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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/100001003/emergency-management-of-sepsis-the-simple-stuff-saves-lives
#1
David Sweet, Julian Marsden, Kendall Ho, Christina Krause, James A Russell
Many emergency departments have implemented sepsis protocols since the 2001 publication of results from the early goal-directed therapy trial, which showed early targeted resuscitation lowers mortality. As part of an attempt to improve clinical and operational outcomes for emergency departments across British Columbia, we reviewed sepsis management literature and considered sepsis protocol implementation in the province’s emergency departments. During the literature review we found that many observational studies confirmed an association between implementation of emergency sepsis protocols and decreased mortality...
May 2012: BC medical journal: BCMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749577/prevalence-and-determinants-of-antibiotic-exposure-in-infants-a-population-derived-australian-birth-cohort-study
#2
Hayley Anderson, Peter Vuillermin, Kim Jachno, Katrina J Allen, Mimi Lk Tang, Fiona Collier, Andrew Kemp, Anne-Louise Ponsonby, David Burgner
AIM: The aim of this study was to describe antibiotic exposure in Australian infants during the first year of life, focusing on antibiotic class, indication, risk factors associated with exposure and comparison with international counterparts. METHODS: The Barwon Infant Study is a birth cohort study (n = 1074) with an unselected antenatal sampling frame from a large regional centre in Victoria, Australia. Longitudinal data on infection and medication were collected at 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months by parental questionnaire and from general practitioner and hospital records...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749495/characterization-of-a-highly-efficient-antibiotic-degrading-metallo-%C3%AE-lactamase-obtained-from-an-uncultured-member-of-a-permafrost-community
#3
Marcelo Monteiro Pedroso, Christopher Selleck, Charmaine Enculescu, Jeffrey R Harmer, Nataša Mitić, Whitney R Craig, Waleed Helweh, Philip Hugenholtz, Gene W Tyson, David L Tierney, James A Larrabee, Gerhard Schenk
Antibiotic resistance is a major global health problem, one that threatens to derail the benefits garnered from arguably the greatest success of modern medicine, the discovery of antibiotics. Among the most potent agents contributing to antibiotic resistance are metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs). The discovery of MBL-like enzymes in microorganisms that are not in contact with the human population is of particular concern as these proteins already have the in-built capacity to inactivate antibiotics, even though they may not need MBL activity for their survival...
July 27, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749306/successful-treatment-of-digital-osteitis-by-intravenous-regional-perfusion-of-ceftiofur-in-an-african-elephant-loxodonta-africana
#4
Christopher J Dutton, Pauline G Delnatte, Simon R Hollamby, Graham J Crawshaw
A 41-yr-old African elephant ( Loxodonta africana ) presented with a swollen third digit of the left forelimb and a 2-cm hole in the pad. Corrective trimming, topical treatments, and an oral antibiotic resulted in apparent resolution; however, it reoccurred after 4 mo. Radiographs suggested bone lysis in the third phalanx, with the primary differential diagnosis being septic osteitis. Flushing with metronidazole solution and intravenous regional perfusion (IVRP) of the foot were commenced. A tourniquet was applied just above the carpus, an interdigital vein was identified by ultrasound, and into this vein 2 g (20 ml) of ceftiofur sodium solution, followed by 60 ml of heparinized saline, was administered...
June 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749298/successful-management-of-cecal-perforation-and-focal-peritonitis-in-a-gorilla-gorilla-gorilla-gorilla
#5
Sarah R Therio, Liza I Dadone, Michael M Garner, Jason Arble, Charles J Lalonde, Thomas J Baesl, Mindy Siegel, John A Marta, Dirk P Pikaart, Matthew S Johnston
An 18-yr-old female Western lowland gorilla ( Gorilla gorilla gorilla) presented with acute-onset severe lethargy, bloody vaginal discharge, decreased appetite, and an abnormal posture. The gorilla was diagnosed with a ruptured cecal blind sac with severe adhesions to the right ovary. A typhlectomy and unilateral ovariectomy were performed. Histologic examination identified a severe transmural circumferential typhlitis with rupture and adhesions to the infundibulum and chronic typhlitis. Postoperative management included antibiotics, analgesics, short-term dietary modifications, and probiotics for suspect oral candidiasis...
June 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749114/characteristics-and-outcomes-of-patients-with-hematological-malignancies-admitted-for-intensive-care-a-single-centre-experience
#6
Shafaq Maqsood, Farhana Badar, Abdul Hameed
Background and Purpose: Patients with hematological malignancies admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) generally have a high mortality rate. The aim of our study was to assess the characteristics and outcomes of such patients and to identify factors predicting ICU mortality. Material and Methods: This retrospective chart review was conducted in the intensive care unit (ICU) of Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre over a period of 5 years, from January 2010 to January 2015. Results: Characteristics :A total of 213 patients were included in this study...
July 27, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748855/clinical-characteristics-and-endoscopic-endonasal-removal-of-foreign-bodies-within-sinuses-orbit-and-skull-base
#7
Yi-Hui Wen, Wei-Jian Hou, Wen-Bin Lei, Feng-Hong Chen, Xiao-Lin Zhu, Zhang-Feng Wang, Ren-Qiang Ma, Wei-Ping Wen
BACKGROUND: Foreign bodies within the sinuses, orbit, and skull base (FBSOS) are rare; hence, diagnosis and management guidelines are lacking. Endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) removal is preferred because of the less invasiveness and minimal morbidity. This study was designed to summarize clinical experience with ESS management of FBSOS. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed clinical manifestations, imaging findings, treatment, and outcomes in consecutive patients with ESS removal of FBSOS between 2004 and 2015 at a tertiary academic medical center...
August 5, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748700/wittig-cyclization-of-%C3%AF-hydroxy-hemiacetals-synthesis-of-aspicilin
#8
René Schmidt, Michael Ostermeier, Rainer Schobert
The polyhydroxylated 18-membered lichen macrolide (+)-aspicilin was synthesized in 12 steps and 17% yield (longest linear sequence) starting from D-mannose and (S)-propylene oxide as the source of the stereogenic centers. Key steps were a palladium-catalyzed Csp3X-Csp3ZnX Negishi cross-coupling affording an ω-hydroxy hemiacetal which was macrocyclized via a domino addition-Wittig olefination reaction with the cumulated ylide Ph3PCCO. This synthetic approach also allowed a regioselective glycosylation of 6-OH of aspicilin with D desosamine, a quick entry to chimeric macrolides with potential antibiotic activity...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748698/band-gap-engineering-of-titania-film-through-cobalt-regulation-for-oxidative-damage-of-bacteria-respiration-and-viability
#9
Jinhua Li, Jiaxing Wang, Donghui Wang, Geyong Guo, Kelvin Wai Kwok Yeung, Xianlong Zhang, Xuanyong Liu
Biomaterial-related bacterial infections cause patient suffering, mortality and extended periods of hospitalization, and impose a substantial burden on medical systems. In this context, understanding the interactions between nanomaterials and bacteria is clinically significant. Herein, TiO2-based heterojunctions including Co-TiO2, CoO-TiO2 and Co3O4-TiO2, were firstly designed by optimizing magnetron sputtering to establish a platform to explore the interactions between nanomaterials and bacteria. We found that the energy band bending and band gap narrowing were effectively promoted at the contact interface of the heterojunctions, which have the ability to induce abiotic reactive oxygen species formation...
July 27, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748605/management-of-chemotherapy-induced-febrile-neutropenia-in-pediatric-oncology-patients-a-north-american-survey-of-pediatric-hematology-oncology-and-pediatric-infectious-disease-physicians
#10
Rochelle R Maxwell, Dana Egan-Sherry, Jonathan B Gill, Michael E Roth
BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia (FN) is traditionally managed with hospital admission for parenteral antibiotics until neutropenia resolves. Recent studies have explored risk stratification and the safety of managing "low-risk" patients as outpatients. Few studies have directly assessed pediatric provider preferences for managing FN. PROCEDURE: We conducted a survey of practicing US and Canadian pediatric hematology/oncology (PHO) and pediatric infectious disease (PID) physicians to assess their FN management preferences using case scenarios with varying risk profiles...
July 27, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748533/macrococcus-canis-and-m-caseolyticus-in-dogs-occurrence-genetic-diversity-and-antibiotic-resistance
#11
Kerstin Cotting, Christian Strauss, Sabrina Rodriguez-Campos, Ana Rostaher, Nina M Fischer, Petra J Roosje, Claude Favrot, Vincent Perreten
BACKGROUND: The discovery of a new Macrococcus canis species isolated from skin and infection sites of dogs led us to question if Macrococcus spp. are common in dogs and are resistant to antibiotics. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the occurrence of Macrococcus spp. in dogs, determine antibiotic resistance profiles and genetic relationships. ANIMALS: One hundred and sixty two dogs (mainly West Highland white terriers and Newfoundland dogs) were screened for the presence of Macrococcus, including six dogs with Macrococcus infections...
July 26, 2017: Veterinary Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748440/pharmaceuticals-released-from-senior-residences-occurrence-and-risk-evaluation
#12
Silvia Lacorte, Silvia Luis, Cristian Gómez-Canela, Teresa Sala-Comorera, Audrey Courtier, Benoit Roig, Ana Maria Oliveira-Brett, Claire Joannis-Cassan, Juan Ignacio Aragonés, Lucia Poggio, Thierry Noguer, Luisa Lima, Carlos Barata, Carole Calas-Blanchard
One of the main pursuits, yet most difficult, in monitoring studies is to identify the sources of environmental pollution. In this study, we have identified health-care facilities from south European countries as an important source of pharmaceuticals in the environment. We have estimated that compounds consumed in by the elderly and released from effluents of senior residences can reach river waters at a concentration higher than 0.01 μg/L, which is the European Medicines Agency (EMA) threshold for risk evaluation of pharmaceuticals in surface waters...
July 27, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748397/activity-of-the-novel-siderophore-cephalosporin-cefiderocol-against-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-pathogens
#13
J Dobias, V Dénervaud-Tendon, L Poirel, P Nordmann
The novel siderophore cephalosporin cefiderocol (S-649266) with potent activity against Gram-negative pathogens was recently developed (Shionogi & Co., Ltd.). Here, we evaluated the activity of this new molecule and comparators against a collection of previously characterized Gram-negative isolates using broth microdilution panels. A total of 753 clinical multidrug-resistant Gram-negative isolates collected from hospitals worldwide were tested against cefiderocol and antibiotic comparators (ceftolozane-tazobactam [CT], meropenem [MEM], ceftazidime [CAZ], ceftazidime-avibactam [CZA], colistin [CST], aztreonam [ATM], amikacin [AMK], ciprofloxacin [CIP], cefepime [FEP], and tigecycline [TGC]) for their susceptibility...
July 26, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748396/disagreement-between-the-results-from-three-commercial-tests-for-the-detection-of-borrelia-specific-serum-antibodies-in-the-netherlands-associated-with-antibiotic-treatment-for-lyme-borreliosis-a-retrospective-study
#14
T van Gorkom, K Kremer, W Voet, D W Notermans, B J M Vlaminckx, S U C Sankatsing, S F T Thijsen
The diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis is challenging because of the often non-specific symptoms and persisting antibodies after infection. We investigated the diagnostic characteristics of two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and an immunoblot for the detection of Borrelia-specific serum antibodies using different test strategies in individuals with and without antibiotic treatment for Lyme borreliosis. This retrospective study included healthy individuals, patients with active Lyme neuroborreliosis and patients treated for Lyme neuroborreliosis...
July 26, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748309/interaction-of-zn-ii-bleomycin-a2-and-zn-ii-peplomycin-with-a-dna-hairpin-containing-the-5-gt-3-binding-site-in-comparison-with-the-5-gc-3-binding-site-studied-by-nmr-spectroscopy
#15
Shelby E Follett, Azure D Ingersoll, Sally A Murray, Teresa M Reilly, Teresa E Lehmann
Bleomycins are a group of glycopeptide antibiotics synthesized by Streptomyces verticillus that are widely used for the treatment of various neoplastic diseases. These antibiotics have the ability to chelate a metal center, mainly Fe(II), and cause site-specific DNA cleavage. Bleomycins are differentiated by their C-terminal regions. Although this antibiotic family is a successful course of treatment for some types of cancers, it is known to cause pulmonary fibrosis. Previous studies have identified that bleomycin-related pulmonary toxicity is linked to the C-terminal region of these drugs...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry: JBIC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748196/developing-interactive-antimicrobial-stewardship-and-infection-prevention-curricula-for-diverse-learners-a-tailored-approach
#16
Priya Nori, Theresa Madaline, Iona Munjal, Shubha Bhar, Yi Guo, Susan K Seo, Andrea Porrovecchio, Elizabeth Gancher, Joshua Nosanchuk, Liise-Anne Pirofski, Belinda Ostrowsky
BACKGROUND: To impart principles of antimicrobial stewardship (AS) and infection prevention and control (IPC), we developed a curriculum tailored to the diverse aptitudes of learners at our medical center. METHODS: We integrated case-based modules, group learning activities, smartphone applications (apps), decision support tools, and prescription audit and feedback into curricula of the medical school, medicine residency program, infectious diseases (ID) fellowship program, and hospital medicine program operations...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748192/extranodal-nk-t-cell-lymphoma-nasal-type-presenting-as-refractory-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-facial-cellulitis
#17
Erika Reategui Schwarz, Katerina G Oikonomou, Megan Reynolds, Juliette Kim, Rajeev L Balmiki, Stephanie A Sterling
Extranodal natural killer T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKL), formerly called lethal midline granuloma or angiocentric T-cell lymphoma, is a predominantly extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma characterized by vascular damage, necrosis, and an association with Epstein-Barr virus. In the United States, it is more frequently seen in Asian, Asian Pacific Islander, and Hispanic descent populations and is more prevalent in males in their fifth decade. Clinical presentation of NK nasal lymphoma most commonly involves epistaxis; obstruction; discharge; destructive mass in sinuses, palate, and nose; and skin ulceration...
July 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748186/functional-diversity-of-aaa-protease-complexes-in-bacillus-subtilis
#18
REVIEW
Alexander K W Elsholz, Marlene S Birk, Emmanuelle Charpentier, Kürşad Turgay
Here, we review the diverse roles and functions of AAA+ protease complexes in protein homeostasis, control of stress response and cellular development pathways by regulatory and general proteolysis in the Gram-positive model organism Bacillus subtilis. We discuss in detail the intricate involvement of AAA+ protein complexes in controlling sporulation, the heat shock response and the role of adaptor proteins in these processes. The investigation of these protein complexes and their adaptor proteins has revealed their relevance for Gram-positive pathogens and their potential as targets for new antibiotics...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748179/structure-activity-relationships-of-insect-defensins
#19
REVIEW
Johannes Koehbach
Insects make up the largest and most diverse group of organisms on earth with several million species to exist in total. Considering the sheer number of insect species and the vast variety of ways they interact with their environment through chemistry, it is clear that they have significant potential as a source of new lead molecules. They have adapted to a range of ecological habitats and exhibit a symbiotic lifestyle with various microbes such as bacteria and fungi. Accordingly, numerous antimicrobial compounds have been identified including for example defensin peptides...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748178/community-based-prescribing-for-impetigo-in-remote-australia-an-opportunity-for-antimicrobial-stewardship
#20
Stefanie Jane Oliver, James Cush, Jeanette E Ward
BACKGROUND: To support antibiotic prescribing for both hospital and community-based health professionals working in remote North Western Australia, a multidisciplinary Antimicrobial Stewardship (AMS) Committee was established in 2013. This Committee is usually focused on hospital-based prescribing. A troubling increase in sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim resistance in Staphylococcus aureus antibiograms from 9 to 18% over 1 year prompted a shift in gaze to community prescribing. WHAT WE DID: Finding a paucity of relevant research, we first investigated contextual factors influencing local prescribing...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
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