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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161259/the-us-president-s-malaria-initiative-plasmodium-falciparum-transmission-and-mortality-a-modelling-study
#1
Peter Winskill, Hannah C Slater, Jamie T Griffin, Azra C Ghani, Patrick G T Walker
BACKGROUND: Although significant progress has been made in reducing malaria transmission globally in recent years, a large number of people remain at risk and hence the gains made are fragile. Funding lags well behind amounts needed to protect all those at risk and ongoing contributions from major donors, such as the President's Malaria Initiative (PMI), are vital to maintain progress and pursue further reductions in burden. We use a mathematical modelling approach to estimate the impact of PMI investments to date in reducing malaria burden and to explore the potential negative impact on malaria burden should a proposed 44% reduction in PMI funding occur...
November 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153113/a-systematic-review-of-economic-evidence-on-community-hypertension-interventions
#2
REVIEW
Donglan Zhang, Guijing Wang, Heesoo Joo
CONTEXT: Effective community-based interventions are available to control hypertension. It is important to determine the economics of these interventions. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Peer-reviewed studies from January 1995 through December 2015 were screened. Interventions were categorized into educational interventions, self-monitoring interventions, and screening interventions. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were summarized by types of interventions. The review was conducted in 2016...
December 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152933/ventilator-induced-lung-injury-does-it-occur-in-children
#3
Martin C Kneyber
Mechanical ventilation is one of the most practiced interventions in the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Although unmistakable life-saving, it can also injury the lung, a process coined ventilator induced lung injury (VILI). To date, almost all of our knowledge VILI has been obtained from studies in adults or experimental studies mimicking the adult critical care situation. This leaves the question if VILI is of importance in the paediatric context. Paediatric clinical studies did not confirm an association between large tidal volume (Vt) and adverse outcome...
November 17, 2017: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150222/retrospective-study-of-thoracotomy-performed-in-a-french-level-1-trauma-center
#4
A Mancini, A Bonne, A Pirvu, P Porcu, P Bouzat, J Abba, C Arvieux
OBJECTIVE: Resuscitative thoracotomy, a potentially life-saving procedure, is used exceptionally, and essentially for penetrating trauma. Most of the available literature is American while reports from Europe are sparse. We report our experience in a French level 1-trauma center. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patient records (patient age, gender, mechanism of injury, indication for emergency thoracotomy, anatomic injuries, interventions and survival) for all patients who underwent emergency thoracotomy between January 2005 and December 2015 were analyzed...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Visceral Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147848/simultaneous-point-of-care-detection-of-anemia-and-sickle-cell-disease-in-tanzania-the-rapid-study
#5
Luke R Smart, Emmanuela E Ambrose, Kevin C Raphael, Adolfine Hokororo, Erasmus Kamugisha, Erika A Tyburski, Wilbur A Lam, Russell E Ware, Patrick T McGann
Both anemia and sickle cell disease (SCD) are highly prevalent across sub-Saharan Africa, and limited resources exist to diagnose these conditions quickly and accurately. The development of simple, inexpensive, and accurate point-of-care (POC) assays represents an important advance for global hematology, one that could facilitate timely and life-saving medical interventions. In this prospective study, Robust Assays for Point-of-care Identification of Disease (RAPID), we simultaneously evaluated a POC immunoassay (Sickle SCAN™) to diagnose SCD and a first-generation POC color-based assay to detect anemia...
November 16, 2017: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146589/impact-of-increasing-tobacco-taxes-on-working-age-adults-short-term-health-gain-health-equity-and-cost-savings
#6
Christine L Cleghorn, Tony Blakely, Giorgi Kvizhinadze, Frederieke S van der Deen, Nhung Nghiem, Linda J Cobiac, Nick Wilson
OBJECTIVE: The health gains and cost savings from tobacco tax increase peak many decades into the future. Policy-makers may take a shorter-term perspective and be particularly interested in the health of working-age adults (given their role in economic productivity). Therefore, we estimated the impact of tobacco taxes in this population within a 10-year horizon. METHODS: As per previous modelling work, we used a multistate life table model with 16 tobacco-related diseases in parallel, parameterised with rich national data by sex, age and ethnicity...
November 16, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138216/autonomic-regulation-of-the-immune-system-in-cardiovascular-diseases
#7
François M Abboud, Madhu V Singh
The autonomic nervous system is a powerful regulator of circulatory adjustments to acute hemodynamic stresses. Here we focus on new concepts that emphasize the chronic influence of the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems on cardiovascular pathology. The autonomic neurohumoral system can dramatically influence morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease through newly discovered influences on the innate and adaptive immune systems. Specifically, the end-organ damage in heart failure or hypertension may be worsened or alleviated by pro- or anti-inflammatory pathways of the immune system, respectively, that are activated through neurohumoral transmitters...
December 1, 2017: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135654/cost-effectiveness-of-peer-versus-venue-based-approaches-for-detecting-undiagnosed-hiv-among-heterosexuals-in-high-risk-new-york-city-neighborhoods
#8
Elizabeth R Stevens, Kimberly Nucifora, Qinlian Zhou, R Scott Braithwaite, Charles M Cleland, Amanda S Ritchie, Alexandra H Kutnick, Marya V Gwadz
INTRODUCTION: We used a computer simulation of HIV progression and transmission to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a scale-up of three strategies to seek out and test individuals with undiagnosed HIV in New York City (NYC). SETTING: Hypothetical NYC population METHODS:: We incorporated the observed effects and costs of the three "seek and test" strategies in a computer simulation of HIV in NYC, comparing a scenario in which the strategies were scaled up with a one-year implementation or a long-term implementation with a counterfactual scenario with no scale-up...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127842/budesonide-facilitates-weaning-from-mechanical-ventilation-in-difficult-to-wean-very-severe-copd-patients-association-with-inflammatory-mediators-and-cells
#9
Seyed Mohammadreza Hashemian, Esmaeil Mortaz, Hamidreza Jamaati, Leila Bagheri, Seyed Amir Mohajerani, Johan Garssen, Masoud Movassaghi, Peter J Barnes, Nicholas S Hill, Ian M Adcock
INTRODUCTION: Mechanical ventilatory support is life-saving therapy for patients with respiratory failure in intensive care units (ICU) but is linked to ventilator-associated pneumonia and other nosocomial infections. Interventions that improve the efficiency of weaning from mechanical ventilation may improve patient outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether inhaled budesonide decreases time-to-weaning in COPD stage 4 difficult-to-wean patients and reduces the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines in ICU patients...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122896/persistent-bacteraemia-caused-by-staphylococcus-aureus-in-the-gall-bladder
#10
Alexander Tin Han Yu, Tony Cun, Esther Benamu, Cybele Renault
Staphylococcus aureusbacteraemia (SAB) remains a complex disease with a high associated morbidity and mortality, especially when it is able to establish an occult nidus safe from antimicrobial eradication. Without rapid identification and intervention, the nidus can cause persistent relapse of disease, morbidity and mortality. Having a high clinical suspicion for the foci of occult S. aureus is important, and awareness of potential sites of infection is critical and can be life-saving.We present a unique case of a 65-year-old man with end-stage renal disease receiving haemodialysis who developed septic shock from SAB...
November 8, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120878/investigating-the-effects-of-under-triage-by-existing-major-incident-triage-tools
#11
James M Vassallo, Jason E Smith, Lee A Wallis
OBJECTIVES: Triage is a key principle in the effective management of a major incident. Its effectiveness is a balance between identifying those in need of life-saving intervention, and those triaged incorrectly as either needing/not needing life-saving intervention. The primary aim of this study was to report mortality in those under-triaged by existing major incident triage tools. Secondary aims were to report the ability of triage tools at identifying serious injury by body region (defined as the Abbreviated Injury Scale≥3)...
November 8, 2017: European Journal of Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the European Society for Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119824/an-innovative-health-care-delivery-model-for-children-with-medical-complexity
#12
Anne Elizabeth Glassgow, Molly A Martin, Rachel Caskey, Melishia Bansa, Michael Gerges, Mary Johnson, Monika Marko, Kenita Perry-Bell, Heather J Risser, Peter J Smith, Benjamin Van Voorhees
Children with medical complexity (CMC) account for a disproportionate share of pediatric health-care utilization and cost that is largely attributable to long hospitalizations, frequent hospital readmissions, and high use of emergency departments. In response, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Health Care Innovation Center supports the development and testing of innovative health-care payment and service delivery models. The purpose of this article is to describe the CMS-funded coordinated health care for complex kids (CHECK) program, an innovative system of health-care delivery that provides improved, comprehensive, and well-coordinated services to CMC...
September 2017: Journal of Child Health Care: for Professionals Working with Children in the Hospital and Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115646/a-new-perspective-on-life-saving-procedures-in-a-battlefield-setting-emergency-cricothyroidotomy-needle-thoracostomy-and-chest-tube-thoracostomy-with-night-vision-goggles
#13
Sedat Bilge, Attila Aydın, Meltem Bilge, Cemile Aydın, Erdem Çevik, Mehmet Eryılmaz
BACKGROUND: In the patients with multiple and serious trauma, early applications of life-saving procedures are related to improved survival. We tried to experimentally determine the feasibility of life-saving interventions that are performed with the aid of night vision goggles (NVG) in nighttime combat scenario. METHODS: Chest tube thoracostomy (CTT), emergency cricothyroidotomy (EC), and needle thoracostomy (NT) interventions were performed by 10 combatant medical staff...
November 2017: Ulusal Travma Ve Acil Cerrahi Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery: TJTES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112126/factors-that-influence-linkages-to-hiv-continuum-of-care-services-implications-for-multi-level-interventions
#14
Rogério M Pinto, Susan S Witte, Prema L Filippone, Karen L Baird, Wendy R Whitman
Worldwide, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continuum of care involves health promotion providers (e.g., social workers and health educators) linking patients to medical personnel who provide HIV testing, primary care, and antiretroviral treatments. Regrettably, these life-saving linkages are not always made consistently and many patients are not retained in care. To design, test and implement effective interventions, we need to first identify key factors that may improve linkage-making. To help close this gap, we used in-depth interviews with 20 providers selected from a sample of 250 participants in a mixed-method longitudinal study conducted in New York City (2012-2017) in order to examine the implementation of HIV services for at-risk populations...
November 7, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109047/bioavailability-and-cardiovascular-effects-of-adrenaline-administered-by-anapen-autoinjector-in-healthy-volunteers
#15
Thierry Duvauchelle, Philippe Robert, Yves Donazzolo, Sabrina Loyau, Bernard Orlandini, Philippe Lehert, Jeanne-Marie Lecomte, Jean-Charles Schwartz
BACKGROUND: The administration of adrenaline is a life-saving intervention for anaphylactic reactions. However, it has been questioned whether the needle length of the autoinjectors is sufficient to achieve genuine intramuscular delivery and optimal bioavailability. OBJECTIVE: To assess the adequacy of Anapen, which has a relatively short needle length (10.5 mm), through a comparison of the depot localization, plasma pharmacokinetics, and cardiovascular responses of adrenaline delivered via Anapen versus a prefilled syringe with a 25...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106632/cost-effectiveness-of-screening-type-2-diabetes-patients-for-chronic-kidney-disease-progression-with-the-ckd273-urinary-peptide-classifier-as-compared-to-urinary-albumin-excretion
#16
Elena Critselis, Antonia Vlahou, Vianda S Stel, Rachael L Morton
Background: In type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients, chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression may occur without detectable changes in urinary albumin excretion (UAE) rate. A new urinary peptide classifier (CKD273) has exhibited greater ability to detect CKD progression, however, its cost-effectiveness remains unknown. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of screening for CKD progression with the CKD273 classifier, as compared to UAE, in diabetic patients. Methods: A decision-analytic Markov model was developed to estimate costs and health outcomes [including overall survival and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs)] from a health system perspective for adopting a new annual screening strategy based on the CKD273 classifier as compared to annual UAE-based screening in a hypothetical cohort of T2DM patients...
July 3, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105700/-seeking-compulsory-treatment-as-life-saving-in-the-presence-of-eating-disorders-a-complex-choice
#17
Walter Milano, Armando Cotugno, Riccardo Dalle Grave, Maria Gabriella Gentile, Giovanni Gravina, Caterina Renna, Pierandrea Salvo, Patrizia Todisco, Lorenzo Maria Donini
Eating disorders (and especially anorexia nervosa) are associated with severe disability, poor quality of life and high mortality rate. Anorexia nervosa ranks among the main causes of death among young women. Despite physical and psycho-social impairment, patients suffering from anorexia nervosa do not recognize low body weight and extreme calorie restriction as a clinical problem and are ambivalent towards treatment. Some patients with anorexia nervosa refuse treatments though presenting severe medical complications and having a high mortality risk...
September 2017: Rivista di Psichiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084227/cost-effectiveness-of-post-landing-latent-tuberculosis-infection-control-strategies-in-new-migrants-to-canada
#18
Jonathon R Campbell, James C Johnston, Mohsen Sadatsafavi, Victoria J Cook, R Kevin Elwood, Fawziah Marra
BACKGROUND: The majority of tuberculosis in migrants to Canada occurs due to reactivation of latent TB infection. Risk of tuberculosis in those with latent tuberculosis infection can be significantly reduced with treatment. Presently, only 2.4% of new migrants are flagged for post-landing surveillance, which may include latent tuberculosis infection screening; no other migrants receive routine latent tuberculosis infection screening. To aid in reducing the tuberculosis burden in new migrants to Canada, we determined the cost-effectiveness of using different latent tuberculosis infection interventions in migrants under post-arrival surveillance and in all new migrants...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078810/improving-oxygen-therapy-for-children-and-neonates-in-secondary-hospitals-in-nigeria-study-protocol-for-a-stepped-wedge-cluster-randomised-trial
#19
Hamish R Graham, Adejumoke I Ayede, Ayobami A Bakare, Oladapo B Oyewole, David Peel, Amy Gray, Barbara McPake, Eleanor Neal, Shamim Qazi, Rasa Izadnegahdar, Adegoke G Falade, Trevor Duke
BACKGROUND: Oxygen is a life-saving, essential medicine that is important for the treatment of many common childhood conditions. Improved oxygen systems can reduce childhood pneumonia mortality substantially. However, providing oxygen to children is challenging, especially in small hospitals with weak infrastructure and low human resource capacity. METHODS/DESIGN: This trial will evaluate the implementation of improved oxygen systems at secondary-level hospitals in southwest Nigeria...
October 27, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077819/cost-effectiveness-of-a-systematic-e-assessed-follow-up-of-postoperative-recovery-after-day-surgery-a-multicentre-randomized-trial
#20
K Dahlberg, A Philipsson, L Hagberg, M Jaensson, M Hälleberg-Nyman, U Nilsson
Background: Most surgeries are done on a day-stay basis. Recovery assessment by phone points (RAPP) is a smartphone-based application (app) to evaluate patients after day surgery. The aim of this study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of using RAPP for follow-up on postoperative recovery compared with standard care. Methods: This study was a prospective parallel single-blind multicentre randomized controlled trial. Participants were randomly allocated to the intervention group using RAPP or the control group receiving standard care...
November 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
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