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Forensic Anthropology

Rick Janssen, Scott R Moisik, Dan Dediu
People vary at most levels, from the molecular to the cognitive, and the shape of the hard palate (the bony roof of the mouth) is no exception. The patterns of variation in the hard palate are important for the forensic sciences and (palaeo)anthropology, and might also play a role in speech production, both in pathological cases and normal variation. Here we describe a method based on Bézier curves, whose main aim is to generate possible shapes of the hard palate in humans for use in computer simulations of speech production and language evolution...
2018: PloS One
Robin Yong, Sarbin Ranjitkar, Dimitra Lekkas, Demetrios Halazonetis, Alistair Evans, Alan Brook, Grant Townsend
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate size and shape variation of human premolars between Indigenous Australians and Australians of European ancestry, and to assess whether sex and ancestry could be differentiated between these groups using 3D geometric morphometrics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy dental casts from each group, equally subdivided by sex, were scanned using a structured-light scanner. The 3D meshes of upper and lower premolars were processed using geometric morphometric methods...
February 15, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Temitope A Esan, Lynne A Schepartz
Current dental maturity charts, such as the widely applied London atlas, do not take into consideration advanced tooth emergence and formation patterns observed in children of African ancestry. The result is inaccurate age estimation in Southern Africa, a region where there is great forensic and anthropological need for reliable age estimation. OBJECTIVES: To develop a population-specific atlas of permanent tooth emergence and formation for age estimation of Black Southern Africans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using data from a cross-sectional study of 642 school children aged 5-20 years, panoramic radiographs taken during routine dental examination in a mobile treatment van were analyzed using the Demirjian method of eight (A-H) tooth formation stages...
February 15, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Temitope A Esan, Lynne A Schepartz
The accuracies of the original Demirjian, modified Demirjian and Willems dental age estimation methods were compared for a Black Southern African population to determine their usefulness for forensic and anthropological purposes. Data were collected using a community-based prospective study design. Panoramic radiographs of seven left mandibular teeth from 540 children aged 5-15.99 years were scored using the three methods. Obtained estimates were compared to the chronological ages and mean absolute errors were calculated...
February 1, 2018: Legal Medicine
Mengge Wang, Zheng Wang, Guanglin He, Zhenjun Jia, Jing Liu, Yiping Hou
Short tandem repeats (STRs) are attractive to genetic applications like forensic, anthropological and population genetics studies. The Huaxia Platinum System was specifically developed to allow co-amplification and detection of all markers in the expanded CODIS core loci and the Chinese National Database. In this study, in continuation to our previous validation study, 568 unrelated individuals were firstly genotyped to investigate the effectiveness of this novel assay in 3 main ethnic groups of China (Han, Tibetan and Yi)...
February 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ramya Kollipara, Bridget Walker, Ashley Sturgeon
Objective: Most literature regarding lip augmentation refers to Caucasian anthropometric measurements, but ethnic differences affect facial dimensions and the evaluation of beauty. Specifically with regard to Asians and Hispanics, dermatology does not have much literature on the subject. This review investigates the differences in lip measurements and preferences of Asians and Hispanics compared with those of Caucasians. Design: A literature search of other fields, including plastic surgery, maxillofacial surgery, orthodontics, and forensic anthropology, was conducted, and relevant articles were selected that applied to the discussion of lip measurements and preferences in Asians and Hispanics...
November 2017: Journal of Clinical and Aesthetic Dermatology
A L Rezende Machado, T U Dezem, A T Bruni, R H Alves da Silva
BACKGROUND: Forensic Dentistry has an important role in the human identification cases and, among the analyses that can be performed, age estimation has an important value in establishing an anthropological profile. Modern technology invests for new mechanisms of age estimation: software apps, based on special algorithms, because there is not interference based on personal knowledge, cultural and personal experiences for facial recognition. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This research evaluated the use of two different apps: "How Old Do I Look? - Age Camera" and "How Old Am I? - Age Camera, Do You Look Like in Selfie Face Pic?", for age estimation analysis in a sample of 100 people (50 females and 50 males)...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Forensic Odonto-stomatology
L Batista Sandre, M B Viandelli Mundim-Picoli, F Fortes Picoli, L G Rodrigues, J M Bueno, R Ferreira da Silva
BACKGROUND: The frontal bone is an anatomical structure of the skull separated by the metopic suture in the childhood. The scientific literature indicates that metopic suture consolidates with closure in the early stages of life. Metopism is the term used to describe a metopic suture that persists up to the adulthood. Persistent metopic suture is associated potentially with the agenesis of the frontal sinus. AIM: To investigate the prevalence of absent frontal sinuses in dry skulls with metopism...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Forensic Odonto-stomatology
Shelley L Smith
C. Loring Brace's writings on the concept of race have been among the most influential within anthropology. A review of the development of Brace's perspective on race shows that his philosophical approaches to fossil and modern human variation are consistent and integrated. Brace's views on race are compared with those of Ashley Montagu and Frank Livingstone, who also proposed eliminating "race" from anthropology, and with those of Stanley Garn and Alice Brues, who accepted "racial" subdivisions of humans. Carleton Coon's writings are more divergent; the aftermath of the publication of his Origin of Races highlights significant political tensions of the 1960s that intersected with scientific changes in anthropology emanating from the Evolutionary Synthesis...
January 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Andreas Bertsatos, Christina Papageorgopoulou, Efstratios Valakos, Maria-Eleni Chovalopoulou
Accurate sexing methods are of great importance in forensic anthropology since sex assessment is among the principal tasks when examining human skeletal remains. The present study explores a novel approach in assessing the most accurate metric traits of the human cranium for sex estimation based on 80 ectocranial landmarks from 176 modern individuals of known age and sex from the Athens Collection. The purpose of the study is to identify those distance and angle measurements that can be most effectively used in sex assessment...
January 29, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Gabriel S Yapuncich, Steven E Churchill, Noël Cameron, Christopher S Walker
OBJECTIVES: Predicting body mass is a frequent objective of several anthropological subdisciplines, but there are few published methods for predicting body mass in immature humans. Because most reference samples are composed of adults, predicting body mass outside the range of adults requires extrapolation, which may reduce the accuracy of predictions. Prediction equations developed from a sample of immature humans would reduce extrapolation for application to small-bodied target individuals, and should have utility in multiple predictive contexts...
January 25, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Marco Cummaudo, Annalisa Cappella, Miranda Biraghi, Caterina Raffone, Nicholas Màrquez-Grant, Cristina Cattaneo
One of the fundamental questions in forensic medicine and anthropology is whether or not a bone or bone fragment is human. Surprisingly at times for the extreme degradation of the bone (charred, old), DNA cannot be successfully performed and one must turn to other methods. Histological analysis at times can be proposed. However, the variability of a single human skeleton has never been tested. Forty-nine thin sections of long, flat, irregular and short bones were obtained from a well-preserved medieval adult human skeleton...
January 20, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Tomomi Michiue, Asmaa Mohammed Hishmat, Shigeki Oritani, Kazunori Miyamoto, Mohamed Farghally Amin, Takaki Ishikawa, Hitoshi Maeda
In forensic anthropological identification of human remains and single bones, computed tomography (CT) data analysis facilitates volumetric and radiographic density analyses, and a recently developed automated analysis system markedly improved the performance, accuracy, and reproducibility of three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction. The present study aimed to investigate virtual CT morphometry of the patella for the estimation of sex using postmortem CT data of forensic autopsy cases of Japanese individuals aged ≥18 years (total n=220; 110 males and 110 females; estimated postmortem interval <88h), especially with regard to the efficacy of 3-D bone volumetry...
November 24, 2017: Forensic Science International
Antinea Menéndez Garmendia, Gabriela Sánchez-Mejorada, Jorge A Gómez-Valdés
Stature estimation is an important step to create a biological profile for human identification of unknown individuals in forensic anthropological practice, and it is well known that the long bone length is highly correlated with this feature. The purpose of the present study is to develop formulae for height estimation, based on simple linear regression model for humerus, femur and tibia in Mexican contemporary population. Stature was taken in 56 males and 30 female corpses as well as maximum length of three long bones of the limbs after autopsy following the Menéndez et al...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Phillippe Charlier, Yves Coppens, Anaïs Augias, Saudamini Deo, Philippe Froesch, Isabelle Huynh-Charlier
Following a global morphological and micro-CT scan examination of the original and cast of the skeleton of Australopithecus afarensis AL 288 ('Lucy'), Kappelman et al. have recently proposed a diagnosis of a fall from a significant height (a tree) as a cause of her death. According to topographical data from the discovery site, complete re-examination of a high-quality resin cast of the whole skeleton and forensic experience, we propose that the physical process of a vertical deceleration cannot be the only cause for her observed injuries...
January 1, 2018: Medico-legal Journal
Guanglin He, Zheng Wang, Yongdong Su, Xing Zou, Mengge Wang, Jing Liu, Yiping Hou
Understanding the origin and genetic background of Chinese high-altitude Tibetans play a pivotal role in medical genetics, archeology, anthropology, and forensics. In this study, to investigate the forensic characterization and genetic diversity of Chinese Tibetan, allele frequencies and corresponding forensic statistical parameters of 15 autosomal STRs included in the AmpFℓSTR® Sinofiler™ kit were obtained from 1220 Tibetan individuals residing in Lhasa country, Tibet Autonomous Region. We identified 191 alleles with corresponding allele frequencies varied from 0...
January 8, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Elena Pilli, Stefania Vai, Marina Grazia Caruso, Giancarlo D'Errico, Andrea Berti, David Caramelli
One of the major challenges of molecular biology in anthropological analysis is the identification via DNA typing of bone or teeth samples that can be collected from archaeological site in order to investigate kinship relationships. Due to the difficulties of isolating and analysing DNA from such samples, several efforts have been made to solve these problems, but less work has been conducted to identify the proper type of bone samples for the DNA analysis. Therefore, following the promising results obtained from the DNA analysis of petrous bones by different groups of researchers, for the first time, here we investigated the possibility of using petrous bones as skeletal elements useful for short tandem repeat (STR) typing via capillary electrophoresis technique in ancient bone samples...
December 24, 2017: Forensic Science International
Malorie Mella, Brendan Schweitzer, Claude R Mallet, Tara Moore, Sabra Botch-Jones
Introduction: In forensic toxicology, challenges exist with quantification analysis of cocaine and metabolites in postmortem samples following extensive decomposition. Alternative matrices, such as bone could prove useful when other specimens are not available. Detection and quantification of drugs in complex matrices require time-consuming extraction processes. The objective of this study was to develop a robust extraction and clean-up methodology to efficiently extract cocaine, and its metabolites, in bone and reach target limits of detection using multidimensional chromatography...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Michael A Brown, Ann W Bunch, Charles Froome, Rebecca Gerling, Shawn Hennessy, Jeffrey Ellison
The postmortem interval (PMI) of skeletal remains is a crucial piece of information that can help establish the time dimension in criminal cases. Unfortunately, the accurate and reliable determination of PMI from bone continues to evade forensic investigators despite concerted efforts over the past decades to develop suitable qualitative and quantitative methods. A relatively new PMI method based on the analysis of citrate content of bone was developed by Schwarcz et al. The main objective of our research was to determine whether this work could be externally validated...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
C Y Miao, L Xu, N Wang, M Zhang, Y S Li, J X Lü
Individual identification by measuring the human skeleton is an important research in the field of forensic anthropology. Computed tomography (CT) technology can provide high-resolution image of skeleton. Skeleton image can be reformed by software in the post-processing workstation. Different skeleton measurement indexes of anthropology, such as diameter, angle, area and volume, can be measured on section and reformative images. Measurement process is barely affected by human factors. This paper reviews the literatures at home and abroad about the application of measuring skeleton by CT in forensic anthropology research for individual identification in four aspects, including sex determination, height infer, facial soft tissue thickness measurement and age estimation...
February 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
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