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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527687/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-typhoid-conjugate-vaccines-in-five-endemic-low-and-middle-income-settings
#1
Marina Antillón, Joke Bilcke, A David Paltiel, Virginia E Pitzer
BACKGROUND: Typhoid fever remains endemic in low- and middle-income countries. Programmatic use of existing vaccines is limited, but upcoming typhoid conjugate vaccines (TCVs) could warrant wider use. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of five TCV delivery strategies in three urban areas (Delhi and Kolkata, India and Nairobi, Kenya) and two rural settings (Lwak, Kenya and Dong Thap, Vietnam) with varying incidence. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We evaluated routine infant vaccination with and without catch-up campaigns among older individuals...
May 17, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524127/-an-acute-subdural-hematoma-caused-by-rupture-of-a-middle-cerebral-artery-aneurysm
#2
R S Dzhindzhikhadze, O N Dreval', V A Lazarev, R L Kambiev
Acute subdural hematoma caused by cerebral aneurysm rupture is rare. We describe a clinical case of an acute subdural hematoma developed due to rupture of an aneurysm at the M1 segment bifurcation of the middle cerebral artery (MCA). The acute subdural hematoma associated with intracranial hypertension and transtentorial herniation resulted in a comatose condition. The patient underwent decompressive craniectomy, hematoma removal, and clipping of the aneurysm. A significant improvement was observed in the postoperative period...
2017: Zhurnal Voprosy Neĭrokhirurgii Imeni N. N. Burdenko
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515196/cost-effectiveness-of-therapist-guided-internet-delivered-cognitive-behaviour-therapy-for-paediatric-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-results-from-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#3
Fabian Lenhard, Richard Ssegonja, Erik Andersson, Inna Feldman, Christian Rück, David Mataix-Cols, Eva Serlachius
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a therapist-guided internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT) intervention for adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) compared with untreated patients on a waitlist. DESIGN: Single-blinded randomised controlled trial. SETTING: A research clinic within the regular child and adolescent mental health service in Stockholm, Sweden. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty-seven adolescents (12-17 years) with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth Edition diagnosis of OCD...
May 17, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514322/relationship-between-a-sepsis-intervention-bundle-and-in-hospital-mortality-among-hospitalized-patients-a-retrospective-analysis-of-real-world-data
#4
Priya A Prasad, Erica R Shea, Stephen Shiboski, Mary C Sullivan, Ralph Gonzales, David Shimabukuro
BACKGROUND: Sepsis is a systemic response to infection that can lead to tissue damage, organ failure, and death. Efforts have been made to develop evidence-based intervention bundles to identify and manage sepsis early in the course of the disease to decrease sepsis-related morbidity and mortality. We evaluated the relationship between a minimally invasive sepsis intervention bundle and in-hospital mortality using robust methods for observational data. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study at the University of California, San Francisco, Medical Center among adult patients discharged between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2014, and who received a diagnosis of severe sepsis/septic shock (SS/SS)...
May 12, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508600/endocrine-disorders-developing-after-surgical-intervention-of-craniopharyngioma-in-children
#5
Kyrillus S Shohdy, Wegdan Rashad
Craniopharyngiomas, albeit their benign nature, can cause severe damage to visual, hypothalamic, endocrine and neurologic functions which make their total resection an inevitable approach to save the patient's life. However, significant therapy-related long term complications make those traditional treatment options debatable and hazardous. This review will focus on the various complications that affect the childrens' quality of life considerably such as, diabetes insipidus, precocious puberty and hypothalamic obesity...
March 2017: Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews: PER
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507654/cost-effectiveness-of-pharmacist-care-for-managing-hypertension-in-canada
#6
Carlo Marra, Karissa Johnston, Valerie Santschi, Ross T Tsuyuki
BACKGROUND: More than half of all heart disease and stroke are attributable to hypertension, which is associated with approximately 10% of direct medical costs globally. Clinical trial evidence has demonstrated that the benefits of pharmacist intervention, including education, consultation and/or prescribing, can help to reduce blood pressure; a recent Canadian trial found an 18.3 mmHg reduction in systolic blood pressure associated with pharmacist care and prescribing. The objective of this study was to evaluate the economic impact of such an intervention in a Canadian setting...
May 2017: Canadian Pharmacists Journal: CPJ, Revue des Pharmaciens du Canada: RPC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504231/poland-coronary-and-structural-heart-interventions-from-2010-to-2015
#7
Jacek Legutko, Zbigniew Siudak, Radosław Parma, Andrzej Ochała, Dariusz Dudek
For the last five years, invasive cardiology in Poland has developed extensively. Currently, 98% of the 161 Polish cathlabs operate in 24/7 mode, 37 of them supported by cardiac surgery departments on-site. A certification curriculum for interventional cardiology operators is supported by dedicated workshops and scientific meetings during national conferences. The rise in the number of coronary angiographies and PCIs was paralleled by an increased use of drug-eluting stents, bioresorbable vascular scaffolds and physiologic assessment of coronary arteries...
May 15, 2017: EuroIntervention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499861/the-cost-effectiveness-of-high-risk-lung-cancer-screening-and-drivers-of-program-efficiency
#8
Sonya Cressman, Stuart J Peacock, Martin C Tammemagi, William K Evans, Natasha B Leighl, John R Goffin, Alain Tremblay, Geoffrey Liu, Daria Manos, Paul MacEachern, Rick Bhatia, Serge Puksa, Garth Nicholas, Annette McWilliams, John R Mayo, John Yee, John C English, Reka Pataky, Emily McPherson, Sukhinder Atkar-Khattra, Michael R Johnston, Heidi Schmidt, Frances A Shepherd, Kam Soghrati, Kayvan Amjadi, Paul Burrowes, Christian Couture, Harmanjatinder S Sekhon, Kazuhiro Yasufuku, Glenwood Goss, Diana N Ionescu, David M Hwang, Simon Martel, Don D Sin, Wan C Tan, Stefan Urbanski, Zhaolin Xu, Ming-Sound Tsao, Stephen Lam
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer risk prediction models have the potential to make programs more affordable; however, the economic evidence is limited. METHODS: Participants in the National Lung Cancer Screening Trial (NLST) were retrospectively identified with the PLCOm2009 risk-prediction tool. The high-risk subgroup was assessed for lung cancer incidences and demographic character compared with the low-risk subgroup and the Pan-Canadian Early Detection of Lung Cancer Study (PanCan)-an observational study, that was high-risk selected in Canada...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498299/machine-learning-for-predicting-outcomes-in-trauma
#9
Nehemiah T Liu, Jose Salinas
To date, there are no reviews on machine learning (ML) for predicting outcomes in trauma. Consequently, it remains unclear as to how ML-based prediction models compare in the triage and assessment of trauma patients. The objective of this review was to survey and identify studies involving ML for predicting outcomes in trauma, with the hypothesis that models predicting similar outcomes may share common features but the performance of ML in these studies will differ greatly. MEDLINE and other databases were searched for studies involving trauma and ML...
May 11, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487006/cost-effectiveness-of-salt-reduction-to-prevent-hypertension-and-cvd-a-systematic-review
#10
Elisabeth Schorling, Dea Niebuhr, Anja Kroke
OBJECTIVE: To analyse and compare the cost-effectiveness of different interventions to reduce salt consumption. DESIGN: A systematic review of published cost-effectiveness analyses (CEA) and cost-utility analyses (CUA) was undertaken in the databases EMBASE, MEDLINE (PubMed), Cochrane and others until July 2016. Study selection was limited to CEA and CUA conducted in member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in English, German or French, without time limit...
May 10, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486957/cost-effectiveness-of-surgical-interventions-for-the-management-of-osteoarthritis-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#11
Hanin Kamaruzaman, Philip Kinghorn, Raymond Oppong
BACKGROUND: The primary purpose of this study is to assess the existing evidence on the cost-effectiveness of surgical interventions for the management of knee and hip osteoarthritis by systematically reviewing published economic evaluation studies. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted for the period 2004 to 2016. Electronic databases were searched to identify both trial and model based economic evaluation studies that evaluated surgical interventions for knee and hip osteoarthritis...
May 10, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476628/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-vaccinations-and-decision-makings-on-vaccination-programmes-in-hong-kong-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Carlos K H Wong, Qiuyan Liao, Vivian Y W Guo, Yiqiao Xin, Cindy L K Lam
OBJECTIVES: To describe and systematically review the modelling and reporting of cost-effectiveness analysis of vaccination in Hong Kong, and to identify areas for quality enhancement in future cost-effectiveness analyses. METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive and systematic review of cost-effectiveness studies related to vaccination and government immunisation programmes in Hong Kong published from 1990 to 2015, through database search of Pubmed, Web of Science, Embase, and OVID Medline...
May 31, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476121/menopausal-hormone-therapy-a-systematic-review-of-cost-effectiveness-evaluations
#13
Louiza S Velentzis, Usha Salagame, Karen Canfell
BACKGROUND: Several evaluations of the cost-effectiveness (CE) of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) have been reported. The aim of this study was to systematically and critically review economic evaluations of MHT since 2002, after the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) trial results on MHT were published. METHODS: The inclusion criteria for the review were: CE analyses of MHT versus no treatment, published from 2002-2016, in healthy women, which included both symptom relief outcomes and a range of longer term health outcomes (breast cancer, coronary heart disease, stroke, fractures and colorectal cancer)...
May 5, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473276/cardiac-tamponade-secondary-to-purulent-pericarditis-diagnosed-with-the-aid-of-emergency-department-ultrasound
#14
Mackenzie Gabler
Purulent pericarditis is a rare but devastating disease process and even when treated, carries a poor prognosis. Cardiac tamponade is the most severe complication of purulent pericarditis and without acute surgical intervention, is often fatal. Diagnosis requires pericardiocentesis; however, early consideration of the disease and its complications in the emergency department (ED) can be life-saving. Here, we present a case of an intravenous drug user who presented with altered mental status and a rectal temperature of 105...
April 27, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469902/reducing-returns-to-theatre-for-neck-of-femur-fracture-patients
#15
Selina Graham, Mark Dahill, Derek Robinson
The Royal United Hospital, Bath, admits approximately 550 patients with neck of femur fractures per year. The risks from returning to theatre for this patient group are often life-threatening. Post-operative wound ooze was noted to cause a significant rate of return to theatre, with increased lengths of stay and patient morbidity. A wound closure protocol was agreed by the consultant body. This information was disseminated by email and teaching sessions to all members of the multidisciplinary team, including surgeons, theatre staff and ortho-geriatricians...
2017: BMJ Quality Improvement Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468618/obesity-related-health-impacts-of-fuel-excise-taxation-an-evidence-review-and-cost-effectiveness-study
#16
V Brown, M Moodie, L Cobiac, A M Mantilla Herrera, R Carter
BACKGROUND: Reducing automobile dependence and improving rates of active transport may reduce the impact of obesogenic environments, thereby decreasing population prevalence of obesity and other diseases where physical inactivity is a risk factor. Increasing the relative cost of driving by an increase in fuel taxation may therefore be a promising public health intervention for obesity prevention. METHODS: A scoping review of the evidence for obesity or physical activity effect of changes in fuel price or taxation was undertaken...
May 4, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467267/saving-my-life-dynamics-of-peer-and-staff-corrections-among-therapeutic-community-residents
#17
Nathan J Doogan, Keith L Warren
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic communities (TCs) maintain order and encourage behavior change through a system of peer corrections. This study is the first quantitative analysis of the dynamics of the exchange of peer corrections at TCs. OBJECTIVES: We applied longitudinal social network analysis to compare the reactions of TC residents to peer versus staff intervention, while analyzing dynamics of correction exchange among residents. METHOD: The data consisted of a large database of staff and peer affirmations and corrections at four therapeutic community units that occurred between the years 2006 and 2008...
May 3, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465716/acute-care-surgery-a-means-for-providing-cost-effective-quality-care-for-gallstone-pancreatitis
#18
Patrick B Murphy, Dave Paskar, Richard Hilsden, Jennifer Koichopolos, Tina S Mele
BACKGROUND: Modern practice guidelines recommend index cholecystectomy (IC) for patients admitted with gallstone pancreatitis (GSP). However, this benchmark has been difficult to widely achieve. Previous work has demonstrated that dedicated acute care surgery (ACS) services can facilitate IC. However, the associated financial costs and economic effectiveness of this intervention are unknown and represent potential barriers to ACS adoption. We investigated the impact of an ACS service at two hospitals before and after implementation on cost effectiveness, patient quality-adjusted life years (QALY) and impact on rates of IC...
2017: World Journal of Emergency Surgery: WJES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464867/a-community-based-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial-to-evaluate-the-effectiveness-of-different-bundles-of-nutrition-specific-interventions-in-improving-mean-length-for-age-z-score-among-children-at-24%C3%A2-months-of-age-in-rural-bangladesh-study-protocol
#19
Sk Masum Billah, Tarana E Ferdous, Mohd Anisul Karim, Michael J Dibley, Shahreen Raihana, Md Moinuddin, Nuzhat Choudhury, Tahmeed Ahmed, D M Emdadul Hoque, Purnima Menon, Shams El Arifeen
BACKGROUND: Prevalence of stunting among under-five children in Bangladesh is 36%, varying with geographic and socio-economic characteristics. Previously, research groups statistically modelled the effect of 10 individual nutrition-specific interventions targeting the critical first 1000 days of life from conception, on lives saved and costs incurred in countries with the highest burden of stunted children. However, primary research on the combined effects of these interventions is limited...
May 2, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461284/simple-wound-irrigation-in-the-postoperative-treatment-for-surgically-drained-spontaneous-soft-tissue-abscesses-study-protocol-for-a-prospective-single-blinded-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Annika Rühle, Florian Oehme, Katja Börnert, Lana Fourie, Reto Babst, Björn-Christian Link, Jürg Metzger, Frank Jp Beeres
BACKGROUND: Skin abscesses are a frequent encountered health care problem and lead to a significant source of morbidity. They consequently have an essential impact on the quality of life and work. To date, the type of aftercare for surgically drained abscesses remains under debate. This leads to undesirable practice variations. Many clinical standard protocols include sterile wound dressings twice a day by a home-care service to reduce the chance of a recurrent wound infection. It is unknown, however, whether reinfection rates are comparable to adequate wound irrigation with a nonsterile solution performed by the patient...
May 1, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
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