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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330917/mitochondrial-respiratory-capacity-remains-stable-despite-a-comprehensive-and-sustained-increase-in-insulin-sensitivity-in-obese-patients-undergoing-gastric-bypass-surgery
#1
Michael T Lund, Steen Larsen, Merethe Hansen, Julie Courraud, Andrea K Floyd, Mikael Støckel, Jørn W Helge, Flemming Dela
AIM: It has been proposed, but not yet demonstrated by convincing evidence in published articles, that insulin resistance and mitochondrial respiratory function are causally-related physiological phenomena. Here, we tested the prediction that weight loss induced increase in insulin sensitivity will correlate with a corresponding change in mitochondrial respiratory capacity over the same time period. METHODS: Insulin sensitivity was evaluated using the hyperinsulinaemic-euglycemic clamp technique and skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiratory capacity was evaluated by high-resolution respirometry in 26 patients with obesity...
January 13, 2018: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329328/early-occurrence-of-inspiratory-muscle-weakness-in-parkinson-s-disease
#2
Guillaume Baille, Thierry Perez, David Devos, Valérie Deken, Luc Defebvre, Caroline Moreau
INTRODUCTION: In Parkinson's disease (PD), respiratory insufficiency (including functional and muscle disorders) can impact dysarthria and swallowing. Most studies of this topic have been performed retrospectively in populations of patients with advanced PD. The objective of the present study was to characterize lung function (under off-drug conditions) in early-stage PD patients at baseline and then again two years later. METHODS: Forty-one early-stage PD patients (mean ± SD age: 61...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329211/causation-of-acute-flaccid-paralysis-by-myelitis-and-myositis-in-enterovirus-d68-infected-mice-deficient-in-interferon-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-receptor-deficient-mice
#3
John D Morrey, Hong Wang, Brett L Hurst, Katherine Zukor, Venkatraman Siddharthan, Arnaud J Van Wettere, Donal G Sinex, E Bart Tarbet
Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) caused a large outbreak in the summer and fall of 2014 in the United States. It causes serious respiratory disease, but causation of associated paralysis is controversial, because the virus is not routinely identified in cerebrospinal fluid. To establish clinical correlates with human disease, we evaluated EV-D68 infection in non-lethal paralysis mouse models. Ten-day-old mice lacking interferon responses were injected intraperitoneally with the virus. Paralysis developed in hindlimbs...
January 12, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329111/severe-peri-ictal-respiratory-dysfunction-is-common-in-dravet-syndrome
#4
YuJaung Kim, Eduardo Bravo, Caitlin K Thirnbeck, Lori A Smith-Mellecker, Se Hee Kim, Brian K Gehlbach, Linda C Laux, Douglas R Nordli Jr, George B Richerson
Dravet syndrome (DS) is a severe childhood-onset epilepsy commonly due to mutations of the sodium channel gene SCN1A. DS patients have a high risk of sudden unexplained death in epilepsy (SUDEP), believed to be due to cardiac mechanisms. Here we show that DS patients have peri-ictal respiratory dysfunction. One patient who had severe and prolonged postictal hypoventilation later died of SUDEP. Mice with an Scn1aR1407X/+ loss of function mutation died after spontaneous and heat-induced seizures due to central apnea followed by progressive bradycardia...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327348/respiratory-dysfunction-progresses-with-age-in-kcna1-null-mice-a-model-of-sudden-unexpected-death-in-epilepsy
#5
Kristina A Simeone, Jodi Hallgren, Charles S Bockman, Ankita Aggarwal, Vikash Kansal, Lauren Netzel, Shruthi H Iyer, Stephanie A Matthews, Malavika Deodhar, Peter J Oldenburg, Peter W Abel, Timothy A Simeone
OBJECTIVE: Increased breathing rate, apnea, and respiratory failure are associated with sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). We recently demonstrated the progressive nature of epilepsy and mortality in Kcna1-/- mice, a model of temporal lobe epilepsy and SUDEP. Here we tested the hypothesis that respiratory dysfunction progresses with age in Kcna1-/- mice, thereby increasing risk of respiratory failure and sudden death (SD). METHODS: Respiratory parameters were determined in conscious mice at baseline and following increasing doses of methacholine (MCh) using noninvasive airway mechanics (NAM) systems...
January 12, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326877/natural-history-of-morquio-a-patient-with-tracheal-obstruction-from-birth-to-death
#6
Caitlin Doherty, Lauren W Averill, Mary Theroux, William G Mackenzie, Christian Pizarro, Robert W Mason, Shunji Tomatsu
Morquio A syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis IVA, MPS IVA) is a lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase, resulting in systemic accumulation of the partially degraded glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), keratan sulfate and chondroitin-6-sulfate. The accumulation of these GAGs leads to distinguishing features as skeletal dysplasia with disproportionate dwarfism, short neck, kyphoscoliosis, pectus carinatum, tracheal obstruction, coxa valga, genu valgum, and joint laxity...
March 2018: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323536/high-positive-end-expiratory-pressure-renders-spontaneous-effort-non-injurious
#7
Caio C A Morais, Yukiko Koyama, Takeshi Yoshida, Glauco M Plens, Susimeire Gomes, Cristhiano L A S Lima, Ozyres P Ramos, Sérgio M Pereira, Naomasa Kawaguchi, Hirofumi Yamamoto, Akinori Uchiyama, João B Borges, Marcos F Vidal Melo, Mauro R Tucci, Marcelo B P Amato, Brian P Kavanagh, Eduardo L V Costa, Yuji Fujino
RATIONALE: In ARDS, atelectatic 'solid-like' lung tissue impairs transmission of negative 'swings' in pleural pressure (Ppl) resulting from diaphragmatic contraction. The localization of more negative Ppl proportionally increases dependent lung stretch by drawing gas either from other lung regions, e.g., non-dependent lung (Pendelluft) or from the ventilator. Lowering of the level of spontaneous effort and/or converting solid-like to fluid-like lung might render spontaneous effort non-injurious...
January 11, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321341/exercise-tolerance-and-balance-of-inspiratory-to-expiratory-muscle-strength-in-relation-to-breathing-timing-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#8
Keisuke Miki, Kazuyuki Tsujino, Tatsuya Edahiro, Seigo Kitada, Mari Miki, Kenji Yoshimura, Hiroyuki Kagawa, Yohei Oshitani, Yuko Ohara, Yuki Hosono, Hiroyuki Kurebe, Ryoji Maekura
Little is known about the applicability of respiratory muscle training based on exertional pathophysiological conditions in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between breathing timing and exertional responses, as well as whether exertional changes in the inspiratory duty cycle (inspiratory time [Ti]/total time [Ttot]) affect pathophysiological conditions, including respiratory muscles. Methods: Forty-five stable COPD patients (mean age: 71...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320394/neurological-respiratory-failure
#9
Mohan Rudrappa, Laxmi Kokatnur, Oleg Chernyshev
West Nile virus infection in humans is mostly asymptomatic. Less than 1% of neuro-invasive cases show a fatality rate of around 10%. Acute flaccid paralysis of respiratory muscles leading to respiratory failure is the most common cause of death. Although the peripheral nervous system can be involved, isolated phrenic nerve palsy leading to respiratory failure is rare and described in only two cases in the English literature. We present another case of neurological respiratory failure due to West Nile virus-induced phrenic nerve palsy...
January 10, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319769/impact-of-an-early-physiotherapy-program-after-kidney-transplant-during-hospital-stay-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Tatiana Onofre, Julio Flavio Fiore Junior, César Ferreira Amorim, Suzana Tanni Minamoto, Denise de Moraes Paisani, Luciana Dias Chiavegato
INTRODUCTION: Cardiorespiratory and musculoskeletal dysfunctions are common in the postoperative period of kidney transplant patients and are often accompanied by low exercise tolerance. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of an early physiotherapy program during hospital stay on functional capacity and peripheral and respiratory muscle strength after kidney transplant. METHODS: An open, randomized clinical trial was conducted in patients undergoing living donor kidney transplant...
October 2017: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318024/congenital-cranial-ventral-abdominal-hernia-peritoneopericardial-diaphragmatic-hernia-and-sternal-cleft-in-a-4-year-old-multiparous-pregnant-queen
#11
Camille Bismuth, Claire Deroy
Case summary: Cranial ventral midline hernias, most often congenital, can be associated with other congenital abnormalities, such as sternal, diaphragmatic or cardiac malformations. A 4-year-old multiparous queen with a substernal hernia was admitted for evaluation of a mammary mass. During CT examination, a bifid sternum, the abdominal hernia containing the intestines, spleen, omentum, three fetuses, a mammary mass and an incidental peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia were identified...
July 2017: JFMS Open Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317845/pyomyositis-in-the-setting-of-complicated-diverticulitis-case-report
#12
James Sun, David Leor Kashan, Jolita Marie Auguste, Akella Chendrasekhar
Pyomyositis is typically thought of as a disease of the tropics. However, it is becoming more prevalent in temperate regions, and may be underdiagnosed. Here, pyomyositis is encountered as a complication of perforated diverticulitis, which has not been previously reported. A 61-year-old Caucasian man initially presented in respiratory distress and was diagnosed with respiratory failure due to COPD exacerbation. The patient was taking high-dose prednisone, 60 mg daily for the past 2 years. Initially, he was afebrile, normotensive, tachycardic to 178 beats/minute and tachypneic to 28 breaths/minute, requiring noninvasive ventilation to maintain oxygenation...
2018: International Journal of General Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317806/profile-of-sugammadex-for-reversal-of-neuromuscular-blockade-in-the-elderly-current-perspectives
#13
REVIEW
Michele Carron, Francesco Bertoncello, Giovanna Ieppariello
The number of elderly patients is increasing worldwide. This will have a significant impact on the practice of anesthesia in future decades. Anesthesiologists must provide care for an increasing number of elderly patients, who have an elevated risk of perioperative morbidity and mortality. Complications related to postoperative residual neuromuscular blockade, such as muscle weakness, airway obstruction, hypoxemia, atelectasis, pneumonia, and acute respiratory failure, are more frequent in older than in younger patients...
2018: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317401/acute-and-chronic-increases-of-circulating-fstl1-normalize-energy-substrate-metabolism-in-pacing-induced-heart-failure
#14
Mitsuru Seki, Jeffery C Powers, Sonomi Maruyama, Maria A Zuriaga, Chia-Ling Wu, Clara Kurishima, Lydia Kim, Jesse Johnson, Anthony Poidomani, Tao Wang, Eric Muñoz, Sudarsan Rajan, Joon Y Park, Kenneth Walsh, Fabio A Recchia
BACKGROUND: FSTL1 (follistatin-like protein 1) is an emerging cardiokine/myokine that is upregulated in heart failure (HF) and is found to be cardioprotective in animal models of cardiac injury. We tested the hypothesis that circulating FSTL1 can affect cardiac function and metabolism under baseline physiological conditions and in HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: FSTL1 was acutely (10 minutes) or chronically (2 weeks) infused to attain clinically relevant blood levels in conscious dogs with cardiac tachypacing-induced HF...
January 2018: Circulation. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317143/predictors-of-speech-outcomes-in-children-with-pierre-robin-sequence
#15
Anne Morice, Francis Renault, Véronique Soupre, Cécile Chapuis, Chantal Trichet Zbinden, Natacha Kadlub, Amerigo Giudice, Marie-Paule Vazquez, Arnaud Picard
BACKGOUND: Pierre Robin sequence (PRS) has worse speech outcomes than isolated cleft palate. We aimed to search for possible associations of phonological outcomes with PRS status (isolated vs syndromic), clinical severity, soft palate muscles deficiency, or surgical procedure. METHODS: We designed a retrospective study of 130 children (male/female ratio: 0.4) with isolated (96) or syndromic (34) PRS with cleft palate. Grading systems were used to classify retrognathia, glossoptosis, and respiratory and feeding disorders...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316265/effects-of-chronic-hypoxia-on-diaphragm-function-in-deer-mice-native-to-high-altitude
#16
Neal J Dawson, Sulayman A Lyons, Danielle A Henry, Graham R Scott
AIM: We examined the effects of chronic hypoxia on diaphragm function in high- and low-altitude populations of Peromyscus mice. METHODS: Deer mice (P. maniculatus) native to high altitude and congeneric mice native to low altitude (P. leucopus) were born and raised in captivity to adulthood, and were acclimated to normoxia or hypobaric hypoxia (12 or 9 kPa, simulating hypoxia at 4300 m and 7000 m) for 6-8 weeks. We then measured indices of mitochondrial respiration capacity, force production, and fatigue resistance in the diaphragm...
January 9, 2018: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315165/exercise-thresholds-on-trial-are-they-really-equivalent
#17
Kevin Caen, Kobe Vermeire, Jan G Bourgois, Jan Boone
PURPOSE: The interchangeable use of whole-body exercise thresholds and breakpoints (BPs) in the local oxygenation response, as measured via near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), has recently been questioned in scientific literature. Therefore, the present study aimed to longitudinally investigate the interrelationship of four commonly used exercise thresholds: critical power (CP), the respiratory compensation point (RCP) and BPs in muscle (m[HHb]BP) and brain (c[O2Hb]BP) oxygenation. METHODS: Nine male participants (21...
January 8, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311394/exercise-capacity-and-respiratory-profile-in-patients-after-orthopedic-liver-transplantation-a-follow-up-study
#18
Clarissa B A Magalhães, José Huygens P Garcia, Cyntia F G Viana, Maria José N Flor, Pedro Felipe C de Bruin, Eanes D B Pereira
INTRODUCTION: We sought to describe: 1) The influence of orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) on exercise capacity, pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength after surgery, 2) The relationship between exercise capacity and symptoms of anxiety and depression. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a prospective follow up study conducted with patients submitted to OLT. All patients were assessed before and 1 month after surgery through measurements: six minute walk test (6MWT), 6 min step test (6MST) and HADS (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale)...
December 27, 2017: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308939/limited-utility-of-kinesio-taping%C3%A2-in-the-physiotherapy-treatment-for-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-exacerbation
#19
Rodrigo Boff Daitx, Karoliny Dos Santos, Marcelo Baptista Dohnert, Tamiris do Amaral da Silva, Jane da Silva
BACKGROUND: Kinesio Taping® has been used as a physiotherapy treatment in musculoskeletal disorders. However, few studies have evaluated its effectiveness in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). OBJECTIVES: To analyze the effects of Kinesio Taping® associated with conventional physiotherapy, on the maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures (MIP and MEP), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), peak expiratory flow (PEF), and pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2) of patients hospitalized for COPD exacerbation...
January 8, 2018: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307520/skeletal-muscle-ceramides-and-daily-fat-oxidation-in-obesity-and-diabetes
#20
Nicholas T Broskey, Diana N Obanda, Jeffrey H Burton, William T Cefalu, Eric Ravussin
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Ectopic accumulation of lipids in skeletal muscle and the formation of deleterious lipid intermediates is thought to contribute to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Similarly, impaired fat oxidation (metabolic inflexibility) are predictors of weight gain and the development of T2DM; however, no study has investigated the relation between muscle ceramide accumulation and 24-h macronutrient oxidation. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively explore the relationships between whole body fat oxidation and skeletal muscle ceramide accumulation in obese non-diabetic individuals (ND) and in people with obesity and T2DM...
January 4, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
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