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Clinical immunology

C Incorvaia, S Masieri, C Cavaliere, E Makri, B Sposato, F Frati
A large amount of data show that AR and asthma are associated both epidemiologically and clinically, introducing the definition of “united airway disease”. The mechanisms underlying such association were initially suggested to start from the nose, including the loss of the protective and homeostatic effects of nasal function, the activation of a naso-bronchial reflex and the spread of allergic inflammation from the nose to the lower airways. Later, other factors such as microbial stimuli and systemic inflammatory mechanisms, involving bloodstream and bone marrow, were advocated...
January 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Ziteng Zhang, Ling Zong, Baobin Xu, Ronghang Hu, Ming Ma, Haixiang Wei, Yanhong Meng
PURPOSE: To observe the clinical efficacy of the application of enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) in the perioperative period of esophageal carcinoma patients. METHODS: A total of 114 patients who were admitted to Affiliated Hospital of Jining Medical University for surgical treatment of esophageal carcinoma between June 2012 and June 2016 were enrolled and randomly divided into the intervention group and the regular group according to the difference of management procedures during the perioperative period...
January 2018: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
Mamatha Siricilla, Lydia Irwin, Andres Ferber
Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) is a subtype of nonclassical Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). It resembles non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), by expressing classic B cell markers such as CD20 and CD79a however lacks definitive HL markers (such as CD15 and CD30). T cell histiocyte-rich large B cell lymphoma (THRLBCL), on the other hand, is a distinct entity classified under NHL and considered a variant of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). NLPHL can look morphologically and immunologically similar to THRLBCL and often poses a diagnostic challenge...
2018: Case Reports in Oncological Medicine
Chia Wei Teoh, Kathleen Mary Gorman, Bryan Lynch, Timothy H J Goodship, Niamh Marie Dolan, Mary Waldron, Michael Riordan, Atif Awan
Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is caused by dysregulation of the complement system. A humanised anti-C5 monoclonal antibody (eculizumab) is available for the treatment of aHUS. We present the first description of atypical HUS in a child with a coexistent diagnosis of a POL-III leukodystrophy. On standard eculizumab dosing regime, there was evidence of ongoing C5 cleavage and clinical relapses when immunologically challenged. Eculizumab is an effective therapy for aHUS, but the recommended doses may not be adequate for all patients, highlighting the need for ongoing efforts to develop a strategy for monitoring of treatment efficacy and potential individualisation of therapy...
2018: Case Reports in Nephrology
Katja Akgün, Imke Metz, Hagen H Kitzler, Wolfgang Brück, Tjalf Ziemssen
Alemtuzumab exerts its clinical efficacy by its specific pattern of depletion and repopulation of different immune cell subsets. Recently, single cases of multiple sclerosis patients who developed severe exacerbation after the first alemtuzumab application, accompanied by re-appearance of peripheral B cells, were reported. Here we present a case with underlying B cell-driven multiple sclerosis that impressively improves after alemtuzumab, although peripheral B cell repopulation took place. Our detailed clinical, histopathological, imaging and immunological data suggest that alemtuzumab can act as an effective rescue treatment in highly active B cell-driven and antibody/complement-mediated multiple sclerosis type II patients...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
Olivia Falconer, Marie-Louise Newell, Christine E Jones
The success of prevention of mother to child transmission programs over the last two decades has led to an increasing number of infants who are exposed to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but who are not themselves infected (HIV-exposed, uninfected infants). Although the morbidity and mortality among HIV-exposed, uninfected infants is considerably lower than that among HIV-infected infants, they may remain at increased risk of infections in the first 2 years of life compared with their HIV-unexposed peers, especially in the absence of breastfeeding...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
John J McMurtrey, Mark O M Tso
Most patients suffering from retinitis pigmentosa (RP) inherit the disorder; however, the immune-pathologic features associated with this disease have yet to be extensively studied. Six reports correlate anti-retinal immune activity with vision deterioration in RP patients. Some of these patients have sporadic RP that occurs in excess of expected gene segregation during inheritance. The hypothesis that a primary immune-mediated disease process occurs in this sporadic group is supported by significant associations of RP with autoimmune endocrinopathies and other immune related conditions or factors; however, no immunologic difference regarding RP family history is reported in the peripheral blood studies of RP patients...
March 15, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
Naoki Komine, Shigeru Satoh, Mitsuru Saito, Kazuyuki Numakura, Takamitsu Inoue, Hiroshi Tsuruta, Shintaro Narita, Atsushi Komatsuda, Hiroshi Nanjo, Hideaki Kagaya, Takenori Niioka, Masatomo Miura, Yoko Mitobe, Tomonori Habuchi
The impact of CYP3A5 polymorphisms on clinical outcomes is controversial. The present study investigated the impact of CYP3A5 genetic differences on the development of interstitial fibrosis (IF) from 0 h to 1 year post-transplantation in biopsy sections from 96 living kidney recipients under the same target trough regimen of tacrolimus. The relationships between CYP3A5 polymorphisms and long-term graft function and death-censored graft survival were also examined. A quantitative analysis of IF was performed using computer-assisted imaging on virtual slides...
March 14, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Buğra Çetin, Hüseyin Güleç, Hayal Ergin Toktaş, Özgür Ulutaş, Seda Güleç Yılmaz, Turgay İsbir
We aimed to investigate the changes in the objective and subjective sleep variables during painful episodes of fibromyalgia and post-episode period, and to evaluate the impact of the sleep variables on the current clinical, psychological, and immunologic parameters. Thirty-one consecutive patients who were referred to the Erenköy Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Polyclinic with a diagnosis of fibromyalgia were evaluated before and in the sixth week of the acute pain treatment. The sleep variables were measured by polysomnography, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and Epworth Sleepiness Scale...
March 3, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Kylie Su Mei Yong, Justin Han Jia Ng, Zhisheng Her, Ying Ying Hey, Sue Yee Tan, Wilson Wei Sheng Tan, Sergio Erdal Irac, Min Liu, Xue Ying Chan, Merry Gunawan, Randy Jee Hiang Foo, Dolyce Hong Wen Low, Ian Hewitt Mendenhall, Yok Teng Chionh, Charles-Antoine Dutertre, Qingfeng Chen, Lin-Fa Wang
Bats are an important animal model with long lifespans, low incidences of tumorigenesis and an ability to asymptomatically harbour pathogens. Currently, in vivo studies of bats are hampered due to their low reproduction rates. To overcome this, we transplanted bat cells from bone marrow (BM) and spleen into an immunodeficient mouse strain NOD-scid IL-2R-/- (NSG), and have successfully established stable, long-term reconstitution of bat immune cells in mice (bat-mice). Immune functionality of our bat-mouse model was demonstrated through generation of antigen-specific antibody response by bat cells following immunization...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sait Karaman, Semiha Bahçeci Erdem, Nesrin Gülez, Ferah Genel
BACKGROUND: Patients with unclassified hypogammaglobulinemia (UCH) constitute a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma, because information concerning the clinical and immunological characteristics of these patients is insufficient. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate B-cell subsets in cases with UCH and common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) and their association with treatment requirement in UCH patients. METHODS: The study included 41 UCH, 25 CVID, and 36 healthy individuals between the ages of 4-18 years...
March 2018: Iranian Journal of Immunology: IJI
Andrea Padoan, Laura Sciacovelli, Ada Aita, Giorgia Antonelli, Mario Plebani
BACKGROUND: Measurement uncertainty (MU) estimation has been introduced by ISO 15189 for the accreditation of clinical laboratories. Although MU reporting is not required, its inclusion in medical reports is of potential assistance to physicians in results interpretation. METHODS: MU reporting was evaluated with respect to different test purposes, namely comparison with reference intervals (RI), patient monitoring or comparison with clinical decision limits. Clinical Biochemistry, Hematology, Coagulation and Clinical Immunology measurands were used as examples...
March 13, 2018: Clinical Biochemistry
Isabella Zhang, Silvia C Formenti, Jonathan P S Knisely
The brain has long been considered an immunologically privileged site, and the role of immunotherapy in treating intracranial disease has only recently been revived-with preclinical evidence showing that the systemic immune system responds to immunotherapy for intracranial disease, and with clinical evidence demonstrating improved locoregional control and survival compared with historical outcomes when immune-directed therapies are combined with radiation. Pharmaceutical industry-supported multi-institutional drug efficacy studies routinely exclude patients with brain metastases, so current evidence for treatment of brain metastases using stereotactic radiosurgery combined with immunotherapy comes from single-institution studies...
March 15, 2018: Oncology (Williston Park, NY)
Laura Tarancon-Diez, Rebeca S De Pablo-Bernal, José Luis Jiménez, Ana I Álvarez-Ríos, Miguel Genebat, Isaac Rosado-Sánchez, María-Ángeles Muñoz-Fernández, Ezequiel Ruiz-Mateos, Manuel Leal
OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are one of the main causes of morbimortality in HIV-infected patients on suppressive antiretroviral therapy. The objective of this work was to evaluate the role of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and CVDs occurrence in HIV-infected patients. Additionally, the functional consequences of carrying these SNPs were analyzed. METHODS: The association of TLR4 SNPs, Asp299Gly/Thr399Ile with CVDs occurrence was analyzed using multivariate logistic regression models...
March 15, 2018: AIDS
JooYeon Jhun, Seung Hoon Lee, Soon Kyu Lee, Hee Yeon Kim, Eun Sun Jung, Dong Goo Kim, JeongWon Choi, Si Hyun Bae, Seung Kew Yoon, Byung Ha Chung, Chul Woo Yang, Mi-La Cho, Jong Young Choi
Recipients of liver transplantation (LT) require long-term immunosuppressive drug treatment, but lifelong immunosuppressive treatment has severe side effects. It is known that some LT recipients develop immune tolerance, and although the development of such operational tolerance should allow a decrease in the burden of immunosuppressive drug treatment, the factors that indicate operational tolerance are not clear. This study aimed to monitor immunological markers over time in LT recipients to identify those markers indicating the development of operational tolerance...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Cheleka A M Mpande, One B Dintwe, Munyaradzi Musvosvi, Simbarashe Mabwe, Nicole Bilek, Mark Hatherill, Elisa Nemes, Thomas J Scriba
Background: Maintenance of long-lasting immunity is thought to depend on stem cell memory T cells (TSCM ), which have superior self-renewing capacity, longevity and proliferative potential compared with central memory (TCM ) or effector (TEFF ) T cells. Our knowledge of TSCM derives primarily from studies of virus-specific CD8+ TSCM . We aimed to determine if infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( M. tb ), the etiological agent of tuberculosis, generates antigen-specific CD4+ TSCM and to characterize their functional ontology...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Juanita Romero-Díaz, Roberto Iván Acosta-Hernández, Sergio Criales-Vera, Erick Kimura-Hayama, Maricruz Domínguez-Quintana, Rocío Morán-Contla, Carlos Núñez-Alvarez, Pilar Lara-Reyes, Carlos Aguilar-Salinas, Jorge Sánchez-Guerrero
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the prevalence and extent of asymptomatic coronary artery atherosclerosis are increased in men with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) compared with age- and sex-matched controls, and to define the associated risk factors. METHODS: Ninety-five patients with SLE (mean ± SD age, 34.7 ± 10.1 yrs) and 100 control subjects (age 34.8 ± 9.7 yrs) with no history of coronary artery disease were screened for coronary artery calcification using multidetector computed tomography...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Rheumatology
Leontine Mulder, Renate van der Molen, Carin Koelman, Ester van Leeuwen, Anja Roos, Jan Damoiseaux
ISO 15189:2012 requires validation of methods used in the medical laboratory, and lists a series of performance parameters for consideration to include. Although these performance parameters are feasible for clinical chemistry analytes, application in the validation of autoimmunity tests is a challenge. Lack of gold standards or reference methods in combination with the scarcity of well-defined diagnostic samples of patients with rare diseases make validation of new assays difficult. The present manuscript describes the initiative of Dutch medical immunology laboratory specialists to combine efforts and perform multi-center validation studies of new assays in the field of autoimmunity...
March 12, 2018: Autoimmunity Reviews
Neill J Liptrott, Marco Giardiello, Tom O McDonald, Steve P Rannard, Andrew Owen
BACKGROUND: Recent work has developed solid drug nanoparticles (SDNs) of efavirenz that have been demonstrated, preclinically, improved oral bioavailability and the potential to enable up to a 50% dose reduction, and is currently being studied in a healthy volunteer clinical trial. Other SDN formulations are being studied for parenteral administration, either as intramuscular long-acting formulations, or for direct administration intravenously. The interaction of nanoparticles with the immunological and haematological systems can be a major barrier to successful translation but has been understudied for SDN formulations...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
Julian A Marin-Acevedo, Bhagirathbhai Dholaria, Aixa E Soyano, Keith L Knutson, Saranya Chumsri, Yanyan Lou
Immune checkpoints consist of inhibitory and stimulatory pathways that maintain self-tolerance and assist with immune response. In cancer, immune checkpoint pathways are often activated to inhibit the nascent anti-tumor immune response. Immune checkpoint therapies act by blocking or stimulating these pathways and enhance the body's immunological activity against tumors. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated molecule-4 (CTLA-4), programmed cell death receptor-1 (PD-1), and programmed cell death ligand-1(PD-L1) are the most widely studied and recognized inhibitory checkpoint pathways...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
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