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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214075/asymmetric-total-synthesis-of-tetrahydroprotoberberine-derivatives-and-evaluation-of-their-binding-affinities-at-dopamine-receptors
#1
David Y W Lee, Jing Liu, Shuzhen Zhang, Peng Huang, Lee-Yuan Liu-Chen
Cocaine addiction remains a serious challenge for clinical and medical research because there is no effective pharmacological treatment. l-THP, a natural product isolated from Corydalis yanhusuo W.T. Wang, is one of the most frequently used traditional herbs to treat drug addiction in China. Our laboratory first reported that its demethylated metabolites l-ICP, l-CD, and l-CP had high affinity at dopamine D1, D2, and D5 receptors. Here we report the chemical synthesis of these metabolites and other derivatives and their binding affinities at dopamine receptors...
January 31, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213070/selective-a2a-receptors-blockade-reduces-degeneration-of-substantia-nigra-dopamine-neurons-in-a-rotenone-induced-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease-a-histological-study
#2
Ahmed M Fathalla, Amira M Soliman, Ahmed A Moustafa
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by a loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). Adenosine is a neuromodulator that inhibit the release of dopamine via a disinhibitory mechanism. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine and ZM241385 (respectively, A1 and A2A receptors antagonists), on nigrostriatal dopamine neurons degradation reduction in a rotenone-induced PD model using histopathological and immunohistochemical methods...
February 14, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212944/acute-and-long-term-effects-of-adolescent-methylphenidate-on-decision-making-and-dopamine-receptor-mrna-expression-in-the-orbitofrontal-cortex
#3
Leslie R Amodeo, Eliza Jacobs-Brichford, Matthew S McMurray, Jamie D Roitman
Though commonly used as a treatment for ADHD, the psychostimulant methylphenidate (MPH) is also misused and abused in adolescence in both clinical and general populations. Although MPH acts via pathways activated by other drugs of abuse, the short- and long-term effects of MPH on reward processing in learning and decision-making are not clearly understood. We examined the effect of adolescent MPH treatment on a battery of reward-directed behaviors both in adolescence during its administration and in adulthood after its discontinuation...
February 14, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211999/platform-to-enable-combined-measurement-of-dopamine-and-neural-activity
#4
Kate L Parent, Daniel F Hill, Lindsey M Crown, Jean-Paul Wiegand, Kathleen F Gies, Michael A Miller, Christopher W Atcherley, Michael L Heien, Stephen L Cowen
Complex behaviors depend on the coordination of the activities of ensembles of neurons and the release of neuromodulators such as dopamine. The mechanisms underlying such coordination are not well-understood due to a lack of instrumentation for combined and real-time monitoring of neuromodulator release and the activities of large ensembles of neurons. Here we describe a measurement platform that allows for the combined monitoring of electrophysiology from a high-density electrode array and dopamine dynamics from a carbon-fiber microelectrode...
February 17, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210978/future-directions-in-imaging-neurodegeneration
#5
REVIEW
Joseph C Masdeu
Neuroimaging comprises a powerful set of instruments to diagnose various neurodegenerative disorders, clarifies their neurobiology, and monitors their treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging depicts volume changes, as well as abnormalities in functional and structural connectivity. Positron emission tomography (PET) allows for the quantification of regional cerebral metabolism, characteristically altered in Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, diffuse Lewy-body disease, and the frontotemporal dementias...
January 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208742/aav-vector-mediated-gene-delivery-to-substantia-nigra-dopamine-neurons-implications-for-gene-therapy-and-disease-models
#6
REVIEW
Katrina Albert, Merja H Voutilainen, Andrii Domanskyi, Mikko Airavaara
Gene delivery using adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors is a widely used method to transduce neurons in the brain, especially due to its safety, efficacy, and long-lasting expression. In addition, by varying AAV serotype, promotor, and titer, it is possible to affect the cell specificity of expression or the expression levels of the protein of interest. Dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra projecting to the striatum, comprising the nigrostriatal pathway, are involved in movement control and degenerate in Parkinson's disease...
February 8, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203480/a-novel-immunosuppressor-5r-5-hydroxytriptolide-alleviates-movement-disorder-and-neuroinflammation-in-a-6-ohda-hemiparkinsonian-rat-model
#7
Ruijun Su, Min Sun, Wei Wang, Jianliang Zhang, Li Zhang, Junli Zhen, Yanjing Qian, Yan Zheng, Xiaomin Wang
Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common age-related neurodegenerative diseases. Promising therapies for PD still need to be explored. Immune dysfunction has been found to be involved in PD pathogenesis. Here, a novel immunosuppressor, (5R)-5-hydroxytriptolide (LLDT8), was used to treat 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced hemiparkinson rats. We found that oral administration of LLDT8 significantly alleviated apomorphine-induced rotations at a dose of 125 µg/kg, and improved performance in cylinder and rotarod tests at a lower dose of 31...
February 2017: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203201/modulation-of-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-cortex-needs-to-understand-all-the-players
#8
REVIEW
Claire N J Meunier, Pascal Chameau, Philippe M Fossier
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in cognitive tasks such as working memory, decision making, risk assessment and regulation of attention. These functions performed by the PFC are supposed to rely on rhythmic electrical activity generated by neuronal network oscillations determined by a precise balance between excitation and inhibition balance (E/I balance) resulting from the coordinated activities of recurrent excitation and feedback and feedforward inhibition. Functional alterations in PFC functions have been associated with cognitive deficits in several pathologies such as major depression, anxiety and schizophrenia...
2017: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203148/dopamine-d1-receptor-immunoreactivity-on-fine-processes-of-gfap-positive-astrocytes-in-the-substantia-nigra-pars-reticulata-of-adult-mouse
#9
Katsuhiro Nagatomo, Sechiko Suga, Masato Saitoh, Masahito Kogawa, Kazuto Kobayashi, Yoshio Yamamoto, Katsuya Yamada
Substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), the major output nucleus of the basal ganglia, receives dopamine from dendrites extending from dopaminergic neurons of the adjacent nucleus pars compacta (SNc), which is known for its selective degeneration in Parkinson's disease. As a recipient for dendritically released dopamine, the dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) is a primary candidate due to its very dense immunoreactivity in the SNr. However, the precise location of D1R remains unclear at the cellular level in the SNr except for that reported on axons/axon terminals of presumably striatal GABAergic neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203025/-trigemino-cardiac-reflex-in-skull-base-surgery
#10
H Z Duan, Y Zhang, L Li, J Y Zhang, Z Q Yi, S D Bao
OBJECTIVE: To explore the mechanism, clinical features, and prognosis of Trigemino-cardiac reflex (TCR) during skull base operations. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on 291 patients with skull base disease from Jan. 2009 to Oct. 2015 in Peking University First Hospital. By reviewing the patients' operative data and anaesthetic electrical record, and we picked out all the patients who suffered from TCR during the operation and analyzed their surgical procedures, clinical features, influence factors, and prognosis...
February 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202786/dopamine-modulates-adaptive-prediction-error-coding-in-the-human-midbrain-and-striatum
#11
Kelly M J Diederen, Hisham Ziauddeen, Martin D Vestergaard, Tom Spencer, Wolfram Schultz, Paul C Fletcher
Learning to optimally predict rewards requires agents to account for fluctuations in reward value. Recent work suggests that individuals can efficiently learn about variable rewards through adaptation of the learning rate, and coding of prediction errors relative to reward variability. Such adaptive coding has been linked to midbrain dopamine neurons in nonhuman primates, and evidence in support for a similar role of the dopaminergic system in humans is emerging from fMRI data. Here, we sought to investigate the effect of dopaminergic perturbations on adaptive prediction error coding in humans, using a between-subject, placebo-controlled pharmacological fMRI study with a dopaminergic agonist (bromocriptine) and antagonist (sulpiride)...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202664/lrrk2-mouse-models-dissecting-the-behavior-striatal-neurochemistry-and-neurophysiology-of-pd-pathogenesis
#12
REVIEW
Mattia Volta, Heather Melrose
Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are the most common genetic cause of familial Parkinson's disease (PD), resembling the sporadic disorder. Intensive effort has been directed toward LRRK2 mouse modeling and investigation, aimed at reproducing the human disease to inform mechanistic studies of pathogenesis and design of neuroprotective therapies. The physiological function of LRRK2 is still under exploration, but a clear role in striatal neurophysiology and animal behavior has emerged. Alterations in LRRK2 impair dopamine (DA) transmission, regulation and signaling, in addition to corticostriatal synaptic plasticity...
February 8, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201961/development-and-characterization-pulsatile-microspheres-of-nifedipine-for-hypertension
#13
Rahul Taneja, Ghanshyam Das Gupta
AIM AND BACKGROUND: To develop pulsatile microspheres of Nifedipine blend of polymers Carbopol 971P and Eudragit RS100 for antihypertensive to release the drug at a particular lag time. METHODS: Pulsatile nifedipine microspheres were prepared using blend of Carbopol 971P and Eudragit RS100 at different ratio in a mixture of solvents. Formulations were prepared and optimized on the basis of particle size, percentage yield and drug entrapment efficiency. Optimized formulations were further analyzed at different resolutions per minute (rpm) by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), in-vitro dissolution studies and kinetics model...
February 12, 2017: Recent Patents on Drug Delivery & Formulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199203/neurogenetics-of-acute-and-chronic-opiate-opioid-abstinence-treating-symptoms-and-the-cause
#14
Kenneth Blum, Mark S Gold, William Jacobs, William Vaughn McCall, Marcelo Febo, David Baron, Kristina Dushaj, Zsolt Demetrovics, Rajendra D Badgaiyan
This review begins with a comprehensive history of opioid dependence and treatment in the United States. The focus is an evidence-based treatment model for opioid/opiate dependent individuals. The role of reward genetic polymorphisms and the epigenetic modifications that lead to vulnerability to use and misuse of opiates/opioid to treat pain are reviewed. The neurochemical mechanisms of acute opiate withdrawal and opiate/opioid reward mechanisms are explored with a goal of identifying specific treatment targets...
March 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199100/complexes-of-magnetic-nanoparticles-with-cellulose-nanocrystals-as-regenerable-highly-efficient-and-selective-platform-for-protein-separation
#15
Jiaqi Guo, Ilari Filpponen, Leena-Sisko Johansson, Pezhman Mohammadi, Mika Latikka, Markus B Linder, Robin H A Ras, Orlando J Rojas
We present an efficient approach to synthesize cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) hybrids with magnetically responsive Fe3O4 nanoparticles that were synthesized using the (Fe3+/Fe2+) co-precipitation. After TEMPO-catalyzed oxidation of CNC, carbodiimide (EDC/NHS) was used for coupling amine-containing iron oxide nanoparticles that were achieved by dopamine ligand exchange (NH2-Fe3O4 NPs). The as prepared hybrids (Fe3O4@CNC) were further complexed with Cu(II) ions to produce specific protein binding sites. The performance of magnetically responsive Cu-Fe3O4@CNC hybrid was assessed by selectively separating lysozyme from aqueous media...
February 15, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199071/effect-of-antipsychotic-type-and-dose-changes-on-tardive-dyskinesia-and-parkinsonism-severity-in-patients-with-a-serious-mental-illness-the-cura%C3%A3-ao-extrapyramidal-syndromes-study-xii
#16
Charlotte L Mentzel, P Roberto Bakker, Jim van Os, Marjan Drukker, Glenn E Matroos, Hans W Hoek, Marina A J Tijssen, Peter N van Harten
OBJECTIVE: To test the efficacy of current treatment recommendations for parkinsonism and tardive dyskinesia (TD) severity in patients with severe mental illness (SMI). METHODS: We present an 18-year prospective study including all 223 patients with SMI (as defined by the 1987 US National Institute of Mental Health, which were based on DSM-III-R diagnostic criteria) receiving care from the only psychiatric hospital of the former Netherlands Antilles. Eight clinical assessments (1992-2009) focused on movement disorders and medication use...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198465/fatigue-related-impairments-in-oculomotor-control-are-prevented-by-norepinephrine-dopamine-reuptake-inhibition
#17
Charlotte J W Connell, Benjamin Thompson, Jason Turuwhenua, Alexa Srzich, Nicholas Gant
Fatigue-induced reductions in saccade velocity have been reported following acute, prolonged exercise. Interestingly, the detrimental impact of fatigue on oculomotor control can be prevented by a moderate dose of caffeine. This effect may be related to central catecholamine upregulation via caffeine's action as an adenosine antagonist. To test this hypothesis, we compared the protective effect of caffeine on oculomotor control post-exercise to that of a norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor. Within a placebo-controlled crossover design, 12 cyclists consumed placebo, caffeine or a norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor (bupropion) during 180 minutes of stationary cycling...
February 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197685/test-retest-measurements-of-dopamine-d1-type-receptors-using-simultaneous-pet-mri-imaging
#18
Simon Kaller, Michael Rullmann, Marianne Patt, Georg-Alexander Becker, Julia Luthardt, Johanna Girbardt, Philipp M Meyer, Peter Werner, Henryk Barthel, Anke Bresch, Thomas H Fritz, Swen Hesse, Osama Sabri
PURPOSE: The role of dopamine D1-type receptor (D1R)-expressing neurons in the regulation of motivated behavior and reward prediction has not yet been fully established. As a prerequisite for future research assessing D1-mediated neuronal network regulation using simultaneous PET/MRI and D1R-selective [(11)C]SCH23390, this study investigated the stability of central D1R measurements between two independent PET/MRI sessions under baseline conditions. METHODS: Thirteen healthy volunteers (7 female, age 33 ± 13 yrs) underwent 90-min emission scans, each after 90-s bolus injection of 486 ± 16 MBq [(11)C]SCH23390, on two separate days within 2-4 weeks using a PET/MRI system...
February 14, 2017: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197125/rna-interference-of-human-%C3%AE-synuclein-in-mouse
#19
Young-Cho Kim, Adam Miller, Livia C R F Lins, Sang-Woo Han, Megan S Keiser, Ryan L Boudreau, Beverly L Davidson, Nandakumar S Narayanan
α-Synuclein is postulated to play a key role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Aggregates of α-synuclein contribute to neurodegeneration and cell death in humans and in mouse models of PD. Here, we use virally mediated RNA interference to knockdown human α-synuclein in mice. We used an siRNA design algorithm to identify eight siRNA sequences with minimal off-targeting potential. One RNA-interference sequence (miSyn4) showed maximal protein knockdown potential in vitro. We then designed AAV vectors expressing miSyn4 and injected them into the mouse substantia nigra...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196657/dopamine-release-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-is-altered-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#20
Yuan-Hao Chen, Eagle Yi-Kung Huang, Tung-Tai Kuo, Barry J Hoffer, Jonathan Miller, Yu-Ching Chou, Yung-Hsiao Chiang
Mild to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is frequently associated with prolonged dysfunction of reward circuitry, including motivation and salience, which suggests alterations of dopamine (DA) processing within the core and shell of the nucleus accumbens (NAC). Using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in a rodent model of traumatic brain injury, we found that stimulus-evoked DA release is distinct in the core and shell of the NAC, with the shell being less responsive to tonic stimulation and more sensitive to the number of pulses when phasic stimulation is applied...
February 11, 2017: Neuroscience
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