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Forensic Anthropology

C Y Miao, L Xu, N Wang, M Zhang, Y S Li, J X Lü
Individual identification by measuring the human skeleton is an important research in the field of forensic anthropology. Computed tomography (CT) technology can provide high-resolution image of skeleton. Skeleton image can be reformed by software in the post-processing workstation. Different skeleton measurement indexes of anthropology, such as diameter, angle, area and volume, can be measured on section and reformative images. Measurement process is barely affected by human factors. This paper reviews the literatures at home and abroad about the application of measuring skeleton by CT in forensic anthropology research for individual identification in four aspects, including sex determination, height infer, facial soft tissue thickness measurement and age estimation...
February 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
Markku Niskanen, Juho-Antti Junno, Heli Maijanen, Brigitte Holt, Vladimir Sladék, Margit Berner
Femoral head breadth is widely used in body mass estimation in biological anthropology. Earlier research has demonstrated that reduced major axis (RMA) equations perform better than least squares (LS) equations. Although a simple RMA equation to estimate body size from femoral head breadth is sufficient in most cases, our experiments with male skeletons from European data (including late Pleistocene and Holocene skeletal samples) and the Forensic Anthropology Data Bank data (including the W. M. Bass Donated Skeletal Collection sample) show that including femoral length or anatomically estimated stature in an equation with femoral head breadth improves body mass estimation precision...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
Javier Rivera-Sandoval, Timisay Monsalve, Cristina Cattaneo
Studying bone collections with known data has proven to be useful in assessing reliability and accuracy of biological profile reconstruction methods used in Forensic Anthropology. Thus, it is necessary to calibrate these methods to clarify issues such as population variability and accuracy of estimations for the elderly. This work considers observations of morphological features examined by four innominate bone age assessment methods: (1) Suchey-Brooks Pubic Symphysis, (2) Lovejoy Iliac Auricular Surface, (3) Buckberry and Chamberlain Iliac Auricular Surface, and (4) Rouge-Maillart Iliac Auricular Surface and Acetabulum...
November 10, 2017: Forensic Science International
Nicholas Bacci, Elsie Koketso Nchabeleng, Brendon Kurt Billings
Age-at-death estimation is a crucial component of any forensic anthropological analysis. Despite a variety of research in this field, uncertainties still exist when estimating adult age. The sternum is an under-considered element in terms of adult age estimation. Previous research on an Indian population suggested that this may be a usable region of the skeleton, although results were ambivalent. This study observed the fusion phases of 461 sterna from a black South African population in an attempt to match true age of an individual with the different phases of synostosis of the manubrio-sternal and the sterno-xiphoidal junctions...
November 10, 2017: Forensic Science International
Samantha K Rowbotham, Soren Blau, Jacqueline Hislop-Jambrich, Victoria Francis
The skeletal trauma resulting from fatal low (≤3 m) free falls is poorly researched and understood by forensic practitioners. The aim of this study was to identify the types of skeletal trauma resulting from low falls through investigating fracture patterns and morphologies. Skeletal trauma was analyzed using full-body postmortem computed tomography scans of 145 individuals who died from a low free fall. Trauma was then contextualized to the variables that influence how a person falls using multiple logistic regression...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Rachel E Murphy, Heather M Garvin
Forensic anthropological techniques that utilize nonmetric cranial traits to estimate sex and ancestry have historically been criticized for their subjectivity and qualitative nature. Nonmetric traits, however, continue to be valuable tools in identifying remains in forensic investigations. In this study, geometric morphometric analyses of cranial outlines were performed to quantitatively assess population and sex variation in modern human cranial shapes and to verify group differences in previously reported qualitative traits...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Romana Šindelářová, Lucie Žáková, Zdeněk Broukal
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to develop a population-specific reference for permanent tooth emergence among 4-15 years old Czech Republic children. The reference derived from this sample population are essential for pediatric dental diagnostics, orthodontic treatment planning, as well as anthropological and forensic applications. METHODS: In this cross-sectional epidemiological survey, dental examinations of 1,370 Czech children (696 girls (50,8%) and 674 boys (49,2%), whose parents or legal guardians all signed informed consent forms) from 11 elementary schools and kindergartens were performed in the classroom...
November 29, 2017: BMC Oral Health
A A Ahmed, F O Alshammari, A S Alrafiaah, A A Almohaisani, O A Al-Mohrej, F O Alkubaidan
Sex estimation is an essential step for identifying unknown individuals and usually depends on the presence of highly dimorphic bones, such as the pelvis and skull. Nevertheless, the body integrity can be compromised in certain circumstances, and these bones might be absent; therefore, the ability to use other bones for sex estimation is crucial. The aims of this study were to collect baseline data for sternal dimensions in Saudi adults, assess the existence of sexual dimorphism in the sternum, and generate population-specific equations to estimate sex using sternal dimensions...
November 7, 2017: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
Grace A Binder, Rainer Metcalf, Zachary Atlas, Kenyon G Daniel
Digestion techniques for ICP analysis have been poorly studied for biological samples. This report describes an optimized method for analysis of trace metals that can be used across a variety of sample types. Digestion methods were tested and optimized with the analysis of trace metals in cancerous as compared to normal tissue as the end goal. Anthropological, forensic, oncological and environmental research groups can employ this method reasonably cheaply and safely whilst still being able to compare between laboratories...
November 23, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
J A Aguilar-Velázquez, V Manuel Martínez-Sevilla, M Sosa-Macías, A González-Martin, J F Muñoz-Valle, H Rangel-Villalobos
The D9S1120 locus exhibits a population-specific allele of 9 repeats (9RA) in all Native American and two Siberian populations currently studied, but it is absent in other worldwide populations. Although this feature has been used in anthropological genetic studies, its impact on the evaluation of the structure and genetic relations among Native American populations has been scarcely assessed. Consequently, the aim of this study was to evaluate the anthropological impact of D9S1120 when it was added to STR population datasets in Mexican Native American groups...
October 26, 2017: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
Alizé Lacoste Jeanson, Frédéric Santos, Chiara Villa, Ján Dupej, Niels Lynnerup, Jaroslav Brůžek
Estimating an individual body mass (BM) from the skeleton is a challenge for forensic anthropology. However, identifying someone's BMI (Body Mass Index) category, i.e. underweight, normal, overweight or obese, could contribute to identification. Individual BM is also known to influence the age-at-death estimation from the skeleton. Several methods are regularly used by both archaeologists and forensic practitioners to estimate individual BM. The most commonly used methods are based on femoral head breadth, or stature and bi-iliac breadth...
November 22, 2017: Forensic Science International
Eran Elhaik, Leeban Yusuf, Ainan I J Anderson, Mehdi Pirooznia, Dimitrios Arnellos, Gregory Vilshansky, Gunes Ercal, Yontao Lu, Teresa Webster, Michael L Baird, Umberto Esposito
The human population displays wide variety in demographic history, ancestry, content of DNA derived from hominins or ancient populations, adaptation, traits, copy number variation (CNVs), drug response, and more. These polymorphisms are of broad interest to population geneticists, forensics investigators, and medical professionals. Historically, much of that knowledge was gained from population survey projects. While many commercial arrays exist for genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping, their design specifications are limited and they do not allow a full exploration of biodiversity...
November 20, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
Zuzana Obertová, Cristina Cattaneo
Trafficking in children is one of the worst forms of human rights violation and is categorised as a serious crime. Children at high risk of becoming victims of trafficking are runaways, children with a history of abuse, and migrant children. Internationally, cases of child trafficking are increasing the most in Europe, which is likely the result of the current migration crisis. In crises, preventing and combating human trafficking needs to be prioritized, considering that the aims of humanitarian action include saving lives, easing suffering and preserving human dignity...
November 4, 2017: Forensic Science International
Laure Spake, Hugo F V Cardoso
The population on which forensic juvenile skeletal age estimation methods are applied has not been critically considered. Previous research suggests that child victims of homicide tend to be from socioeconomically disadvantaged contexts, and that these contexts impair linear growth. This study investigates whether juvenile skeletal remains examined by forensic anthropologists are short for age compared to their normal healthy peers. Cadaver lengths were obtained from records of autopsies of 1256 individuals, aged birth to eighteen years at death, conducted between 2000 and 2015 in Australia, New Zealand, and the U...
November 7, 2017: Forensic Science International
Serkan Dogan, Cemal Gurkan, Mustafa Dogan, Hasan Emin Balkaya, Ramazan Tunc, Damla Kanliada Demirdov, Nihad Ahmed Ameen, Damir Marjanovic
Widely considered as one of the cradles of human civilization, Mesopotamia is largely situated in the Republic of Iraq, which is also the birthplace of the Sumerian, Akkadian, Assyrian and Babylonian civilizations. These lands were subsequently ruled by the Persians, Greeks, Romans, Arabs, Mongolians, Ottomans and finally British prior to the independence. As a direct consequence of this rich history, the contemporary Iraqi population comprises a true mosaic of different ethnicities, which includes Arabs, Kurds, Turkmens, Assyrians, and Yazidis among others...
2017: PloS One
Edmondo Trentin, Luca Lusnig, Fabio Cavalli
A novel, unsupervised nonparametric model of multivariate probability density functions (pdf) is introduced, namely the Parzen neural network (PNN). The PNN is intended to overcome the major limitations of traditional (either statistical or neural) pdf estimation techniques. Besides being profitably simple, the PNN turns out to have nice properties in terms of unbiased modeling capability, asymptotic convergence, and efficiency at test time. Several matters pertaining the practical application of the PNN are faced in the paper, too...
October 18, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
Katie E Faillace, Jonathan D Bethard, Murray K Marks
OBJECTIVES: Though applied in bioarchaeology, dental wear is an underexplored age indicator in the biological anthropology of contemporary populations, although research has been conducted on dental attrition in forensic contexts (Kim et al., , Journal of Forensic Sciences, 45, 303; Prince et al., , Journal of Forensic Sciences, 53, 588; Yun et al., , Journal of Forensic Sciences, 52, 678). The purpose of this study is to apply and adapt existing techniques for age estimation based on dental wear to a modern American population, with the aim of producing accurate age range estimates for individuals from an industrialized context...
October 27, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Guanglin He, Zheng Wang, Mengge Wang, Yiping Hou
Short tandem repeats (STRs), with high polymorphism and complex evolution information, play a significant role in genetic association studies like population genetics, molecular anthropology and human forensics. However, human genetic diversity has only been partially sampled and available for Southwest Chinese Han population, as well as the genetic architecture of this population remains uncharacterized. In this work, 368 unrelated Han individuals from Sichuan province were firstly genotyped with 21 non-CODIS autosomal STRs, and phylogenetic relationships along administrative (Han Chinese from different regions) and ethnic divisions (minority ethnic groups) were subsequently investigated...
October 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
Ashley C Smith, Amelia Boaks
Recently, forensic anthropology has undergone a major shift to quantitative methodologies, including the standardization of osteometric measurements. This study is an analysis of inter-observer error rates for eight "standardized" cranial measurements. Thirty participants, of varied experience, were asked to note the location of landmarks used in each measurement, and to record the resulting measurement. None of the tested measurements met the previously established 80% consensus rate necessary to be considered "standardized-in-practice" [1]...
October 12, 2017: Forensic Science International
Jinyoung Byun, Younghun Han, Ivan P Gorlov, Jonathan A Busam, Michael F Seldin, Christopher I Amos
BACKGROUND: Accurate inference of genetic ancestry is of fundamental interest to many biomedical, forensic, and anthropological research areas. Genetic ancestry memberships may relate to genetic disease risks. In a genome association study, failing to account for differences in genetic ancestry between cases and controls may also lead to false-positive results. Although a number of strategies for inferring and taking into account the confounding effects of genetic ancestry are available, applying them to large studies (tens thousands samples) is challenging...
October 16, 2017: BMC Genomics
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