. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Lip prints of 96 individuals including 22 males and 74 females were recorded on a plain white paper using a dark-colored lipstick and 50 mm of Scotch tape...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942870/new-insights-in-the-analysis-of-blunt-force-trauma-in-human-bones-preliminary-results
#18
Sarah Scheirs, Assumpció Malgosa, David Sanchez-Molina, Marisa Ortega-Sánchez, Joan Velázquez-Ameijide, Carlos Arregui-Dalmases, Jordi Medallo-Muñiz, Ignasi Galtés
Determining the time of injury is an important but still a challenging task in forensic anthropology. In literature, many descriptions can be found to make a distinction between perimortem and postmortem fractures. Characteristics that are more related to fractures in fresh conditions, however, are not extensively investigated. This study compared 28 perimortem fractures from autopsies and 21 both fresh and dry experimentally reproduced human bone fractures. Preliminary results showed the following five distinct traits that might be related to perimortem conditions: layered breakage, bone scales, crushed margins, wave lines and flakes with matching flake defect...
December 10, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935913/forensic-odontology-a-boon-to-community-in-medico-legal-affairs
#19
R Chidambaram
Forensic odontology is a sub-discipline of dental science which involves the relationship between dentistry and the law. The specialty of forensic odontology is applied in radiographic investigation, human bite marks analysis, anthropologic examination and during mass disasters. Besides the fact that radiographs require pretentious laboratory, it is still claimed to be a facile, rapid, non-invasive method of age identification in the deceased. The budding DNA technology has conquered the traditional procedures and currently being contemplated as chief investigating tool in revealing the hidden mysteries of victims and suspects, especially in hopeless circumstances...
January 2016: JNMA; Journal of the Nepal Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919516/a-newly-assembled-human-skeletal-reference-collection-of-modern-and-identified-filipinos
#20
Matthew C Go, Amanda B Lee, Jana Andrea D Santos, Nicole Marie C Vesagas, Rebecca Crozier
A collection of 75 modern skeletons from the Philippines has recently been created, and is being housed at the Archaeological Studies Program of the University of the Philippines, Diliman, Philippines. All individuals lived during the 20th century, and almost all died within the 21st century. These individuals were accessioned from exhumed and abandoned tombs at the Manila North Cemetery, and most have documented age and sex from tombstone inscriptions. This paper describes the first season of recovery and the collection's current demographic composition, with the future addition of more individuals to the collection expected to follow...
November 25, 2016: Forensic Science International
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