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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645039/fundamental-causes-of-accelerated-declines-in-colorectal-cancer-mortality-modeling-multiple-ways-that-disadvantage-influences-mortality-risk
#1
Sean A P Clouston, Marcie S Rubin, David Chae, Jeremy Freese, Barbara Nemesure, Bruce G Link
BACKGROUND: Improvements in colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality reflect the distribution of effective preventions. Social inequalities often generate unequal diffusion of medical interventions, resulting in disparate outcomes while preventions are being disseminated throughout the population. This study used a novel method to examine whether Race (Black versus White) and SES influenced when rates of CRC mortality started to decline, and how rapidly they did so. METHOD: Mortality counts from 1968-2010 were derived from death certificates of U...
June 13, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640930/orotracheal-intubation-in-infants-performed-with-a-stylet-versus-without-a-stylet
#2
REVIEW
Joyce E O'Shea, Jennifer O'Gorman, Aakriti Gupta, Sanjay Sinhal, Jann P Foster, Liam Af O'Connell, C Omar F Kamlin, Peter G Davis
BACKGROUND: Neonatal endotracheal intubation is a common and potentially life-saving intervention. It is a mandatory skill for neonatal trainees, but one that is difficult to master and maintain. Intubation opportunities for trainees are decreasing and success rates are subsequently falling. Use of a stylet may aid intubation and improve success. However, the potential for associated harm must be considered. OBJECTIVES: To compare the benefits and harms of neonatal orotracheal intubation with a stylet versus neonatal orotracheal intubation without a stylet...
June 22, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626068/colorectal-cancer-screening-how-health-gains-and-cost-effectiveness-vary-by-ethnic-group-the-impact-on-health-inequalities-and-the-optimal-age-range-to-screen
#3
Melissa McLeod, Giorgi Kvizhinadze, Matt Boyd, Jan Barendregt, Diana Sarfati, Nick Wilson, Tony Blakely
Background Screening programmes consistently underserve indigenous populations despite a higher overall burden of cancer. In this study we explore the likely health gains and cost-effectiveness of a national colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programme for the indigenous Māori population of New Zealand (NZ). Methods A Markov model estimated: health benefits (QALYs), costs and cost-effectiveness of biennial immunochemical faecal occult blood testing (FOBTi) of 50-74 year olds, from 2011. Input parameters came from: literature reviews, the NZ Bowel Screening Programme Pilot, and NZ linked health datasets...
June 16, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615273/analysis-of-the-potential-for-point-of-care-test-to-enable-individualised-treatment-of-infections-caused-by-antimicrobial-resistant-and-susceptible-strains-of-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-a-modelling-study
#4
Katy Me Turner, Hannah Christensen, Elisabeth J Adams, David McAdams, Helen Fifer, Anthony McDonnell, Neil Woodford
OBJECTIVE: To create a mathematical model to investigate the treatment impact and economic implications of introducing an antimicrobial resistance point-of-care test (AMR POCT) for gonorrhoea as a way of extending the life of current last-line treatments. DESIGN: Modelling study. SETTING: England. POPULATION: Patients accessing sexual health services. INTERVENTIONS: Incremental impact of introducing a hypothetical AMR POCT that could detect susceptibility to previous first-line antibiotics, for example, ciprofloxacin or penicillin, so that patients are given more tailored treatment, compared with the current situation where all patients are given therapy with ceftriaxone and azithromycin...
June 14, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615271/cost-effectiveness-of-a-randomised-trial-of-physical-activity-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-secondary-analysis-exploring-patient-and-proxy-reported-health-related-quality-of-life-measures-in-denmark
#5
Elizaveta Sopina, Jan Sørensen, Nina Beyer, Steen Gregers Hasselbalch, Gunhild Waldemar
OBJECTIVES: To explore the cost-effectiveness of a supervised moderate-to-high intensity aerobic exercise programme in people diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and estimate incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) using participant-reported and proxy-reported measures of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) DESIGN: A cost-effectiveness analysis of economic and HRQoL data from a randomised trial delivered over 16 weeks. SETTING: Memory clinics in Denmark...
June 14, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601822/effectiveness-of-a-workshop-on-decluttering-and-organising-programme-for-teens-and-middle-aged-adults-with-difficulty-decluttering-a-study-protocol-of-an-open-label-randomised-parallel-group-superiority-trial-in-japan
#6
Yasuko Aso, Kazue Yamaoka, Asuka Nemoto, Yuki Naganuma, Masashige Saito
INTRODUCTION: Hoarding disorder can cause problems with work performance, personal hygiene, health and well-being. The disorder is a growing social problem in Japan. Having difficulty discarding rubbish, decluttering and organising can signal a future hoarding disorder, and early intervention is important. We developed an educational workshop on decluttering and organising for teens and adults with difficulty organising. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a workshop for reducing clutter and improving quality of life among younger people with difficulty decluttering and organising...
June 10, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600490/treating-tobacco-dependence-guidance-for-primary-care-on-life-saving-interventions-position-statement-of-the-ipcrg
#7
O C P Van Schayck, S Williams, V Barchilon, N Baxter, M Jawad, P A Katsaounou, B J Kirenga, C Panaitescu, K W I G Tsiligianni, N Zwar, A Ostrem
Tobacco smoking is the world's leading cause of premature death and disability. Global targets to reduce premature deaths by 25% by 2025 will require a substantial increase in the number of smokers making a quit attempt, and a significant improvement in the success rates of those attempts in low, middle and high income countries. In many countries the only place where the majority of smokers can access support to quit is primary care. There is strong evidence of cost-effective interventions in primary care yet many opportunities to put these into practice are missed...
June 9, 2017: NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595218/-disruption-of-matsui-kitamura-stent-graft-six-years-after-treatment-for-rupture-of-thoracic-aortic-aneurysm
#8
Takahiro Ishigaki, Hitoshi Matsuda, Ryuta Kawasaki, Soichiro Henmi, Hidekazu Nakai, So Izumi, Masamichi Matsumori, Hirohisa Murakami, Tasuku Honda, Masato Yoshida, Nobuhiko Mukohara
Matsui-Kitamura stent-graft (MKSG) is a home-made device for thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) developed in Japan. A 76-year-old man who had been treated by TEVAR (zone 3) with a MKSG for ruptured thoracic aortic aneurysm was diagnosed as having type Ia endoleak caused by suture disruption and aneurysmal sac expansion 6 years later. He underwent TEVAR (zone 1) with debranching and type Ia endoleak disappeared. MKSG had been the effective device especially for acute aortic emergencies in the descending thoracic aorta until the stent-grafts became commercially available, but careful observation and appropriate re-intervention is mandatory for the continued life-saving contribution...
June 2017: Kyobu Geka. the Japanese Journal of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588978/improving-ebola-infection-prevention-and-control-in-primary-healthcare-facilities-in-sierra-leone-a-single-group-pretest-post-test-mixed-methods-study
#9
Ruwan Ratnayake, Lara S Ho, Rashid Ansumana, Hannah Brown, Matthias Borchert, Laura Miller, Thomas Kratz, Shannon A McMahon, Foday Sahr
BACKGROUND: Accomplishing infection prevention and control (IPC) in health facilities in Sub-Saharan Africa is challenging. Owing to poor IPC, healthcare workers (HCWs) were frequently infected during Sierra Leone's Ebola epidemic. In late 2014, IPC was rapidly and nationally scaled up. We carried out workshops in sampled facilities to further improve adherence to IPC. We investigated HCW experiences and observed practice gaps, before and after the workshops. METHODS: We conducted an uncontrolled, before and after, mixed-methods study in eight health facilities in Bo and Kenema Districts during December 2014 and January 2015...
November 2016: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582993/mapping-evidence-of-interventions-and-strategies-to-bridge-the-gap-in-the-implementation-of-the-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hiv-programme-policy-in-sub-saharan-countries-a-scoping-review
#10
Wilbroda H Ngidi, Joanne R Naidoo, Busisiwe P Ncama, Zamasomi P B Luvuno, Tivani P Mashamba-Thompson
BACKGROUND: Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV is a life-saving public health intervention. Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries have made significant progress in the programme, but little is known about the strategies used by them to eliminate mother-to-child transmission of HIV. AIM: To map evidence of strategies and interventions employed by SSA in bridging the implementation gap in the rapidly changing PMTCT of HIV programme policy. METHODS: Electronic search of the databases MEDLINE, PubMed and SABINET for articles published in English between 2001 and August 2016...
May 29, 2017: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580557/-localization-establishment-of-an-interdisciplinary-intervention-model-to-prevent-post-operative-delirium-in-older-patients-based-on-hospital-elder-life-program
#11
Yan-Yan Wang, Yu-Lin Liao, Lang-Li Gao, Xiu-Ying Hu, Ji-Rong Yue
BACKGROUND: Postoperative delirium is a significant complication in elderly patients. The occurrence of delirium may increase the related physical and psychological risks, delay the length of hospital stays, and even lead to death. According to the current evidence-based model, the application of interdisciplinary intervention may effectively prevent delirium, shorten the length of hospital stays, and save costs. PURPOSE: To establish a culturally appropriate interdisciplinary intervention model for preventing postoperative delirium in older Chinese patients...
June 2017: Hu Li za Zhi the Journal of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577673/bridging-income-generation-with-group-integrated-care-for-cardiovascular-risk-reduction-rationale-and-design-of-the-bigpic-study
#12
Rajesh Vedanthan, Jemima H Kamano, Hana Lee, Benjamin Andama, Gerald S Bloomfield, Allison K DeLong, David Edelman, Eric A Finkelstein, Joseph W Hogan, Carol R Horowitz, Simon Manyara, Diana Menya, Violet Naanyu, Sonak D Pastakia, Thomas W Valente, Cleophas C Wanyonyi, Valentin Fuster
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality worldwide, with >80% of CVD deaths occurring in low and middle income countries (LMICs). Diabetes mellitus and pre-diabetes are risk factors for CVD, and CVD is the major cause of morbidity and mortality among individuals with DM. There is a critical period now during which reducing CVD risk among individuals with diabetes and pre-diabetes may have a major impact. Cost-effective, culturally appropriate, and context-specific approaches are required...
June 2017: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576734/protocol-for-the-match-study-mindfulness-and-tai-chi-for-cancer-health-a-preference-based-multi-site-randomized-comparative-effectiveness-trial-cet-of-mindfulness-based-cancer-recovery-mbcr-vs-tai-chi-qigong-tcq-for-cancer-survivors
#13
Linda E Carlson, Erin L Zelinski, Michael Speca, Lynda G Balneaves, Jennifer M Jones, Daniel Santa Mina, Peter M Wayne, Tavis S Campbell, Janine Giese-Davis, Peter Faris, Jennifer Zwicker, Kamala Patel, Tara L Beattie, Steve Cole, Kirsti Toivonen, Jill Nation, Philip Peng, Bruce Thong, Raimond Wong, Sunita Vohra
PURPOSE: A growing number of cancer survivors suffer high levels of distress, depression and stress, as well as sleep disturbance, pain and fatigue. Two different mind-body interventions helpful for treating these problems are Mindfulness-Based Cancer Recovery (MBCR) and Tai Chi/Qigong (TCQ). However, while both interventions show efficacy compared to usual care, they have never been evaluated in the same study or directly compared. This study will be the first to incorporate innovative design features including patient choice while evaluating two interventions to treat distressed cancer survivors...
May 30, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570572/optimal-costs-of-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#14
Jennie McKenney, Anders Chen, Karen W Hoover, Jane Kelly, David Dowdy, Parastu Sharifi, Patrick S Sullivan, Eli S Rosenberg
INTRODUCTION: Men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately affected by HIV due to their increased risk of infection. Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a highly effictive HIV-prevention strategy for MSM. Despite evidence of its effectiveness, PrEP uptake in the United States has been slow, in part due to its cost. As jurisdictions and health organizations begin to think about PrEP scale-up, the high cost to society needs to be understood. METHODS: We modified a previously-described decision-analysis model to estimate the cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained, over a 1-year duration of PrEP intervention and lifetime time horizon...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558800/the-influence-of-quality-maternity-waiting-homes-on-utilization-of-facilities-for-delivery-in-rural-zambia
#15
Elizabeth G Henry, Katherine Semrau, Davidson H Hamer, Taryn Vian, Mary Nambao, Kaluba Mataka, Nancy A Scott
BACKGROUND: Residential accommodation for expectant mothers adjacent to health facilities, known as maternity waiting homes (MWH), is an intervention designed to improve access to skilled deliveries in low-income countries like Zambia where the maternal mortality ratio is estimated at 398 deaths per 100,000 live births. Our study aimed to assess the relationship between MWH quality and the likelihood of facility delivery in Kalomo and Choma Districts in Southern Province, Zambia. METHODS: We systematically assessed and inventoried the functional capacity of all existing MWH using a quantitative facility survey and photographs of the structures...
May 30, 2017: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557846/adolescent-motor-vehicle-crash-prevention-through-a-trauma-centered-based-intervention-program
#16
Cathline Layba, Lance Griffin, Daniel Jupiter, Charles Mathers, William Mileski
Traumatic injuries account for millions of emergency room visits and hospital admissions annually. Motor vehicle crashes (MVC) remain a leading cause of mortality between the ages of one to 44. With the popularity of smart devices, drivers are ever more distracted on the road. Programs that educate drivers on safe actions and to raise awareness of the perils of drunk and distracted driving exist, but there is little data that demonstrates a reduction in motor vehicle injury rates. We sought to determine if the implementation of such a program in our community would impact the rates of MVCs...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557514/cost-effectiveness-of-a-statewide-falls-prevention-program-in-pennsylvania-healthy-steps-for-older-adults
#17
Steven M Albert, Jonathan Raviotta, Chyongchiou J Lin, Offer Edelstein, Kenneth J Smith
OBJECTIVES: Pennsylvania's Department of Aging has offered a falls prevention program, "Healthy Steps for Older Adults" (HSOA), since 2005, with about 40,000 older adults screened for falls risk. In 2010 to 2011, older adults 50 years or older who completed HSOA (n = 814) had an 18% reduction in falls incidence compared with a comparison group that attended the same senior centers (n = 1019). We examined the effect of HSOA on hospitalization and emergency department (ED) treatment, and estimated the potential cost savings...
October 2016: American Journal of Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557011/costs-and-savings-of-parenting-interventions-results-of-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
K M Duncan, S MacGillivray, M J Renfrew
BACKGROUND: This systematic review of economic evaluations of universal preventative or targeted treatment parenting interventions that aim to enhance parent-infant interaction is primarily intended to inform decision makers who have to make difficult spending decisions, especially at a time of reduced spending allocations. A synthesis of available costs and savings about parenting interventions that set out to enhance parent-infant interaction is presented. This topic is important specifically in view of the UK Governments' emphasis on the equalities agenda and the early years...
May 30, 2017: Child: Care, Health and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553572/think-before-chopping-a-diabetic-foot-insight-to-vascular-intervention
#19
EDITORIAL
Ahsan Zil-E-Ali, Saadia Shafi, Muhammad Hammad Ali
Diabetes mellitus is a most commonly occurring chronic disease around the world, resulting in damage to multiple organs. One of the consequences of poorly controlled diabetes is vascular damage resulting in peripheral artery disease, leading to inadequate perfusion of the foot and eventually gangrene and amputation. Research over the past decade or so has provided us with the statistics that vascular intervention has better clinical outcomes including patient mortality, morbidity, quality of life, and patient satisfaction...
April 25, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551924/-adherence-to-oral-anti-cancer-drugs-in-hemato-oncology
#20
Sarit Ashkenazi, Juliet Dreyer, Pia Raanani, Avi Leader
Non-adherence to medical treatment is prevalent in the context of potentially life-saving treatment for diseases such as cancer. Estimates of non-adherence to oral anti-cancer therapy range between 27% and 63% in studies of cancer patients. This represents a growing challenge, due to the paradigm shift in anti-cancer treatment from parenteral chemotherapy to oral anti-cancer drugs. The importance of adherence to medical treatment is highlighted by the World Health Organization which considers non-adherence to be a major public health concern...
April 2017: Harefuah
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