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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654438/differences-in-athletic-performance-between-sportsmen-with-symptomatic-femoroacetabular-impingement-and-healthy-controls
#1
Karen Mullins, Michael Hanlon, Patrick Carton
OBJECTIVE: Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is a commonly recognized condition in athletes characterized by activity-related hip pain and stiffness, which if left untreated can progress to hip osteoarthritis. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of symptomatic FAI on performance in young athletes based on the hypothesis that athletes with FAI would show deficits in performance compared with healthy controls. DESIGN: The functional performance of a cohort of preoperative, competitive sportsmen with symptomatic FAI (FAI group, n = 54), was compared with that of a group of age, sex and activity-level matched controls (n = 66)...
June 22, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654051/experimental-protocol-of-a-three-minute-all-out-arm-crank-exercise-test-in-spinal-cord-injured-and-able-bodied-individuals
#2
Joelle L Flueck
Reliable exercise protocols are required to test changes in exercise performance in elite athletes. Performance improvements in these athletes may be small; therefore, sensitive tools are fundamental to exercise physiology. There are currently many exercise tests that allow for the examination of exercise capacity in able-bodied athletes, with protocols mainly for lower-body or whole-body exercise. There is a trend to test athletes in a sport-specific setting that closely resembles the actions that the participants are used to performing...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654037/non-invasive-assessments-of-subjective-and-objective-recovery-characteristics-following-an-exhaustive-jump-protocol
#3
Erich Hohenauer, Peter Clarys, Jean-Pierre Baeyens, Ron Clijsen
Fast recovery after strenuous exercise is important in sports and is often studied via cryotherapy applications. Cryotherapy has a significant vasoconstrictive effect, which seems to be the leading factor in its effectiveness. The resulting enhanced recovery can be measured by using both objective and subjective parameters. Two commonly measured subjective characteristics of recovery are delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE). Two important objective recovery characteristics are countermovement jump (CMJ) performance and peak power output (PPO)...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653780/gait-training-for-chronic-ankle-instability-improves-neuromechanics-during-walking
#4
Mark A Feger, Joseph M Hart, Susan Saliba, Mark F Abel, Jay Hertel
A novel gait-training device has been shown to improve gait patterns while patients with chronic ankle instability (CAI) are using the device and our current objective was to analyze the effect of structured gait training with the device on plantar pressure and surface electromyography (sEMG) following repeated gait training sessions. Sixteen CAI patients participated. Plantar pressure and sEMG were collected simultaneously during walking pre- and post-gait training. Plantar pressure (pressure time integral, peak pressure, time to peak pressure, contact area, contact time and center of pressure trajectory) of the entire foot and 9 specific regions of the foot were recorded concurrently with sEMG root mean square amplitudes from the anterior tibialis, peroneus longus, medial gastrocnemius, and gluteus medius...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653303/the-importance-of-body-mass-normalisation-for-ultrasound-measurements-of-the-morphology-of-oblique-abdominis-muscles-the-effect-of-age-gender-and-sport-practice
#5
Pawel Linek
Some studies have not considered body mass as a confounder in analysis of oblique abdominis muscles (OAM) (including the oblique externus [OE] and oblique internus [OI]), which may have led to improper interpretation of results. To assess the differences in the effect of age, gender, and physical activity between normalised for body mass and actual values of the OAM as well as to establish the effect of age, gender, and physical activity on normalised for body mass OAM thicknesses in adolescents. A real-time ultrasound was used to obtain images of the OAM...
June 27, 2017: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652828/prevention-treatment-and-rehabilitation-of-anterior-cruciate-ligament-injuries-in-children
#6
REVIEW
Pamela J Lang, Dai Sugimoto, Lyle J Micheli
As more children and adolescents participate in competitive organized sports, there has been an increase in the reported incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in these age groups. ACL injuries in skeletally immature athletes present a challenge, as reconstruction must preserve the physis of the distal femur and of the proximal tibia to avoid growth disturbances. Historically, a skeletally immature athlete with an ACL injury was treated with a brace and activity modification until skeletal maturity, with ACL reconstruction being performed at that time in the "non-copers" who experienced instability...
2017: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650799/learning-the-personalized-intransitive-preferences-of-images
#7
Jun Chen, Chaokun Wang, Jianmin Wang, Xiang Ying, Xuecheng Wang
Most of the previous studies on the user preferences assume that there is a personal transitive preference ranking of the consumable media like images. For example, the transitivity of preferences is one of the most important assumptions in the recommender system research. However, the intransitive relations have also been widely observed, such as the win/loss relations in online video games, in sport matches, and even in rock-paper-scissors games. It is also found that different subjects demonstrate the personalized intransitive preferences in the pairwise comparisons between the applicants for college admission...
September 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650786/alveolar-fracture-caused-by-tooth-extraction-at-home
#8
Fabrício Kitazono de Carvalho, Thaís Aparecida Xavier, Nicole Gonçalves Lima, Alexandra Mussolino de Queiroz, Marcilene Coelho Vinhorte, Paulo Nelson-Filho
Injuries to the teeth and surrounding structures are relatively common. Although traumatic injuries caused by falls or activities related to sports are widely discussed, the same cannot be said regarding accidents arising from non-professional extraction of primary teeth. The present study reports a 6-year-old male child who underwent mandibular alveolar bone fracture during non-professional extraction of his central lower left incisor at home, performed by his 30-year-old aunt. The root of the tooth was with an irregular physiological resorption, which acted as a lever component for the mechanical force applied, leading to bone fracture...
2017: Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649793/characteristics-of-acute-groin-injuries-in-the-hip-flexor-muscles-a-detailed-mri-study-in-athletes
#9
Andreas Serner, Adam Weir, Johannes L Tol, Kristian Thorborg, Frank Roemer, Ali Guermazi, Eduardo Yamashiro, Per Hölmich
Hip flexor injuries account for one third of acute groin injuries; however, little is known about specific injury characteristics. The aims of this study was to describe acute hip flexor injuries using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in athletes with acute groin pain, and to compare specific muscle injuries with reported injury situations. Male athletes with acute groin pain were prospectively and consecutively included during 3 sports seasons. MRI was performed within 7 days of injury using a standardized protocol and a reliable assessment approach...
June 26, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648554/the-isokinetic-rotator-cuff-strength-ratios-in-overhead-athletes-assessment-and-exercise-effect
#10
REVIEW
Kelly Berckmans, Annelies G Maenhout, Lien Matthijs, Louise Pieters, Birgit Castelein, Ann M Cools
OBJECTIVE: Muscle strength imbalance in the shoulder region can be considered as a predisposing factor in the development of movement dysfunctions, possibly leading to overuse injuries. Repetitive overhead throwing, performed in sports, may result in muscle imbalance between the external (ER) and internal (IR) rotators. Muscle strength measured with an isokinetic device, is reported as a concentric (CON) or eccentric (ECC) force. The balance between an agonist and an antagonist is mentioned as a ratio (CON/CON or ECC/CON)...
March 11, 2017: Physical Therapy in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648245/great-british-medalists-response-to-the-commentaries
#11
Lew Hardy, Matthew Barlow, Lynne Evans, Tim Rees, Tim Woodman, Chelsea Warr
Hardy et al. (2017) reported the findings of a large-scale, multisource, qualitative study that examined the commonalities of, and discriminators between, a group of super-elite (SE) and a group of elite (E) athletes who were matched on gender, sport, discipline, and era. Fifteen research teams who are actively engaged in research in the domain then provided critical commentaries on the target paper. In our response to these commentaries, we briefly remind the reader of the primary findings of the original paper and then deal with the commentaries under the subheadings: Necessary and Sufficient Conditions for Elite Performance; Mediating and Moderating Variables; Methodological Issues; Omissions; and Alternative Approaches...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648243/a-culture-of-striving-augments-use-of-working-memory-implications-for-attention-control
#12
Tim Buszard, Rich S W Masters
A culture of striving was notable in the developmental background of many of the elite and super elite athletes in the Hardy et al. STUDY: Critically, a culture of striving was credited with a positive influence on a range of issues relevant to elite sports performance, including performance under pressure. Of the six athletes who did not reveal a culture of striving, five reported the greatest difficulty performing in high-pressure situations. We suspect that a culture of striving facilitates the development of attention control ability, which subsequently assists performance under pressure...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648240/eventual-sport-performance-level-what-about-the-role-of-type-of-sport-perception-of-critical-life-events-and-practice-quality
#13
Tynke Toering
The target article describes an interesting study, which provides some challenging findings regarding athletes' pathway to excellence. The suggested links between critical life events, need for success, personal characteristics, and eventual performance level make sense from a psychodynamic perspective. This commentary will discuss some critical points related to the application of the findings in talent identification and -development programs. These are (1) the possible effect of the selection of participants on the results (including the impact of dependence on others for team sport athletes and the opportunity for multiple medal attainment), (2) a lack of detail in the description of how the athletes approached the critical life events (the perception of an event may contribute more to development than the event itself), and (3) a lack of detail in the description of the practice process throughout development...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648237/adversity-related-experiences-are-essential-for-olympic-success-additional-evidence-and-considerations
#14
Mustafa Sarkar, David Fletcher
Drawing on Hardy et al.'s study as the target article, in this commentary, we focus on the adversity-related experiences and consequences of the Olympic and/or World champions that they sampled. With this in mind, we divide the narrative into two main sections. In the first section, we explore the association between adversity-related experiences and Olympic success, and provide additional evidence in support of the notion that adversity-related experiences are essential for success at the highest level of sport...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648234/in-search-of-the-golden-skill
#15
John W Krakauer
Athletes devote their lives to practicing their chosen sport so as to attain the highest level of skilled performance. A perennial question is why are some athletes better than others? Most debates on this issue reduce to genetics (natural abilities) vs differences in accumulated deliberative practice. In contrast, the target article under discussion here reports on a study that identified psychosocial factors (obsessiveness, ruthlessness) and early life experiences (trauma or loss) that distinguished those athletes at the Olympics and World Championships that medaled over those that did not...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648233/assessing-risk-factors-for-athletic-excellence
#16
Kielan Yarrow
Hardy et al. present a qualitative interview study to identify differences between elite and super-elite athletes, but their approach closely parallels the case-control methodology developed and discussed primarily within the epidemiological literature. The strengths and weaknesses of this approach may be less familiar to a psychological or sports-science audience. Here, I comment on this methodological choice and the implications it has for the robustness and value of the inferences that are drawn. I conclude that while Hardy et al...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648230/the-psychosocial-development-of-world-class-athletes-additional-considerations-for-understanding-the-whole-person-and-salience-of-adversity
#17
Daniel F Gucciardi
In the target article, Hardy and colleagues provided an incisive analysis of retrospectively reported psychosocial factors associated with the development and careers of 32 former athletes from Olympic sports. They found that Super-Elite athletes ("serial" medal winners at major international championships, i.e., World Championship or Olympic Games) differed from matched Elite performers (won medals at international competitions but not major championships) with regard to several important psychosocial factors (e...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648228/great-british-medalists-psychosocial-biographies-of-super-elite-and-elite-athletes-from-olympic-sports
#18
Lew Hardy, Matthew Barlow, Lynne Evans, Tim Rees, Tim Woodman, Chelsea Warr
Participants were 32 former GB athletes from Olympic sports, 16 Super-Elite athletes who had won multiple medals at major championships, and 16 matched Elite athletes who had not. In-depth interviews with the athletes, their coaches, and one of their parents explored all psychosocial aspects of their development and careers. Content analyses revealed that there were no differences between Super-Elite and Elite athletes with regard to family values, conscientiousness, or commitment to training. However, the two groups were found to be different with regard to: (1) the experience of a foundational negative life event coupled with a foundational positive sport-related event; (2) the experience of a career turning point that enhanced motivation and focus for their sport; (3) need for success; (4) obsessiveness and/or perfectionism with regard to training and performance; (5) ruthlessness and/or selfishness in the pursuit of their sporting goals; (6) dual focus on both mastery and outcome; (7) the use of counterphobic attitudes and/or total preparation to maintain higher levels of performance under pressure; and (8) the relative importance of sport over other aspects of life...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647923/foodborne-illness-outbreak-investigation-in-a-high-profile-sports-club
#19
Kwendy Cavanagh, Travers Johnstone, Essi Huhtinen, Zeina Najjar, Peter Lorentzos, Craig Shadbolt, John Shields, Leena Gupta
A foodborne illness outbreak involving an elite sports team was investigated by a public health unit in Sydney, Australia. An epidemiological association was established between gastrointestinal illness and the consumption of food supplied by an external caterer, with a lamb meal most strongly associated with illness. Genetically identical Salmonella isolates were identified from clinical specimens, residual food items, and an environmental swab taken from the catering premises. The training schedule and other club operations were significantly affected by this outbreak...
December 2017: Sports Medicine—Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644678/professional-athletes-return-to-play-and-performance-after-operative-repair-of-an-achilles-tendon-rupture
#20
David P Trofa, J Chance Miller, Eugene S Jang, Denzel R Woode, Justin K Greisberg, J Turner Vosseller
BACKGROUND: Most Achilles tendon ruptures are sports related. However, few studies have examined and compared the effect of surgical repair for complete ruptures on return to play (RTP), play time, and performance across multiple sports. PURPOSE: To examine RTP and performance among professional athletes after Achilles tendon repair and compare pre- versus postoperative functional outcomes of professional athletes from different major leagues in the United States...
June 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
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