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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/100001003/emergency-management-of-sepsis-the-simple-stuff-saves-lives
#1
David Sweet, Julian Marsden, Kendall Ho, Christina Krause, James A Russell
Many emergency departments have implemented sepsis protocols since the 2001 publication of results from the early goal-directed therapy trial, which showed early targeted resuscitation lowers mortality. As part of an attempt to improve clinical and operational outcomes for emergency departments across British Columbia, we reviewed sepsis management literature and considered sepsis protocol implementation in the province’s emergency departments. During the literature review we found that many observational studies confirmed an association between implementation of emergency sepsis protocols and decreased mortality...
May 2012: BC medical journal: BCMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346643/genetic-characterization-of-a-vang-type-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-clinical-isolate
#2
Mohamed Sassi, François Guérin, Léonie Lesec, Christophe Isnard, Marguerite Fines-Guyon, Vincent Cattoir, Jean-Christophe Giard
Objectives: To characterize, phenotypically and genotypically, the first Enterococcus faecium clinical isolate harbouring a vanG operon. Methods: The antibiotic resistance profile of E. faecium 16-346 was determined and its whole genome sequenced using PacBio technology. Attempts to transfer vancomycin resistance by filter mating were performed and the inducibility of expression of the vanG operon was studied by reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) in the presence or absence of subinhibitory concentrations of vancomycin...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346620/combating-global-antibiotic-resistance-emerging-one-health-concerns-in-lower-and-middle-income-countries
#3
Maya Nadimpalli, Elisabeth Delarocque-Astagneau, David C Love, Lance B Price, Bich-Tram Huynh, Jean-Marc Collard, Kruy Sun Lay, Laurence Borand, Awa Ndir, Timothy R Walsh, Didier Guillemot
Antibiotic misuse in lower- and middle-income countries (LMICs) contributes to the development of antibiotic resistance that can disseminate globally. Strategies specific to LMICs that seek to reduce antibiotic misuse by humans, but simultaneously improve antibiotic access, have been proposed. However, most approaches to date have not considered the growing impact of animal and environmental reservoirs of antibiotic resistance, which threaten to exacerbate the antibiotic resistance crisis in LMICs. In particular, current strategies do not prioritize the impacts of increased antibiotic use for terrestrial food-animal and aquaculture production, inadequate food safety, and widespread environmental pollution...
January 15, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346603/homologous-stress-adaptation-antibiotic-resistance-and-biofilm-forming-ability-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-heidelberg-atcc8326-on-different-food-contact-surfaces-following-exposure-to-sublethal-chlorine-concentrations
#4
Tomi Obe, Rama Nannapaneni, Chander Shekhar Sharma, Aaron Kiess
Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg (American Type Culture Collection; ATCC 8326) was examined for the ability to adapt to the homologous stress of chlorine through exposure to increasing chlorine concentrations (25 ppm daily increments) in tryptic soy broth (TSB). The tested strain exhibited an acquired tolerance to chlorine in TSB with the tolerant cells growing in concentrations up to 400 ppm. In addition, the chlorine stressed cells displayed rugose morphology on tryptic soy agar (TSA) plates at 37°C...
January 13, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346568/are-infection-specialists-recommending-short-antibiotic-treatment-durations-an-escmid-international-cross-sectional-survey
#5
Gabriel Macheda, Oliver J Dyar, Amandine Luc, Bojana Beovic, Guillaume Béraud, Bernard Castan, Rémy Gauzit, Philippe Lesprit, Pierre Tattevin, Nathalie Thilly, Céline Pulcini
Objectives: To evaluate the current practice and the willingness to shorten the duration of antibiotic therapy among infection specialists. Methods: Infection specialists giving at least weekly advice on antibiotic prescriptions were invited to participate in an online cross-sectional survey between September and December 2016. The questionnaire included 15 clinical vignettes corresponding to common clinical cases with favourable outcomes; part A asked about the antibiotic treatment duration they would usually advise to prescribers and part B asked about the shortest duration they were willing to recommend...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346543/the-impact-of-reported-beta-lactam-allergy-in-hospitalized-patients-with-hematologic-malignancies-requiring-antibiotics
#6
Kuan-Hsiang Gary Huang, Valerie Cluzet, Keith Hamilton, Olajumoke Fadugba
Background: Patients hospitalized with hematologic malignancy are particularly vulnerable to infection. The impact of reported beta-lactam (BL) allergy in this population remains unknown. Objective: To define the impact of reported BL-only allergy (BLOA) label on clinical outcomes compared to those with no BL allergy (NBLA) in hematologic malignancy inpatients requiring systemic antibiotics. Methods: Retrospective cohort study of adult inpatients with hematologic malignancy admitted at two tertiary care hospitals 2010-2015...
January 16, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346541/practical-implications-of-erythromycin-resistance-gene-diversity-on-surveillance-and-monitoring-of-resistance
#7
Jinlyung Choi, Elizabeth L Rieke, Thomas B Moorman, Michelle L Soupir, Heather K Allen, Schuyler D Smith, Adina Howe
Use of antibiotics in human and animal medicine has applied selective pressure for the global dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Therefore, it is of interest to develop strategies to mitigate the continued amplification and transmission of resistance genes in environmental reservoirs such as farms, hospitals, and watersheds. However, the efficacy of mitigation strategies is difficult to evaluate because it is unclear which resistance genes are important to monitor, and which primers to use to detect those genes...
January 15, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346538/vitamin-k5-is-an-efficient-photosensitizer-for-ultraviolet-a-light-inactivation-of-bacteria
#8
Fei Xu, Ying Li, Justen Ahmad, Yonggang Wang, Dorothy Scott, Jaroslav G Vostal
Photodynamic treatment combining light and a photosensitizer molecule can be an effective method to inactivate pathogenic bacteria. This study identified vitamin K5 as an efficient photosensitizer for ultraviolet light A (UVA)-induced bacterial inactivation. Six bacterial species, Bacillus cereus (vegetative form), Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and two species of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa* and Staphylococcus aureus*, were suspended in aqueous solutions with or without vitamin K5 and exposed to UVA irradiation...
January 15, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346420/initial-acquisition-and-succession-of-the-cystic-fibrosis-lung-microbiome-is-associated-with-disease-progression-in-infants-and-preschool-children
#9
Marianne S Muhlebach, Bryan T Zorn, Charles R Esther, Joseph E Hatch, Conor P Murray, Lidija Turkovic, Sarath C Ranganathan, Richard C Boucher, Stephen M Stick, Matthew C Wolfgang
The cystic fibrosis (CF) lung microbiome has been studied in children and adults; however, little is known about its relationship to early disease progression. To better understand the relationship between the lung microbiome and early respiratory disease, we characterized the lower airways microbiome using bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples obtained from clinically stable CF infants and preschoolers who underwent bronchoscopy and chest computed tomography (CT). Cross-sectional samples suggested a progression of the lower airways microbiome with age, beginning with relatively sterile airways in infancy...
January 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346373/reconciling-pasteur-and-darwin-to-control-infectious-diseases
#10
Samuel Alizon, Pierre-Olivier Méthot
The continual emergence of new pathogens and the increased spread of antibiotic resistance in bacterial populations remind us that microbes are living entities that evolve at rates that impact public health interventions. Following the historical thread of the works of Pasteur and Darwin shows how reconciling clinical microbiology, ecology, and evolution can be instrumental to understanding pathology, developing new therapies, and prolonging the efficiency of existing ones.
January 18, 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346118/mycobacterium-avium-complex-pulmonary-disease-new-epidemiology-and-management-concepts
#11
Leah Lande, Jason George, Theodore Plush
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The prevalence of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC)-related pulmonary disease has been increasing because of environmental factors, changes in organism virulence, and evolving host susceptibility. Treatment is often complicated by adverse effects, development of drug resistance, and refractory disease, with recurrence rates as high as 25-45%. RECENT FINDINGS: Aerosolization of water, soil, or dusts are the likely sources of MAC-related pulmonary disease in susceptible individuals...
January 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346035/determination-of-105-antibiotic-anti-inflammatory-antiparasitic-agents-and-tranquilizers-by-lc-ms-ms-based-on-an-acidic-quechers-like-extraction
#12
Aurélien Desmarchelier, Kaïli Fan, Mai Minh Tien, Marie-Claude Savoy, Adrienne Tarres, Denis Fuger, Alexandre Goyon, Thomas Bessaire, Pascal Mottier
A procedure for screening 105 veterinary drugs in foods by liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is presented. Its scope encompasses raw materials of animal origin (milk, meat, fish, egg and fat) but also related processed ingredients and finished products commonly used and manufactured by food business operators. Due to the complexity of the matrices considered and to efficiently deal with losses during extraction and matrix effects during MS source ionisation, each sample was analyzed twice, that is "unspiked" and "spiked at the screening target concentration" using a QuEChERS-like extraction...
January 18, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345939/discovery-of-alternative-producers-of-the-enediyne-antitumor-antibiotic-c-1027-with-high-titers
#13
Xiaohui Yan, Hindra, Huiming Ge, Dong Yang, Tingting Huang, Ivana Crnovcic, Chin-Yuan Chang, Shi-Ming Fang, Thibault Annaval, Xiangcheng Zhu, Yong Huang, Li-Xing Zhao, Yi Jiang, Yanwen Duan, Ben Shen
The potent cytotoxicity and unique mode of action make the enediyne antitumor antibiotic C-1027 an exquisite drug candidate for anticancer chemotherapy. However, clinical development of C-1027 has been hampered by its low titer from the original producer Streptomyces globisporus C-1027. Here we report three new C-1027 alternative producers, Streptomyces sp. CB00657, CB02329, and CB03608, from The Scripps Research Institute actinomycetes strain collection. Together with the previously disclosed Streptomyces sp...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345756/clinical-intentions-of-antibiotics-prescribed-upon-discharge-to-hospice-care
#14
Sarah A Servid, Brie N Noble, Erik K Fromme, Jon P Furuno
OBJECTIVES: To better understand the clinical intentions for antibiotic prescribing upon discharge from acute care to hospice care. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Five hundred forty-four-bed academic, acute-care, tertiary referral hospital in Portland, Oregon. PARTICIPANTS: Adults (≥18) who received an outpatient prescription for antibiotics on discharge from an acute care hospital to hospice care between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2011 (N = 149)...
January 18, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345611/accuracy-of-provider-selected-indications-for-antibiotic-orders
#15
Emily L Heil, Lisa Pineles, Poonam Mathur, Daniel J Morgan, Anthony D Harris, Arjun Srinivasan, Kerri A Thom
Documentation of antibiotic indication provides helpful information for antimicrobial stewardship, but accuracy is not understood. Review of 396 antibiotic orders in a pediatric ICU and adult medicine step-down unit found 90% agreement between provider-selected indication and independent review. Prompts to enter antibiotic indication during order entry provide largely accurate information. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2018;39:111-113.
January 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345462/fluorescent-zn-pdc-tb3-coordination-polymer-nanostructure-a-candidate-for-highly-selective-detections-of-cefixime-antibiotic-and-acetone-in-aqueous-system
#16
Hong Pan, Sufan Wang, Xiaoyao Dao, Yonghong Ni
Tb3+-doped zinc-based coordination polymer nanospindle bundles (Zn-PDC/Tb3+, or [Zn(2,5-PDC)(H2O)2]·H2O/Tb3+) were synthesized by a simple solution precipitation route at room temperature, employing Zn(NO3)2, Tb(NO3)3, and 2,5-Na2PDC as the initial reactants, and a mixture of water and ethanol with the volume ratio of 10:10 as the solvent. The as-obtained nanostructures presented strong fluorescent emission under the excitation of 298 nm light, which was attributed to the characteristic emission of the Tb3+ ion...
January 18, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345223/case-report-neurobrucellosis-with-plastered-spinal-arachnoiditis-a-magnetic-resonance-imaging-based-report
#17
Saraswati Nashi, Veeramani Preethish-Kumar, Sayani Maji, Nagarathna Chandrashekar, Kiran Polavarapu, Chetan Kashinkunti, Kajari Bhattacharya, Jitender Saini, Atchayaram Nalini
Diffuse spinal arachnoiditis in neurobrucellosis is a rare manifestation. We report a boy aged 17, presenting with hearing impairment and recurrent vomiting for 18 months, weight loss for 12 months, dysphagia, dysarthria, hypophonia for 6 months, and gait unsteadiness for 5 months. He had bilateral 5th (motor) to 12th cranial nerve palsy, wasting and weakness of limbs, fasciculations, absent tendon reflexes, and positive Babinski's sign. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) showed raised protein and pleocytosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed extensive enhancing exudates in cisterns and post-contrast enhancement of bilateral 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th nerves...
January 15, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345080/environmental-adaptation-and-vertical-dissemination-of-esbl-pampc-producing-escherichia-coli-in-an-integrated-broiler-production-chain-in-the-absence-of-an-antibiotic-treatment
#18
Michaela Projahn, Katrin Daehre, Torsten Semmler, Sebastian Guenther, Uwe Roesler, Anika Friese
High prevalence numbers of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase- (ESBL-)/plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamase- (pAmpC-) producing Escherichia coli in broiler chicken and their distribution along the broiler production chain is an ongoing problem in food production. We, therefore, investigated resistant isolates along the broiler production chain to determine whether there is a constantly occurring direct vertical transmission of the ESBL-/pAmpC-producing E. coli from the parent flocks to their offspring or not...
January 17, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344982/experience-with-pharmacologic-leeching-with-bivalirudin-for-adjunct-treatment-of-venous-congestion-of-head-and-neck-reconstructive-flaps
#19
Aisha Harun, Rachel M Kruer, Andrew Lee, Kofi Boahene, Patrick J Byrne, Jeremy D Richmon
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to review the feasibility of local bivalirudin injection for adjunct treatment of venous congestion of head and neck reconstructive flaps. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients who underwent bivalirudin treatment for venous congestion of head and neck reconstructive flaps in a single institution from September 1, 2012 to September 1, 2015 was undertaken. Individuals were treated with variable number of intradermal injections directly into the flap followed by a small skin incision to allow extended passive bleeding...
January 18, 2018: Microsurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344938/a-clinical-audit-on-the-efficacy-and-safety-of-uterine-artery-embolisation-for-symptomatic-adenomyosis-results-in-117-women
#20
Eisen Liang, Bevan Brown, Maxim Rachinsky
BACKGROUND: Uterine artery embolisation (UAE) is a possible uterine-sparing treatment option for women with unsuccessful conservative management for adenomyosis-related heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) and dysmenorrhoea. AIM: To conduct a clinical audit on the efficacy and safety of UAE for symptomatic adenomyosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective review of 309 women who underwent UAE identified 117 women with magnetic resonance imaging features of adenomyosis (junctional zone thickness ≥ 12 mm)...
January 18, 2018: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
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