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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922361/impact-of-four-different-recumbencies-on-the-distribution-of-ventilation-in-conscious-or-anaesthetized-spontaneously-breathing-beagle-dogs-an-electrical-impedance-tomography-study
#1
Tamas D Ambrisko, Johannes P Schramel, Ulrike Auer, Yves P S Moens
The aim was to examine the effects of recumbency and anaesthesia on distribution of ventilation in beagle dogs using Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT). Nine healthy beagle dogs, aging 3.7±1.7 (mean±SD) years and weighing 16.3±1.6 kg, received a series of treatments in a fixed order on a single occasion. Conscious dogs were positioned in right lateral recumbency (RLR) and equipped with 32 EIT electrodes around the thorax. Following five minutes of equilibration, two minutes of EIT recordings were made in each recumbency in the following order: RLR, dorsal (DR), left (LLR) and sternal (SR)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919733/cycle-ergometer-and-inspiratory-muscle-training-offer-modest-benefit-compared-with-cycle-ergometer-alone-a-comprehensive-assessment-in-stable-copd-patients
#2
Kai Wang, Guang-Qiao Zeng, Rui Li, Yu-Wen Luo, Mei Wang, Yu-He Hu, Wen-Hui Xu, Lu-Qian Zhou, Rong-Chang Chen, Xin Chen
BACKGROUND: Cycle ergometer training (CET) has been shown to improve exercise performance of the quadriceps muscles in patients with COPD, and inspiratory muscle training (IMT) may improve the pressure-generating capacity of the inspiratory muscles. However, the effects of combined CET and IMT remain unclear and there is a lack of comprehensive assessment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-one patients with COPD were randomly allocated to three groups: 28 received 8 weeks of CET + IMT (combined training group), 27 received 8 weeks of CET alone (CET group), and 26 only received 8 weeks of free walking (control group)...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918749/effect-of-low-temperature-on-globin-expression-respiratory-metabolic-enzyme-activities-and-gill-structure-of-litopenaeus-vannamei
#3
Meng Wu, Nan Chen, Chun-Xiao Huang, Yan He, Yong-Zhen Zhao, Xiao-Han Chen, Xiu-Li Chen, Huan-Ling Wang
Low temperature frequently influences growth, development, and even survival of aquatic animals. In the present study, physiological and molecular responses to low temperature in Litopenaeus vannamei were investigated. The cDNA sequences of two oxygen-carrying proteins, cytoglobin (Cygb) and neuroglobin (Ngb), were isolated. Protein structure analysis revealed that both proteins share a globin superfamily domain. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that Cygb and Ngb mRNA levels gradually increased during decrease in temperatures from 25 to 15°C and then decreased at 10°C in muscle, brain, stomach, and heart, except for a continuing increase in gills, whereas they showed a different expression trend in the hepatopancreas...
July 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918235/identification-of-bluetongue-virus-serotypes-1-4-and-17-co-infections-in-sheep-flocks-during-outbreaks-in-brazil
#4
Lorena Lima Barbosa Guimarães, Júlio César Câmara Rosa, Ana Carolina Diniz Matos, Raquel Aparecida S Cruz, Maria Isabel Maldonado Coelho Guedes, Fernanda Alves Dorella, Henrique César Pereira Figueiredo, Saulo Petinatti Pavarini, Luciana Sonne, Zélia Inês Portela Lobato, David Driemeier
Bluetongue (BT) is a vector-borne viral disease caused by the Bluetongue virus (BTV), an Orbivirus from the Reoviridae family, affecting domestic and wild ruminants. BTV circulation in Brazil was first reported in 1978, and several serological surveys indicate that the virus is widespread, although with varied prevalence. In 2014, BT outbreaks affected sheep flocks in Rio Grande do Sul state, causing significant mortality (18.4%; 91/495) in BTV-infected sheep. In total, seven farms were monitored, and one or two sheep from each farm that died due to clinical signs of BT were necropsied...
September 5, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918017/efficacy-and-safety-profile-of-tricyclo-dna-antisense-oligonucleotides-in-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-mouse-model
#5
Karima Relizani, Graziella Griffith, Lucía Echevarría, Faouzi Zarrouki, Patricia Facchinetti, Cyrille Vaillend, Christian Leumann, Luis Garcia, Aurélie Goyenvalle
Antisense oligonucleotides (AONs) hold promise for therapeutic splice-switching correction in many genetic diseases. However, despite advances in AON chemistry and design, systemic use of AONs is limited due to poor tissue uptake and sufficient therapeutic efficacy is still difficult to achieve. A novel class of AONs made of tricyclo-DNA (tcDNA) is considered very promising for the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a neuromuscular disease typically caused by frameshifting deletions or nonsense mutations in the gene-encoding dystrophin and characterized by progressive muscle weakness, cardiomyopathy, and respiratory failure in addition to cognitive impairment...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917004/critical-illness-associated-diaphragm-weakness
#6
REVIEW
Martin Dres, Ewan C Goligher, Leo M A Heunks, Laurent J Brochard
Diaphragm weakness is highly prevalent in critically ill patients. It may exist prior to ICU admission and may precipitate the need for mechanical ventilation but it also frequently develops during the ICU stay. Several risk factors for diaphragm weakness have been identified; among them sepsis and mechanical ventilation play central roles. We employ the term critical illness-associated diaphragm weakness to refer to the collective effects of all mechanisms of diaphragm injury and weakness occurring in critically ill patients...
September 15, 2017: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916943/emergency-neurological-life-support-acute-non-traumatic-weakness
#7
Anna Finley Caulfield, Oliver Flower, Jose A Pineda, Shahana Uddin
Acute non-traumatic weakness may be life-threatening if it involves the respiratory muscles and/or is associated with autonomic dysfunction. Most patients presenting with acute muscle weakness have a worsening neurological disorder that requires a rapid, systematic evaluation and detailed neurological exam to localize the disorder. Urgent laboratory tests and neuroimaging are needed to confirm the diagnosis. Because acute weakness is a common presenting sign of neurological emergencies, it was chosen as an Emergency Neurological Life Support protocol...
September 15, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916721/loss-of-cardiac-carnitine-palmitoyltransferase-2-results-in-rapamycin-resistant-acetylation-independent-hypertrophy
#8
Andrea S Pereyra, Like Y Hasek, Kate L Harris, Alycia G Berman, Frederick W Damen, Craig J Goergen, Jessica M Ellis
Cardiac hypertrophy is closely linked to impaired fatty acid oxidation, but the molecular basis of this link is unclear. Here, we investigated the loss of an obligate enzyme in mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid oxidation, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 (CPT2), on muscle and heart structure, function, and molecular signatures in a muscle- and heart-specific CPT2-deficient mouse (Cpt2M-/-) model. CPT2 loss in heart and muscle reduced complete oxidation of long-chain fatty acids by 87% and 69%, respectively, without altering body weight, energy expenditure, respiratory quotient, or adiposity...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916479/dietary-nitrate-increases-vo2peak-and-performance-but-does-not-alter-ventilation-or-efficiency-in-patients-with-heart-failure-with-reduced-ejection-fraction
#9
Andrew R Coggan, Seth R Broadstreet, Kiran Mahmood, Deana Mikhalkova, Michael Madigan, Indra Bole, Soo Park, Joshua L Leibowitz, Ana Kadkhodayan, Deepak P Thomas, Dakkota Thies, Linda R Peterson
BACKGROUND: Patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) exhibit lower efficiency, dyspnea, and diminished peak O2 uptake (VO2peak) during exercise. Dietary nitrate (NO3(-)), a source of nitric oxide (NO), has improved these measures in some studies of other populations. We determined the effects of acute NO3(-) ingestion on exercise responses in eight patients with HFrEF using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design. METHODS AND RESULTS: Plasma NO3(-), nitrite (NO2(-)), and breath NO were measured at multiple time points and respiratory gas exchange was determined during exercise after ingestion of beetroot juice containing or devoid of 11...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Cardiac Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916229/japanese-leigh-syndrome-case-treated-with-epi-743
#10
Takeshi Kouga, Mariko Takagi, Akihiko Miyauchi, Hiroko Shimbo, Mizue Iai, Sumimasa Yamashita, Kei Murayama, Matthew B Klein, Guy Miller, Tomohide Goto, Hitoshi Osaka
BACKGROUND: Leigh syndrome is a mitochondrial disease caused by respiratory chain deficiency, and there are no proven effective therapies. EPI-743 is a potent cellular oxidative stress protectant and results of clinical trials for mitochondrial diseases are accumulating. CASE: At 5months, a girl presented with the scarce eye movement and diminished muscle tone. She was diagnosed with Leigh encephalopathy from blood and cerebrospinal fluid lactate elevation and MRI findings...
September 12, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916122/myasthenia-gravis-and-crisis-evaluation-and-management-in-the-emergency-department
#11
Jamie Roper, M Emily Fleming, Brit Long, Alex Koyfman
BACKGROUND: Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an uncommon autoimmune disorder affecting the neuromuscular junction and manifesting as muscle weakness. A multitude of stressors can exacerbate MG. When symptoms are exacerbated, muscle weakness can be severe enough to result in respiratory failure, a condition known as myasthenic crisis (MC). OBJECTIVE: This review discusses risk factors, diagnosis, management, and iatrogenic avoidance of MC. DISCUSSION: MC can affect any age, ethnicity, or sex and can be precipitated with any stressor, infection being the most common...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915856/exercise-prescription-for-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-potential-benefits-and-practical-recommendations
#12
Farzin Halabchi, Zahra Alizadeh, Mohammad Ali Sahraian, Maryam Abolhasani
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) can result in significant mental and physical symptoms, specially muscle weakness, abnormal walking mechanics, balance problems, spasticity, fatigue, cognitive impairment and depression. Patients with MS frequently decrease physical activity due to the fear from worsening the symptoms and this can result in reconditioning. Physicians now believe that regular exercise training is a potential solution for limiting the reconditioning process and achieving an optimal level of patient activities, functions and many physical and mental symptoms without any concern about triggering the onset or exacerbation of disease symptoms or relapse...
September 16, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914762/the-1-week-and-8-month-effects-of-a-ketogenic-diet-or-ketone-salt-supplementation-on-multi-organ-markers-of-oxidative-stress-and-mitochondrial-function-in-rats
#13
Wesley C Kephart, Petey W Mumford, Xuansong Mao, Matthew A Romero, Hayden W Hyatt, Yufeng Zhang, Christopher B Mobley, John C Quindry, Kaelin C Young, Darren T Beck, Jeffrey S Martin, Danielle J McCullough, Dominic P D'Agostino, Ryan P Lowery, Jacob M Wilson, Andreas N Kavazis, Michael D Roberts
We determined the short- and long-term effects of a ketogenic diet (KD) or ketone salt (KS) supplementation on multi-organ oxidative stress and mitochondrial markers. For short-term feedings, 4 month-old male rats were provided isocaloric amounts of KD (n = 10), standard chow (SC) (n = 10) or SC + KS (~1.2 g/day, n = 10). For long-term feedings, 4 month-old male rats were provided KD (n = 8), SC (n = 7) or SC + KS (n = 7) for 8 months and rotarod tested every 2 months. Blood, brain (whole cortex), liver and gastrocnemius muscle were harvested from all rats for biochemical analyses...
September 15, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914735/palliative-care-in-neuromuscular-diseases
#14
Marianne de Visser, David J Oliver
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Palliative care is an approach that improves the quality of life of patients and their families facing the problem associated with life-threatening illness. Neuromuscular disorders (NMDs) are characterized by progressive muscle weakness, leading to pronounced and incapacitating physical disabilities. Most NMDs are not amenable to curative treatment and would thus qualify for palliative care. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a relentlessly progressive disease, which leads to death about 2 years after onset due to respiratory muscle weakness...
September 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905505/biallelic-variants-in-wars2-encoding-mitochondrial-tryptophanyl-trna-synthase-in-six-individuals-with-mitochondrial-encephalopathy
#15
Saskia B Wortmann, Sharita Timal, Hanka Venselaar, Liesbeth T Wintjes, Robert Kopajtich, René G Feichtinger, Carla Onnekink, Mareike Mühlmeister, Ulrich Brandt, Jan A Smeitink, Joris A Veltman, Wolfgang Sperl, Dirk Lefeber, Ger Pruijn, Vesna Stojanovic, Peter Freisinger, Francjan V Spronsen, Terry Gj Derks, Hermine E Veenstra-Knol, Johannes A Mayr, Agnes Rötig, Mark Tarnopolsky, Holger Prokisch, Richard J Rodenburg
Mitochondrial protein synthesis involves an intricate interplay between mitochondrial DNA encoded RNAs and nuclear DNA encoded proteins, such as ribosomal proteins and aminoacyl-tRNA synthases. Eukaryotic cells contain 17 mitochondria-specific aminoacyl-tRNA synthases. WARS2 encodes mitochondrial tryptophanyl-tRNA synthase (mtTrpRS), a homodimeric class Ic enzyme (mitochondrial tryptophan-tRNA ligase; EC 6.1.1.2). Here, we report six individuals from five families presenting with either severe neonatal onset lactic acidosis, encephalomyopathy and early death or a later onset, more attenuated course of disease with predominating intellectual disability...
September 14, 2017: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905233/gated-thoracic-magnetic-resonance-angiography-at-3t-noncontrast-versus-blood-pool-contrast
#16
Chengcheng Zhu, Henrik Haraldsson, Kimberly Kallianos, Liang Ge, Elaine Tseng, Travis Henry, David Saloner, Michael D Hope
Both noncontrast and contrast-enhanced approaches to gated thoracic magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) for aortic root evaluation have been reported at 3T. We compare qualitative and quantitative image quality measures for the two approaches, and assess the reproducibility of standard aortic measurements. Respiratory and cardiac gated MRA of the chest was performed at 3T in 45 patients: 23 after administration of iron-based blood pool contrast, and 22 without contrast. Image quality was assessed with a 5-point Likert scale, vessel lumen-to-muscle contrast ratios, and vessel wall sharpness...
September 13, 2017: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904172/fda-approval-summary-daratumumab-for-treatment-of-multiple-myeloma-after-one-prior-therapy
#17
Vishal Bhatnagar, Nicole J Gormley, Lola Luo, Yuan Li Shen, Rajeshwari Sridhara, Sriram Subramaniam, Guoxiang Shen, Lian Ma, Stacy Shord, Kirsten B Goldberg, Ann T Farrell, Amy E McKee, Richard Pazdur
On November 21, 2016, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration granted regular approval to daratumumab in combination with lenalidomide and dexamethasone, or bortezomib and dexamethasone, for the treatment of patients with multiple myeloma who have received at least one prior therapy. Approval was based on two randomized, open-label trials in which daratumumab was added to these backbone therapies. The MMY3003 trial demonstrated substantial improvement in progression-free survival (PFS) when daratumumab was added to lenalidomide and dexamethasone compared with lenalidomide and dexamethasone alone...
September 13, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903883/the-natural-history-of-the-patients-with-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-in-taiwan-a-medical-center-experience
#18
Wen-Chen Liang, Chen-Hua Wang, Po-Ching Chou, Wan-Zi Chen, Yuh-Jyh Jong
BACKGROUND: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common hereditary muscular dystrophy and caused by DMD gene mutation. In addition to progressive proximal muscle weakness, respiratory, orthopedic, and gastrointestinal complications are often observed in DMD. The natural history of patients with DMD in Taiwan has not been reported thus far. METHODS: Medical records of 39 patients who received a diagnosis of DMD between 1999 and 2016 at Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital were reviewed...
August 25, 2017: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901963/underlying-chronic-disease-medication-use-history-of-running-injuries-and-being-a-more-experienced-runner-are-independent-factors-associated-with-exercise-associated-muscle-cramping-a-cross-sectional-study-in-15778-distance-runners
#19
Martin P Schwellnus, Sonja Swanevelder, Esme Jordaan, Wayne Derman, Dina C Janse Van Rensburg
BACKGROUND: Exercise-associated muscle cramping (EAMC) is a significant medical complication in distance runners, yet factors associated with EAMC are poorly documented. OBJECTIVE: To document risk factors associated with EAMC in runners. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Two ocean races (21.1 km, and 56 km). PARTICIPANTS: Fifteen thousand seven hundred seventy-eight race entrants. METHODS: Participants completed a prerace medical history screening tool including: training, cardiovascular disease (CVD), risk factors for, and symptoms of CVD, history of diseases affecting major organ systems, cancer, allergies, medication use, and running injury...
August 18, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901331/raw-bia-variables-are-predictors-of-muscle-strength-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#20
F de Blasio, M G Santaniello, F de Blasio, G Mazzarella, A Bianco, L Lionetti, F M E Franssen, L Scalfi
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Although loss of fat-free mass (FFM) and reduced muscle strength are highly prevalent in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), only few data are available on the relationships of handgrip strength (HGS) and respiratory muscle strength with body composition in such disease. In particular, we aimed to assess whether raw bioelectrical impedance (BIA) variables were independent predictors of muscle strength in COPD patients, possibly more significant than anthropometric variables and BIA-based estimates of FFM...
September 13, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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