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Forensic Anthropology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037167/ancestry-inference-using-principal-component-analysis-and-spatial-analysis-a-distance-based-analysis-to-account-for-population-substructure
#1
Jinyoung Byun, Younghun Han, Ivan P Gorlov, Jonathan A Busam, Michael F Seldin, Christopher I Amos
BACKGROUND: Accurate inference of genetic ancestry is of fundamental interest to many biomedical, forensic, and anthropological research areas. Genetic ancestry memberships may relate to genetic disease risks. In a genome association study, failing to account for differences in genetic ancestry between cases and controls may also lead to false-positive results. Although a number of strategies for inferring and taking into account the confounding effects of genetic ancestry are available, applying them to large studies (tens thousands samples) is challenging...
October 16, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988069/2018-tallied-facial-soft-tissue-thicknesses-for-adults-and-sub-adults
#2
Carl N Stephan
The tallied facial soft tissue thicknesses (or T-Tables) represent grand means of published facial soft tissue thickness sample means. These sample means have been drawn from across the full-breadth of the facial soft tissue thickness (FSTT) literature, including forensic science, anthropology and odontology. The report of new summary statistics for >1290 new sub-adults and >2200 new adults since the last T-Table calculation, in 2008 for sub-adults and 2013 for adults respectively, makes their update timely...
September 29, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988068/decapitation-in-reality-and-fine-art-a-review
#3
REVIEW
Valentina Nikolić, Slobodan Savić, Vaso Antunović, Slobodan Marinković, Charlotte Andrieux, Irina Tomić
The aim of our study was to examine all types of decapitation from forensic literature, including our own case, and to analyze the presentation of beheading in fine art, popular literature, and music. To do this, over 200 scientific articles in regard to decapitation were analyzed, as well as more than 10,000 artworks, and several hundreds of literary works and music pieces. In addition, a macroscopic examination of a decapitated victim was performed. Finally, a multislice computerized tomography (MSCT) examination of the cervical spine in two live volunteers was undertaken to present the osteological relationships...
September 27, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926780/validation-of-a-standard-forensic-anthropology-examination-protocol-by-measurement-of-applicability-and-reliability-on-exhumed-and-archive-samples-of-known-biological-attribution
#4
Raffaela Arrabaça Francisco, Martin Paul Evison, Moacyr Lobo da Costa Junior, Teresa Cristina Pantozzi Silveira, José Marcelo Secchieri, Marco Aurelio Guimarães
Forensic anthropology makes an important contribution to human identification and assessment of the causes and mechanisms of death and body disposal in criminal and civil investigations, including those related to atrocity, disaster and trafficking victim identification. The methods used are comparative, relying on assignment of questioned material to categories observed in standard reference material of known attribution. Reference collections typically originate in Europe and North America, and are not necessarily representative of contemporary global populations...
October 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889863/the-persistence-of-human-dna-in-soil-following-surface-decomposition
#5
Alexandra L Emmons, Jennifer M DeBruyn, Amy Z Mundorff, Kelly L Cobaugh, Graciela S Cabana
Though recent decades have seen a marked increase in research concerning the impact of human decomposition on the grave soil environment, the fate of human DNA in grave soil has been relatively understudied. With the purpose of supplementing the growing body of literature in forensic soil taphonomy, this study assessed the relative persistence of human DNA in soil over the course of decomposition. Endpoint PCR was used to assess the presence or absence of human nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, while qPCR was used to evaluate the quantity of human DNA recovered from the soil beneath four cadavers at the University of Tennessee's Anthropology Research Facility (ARF)...
September 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871330/forensic-features-and-phylogenetic-analyses-of-sichuan-han-population-via-23-autosomal-str-loci-included-in-the-huaxia-platinum-system
#6
Guanglin He, Mengge Wang, Jing Liu, Yiping Hou, Zheng Wang
Short tandem repeats (STRs) are DNA regions with a variable number of repeated units (2-6 bp) and attractive to genetic application like forensic, population genetics, and anthropological studies. The Huaxia Platinum System allows the multiplex amplification of 23 autosomal STR loci and two gender determination loci. In the present study, genetic polymorphisms of these 23 autosomal STR loci were first obtained from 309 Sichuan Han individuals, southwest China. No evidence of deviation from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) was identified...
September 5, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866239/an-evaluation-of-soil-chemistry-in-human-cadaver-decomposition-islands-potential-for-estimating-postmortem-interval-pmi
#7
J P Fancher, J A Aitkenhead-Peterson, T Farris, K Mix, A P Schwab, D J Wescott, M D Hamilton
Soil samples from the Forensic Anthropology Research Facility (FARF) at Texas State University, San Marcos, TX, were analyzed for multiple soil characteristics from cadaver decomposition islands to a depth of 5centimeters (cm) from 63 human decomposition sites, as well as depths up to 15cm in a subset of 11 of the cadaver decomposition islands plus control soils. Postmortem interval (PMI) of the cadaver decomposition islands ranged from 6 to 1752 days. Some soil chemistry, including nitrate-N (NO3-N), ammonium-N (NH4-N), and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), peaked at early PMI values and their concentrations at 0-5cm returned to near control values over time likely due to translocation down the soil profile...
October 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846915/humanitarian-forensic-action-its-origins-and-future
#8
Stephen Cordner, Morris Tidball-Binz
Humanitarian forensic action is the application of the knowledge and skills of forensic medicine and science to humanitarian action, especially following conflicts or disasters. It has its early roots in the experience of the Argentine Forensic Anthropology Team and that of the Grandmothers of Plaza de Mayo in Argentina, is moulded by International Humanitarian and Human Rights Law and was developed by the International Committee of the Red Cross. Having demonstrated its worth, this new field of application of forensic medicine and science needs further development, integration and research...
October 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834545/sex-estimation-from-human-cranium-forensic-and-anthropological-interest-of-maxillary-sinus-volumes
#9
Thomas Radulesco, Justin Michel, Julien Mancini, Patrick Dessi, Pascal Adalian
Sex estimation is a key objective of forensic science. We aimed to establish whether maxillary sinus volumes (MSV) could assist in estimating an individual's sex. One hundred and three CT scans were included. MSV were determined using three-dimensional reconstructions. Two observers performed three-dimensional MSV reconstructions using the same methods. Intra- and interobserver reproducibility were statistically compared using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) (α = 5%). Both intra- and interobserver reproducibility were perfect regarding MSV; both ICCs were 100%...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833114/estimating-biological-characteristics-with-virtual-laser-data
#10
Ryan A Mullins, John Albanese
Laser scanning technology is increasingly being used in forensic anthropological research to obtain virtual data for archival purposes and post hoc measurement collection. This research compared the measurement accuracy of two laser scanners-the FARO Focus(3D) 330X and the FARO Freestyle(3D) -against traditionally obtained (i.e., by hand) control data (N = 454). Skeletal data were collected to address a novel question: the ability of laser scanning technology to produce measurements useful for biological characteristic estimation, such as sex and stature...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828524/differentiating-human-versus-non-human-bone-by-exploring-the-nutrient-foramen-implications-for-forensic-anthropology
#11
Vail Johnson, Sophie Beckett, Nicholas Márquez-Grant
One of the roles of a forensic anthropologist is to assist medico-legal investigations in the identification of human skeletal remains. In some instances, only small fragments of bone may be present. In this study, a non-destructive novel technique is presented to distinguish between human and non-human long bones. This technique is based on the macroscopic and computed tomography (CT) analysis of nutrient foramina. The nutrient foramen of long bone diaphyses transmits the nutrient artery which provides much of the oxygen and nutrients to the bone...
August 21, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770383/age-estimation-at-death-using-pubic-bone-analysis-of-a-virtual-reference-sample
#12
Frédéric Savall, Fabrice Hérin, Pierre Antoine Peyron, Daniel Rougé, Eric Baccino, Pauline Saint-Martin, Norbert Telmon
Age at death estimation is a major part of forensic anthropology, but is often poor in the latter decades of life and should benefit from specific population standards. The aim of this study was to test a virtual reference sample with a uniform age distribution in order to improve the accuracy of age estimation for individuals over 40 years of age. We retrospectively built a random virtual reference sample of pubic symphyses from 1100 clinical cases using computed tomography at two French hospitals; this was compared with a test sample (pubic symphyses from 75 corpses undergoing post-mortem computed tomography at a French forensic department) and with the sample originally used in the Suchey-Brooks (SB) system...
August 2, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756305/age-assessment-in-canine-and-premolar-by-cervical-axial-sections-of-cone-beam-computed-tomography
#13
Hichem Nemsi, Nidhal Haj Salem, Ines Bouanene, Sami Ben Jomaa, Meriem Belhadj, Mohamed Amin Mosrati, Abir Aissaoui, Faten Ben Amor, Ali Chadly
Age estimation in adults is a challenge in both anthropological and forensic situations compared to sub-adults age estimation. The present study explored, for the first time, the cervical zone of single rooted teeth. The deposition of secondary dentin is responsible for a decrease in the volume of the dental pulp cavity with aging, and therefore is often used as an age indicator. The current study aimed at estimating the chronological age among adults by measuring the pulp/dentin area ratio (physiological ratio) by axial sections at cervical region of maxillary canine and mandibular second premolar...
September 2017: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754995/genetic-variation-and-population-structure-of-botswana-populations-as-identified-with-ampflstr-identifiler-short-tandem-repeat-str-loci
#14
Tiroyamodimo Tau, Anthony Wally, Thokozile Patricia Fanie, Goitseone Lorato Ngono, Sununguko Wata Mpoloka, Sean Davison, María Eugenia D'Amato
Population structure was investigated in 990 Botswana individuals according to ethno-linguistics, Bantu and Khoisan, and geography (the nine administrative districts) using the Identifiler autosomal microsatellite markers. Genetic diversity and forensic parameters were calculated for the overall population, and according to ethno-linguistics and geography. The overall combined power of exclusion (CPE) was 0.9999965412 and the combined match probability 6,28 × 10(-19). CPE was highest for the Khoisan Tuu ethnolinguistic group and the Northeast District at 0...
July 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751237/a-large-modern-southeast-asian-human-skeletal-collection-from-thailand
#15
Nawaporn Techataweewan, Panya Tuamsuk, Yanyong Toomsan, Worawut Woraputtaporn, Parichat Prachaney, Nancy Tayles
The Khon Kaen University Human Skeleton Research Centre has a large human collection consisting of 745 modern northeastern Thai (Isan) skeletons derived from bodies bequeathed to the Department of Anatomy during the period 1979-2014. The aim of this paper is to document the collection and address the question of whether the collection may be representative of local Isan people, or populations of the wider region of mainland Southeast Asia. This will determine its value as a reference collection for forensic anthropology in particular but also for all other fields of research about human skeletal biology...
September 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742485/a-new-morphological-trait-in-forensic-identification-middle-phalangeal-hair-mph
#16
Kewal Krishan, Tanuj Kanchan
Middle phalangeal hairs (MPH) are present on the dorsal aspect of the middle phalange of the fingers except for the thumb. The MPH have been of interest to anthropologists, human biologists, clinicians, geneticists and anatomists in the past as a morphological trait of the human body. The anthropological value of MPH is well established in studying population variations, with implications for age, ancestry and sex differences. We are of the opinion that MPH may be used significantly for forensic identification purposes along with other morphological characteristics of the human body...
December 1, 2016: Science Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721987/evaluation-of-occlusal-groove-patterns-of-mandibular-first-and-second-molars-in-an-indian-population-a-forensic-anthropological-study
#17
Rashmi Gs Phulari, Rajendrasinh Rathore, Mili D Takvani, Shivani Jain
BACKGROUND: The study of dental morphological characteristics is important in anthropological research as it can provide information on the phylogenetic relationship between species, as well as variations and diversities within a population. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of six types of mandibular second molars in Gujarat state and the results can be used in both forensic anthropological researches and clinical aspects of dental sciences. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This descriptive investigation was undertaken among 1000 students (13-25 years old) in high schools and dental institutes of Gujarat state...
May 2017: Indian Journal of Dental Research: Official Publication of Indian Society for Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714560/validation-and-reliability-of-the-sex-estimation-of-the-human-os-coxae-using-freely-available-dsp2-software-for-bioarchaeology-and-forensic-anthropology
#18
Jaroslav Brůžek, Frédéric Santos, Bruno Dutailly, Pascal Murail, Eugenia Cunha
OBJECTIVES: A new tool for skeletal sex estimation based on measurements of the human os coxae is presented using skeletons from a metapopulation of identified adult individuals from twelve independent population samples. For reliable sex estimation, a posterior probability greater than 0.95 was considered to be the classification threshold: below this value, estimates are considered indeterminate. By providing free software, we aim to develop an even more disseminated method for sex estimation...
October 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706489/difference-in-striae-periodicity-of-heilongjiang-and-singaporean-chinese-teeth
#19
Sharon H X Tan, Yu Fan Sim, Chin-Ying S Hsu
Striae periodicity refers to the number of cross-striations between successive lines of Retzius in tooth enamel. A regular time dependency of striae periodicity, known as the circaseptan interval, has been proposed. Previous studies on striae periodicity have been carried out on both modern and early humans given its potential applications in forensic age estimations and anthropology. Nevertheless, research comparing striae periodicities across gender groups and populations in different geographical locations, particularly in Asia, is lacking...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704439/inner-and-inter-population-structure-construction-of-chinese-jiangsu-han-population-based-on-y23-str-system
#20
Huipin Wang, Huajie Ba, Chun Yang, Jianqiu Zhang, Yunchun Tai
In this study, we analyzed the genetic polymorphisms of 23 Y-STR loci from PowerPlex® Y23 system in 916 unrelated healthy male individuals from Chinese Jiangsu Han, and observed 912 different haplotypes including 908 unique haplotypes and 4 duplicate haplotypes. The haplotype diversity reached 0.99999 and the discrimination capacity and match probability were 0.9956 and 0.0011, respectively. The gene diversity values ranged from 0.3942 at DYS438 to 0.9607 at DYS385a/b. Population differentiation within 10 Jiangsu Han subpopulations were evaluated by RST values and visualized in Neighbor-Joining trees and Multi-Dimensional Scaling plots as well as population relationships between the Jiangsu Han population and other 18 Eastern Asian populations...
2017: PloS One
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