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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/100001003/emergency-management-of-sepsis-the-simple-stuff-saves-lives
#1
David Sweet, Julian Marsden, Kendall Ho, Christina Krause, James A Russell
Many emergency departments have implemented sepsis protocols since the 2001 publication of results from the early goal-directed therapy trial, which showed early targeted resuscitation lowers mortality. As part of an attempt to improve clinical and operational outcomes for emergency departments across British Columbia, we reviewed sepsis management literature and considered sepsis protocol implementation in the province’s emergency departments. During the literature review we found that many observational studies confirmed an association between implementation of emergency sepsis protocols and decreased mortality...
May 2012: BC medical journal: BCMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535607/generation-of-the-new-discovered-resistant-gene-mcr-1-knockout-in-escherichia-coli-using-crispr-cas9-system
#2
Lichang Sun, Tao He, Lili Zhang, Maoda Pang, Qiaoyan Zhang, Yan Zhou, Hongduo Bao, Ran Wang
The mcr-1 gene was the new discovered "superbug" gene which makes the bacteria highly resistant to the last-resort class of antibiotics in China in 2016. The mcr-1 gene raised serious concern about its possible global dissemination and spread. Here, we report a potential anti-resistant strategy that CRISPR/Cas9 mediated approach can efficiently induce mcr-1 gene knockout in Escherichia coli. Our findings suggested that using CRISPPR/Cas9 system to knockout the resistant gene mcr-1 might be a potential anti-resistant strategy...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535485/quantification-of-residual-antibiotics-in-cow-manure-being-spread-over-agricultural-land-and-assessment-of-their-behavioral-effects-on-antibiotic-resistant-bacteria
#3
Ji-Ran Yeom, Soon-Uk Yoon, Chang-Gyun Kim
Antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) in livestock manure used as fertilizer and spread over agriculture land, may pose a threat to the health of humans. Considering this, the concentrations of tetracycline (TC), oxytetracycline (OTC), and sulfathiazole (STZ) in the surface soil were quantified using LC-MS. These antibiotics have been used in livestock and are found in fertilizer produced from livestock excretions. Species of ABR were identified using 16S rDNA. Soil samples were collected at depths of 0, 7, and 15 cm from farmland in Incheon (South Korea)...
May 16, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535470/pharmacophore-guided-discovery-of-small-molecule-interleukin-15-inhibitors
#4
Barbara Żyżyńska-Granica, Bartosz Trzaskowski, Szymon Niewieczerzał, Sławomir Filipek, Oliwia Zegrocka-Stendel, Małgorzata Dutkiewicz, Piotr Krzeczyński, Magdalena Kowalewska, Katarzyna Koziak
Upregulation of interleukin 15 (IL-15) contributes directly i.a. to the development of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Selective blockade of IL-15 aimed to treat rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis and other IL-15-related disorders has been recognized as an efficient therapeutic method. The aim of the study was to identify small molecules which would interact with IL-15 or its receptor IL-15Rα and inhibit the cytokine's activity. Based on the crystal structure of IL-15Rα·IL-15, we created pharmacophore models to screen the ZINC database of chemical compounds for potential IL-15 and IL-15Rα inhibitors...
May 12, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535440/management-of-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-with-a-new-antibiotic-adjuvant-entity-ceftriaxone-sulbactam-disodium-edetate-a-novel-approach-to-spare-carbapenems
#5
Prachee Sathe, Sagar Maddani, Shilpa Kulkarni, Nita Munshi
BACKGROUND: Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) is one of the most serious nosocomial infections in Intensive Care Unit (ICU). The aim of this study was to evaluate a new approach to spare the carbapenems for the management of patients diagnosed with VAP due to Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii). METHOD: This retrospective study was conducted on VAP patients presenting for treatment at tertiary care centre between May 2014 and March 2016. The case sheets of patients who have been treated for VAP with meropenem, antibiotic adjuvant entity (AAE) and colistin were analysed...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535362/tympanostomy-tube-placement-vs-medical-management-for-recurrent-acute-otitis-media-in-tricare-insured-children
#6
Nikhila Raol, Meesha Sharma, Emily F Boss, Wei Jiang, John W Scott, Peter Learn, Joel S Weissman
Objective To compare number of infections and health care utilization in children insured by TRICARE with recurrent acute otitis media (RAOM) managed surgically with tympanostomy tube (TT) placement compared with those managed medically. Study Design Retrospective matched cohort study. Setting TRICARE claims database from 2006 to 2010. Subjects and Methods We matched TRICARE beneficiaries ≤5 years of age diagnosed with RAOM who underwent TT placement with those managed medically using 1:1 coarsened-exact matching on age, sex, race, sponsor rank, and region...
May 1, 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535271/measuring-trachomatous-inflammation-intense-ti-when-prevalence-is-low-provides-data-on-infection-with-chlamydia-trachomatis
#7
Andrea I Zambrano, Beatriz E Muñoz, Harran Mkocha, Laura Dize, Charlotte A Gaydos, Thomas Quinn, Sheila K West
Purpose: Clinical trachoma is the current measure of effectiveness of antibiotic and environmental improvements in trachoma endemic communities. Impact assessments measure only trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF). Trachomatous inflammation-intense (TI) is not used for decisions on stopping mass drug administration (MDA) or achieving intervention goals. We tested the supposition that TI was not associated with Chlamydia trachomatis when disease prevalence is low. Methods: In 35 communities undergoing MDA as part of a larger project, 110 children ages 1 to 9 years were randomly selected in each community for surveys at baseline, 6, and 12 months...
February 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535139/otitis-media-with-effusion-our-national-practice
#8
Rachel E Roditi, Richard M Rosenfeld, Jennifer J Shin
Otitis media with effusion (OME) is the focus of an updated multidisciplinary clinical practice guideline published by the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation (AAO-HNSF) and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). Based on data from clinical trials, the guideline recommends against using antihistamines, antibiotics, oral steroids, and intranasal steroids for OME. To understand practice patterns related to these guidelines, we assessed nationally representative data. Despite controlling for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and other potential confounders individualized for each medication class, an increased risk of antihistamine (odds ratio [OR], 3...
April 1, 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535135/recovery-from-cyclophosphamide-overdose-in-a-dog
#9
Jessica Renee Finlay, Kenneth Wyatt, Courtney North
An adult female spayed dog was evaluated after inadvertently receiving a total dose of 1,750 mg oral cyclophosphamide, equivalent to 2,303 mg/m(2), over 21 days (days -21 to 0). Nine days after the last dose of cyclophosphamide (day +9), the dog was evaluated at Perth Veterinary Specialists. Physical examination revealed mucosal pallor, a grade 2/6 systolic heart murmur, and severe hemorrhagic cystitis. Severe nonregenerative pancytopenia was detected on hematology. Broad spectrum antibiotics, two fresh whole blood transfusions, granulocyte colony stimulating factor, and tranexamic acid were administered...
May 23, 2017: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535077/sticky-situations-cyanoacrylate-exposures-reported-to-a-poison-control-system
#10
Shaun D Carstairs, Cynthia Koh, Lily Qian, Mariam Qozi, Grant Seivard, F Lee Cantrell
INTRODUCTION: Cyanoacrylate (Super Glue(®)) exposures are commonly reported to poison control centers, but little has been published in the medical literature regarding these exposures. We sought to characterize cyanoacrylate exposures reported to a poison control system. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of a poison system's database for all cases of single-substance human exposure to cyanoacrylate-containing products from 2005 to 2015. Data collected included age, gender, route of exposure, clinical effects, treatments recommended and medical outcome...
May 23, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534987/high%C3%A2-throughput-sequencing-analyses-of-oral-microbial-diversity-in-healthy-people-and-patients-with-dental-caries-and-periodontal-disease
#11
Tingtao Chen, Yan Shi, Xiaolei Wang, Xin Wang, Fanjing Meng, Shaoguo Yang, Jian Yang, Hongbo Xin
Recurrence of oral diseases caused by antibiotics has brought about an urgent requirement to explore the oral microbial diversity in the human oral cavity. In the present study, the high‑throughput sequencing method was adopted to compare the microbial diversity of healthy people and oral patients and sequence analysis was performed by UPARSE software package. The Venn results indicated that a mean of 315 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) was obtained, and 73, 64, 53, 19 and 18 common OTUs belonging to Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Fusobacteria, respectively, were identified in healthy people...
May 17, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534807/lobophorin-k-a-new-natural-product-with-cytotoxic-activity-produced-by-streptomyces-sp-m-207-associated-with-the-deep-sea-coral-lophelia-pertusa
#12
Alfredo F Braña, Aida Sarmiento-Vizcaíno, Miguel Osset, Ignacio Pérez-Victoria, Jesús Martín, Nuria de Pedro, Mercedes de la Cruz, Caridad Díaz, Francisca Vicente, Fernando Reyes, Luis A García, Gloria Blanco
The present article describes the isolation of a new natural product of the lobophorin family, designated as lobophorin K (1), from cultures of the marine actinobacteria Streptomyces sp. M-207, previously isolated from the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa collected at 1800 m depth during an expedition to the submarine Avilés Canyon. Its structure was determined using a combination of spectroscopic techniques, mainly ESI-TOF MS and 1D and 2D NMR. This new natural product displayed cytotoxic activity against two human tumor cell lines, such as pancreatic carcinoma (MiaPaca-2) and breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7)...
May 19, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534703/chlorhexidine-and-silver-sulfadiazine-coating-on-central-venous-catheters-is-not-sufficient-for-protection-against-catheter-related-infection-simulation-based-laboratory-research-with-clinical-validation
#13
Yoon Ji Choi, Jae Kwan Lim, Jeong Jun Park, Hyub Huh, Dong-Joo Kim, Chang-Hoon Gong, Seung Zhoo Yoon
Objective The efficacy of chlorhexidine- and silver sulfadiazine-coated central venous catheters (CSS-CVC) against catheter-related infection remains controversial. We hypothesized that the loss of silver nanoparticles may reduce the antibacterial efficacy of CSS-CVCs and that this loss could be due to the frictional force between the surface of the CVC and the bloodstream. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the antimicrobial effect of CSS-CVCs decreases with increasing exposure time in a bloodstream model and quantitatively assay the antimicrobial effect of CSS-CVCs compared with polyurethane and antiseptic-impregnated CVCs...
January 1, 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534544/-factors-predicting-failure-in-empirical-antibiotic-treatment
#14
REVIEW
E J García-Lamberechts, J González-Del Castillo, A I Hormigo Sánchez, M J Núñez-Orantos, F J Candel, F J Martín-Sánchez
Infections are one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in the population. The choice of empirical treatment is one of the most common decisions facing the physician. This first decision has consequences in the prognosis of the patient and the costs associated with the process. This review attempts to summarize the aspects that can lead to failure of antibiotic treatment by considering microbiological and pharmacological aspects, patient profile and infectious focus control. In addition, a series of recommendations are established to minimize this risk, from the point of view of diagnostic accuracy, adequate severity stratification of the patient, knowledge of the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic aspects of antibiotics and control of the infectious focus...
April 30, 2017: Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534539/sepsis-prophylactic-antibiotic-for-prostate-biopsy-the-carbapenem-gamble
#15
Deepak K Pruthi, Michael A Liss
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 23, 2017: Nature Reviews. Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534287/loading-with-vancomycin-does-not-decrease-gentamicin-elution-in-gentamicin-premixed-bone-cement
#16
Sebastian P Boelch, Martin C Jordan, Joerg Arnholdt, Maximilian Rudert, Martin Luedemann, Andre F Steinert
Antibiotic loaded bone cements are used as drug delivery systems for the treatment of periprosthetic joint infections. They can be loaded with antibiotics during industrial component production (premixing) and during cement preparation (manually blending). Although double premixed antibiotic loaded bone cements are available, manually blending of a gentamicin premixed antibiotic loaded bone cement with vancomycin is still popular. We compared in vitro antibiotic elution and compressive strength of 0.5 g gentamicin premixed bone cement (PALACOS® R + G), 0...
July 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534215/-acute-haematogenous-osteomyelitis-in-children-diagnostic-algorithm-and-treatment-strategies
#17
M Willegger, A Kolb, R Windhager, C Chiari
Acute haematogenous osteomyelitis (AHO) in children is a severe condition. A delay in diagnosis and insufficient treatment may result in deformities, chronicity and sepsis. Therefore a structured diagnostic workup has to be followed in order to diagnose or rule out osteomyelitis. To identify the causative agent for targeted antibiotic treatment, a bone biopsy or puncture should be performed. However, approximately 25% of cases are culture-negative even after biopsy. The knowledge of the typical age-dependent bacterial spectrum is essential for empirical antibiotic therapy...
May 22, 2017: Der Orthopäde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534207/construction-of-polyarylenes-with-various-structural-features-via-bergman-cyclization-polymerization
#18
REVIEW
Youfu Wang, Shudan Chen, Aiguo Hu
Synthetic polymer chemistry is a fundamental part of polymer science, and highly efficient polymerization reactions are essential for the synthesis of high-performance polymers. Development of new synthetic methods for emerging polymer science is of great importance in this regard. Bergman cyclization is a chemical process in which highly reactive aryl diradicals form from enediyne precursors, having a strong impact in a number of fields including pharmaceutics, synthetic chemistry, and materials science. Diradical intermediates stemming from enediynes can cause DNA cleavage under physiological conditions, leading to the strong cytotoxicity of many naturally occurring enediyne antibiotics...
June 2017: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534035/internal-medicine-resident-perspectives-regarding-broad-spectrum-antibiotic-usage
#19
Ann M Laake, Gayle Bernabe, James Peterson, Angelike P Liappis
Focus groups held with internal medicine residents discussed their perspectives regarding broad-spectrum antibiotic (BSA) usage. Residents knew of BSA-associated adverse events, but they did not associate such events with increased patient morbidity and mortality, and they were more likely to use BSA in situations with diagnostic uncertainty and sick patients.
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534009/genomic-insight-into-mechanisms-of-reversion-of-antibiotic-resistance-in-multidrug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-induced-by-a-nanomolecular-iodine-containing-complex-fs-1
#20
Aleksandr I Ilin, Murat E Kulmanov, Ilya S Korotetskiy, Rinat A Islamov, Gulshara K Akhmetova, Marina V Lankina, Oleg N Reva
Drug induced reversion of antibiotic resistance is a promising way to combat multidrug resistant infections. However, lacking knowledge of mechanisms of drug resistance reversion impedes employing this approach in medicinal therapies. Induction of antibiotic resistance reversion by a new anti-tuberculosis drug FS-1 has been reported. FS-1 was used in this work in combination with standard anti-tuberculosis antibiotics in an experiment on laboratory guinea pigs infected with an extensively drug resistant (XDR) strain Mycobacterium tuberculosis SCAID 187...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
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