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Clinical pharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792808/eradication-of-established-tumors-by-chemically-self-assembled-nanoring-csan-targeted-t-cells
#1
Jacob Petersburg, Jingjing Shen, Clifford M Csizmar, Katherine A Murphy, Justin Spanier, Kari Gabrielse, Thomas S Griffith, Brian Fife, Carston R Wagner
Our laboratory has developed chemically self-assembled nanorings (CSANs) as prosthetic antigen receptors (PARs) for the non-genetic modification of T-cell surfaces. PARs have been successfully employed in vitro to activate T cells for the selective killing of leukemia cells. However, PAR efficacy has yet to be evaluated in vivo or against solid tumors. Therefore, we developed bispecific PARs that selectively target the human CD3 receptor and human Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule (EpCAM), which is overexpressed on multiple carcinomas and cancer stem cells...
May 24, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792524/managing-comorbid-cardiovascular-disease-and-sleep-apnea-with-pharmacotherapy
#2
Jacek Wolf, Krzysztof Narkiewicz
Highly prevalent sleep disordered breathing (SDB) has been recognized as an independent cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor. Although these two entities often coexist, there is a shortage of sufficiently-powered studies testing the interplay between the course of sleep apnea and CVD pharmacotherapy. The mutual relationship between treated/untreated obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) with ongoing cardiovascular pharmacotherapies is an evident gap in clinical expertise. Areas covered: In this article, the authors review the available evidence and outline future research directions concerning the reciprocal relationship between the pharmacological treatment of CVD and SDB...
May 24, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792441/human-memory-reconsolidation-a-guiding-framework-and-critical-review-of-the-evidence
#3
James W B Elsey, Vanessa A Van Ast, Merel Kindt
Research in nonhuman animals suggests that reactivation can induce a transient, unstable state in a previously consolidated memory, during which the memory can be disrupted or modified, necessitating a process of restabilization in order to persist. Such findings have sparked a wave of interest into whether this phenomenon, known as reconsolidation, occurs in humans. Translating research from animal models to human experiments and even to clinical interventions is an exciting prospect, but amid this excitement, relatively little work has critically evaluated and synthesized existing research regarding human memory reconsolidation...
May 24, 2018: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792274/ex-vivo-expanded-natural-regulatory-t-cells-from-patients-with-end-stage-renal-disease-or-kidney-transplantation-are-useful-for-autologous-cell-therapy
#4
Sybille Landwehr-Kenzel, Anne Zobel, Henrike Hoffmann, Niels Landwehr, Michael Schmueck-Henneresse, Thomas Schachtner, Andy Roemhild, Petra Reinke
Novel concepts employing autologous, ex vivo expanded natural regulatory T cells (nTreg) for adoptive transfer has potential to prevent organ rejection after kidney transplantation. However, the impact of dialysis and maintenance immunosuppression on the nTreg phenotype and peripheral survival is not well understood, but essential when assessing patient eligibility. The current study investigates regulatory T-cells in dialysis and kidney transplanted patients and the feasibility of generating a clinically useful nTreg product from these patients...
June 2018: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792146/use-of-bipolar-radiofrequency-catheter-ablation-in-treatment-of-cardiac-arrhythmias
#5
Filip Soucek, Zdenek Starek
Background Arrhythmia management is a complex process involving both pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches. Radiofrequency ablation is the pillar of non-pharmacological arrhythmia treatment. Unipolar ablation is considered to be the gold standard in the treatment of the majority of arrhythmias; however, its efficacy is limited to specific cases. In particular, the creation of deep or transmural lesions to eliminate intramurally originating arrhythmias remains inadequate. Bipolar ablation is proposed as an alternative to overcome unipolar ablation boundaries...
May 23, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791945/global-health-epilepsy
#6
Amza Ali
Epilepsy is a frequently misunderstood and highly stigmatized condition. Major treatment gaps exist across the world, most so in areas of financial constraint. Classification permits the best approaches to treatment and to ascertaining prognosis. The International League Against Epilepsy's new classification system emphasizes clinical aspects and utilizes all available resources to determine whether it is a focal or generalized epilepsy. The most important tools are a careful history, clinical examination, electroencephalography, and appropriate neuroimaging...
April 2018: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791634/effects-of-health-education-in-the-elderly-with-mild-cognitive-impairment
#7
Francine Golghetto Casemiro, Diana Monteiro Quirino, Maria Angélica Andreotti Diniz, Rosalina Aparecida Partezani Rodrigues, Sofia Cristina Iost Pavarini, Aline Cristina Martins Gratão
OBJECTIVE: to analyze the effects of health education on both cognition and depressive/anxiety symptoms in the elderly with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). METHOD: this is a randomized and controlled clinical trial. Participants (n=22) were recruited from a specialized outpatient clinic, and assigned into two groups: a Health Education Group (HEG) (n=10) and a Control Group (CG) (n=12). The participants were evaluated before and after the intervention, which was composed of classes and dynamics...
2018: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791258/licorice-root-extract-and-magnesium-isoglycyrrhizinate-protect-against-triptolide-induced-hepatotoxicity-via-up-regulation-of-the-nrf2-pathway
#8
Qin-You Tan, Qian Hu, Sheng-Nan Zhu, Lu-Lu Jia, Juan Xiao, Hua-Zhen Su, Shao-Yuan Huang, Jing Zhang, Junfei Jin
Triptolide, the predominant biologically active component of the Chinese herb Tripterygium wilfordii Hook f., possesses numerous pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammatory, anti-fertility, anti-neoplastic, and immunosuppressive effects. However, toxicity and severe adverse effects, particularly hepatotoxicity, limit the clinical application of triptolide. Licorice root extract contains various bioactive compounds and is potent hepatoprotective. Magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate, a magnesium salt of the 18α-glycyrrhizic acid stereoisomer of glycyrrhizic acid, is used clinically in China to treat chronic viral hepatitis and acute drug-induced liver injury...
November 2018: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791213/nurses-perspectives-on-pharmacology-why-what-and-at-which-point-of-the-curricula-should-education-be-delivered
#9
Ehsan U Khan, Pauline A Hood
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: the study aimed to capture the views of nursing students and qualified nurses about pharmacology education and at which point the subject should be taught. BACKGROUND: drug errors are common in clinical practice. However, the presence of pharmacology education in nursing curricula varies, with few higher education institutes focusing on the topic in pre-registration years. DESIGN: a cross-sectional survey was carried out with 46 pre-registration, 18 post-qualification and 15 post-qualification nurse prescribing course students...
May 24, 2018: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791008/the-pharmacology-pharmacokinetics-efficacy-and-adverse-events-associated-with-kava
#10
REVIEW
C Michael White
Kava is a plant with numerous kavapyrones that can induce pharmacologic effects and drug interactions through the cytochrome P450 and P-glycoprotein systems. Kava is used recreationally and for the treatment of anxiety. Clinical trials verify anxiolytic effects in excess of placebo, but the effects are not seen immediately and the optimal dose and dosing schedule needs to be determined. Clinical trials usually lasting for 4 weeks found generally good tolerability and safety; however, dermatologic, hepatologic, and cognitive adverse effects may occur...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790844/antibiotic-use-for-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-neonates-and-children-who-evidence-review
#11
Shrey Mathur, Aline Fuchs, Julia Bielicki, Johannes Van Den Anker, Mike Sharland
Background Pneumonia is the most common cause of death in children worldwide, accounting for 15% of all deaths of children under 5 years of age. This review summarises the evidence for the empirical antibiotic treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in neonates and children and puts emphasis on publications since the release of the previous WHO Evidence Summary report published in 2014. Methods A systematic search for systematic reviews and meta-analyses of antibiotic therapy for community-acquired pneumonia was conducted between 1 January 2013 and 10 November 2016...
November 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790816/the-effect-of-elevated-%C3%AE-1-acid-glycoprotein-on-the-pharmacokinetics-of-tak-272-sco-272-an-orally-active-renin-inhibitor-in-rats
#12
Takuya Ebihara, Hisao Shimizu, Masami Yamamoto, Tomoaki Higuchi, Fumihiro Jinno, Yoshihiko Tagawa
1. The pharmacokinetics of TAK-272 (SCO-272), an orally active renin inhibitor, was investigated in rats with subcutaneously injected turpentine oil, which was an inflammation animal model. 2. Following intravenous administration of TAK-272 to the turpentine-treated rats, the systemic clearance and volume of distribution decreased with the elevated plasma α1 -acid glycoprotein (AGP) levels. The elevated plasma AGP levels were negatively correlated with the plasma unbound fraction of TAK-272 in the rats. Although the AUCs of total TAK-272 in the turpentine-treated rats were higher than those in the control rats after intravenous and oral administration, those of unbound TAK-272, which seem to directly contribute to the pharmacological effect and safety, were nearly equal between the turpentine-treated and control rats in the respective dose routes...
May 23, 2018: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790698/inhibition-of-migration-and-invasion-by-berberine-via-inactivation-of-pi3k-akt-and-p38-in-human-retinoblastoma-cell-line
#13
Yuwen Wang, Jianshu Yuan, Liangyan Yang, Pengyun Wang, Xiajun Wang, Yue Wu, Kan Chen, Rong Ma, Yike Zhong, Xiaohong Guo, Yan Gong, Mengfang Gui, Yaming Jin
BACKGROUND: As a clinically important natural isoquinoline alkaloid, berberine has been reported to possess various pharmacological effects. OBJECTIVES: This study was aimed to investigate the effect of berberine on cell migration and invasion in human retinoblastoma (Rb) cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The cytotoxicity of berberine was estimated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. After being stimulated with berberine under various concentrations, the cell migration and invasion were evaluated by transwell assay...
May 17, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790360/-current-and-future-pharmacotherapy-of-severe-psychiatric-disorders
#14
Eva Češková
Despite of tremendous development in CNS research, current treatment is suboptimal especially in severe mental disorders. In medicine, there are two main methods of improving the healthcare provided: seeking new treatment procedures and perfecting (optimizing) the existing ones. Optimization of treatment includes not only practical tools such as therapeutic drug monitoring, but also implementation of general trends into the clinical practice. New pharmacological options include drugs aimed at other than monoaminergic systems and old drugs used before the psychopharmacological era...
2018: Casopís Lékar̆ů C̆eských
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790354/-opioids-and-new-trends-in-pain-therapy
#15
Jan Lejčko
Opioids are well known for their ability to reduce the perception of pain without a loss of consciousness. However, the influence of opioids on organism is very complex. Clinical pharmacology of currently available opioid analgesics is determined by three major factors - their opioid receptor properties, pharmacokinetic properties and genetic polymorphism in the opiate receptor and cytochrome P450 isoform. In acute severe pain are opioids very efficient. Long-term experience with opioid analgesia in patients with cancer pain has shown high favorable risk/benefit ratio...
2018: Casopís Lékar̆ů C̆eských
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790323/-prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-overweight-and-obesity-after-liver-transplantation-retrospective-study-at-three-years-after-transplantation
#16
Sara Di Cosmo, Maura Lusignani, Matteo Manini, Roberto Accardi
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Weight gain is frequently observed among liver transplanted patients. This condition is often associated to the development of other post LT morbidities which might influence the long-term post-transplant survival. However, the risk factors asso- ciated have not yet been identified. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of over- weight and obesity, to notice Body Mass Index changes and associated risk factors, within three years after LT. METHODS: All the patients consecutively transplanted at the Liver Transplantation Unit of Fondazione IRCCS "Cà-Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico", Milan between January 2005 and June 2014 were retrospectively evaluated for inclusion...
January 2018: Professioni Infermieristiche
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789636/cypripedin-diminishes-an-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-cells-through-suppression-of-akt-gsk-3%C3%AE-signalling
#17
Surassawadee Treesuwan, Boonchoo Sritularak, Pithi Chanvorachote, Varisa Pongrakhananon
Lung cancer appears to have the highest rate of mortality among cancers due to its metastasis capability. To achieve metastasis, cancer cells acquire the ability to undergo a switch from epithelial to mesenchymal behaviour, termed the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is associated with poor clinical outcomes. Drug discovery attempts have been made to find potent compounds that will suppress EMT. Cypripedin, a phenanthrenequinone isolated from Thai orchid, Dendrobium densiflorum, exhibits diverse pharmacological activities...
May 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789530/efficient-blood-brain-barrier-opening-in-primates-with-neuronavigation-guided-ultrasound-and-real-time-acoustic-mapping
#18
Shih-Ying Wu, Christian Aurup, Carlos Sierra Sanchez, Julien Grondin, Wenlan Zheng, Hermes Kamimura, Vincent P Ferrera, Elisa E Konofagou
Brain diseases including neurological disorders and tumors remain under treated due to the challenge to access the brain, and blood-brain barrier (BBB) restricting drug delivery which, also profoundly limits the development of pharmacological treatment. Focused ultrasound (FUS) with microbubbles is the sole method to open the BBB noninvasively, locally, and transiently and facilitate drug delivery, while translation to the clinic is challenging due to long procedure, targeting limitations, or invasiveness of current systems...
May 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789213/severe-hypertriglyceridemia-clinical-characteristics-and-therapeutic-management
#19
Walter Masson, Emiliano Rossi, Daniel Siniawski, Juan Damonte, Ana Halsband, Ramiro Barolo, Miguel Scaramal
INTRODUCTION: The therapeutic management of severe hypertriglyceridaemia represents a clinical challenge. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were 1) to identify the clinical characteristics of patients with severe hypertriglyceridaemia, and 2) to analyse the treatment established by the physicians in each case. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out using the computerised medical records of all patients>18 years of age with a blood triglyceride level≥1,000mg/dL between 1 January 2011 and 31 December 2016...
May 19, 2018: Clínica e Investigación en Arteriosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789034/pharmacological-properties-of-cannabidiol-in-the-treatment-of-psychiatric-disorders-a-critical-overview
#20
G M Mandolini, M Lazzaretti, A Pigoni, L Oldani, G Delvecchio, P Brambilla
Cannabidiol (CBD) represents a new promising drug due to a wide spectrum of pharmacological actions. In order to relate CBD clinical efficacy to its pharmacological mechanisms of action, we performed a bibliographic search on PUBMED about all clinical studies investigating the use of CBD as a treatment of psychiatric symptoms. Findings to date suggest that (a) CBD may exert antipsychotic effects in schizophrenia mainly through facilitation of endocannabinoid signalling and cannabinoid receptor type 1 antagonism; (b) CBD administration may exhibit acute anxiolytic effects in patients with generalised social anxiety disorder through modification of cerebral blood flow in specific brain sites and serotonin 1A receptor agonism; (c) CBD may reduce withdrawal symptoms and cannabis/tobacco dependence through modulation of endocannabinoid, serotoninergic and glutamatergic systems; (d) the preclinical pro-cognitive effects of CBD still lack significant results in psychiatric disorders...
May 23, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
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