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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146768/adhesive-performance-of-tropical-arboreal-ants-varies-with-substrate-temperature
#1
Alyssa Y Stark, Katherine Arstingstall, Stephen P Yanoviak
The surface temperature of tree branches in the tropical rainforest canopy can reach up to 55°C. Ants and other small cursorial organisms must maintain adequate attachment in this extreme microenvironment to forage effectively and prevent falling. Ant adhesion depends on liquid secretions that should become less viscous at high temperatures, causing ants to slip. However, tropical arboreal ants have high thermal tolerance and actively forage on hot canopy surfaces, suggesting that these ants can maintain adhesion on hot substrates...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140136/salt-glycerol-induced-hyperhydration-enhances-fluid-retention-more-than-salt-or-glycerol-induced-hyperhydration
#2
Eric D B Goulet, Adrien De La Flore, Félix A Savoie, Jonathan Gosselin
Hyperhydration has been demonstrated to improve work capacity and cardiovascular and thermoregulatory functions, enhance orthostatic tolerance, slow or neutralize bone demineralization and decrease post-dive bubble formation. Adding sodium or glycerol to a hyperhydration solution optimizes fluid retention. Sodium and glycerol produce their effect through different physiological mechanisms. If combined into a hyperhydration solution their impact on fluid retention could potentially be greater than their singular effect...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131748/a-multicentre-clinical-evaluation-of-a-hydro-responsive-wound-dressing-the-glasgow-experience
#3
H Hodgson, D Davidson, A Duncan, J Guthrie, E Henderson, M MacDiarmid, K McGown, V Pollard, R Potter, A Rodgers, A Wilson, J Horner, M Doran, S Simm, R Taylor, A Rogers, M G Rippon, M Colgrave
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to assess the effectiveness of hydro-responsive wound dressing (HRWD) in debridement and wound bed preparation of a variety of acute and chronic wounds that presented with devitalised tissue needing removal so that healing may proceed. METHOD: This was a non-comparative evaluation of acute and chronic wounds that required debridement as part of their normal treatment regimen. Clinicians recorded wound changes including a subjective assessment level of devitalised tissue and wound bed preparation, presence of pain, wound status (e...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117064/electroacupuncture-pretreatment-attenuates-acute-lung-injury-through-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-mediated-inhibition-of-hmgb1-release-in-rats-after-cardiopulmonary-bypass
#4
Zhankui Wang, Lei Hou, Hao Yang, Jiaxi Ge, Shaocheng Wang, Weitian Tian, Xiangrui Wang, Zhongwei Yang
Acute lung injury is a common complication after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7nAChR) and α7nAChR-dependent cholinergic signaling are implicated in suppressing the release of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and reducing the inflammatory response. A previous study has shown the electroacupuncture (EA) pretreatment induces tolerance against lung injury. However, the role of EA in CPB is poorly understood. This study employed EA and a rat model of CPB to determine whether EA was associated with CPB-induced lung injury...
November 7, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081752/multi-system-deconditioning-in-3-day-dry-immersion-without-daily-raise
#5
Steven De Abreu, Liubov Amirova, Ronan Murphy, Robert Wallace, Laura Twomey, Guillemette Gauquelin-Koch, Veronique Raverot, Françoise Larcher, Marc-Antoine Custaud, Nastassia Navasiolava
Dry immersion (DI) is a Russian-developed, ground-based model to study the physiological effects of microgravity. It accurately reproduces environmental conditions of weightlessness, such as enhanced physical inactivity, suppression of hydrostatic pressure and supportlessness. We aimed to study the integrative physiological responses to a 3-day strict DI protocol in 12 healthy men, and to assess the extent of multi-system deconditioning. We recorded general clinical data, biological data and evaluated body fluid changes...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079613/enterococcus-faecalis-responds-to-individual-exogenous-fatty-acids-independently-of-saturation-or-chain-length
#6
Holly E Saito, John R Harp, Elizabeth M Fozo
Enterococcus faecalis is a commensal of the human gastrointestinal tract that can persist in the external environment and is a leading cause of hospital acquired infections. Given its diverse habitats, the organism has developed numerous strategies to survive a multitude of environmental conditions. Previous studies have demonstrated that E. faecalis will incorporate fatty acids from bile and serum into its membrane, resulting in an induced tolerance to membrane damaging agents. To discern whether all fatty acids induce membrane stress protection, we examined how E...
October 27, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067341/multiple-dose-ponezumab-for-mild-to-moderate-alzheimer-s-disease-safety-and-efficacy
#7
Jaren W Landen, Sharon Cohen, Clare B Billing, Carol Cronenberger, Scot Styren, Aaron H Burstein, Catherine Sattler, Jae-Hong Lee, Clifford R Jack, Kejal Kantarci, Pamela F Schwartz, William T Duggan, Qinying Zhao, Ken Sprenger, Martin M Bednar, Brendon Binneman
INTRODUCTION: Multiple intravenous doses of ponezumab, an anti-amyloid antibody, were evaluated in subjects with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: In part A, 77 subjects were randomized to ponezumab 0.1, 0.5, or 1 mg/kg (75 treated) and 26 to placebo (24 treated). In part B, 63 subjects were randomized and treated with ponezumab 3 or 8.5 mg/kg and 32 with placebo. Subjects received 10 infusions over 18 months and were followed for 6 months thereafter...
September 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052790/efficacy-and-safety-of-glecaprevir-pibrentasvir-in-hcv-infected-japanese-patients-with-prior-daa-experience-severe-renal-impairment-or-genotype-3-infection
#8
Hiromitsu Kumada, Tsunamasa Watanabe, Fumitaka Suzuki, Kenji Ikeda, Ken Sato, Hidenori Toyoda, Masanori Atsukawa, Akio Ido, Akinobu Takaki, Nobuyuki Enomoto, Koji Kato, Katia Alves, Margaret Burroughs, Rebecca Redman, David Pugatch, Tami J Pilot-Matias, Preethi Krishnan, Rajneet K Oberoi, Wangang Xie, Kazuaki Chayama
BACKGROUND: Once-daily, orally administered, co-formulated glecaprevir (NS3/4A protease inhibitor) and pibrentasvir (NS5A inhibitor) (G/P) demonstrated pangenotypic activity and high sustained virologic response (SVR) rates in studies outside Japan. Here we report safety and efficacy in a subset of Japanese patients with chronic HCV infection who received G/P 300/120 mg in a phase 3, open-label, multicenter study (CERTAIN-1). METHODS: This analysis focuses on three difficult-to-treat subgroups: HCV GT1/2-infected patients who failed to achieve SVR after treatment with a direct acting antiviral (DAA)-containing regimen; GT1/2-infected patients with severe renal impairment (estimated glomerular filtration rate < 30 mL/min/1...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043393/characterization-of-a-set-of-abdominal-neuroendocrine-cells-that-regulate-stress-physiology-using-colocalized-diuretic-peptides-in-drosophila
#9
Meet Zandawala, Richard Marley, Shireen A Davies, Dick R Nässel
Multiple neuropeptides are known to regulate water and ion balance in Drosophila melanogaster. Several of these peptides also have other functions in physiology and behavior. Examples are corticotropin-releasing factor-like diuretic hormone (diuretic hormone 44; DH44) and leucokinin (LK), both of which induce fluid secretion by Malpighian tubules (MTs), but also regulate stress responses, feeding, circadian activity and other behaviors. Here, we investigated the functional relations between the LK and DH44 signaling systems...
October 17, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023857/preceding-haemorrhagic-shock-as-a-detrimental-risk-factor-for-respiratory-distress-after-excessive-allogeneic-blood-transfusion
#10
R Masuda, T Iijima, R Kondo, Y Itoda, M Matsuhashi, S Hashimoto, T Kohira, N Kobayashi, H Okazaki
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Whether transfusion-associated circulatory overload arises as a simple result of over-transfusion or requires another trigger remains unclear. Here, we examined whether respiratory distress could be reproduced by massive transfusion alone in an animal model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 20 anaesthetized swine were equipped with monitors. Allogeneic blood was obtained from 10 donor swine. A 4-stage loading protocol with each stage equivalent to 25% of the blood volume (BV) in the recipient swine was then used to infuse crystalloid (CR), hydroxyethyl starch (HES) or allogeneic blood (TR) (n = 5 each)...
October 11, 2017: Vox Sanguinis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961037/cns-not-an-immunoprivilaged-site-anymore-but-a-virtual-secondary-lymphoid-organ
#11
Neema Negi, Bimal K Das
The cardinal dogma of central nervous system (CNS) immunology believed brain is an immune privileged site, but scientific evidences gathered so far have overturned this notion proving that CNS is no longer an immune privileged site, but rather an actively regulated site of immune surveillance. Landmark discovery of lymphatic system surrounding the duramater of the brain, made possible by high resolution live imaging technology has given new dimension to neuro-immunology. Here, we discuss the immune privilege status of CNS in light of the previous and current findings, taking into account the differences between a healthy state and changes that occur during an inflammatory response...
September 29, 2017: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891819/factors-influencing-successful-lumbar-puncture-in-alzheimer-research
#12
Krista L Moulder, Lilah M Besser, Duane Beekly, Kaj Blennow, Walter Kukull, John C Morris
OBJECTIVE: Lumbar puncture (LP) is increasingly common in Alzheimer disease research; however, agreement to undergo LP varies. We sought to determine factors influencing LP consent at Alzheimer's Disease Centers (ADCs) in the United States. METHODS: A 3-part survey was distributed to each ADC: (1) ADC LP Experience; (2) LP Requestor Experience; and (3) Patient LP Experience (both Initial and Follow-up). In all, 64 LP Requestor, 579 Patient/Initial, and 404 Patient/Follow-up surveys were collected...
September 7, 2017: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856569/pharmacokinetics-of-cromolyn-and-ibuprofen-in-healthy-elderly-volunteers
#13
David Brazier, Robert Perry, Jim Keane, Katie Barrett, David R Elmaleh
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The combination of cromolyn and ibuprofen is being investigated as a treatment for early Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study investigated the pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of cromolyn and ibuprofen co-administration in healthy elderly adult volunteers. METHODS: In this open-labeled study, 26 subjects, aged 55-75 years, received co-administration of inhaled cromolyn (single dose 17.1 mg; double dose 34.2 mg total) and oral ibuprofen (single dose 10 mg; double dose 20 mg total)...
November 2017: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819990/effects-of-maternal-high-fat-diet-and-sedentary-lifestyle-on-susceptibility-of-adult-offspring-to-ozone-exposure-in-rats
#14
C J Gordon, P M Phillips, A F M Johnstone, J Schmid, M C Schladweiler, A Ledbetter, S J Snow, U P Kodavanti
Epidemiological and experimental data suggest that obesity exacerbates the health effects of air pollutants such as ozone (O3). Maternal inactivity and calorically rich diets lead to offspring that show signs of obesity. Exacerbated O3 susceptibility of offspring could thus be manifested by maternal obesity. Thirty-day-old female Long-Evans rats were fed a control (CD) or high-fat (HF) (60% calories) diet for 6 wks and then bred. GD1 rats were then housed with a running wheel (RW) or without a wheel (SED) until parturition, creating four groups of offspring: CD-SED, CD-RW, HF-SED and HF-RW...
August 18, 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815614/resveratrol-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
REVIEW
Christine Sawda, Charbel Moussa, R Scott Turner
The amyloid hypothesis suggests that the progressive accumulation and deposition of central nervous system (CNS) amyloid with aging is the proximate cause of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thus, targeting molecular mechanisms of aging may be a viable treatment approach. Caloric restriction prevents diseases of aging, including AD, in animal models, perhaps by activation of sirtuins. The sirtuins (e.g., mammalian SIRT1) are deacetylases that link energy balance (NAD(+) /NADH) to regulation of gene transcription. Resveratrol is a potent activator of SIRT1, and thus may mimic caloric restriction to prevent diseases of aging...
September 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812547/lung-epithelial-cells-therapeutically-inducible-effectors-of-antimicrobial-defense
#16
REVIEW
M M Leiva-Juárez, J K Kolls, S E Evans
Lung epithelial cells are increasingly recognized to be active effectors of microbial defense, contributing to both innate and adaptive immune function in the lower respiratory tract. As immune sentinels, lung epithelial cells detect diverse pathogens through an ample repertoire of membrane-bound, endosomal, and cytosolic pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs). The highly plastic epithelial barrier responds to detected threats via modulation of paracellular flux, intercellular communications, mucin production, and periciliary fluid composition...
August 16, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802766/a-phase-i-trial-of-intraperitoneal-gen-1-an-il-12-plasmid-formulated-with-peg-pei-cholesterol-lipopolymer-administered-with-pegylated-liposomal-doxorubicin-in-patients-with-recurrent-or-persistent-epithelial-ovarian-fallopian-tube-or-primary-peritoneal-cancers
#17
Premal H Thaker, William E Brady, Heather A Lankes, Kunle Odunsi, William H Bradley, Kathleen N Moore, Carolyn Y Muller, Khursheed Anwer, Russell J Schilder, Ronald D Alvarez, Paula M Fracasso
OBJECTIVE: The study's purpose was to assess safety and efficacy of escalating doses of weekly GEN-1 with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) in patients with recurrent or persistent epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube or primary peritoneal cancers (EOC). METHODS: Patients had persistent or recurrent platinum-resistant EOC. The trial was a standard 3+3 phase I dose escalation design with patients receiving intravenous PLD 40mg/m(2) (dose level 1 and 2) or 50mg/m(2) (dose level 3) every 28days and intraperitoneal GEN-1 at 24mg/m(2) (dose level 1) or 36mg/m(2) (dose level 2 and 3) on days 1, 8, 15, and 22 of a 28day cycle...
November 2017: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743290/pneumatosis-intestinalis-with-a-benign-clinical-course-a-report-of-two-cases
#18
Aya Takase, Nobuhiro Akuzawa, Hiroshi Naitoh, Jun Aoki
BACKGROUND: Pneumatosis intestinalis (PI) is a rare condition characterized by the presence of gas within the gastrointestinal tract wall. Most cases of PI have a benign clinical course, although some have serious outcomes. Mechanical stress on or bacterial infection of the gastrointestinal tract wall may be responsible for the onset of PI, but the detailed mechanism of PI pathogenesis is still unclear. Here, we describe two Japanese patients presenting with benign PI. CASE PRESENTATION: Case 1, a 37-year-old previously healthy male patient, had a 1-week history of abdominal pain, and case 2, a 78-year-old female diabetic patient, had a 2-week history of voglibose treatment and abdominal pain...
July 25, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714258/renal-neuroendocrine-control-of-desiccation-and-cold-tolerance-by-drosophila-suzukii
#19
Selim Terhzaz, Lucy Alford, Joseph Gc Yeoh, Richard Marley, Anthony J Dornan, Julian At Dow, Shireen A Davies
BACKGROUND: Neuropeptides are central to the regulation of physiological and behavioural processes in insects, directly impacting cold and desiccation survival. However, little is known about the control mechanisms governing these responses in Drosophila suzukii. The close phylogenetic relationship of D. suzukii with Drosophila melanogaster allows, through genomic and functional studies, an insight into the mechanisms directing stress tolerance in D. suzukii. RESULTS: Capability (Capa), leucokinin (LK), diuretic hormone 44 (DH44 ) and DH31 neuropeptides demonstrated a high level of conservation between D...
July 17, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713203/solvatochromic-fluorescent-probes-for-recognition-of-human-serum-albumin-in-aqueous-solution-insights-into-structure-property-relationship
#20
Bin Liu, Xiaoman Bi, Lucas McDonald, Yi Pang, Danqing Liu, Chengjun Pan, Lei Wang
Human serum albumin (HSA) as the most abundant protein in human blood plasma, serves many physiological functions. The dysregulation of HSA in serum or in urine is associated with various diseases, such as cirrhosis of liver, multiple myeloma, and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, to quantify HSA in body fluids with high selectivity and sensitivity is of great significance for disease diagnosis and preventive medicine. We herein developed a series of amide-functionalized flavonoids probes, 1-3, for recognition of human serum albumin...
November 29, 2016: Sensors and Actuators. B, Chemical
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