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Cardiopulmonary resuscitation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353251/cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-the-science-behind-the-hands
#1
REVIEW
Andrew W Harris, Peter J Kudenchuk
Sudden cardiac arrest is a leading cause of death worldwide. Despite significant advances in resuscitation science since the initial use of external chest compressions in humans nearly 60 years ago, there continues to be wide variability in rates of successful resuscitation across communities. The American Heart Association (AHA) and European Resuscitation Council emphasise the importance of high-quality chest compressions as the foundation of resuscitation care. We review the physiological basis for the association between chest compression quality and clinical outcomes and the scientific basis for the AHA's key metrics for high-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation...
January 20, 2018: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352676/cardiorespiratory-dynamics-of-rescuers-during-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-in-a-hypoxic-environment
#2
Tomonobu Sato, Tomonori Takazawa, Masahiro Inoue, Yasunori Tada, Takashi Suto, Masaru Tobe, Shigeru Saito
OBJECTIVE: We had previously experienced a case involving prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) on Mt. Fuji (3776 m), demanding strenuous work by the rescuers. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of compression-only and conventional CPR on oxygen saturation of rescuers in a hypoxemic environment. METHODS: Changes in percutaneous arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) and heart rate during CPR action were measured in a hypobaric chamber with barometric pressure adjusted to be equivalent to 3700 m above sea level (630-640 hPa)...
January 8, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350383/which-position-should-we-take-during-newborn-resuscitation-a-prospective-randomized-multicentre-simulation-trial
#3
Jacek Smereka, Halla Kaminska, Wojciech Wieczorek, Marek Dabrowski, Jerzy Robert Ladny, Kurt Ruetzler, Lukasz Szarpak, Oliver Robak, Michael Frass
BACKGROUND: Early bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) for cardiac arrest is crucial in the chain of survival. Cardiac arrest in infants is rare but CPR is also performed in severe bradycardia. The European Resuscitation Council (ERC) and American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines recommend starting CPR and continuing it until the heart muscle is sufficiently oxygenated and regains sufficient contractility and function. Among the techniques of CPR that can be applied in newborns, the most common and therefore recommended by the ERC and AHA are the two-finger technique and two-thumb technique...
January 19, 2018: Kardiologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345513/no-benefit-in-neurologic-outcomes-of-survivors-of-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest-with-mechanical-compression-device
#4
Ryan Newberry, Ted Redman, Elliot Ross, Rachel Ely, Clayton Saidler, Allyson Arana, David Wampler, David Miramontes
INTRODUCTION: Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a major cause of death and morbidity in the United States. Quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) has proven to be a key factor in improving survival. The aim of our study was to investigate the outcomes of OHCA when mechanical CPR (LUCAS 2 Chest Compression System™) was utilized compared to conventional CPR. Although controlled trials have not demonstrated a survival benefit to the routine use of mechanical CPR devices, there continues to be an interest for their use in OHCA...
January 18, 2018: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341795/the-ability-to-provide-quality-chest-compressions-over-lacrosse-shoulder-pads
#5
Richard J Boergers, Thomas G Bowman, Monica Lininger
CONTEXT:   Performance of quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation is essential for improving patient outcomes. Performing compressions over football equipment inhibits compression depth and rate, but lacrosse equipment has not yet been studied. OBJECTIVE:   To assess the effect of lacrosse shoulder pads on the ability to provide quality chest compressions on simulation manikins. DESIGN:   Crossover study. SETTING:   Simulation laboratory...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340631/a-better-understanding-of-ambulance-personnel-s-attitude-towards-real-time-resuscitation-feedback
#6
Peter Brinkrolf, Roman Lukas, Ulf Harding, Sebastian Thies, Joachim Gerss, Hugo Van Aken, Hans Lemke, Udo Schniedermeier, Andreas Bohn
Objective: High-quality chest compressions during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) play a significant role in surviving cardiac arrest. Chest-compression quality can be measured and corrected by real-time CPR feedback devices, which are not yet commonly used. This article looks at the acceptance of such systems in comparison of equipped and unequipped personnel. Design: Two groups of emergency medical services' (EMS) personnel were interviewed using standardized questionnaires...
January 11, 2018: International Journal for Quality in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338147/effect-of-therapeutic-hypothermia-on-survival-and-neurological-outcome-in-adults-suffering-cardiac-arrest-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
Sameh M Hakim, Mona A Ammar, Mohammad S Reyad
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this review is to determine current evidence for the effect of therapeutic hypothermia (TH) on survival and neurological outcome in adults suffering cardiac arrest (CA). EVIDENCE AQUISITION: We searched the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE and NLM databases from 2000 to 2017 using the following terms: hypothermia, cooling, therapeutic, cardiac arrest, resuscitation, cardiopulmonary, CPR. Studies were eligible if they compared TH versus normothermic management in adult humans sustaining CA...
January 16, 2018: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337744/defining-the-intrinsic-cardiac-risks-of-operations-to-improve-preoperative-cardiac-risk-assessments
#8
Jason B Liu, Yaoming Liu, Mark E Cohen, Clifford Y Ko, Bobbie J Sweitzer
BACKGROUND: Current preoperative cardiac risk stratification practices group operations into broad categories, which might inadequately consider the intrinsic cardiac risks of individual operations. We sought to define the intrinsic cardiac risks of individual operations and to demonstrate how grouping operations might lead to imprecise estimates of perioperative cardiac risk. METHODS: Elective operations (based on Common Procedural Terminology codes) performed from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2015 at hospitals participating in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program were studied...
February 2018: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337450/-emergency-medicine-update-2017
#9
Frédéric Rouyer, Fabrice Dami, Olivier Grosgurin, Valériane Rossier, Majd Ramlawi, Mathieu Pasquier, Olivier T Rutschmann
Emergency medicine is part of the current stream of efficient and qualitative medicine : 1) the modified Valsava maneuver results in the resolution of almost 50% of supra-ventricular tachycardia without any drug; 2) lung echography performed by emergency physicians is a very sensitive and specific diagnostic tool for most thoracic emergencies; 3) cardiopulmonary resuscitation initiated by lay-rescuers improves short and long-term outcome; 4) no anticoagulant treatment is warranted in distal deep vein thrombosis and 5) systematic unenhanced abdominal CT might improve evaluation of elderly patients with acute abdominal pain...
January 10, 2018: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335023/early-neonatal-glutaric-aciduria-type-i-hidden-by-perinatal-asphyxia-a-case-report
#10
Giacomo Biasucci, Nicola Morelli, Federica Natacci, Massimo Mastrangelo
BACKGROUND: Perinatal asphyxia (PA) occurs in about 2 to 10 per 1000 live full-term births. Although neonatal epileptic seizures are observed in up to 60% of cases, PA may mimic or subtend other conditions. Hypoxia related brain injury is particularly relevant, as it may have permanent effects on neuropsychomotor development. Antepartum obstetric conditions, may, in turn, lead to hypoxic-ischemic damage to the fetus and the newborn, often underlying PA. Herein, a case of PA that hid and triggered signs and symptoms of Glutaric Aciduria type I (GA-I), is reported...
January 15, 2018: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332781/pediatric-extracorporeal-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-patient-with-traumatic-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-and-takotsubo-syndrome
#11
Thomas E Pearson, Meg A Frizzola, Marc A Priest, Monica A Rochman, Curtis D Froehlich
Takotsubo syndrome is rare in pediatric patients but must be considered in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage with pulmonary edema and cardiomyopathy. A systematic, collaborative approach is needed to facilitate emergent transfer of patients where extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (e-CPR) is used as a lifesaving measure. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) use in transport requires preplanning, role delineation, resources, and research efforts to be successful. We present an unusual transport case of successful e-CPR/ECMO treatment of Takotsubo syndrome in a 12-year-old boy with an isolated traumatic intracranial injury, cardiomyopathy with pulmonary edema, and multiple cardiac arrests...
January 2018: Air Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331650/echocardiographic-patterns-of-postresuscitation-myocardial-dysfunction
#12
Kyoung-Chul Cha, Hyung Il Kim, Oh Hyun Kim, Yong Sung Cha, Hyun Kim, Kang Hyun Lee, Sung Oh Hwang
BACKGROUND: Postresuscitation myocardial dysfunction (PRMD) can develop after successful resuscitation from cardiac arrest. However, echocardiographic patterns of PRMD remain unknown. This study aimed to investigate PRMD manifestations with serial echocardiography during the post-cardiac arrest period. METHODS: We enrolled non-traumatic out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients older than 19 years who underwent successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). We excluded patients with myocardial infarction or pre-existing cardiac disease, including heart failure or myocardial disease...
January 11, 2018: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328383/oxymatrine-protects-against-the-effects-of-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-via-modulation-of-the-tgf-%C3%AE-1-smad3-signaling-pathway
#13
Dawei Wang, Xiao Qian Lou, Xiao-Ming Jiang, Chenxi Yang, Xiao-Liang Liu, Nan Zhang
Previous studies have demonstrated that oxymatrine may inhibit ventricular remodeling and serves an important role in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. The present study investigated whether oxymatrine treatment protects against the effects of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) via regulation of the transforming growth factor‑β1 (TGF‑β1)/mothers against decapentaplegic (Smad) signaling pathway. A CPR model was established in Sprague‑Dawley (SD) rats by asphyxiation, and rats were subsequently anaesthetized by intraperitoneal injection of chloral hydrate...
January 4, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326848/the-knowledge-of-eye-physicians-on-local-anesthetic-toxicity-and-intravenous-lipid-treatment-questionnaire-study
#14
Aykut Urfalıoğlu, Selma Urfalıoğlu, Gözen Öksüz
Objectives: To evaluate the knowledge of ophthalmologists regarding local anesthesia toxicity syndrome (LATS) and intravenous lipid emulsion used in treatment, and to raise awareness of this issue. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire comprising 14 questions about demographics, local anesthesia (LA) use, toxicity, and treatment methods was administered to ophthalmologists at different hospitals. Results: The study included 104 ophthalmologists (25% residents, 67...
December 2017: Turkish Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323705/the-protective-effects-of-distal-ischemic-treatment-on-apoptosis-and-mitochondrial-permeability-in-the-hippocampus-after-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation
#15
Xiang Zhou, Liu Yong, Yang Huang, ShuiBo Zhu, XiaoYang Song, BiXi Li, Jian Zhu, HaiBo Wang
BACKGROUND: Apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction are the main cause of neurological injury after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). However, the effects of distal ischemic treatments on ischemia-induced apoptosis are rarely studied, and the mechanism by which mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to CPR still unclear. METHODS: A rat model of distal ischemia was established by clipping the right femoral artery. Rats were divided into blank, model, pre-distal ischemic treatment, per-treatment, and post-treatment groups...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321118/a-comparison-of-carotid-doppler-ultrasonography-and-capnography-in-evaluating-the-efficacy-of-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-the-first-study
#16
Gökhan Yilmaz, Mustafa Silcan, Süha Serin, Bahadır Caglar, Özkan Erarslan, İsmet Parlak
INTRODUCTION AND PURPOSE: The end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) measurement is accepted as the gold standard method for assessing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) efficacy. In recent studies, the use of Carotid Doppler Ultrasonography has become widespread in showing CPR efficacy. In the present study, the carotid blood flow measurement was compared with ETCO2 measurement and an evaluation was made of whether this method could be used as an alternative method to capnography in the assessment of CPR efficacy...
January 6, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319651/proper-education-on-spinal-orthotics-a-way-to-minimize-associated-complications
#17
Christopher Elia, Katie Huynh, Fanglong Dong, Dan Miulli
Spinal orthotic bracing is a common modality for treating nonoperative spinal fractures with risks. This study aimed to assess the effect of an intervention on critical care nurses to improve their clinical knowledge and comfort level of managing patients. A literature review was conducted regarding common complications associated with spinal orthotics. This information was compiled and used to create a questionnaire and spinal orthotic course for nurses. Pre- and postassessments of nurses' knowledge regarding spinal orthotics were conducted...
January 2018: Journal of Trauma Nursing: the Official Journal of the Society of Trauma Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319634/hyperoxia-and-hypocapnia-during-pediatric-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-associations-with-complications-mortality-and-functional-status-among-survivors
#18
Katherine Cashen, Ron Reeder, Heidi J Dalton, Robert A Berg, Thomas P Shanley, Christopher J L Newth, Murray M Pollack, David Wessel, Joseph Carcillo, Rick Harrison, J Michael Dean, Robert Tamburro, Kathleen L Meert
OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of hyperoxia and hypocapnia during pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and their relationships to complications, mortality, and functional status among survivors. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of data collected prospectively by the Collaborative Pediatric Critical Care Research Network. SETTING: Eight Collaborative Pediatric Critical Care Research Network-affiliated hospitals. PATIENTS: Age less than 19 years and treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation...
January 9, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317589/successful-treatment-in-a-patient-with-sudden-cardiac-arrest-due-to-anomalous-left-coronary-artery-arising-from-pulmonary-artery
#19
Liping Zhou, Xiaogang Li, Min Qi, Aimin Wang
To enhance the understanding of the left coronary artery originating from the pulmonary artery, we report a case of sudden cardiac arrest during exercise. After successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation, the patient underwent echocardiography and selective coronary angiography, and the disease was firmly diagnosed. Consequently, a thoracic surgery was performed. During the operation, the left coronary artery was transplanted to the root of the aorta and the pulmonary valve and artery were reconstructed. Finally, the surgery was successful...
December 28, 2017: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317455/improving-temporal-trends-in-survival-and-neurological-outcomes-after-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest
#20
Jason E Buick, Ian R Drennan, Damon C Scales, Steven C Brooks, Adams Byers, Sheldon Cheskes, Katie N Dainty, Michael Feldman, P Richard Verbeek, Cathy Zhan, Alex Kiss, Laurie J Morrison, Steve Lin
BACKGROUND: Considerable effort has gone into improving outcomes from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Studies suggest that survival is improving; however, prior studies had insufficient data to pursue the relationship between markers of guideline compliance and temporal trends. The objective of the study was to evaluate trends in OHCA survival over an 8-year period that included the implementation of the 2005 and 2010 international cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) guidelines...
January 2018: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
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