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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906052/antibody-responses-to-de-novo-identified-citrullinated-fibrinogen-peptides-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-and-visualization-of-the-corresponding-b-cells
#1
Vijay Joshua, Loes Schobers, Philip J Titcombe, Lena Israelsson, Johan Rönnelid, Monika Hansson, Anca I Catrina, Ger J M Pruijn, Vivianne Malmström
BACKGROUND: Antibodies against citrullinated proteins (ACPA) are common in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). ACPA can appear before disease onset and target many self-antigens. Citrullinated fibrin/fibrinogen represents a classical ACPA target antigen, and mass spectrometry of RA synovial fluid reveals elevated citrullinated (cit) fibrinogen (Fib) peptides compared to non-RA controls. We investigated the extent to which these less-studied peptides represent autoantibody targets and sought to visualize the corresponding cit-Fib-reactive B cells in RA patients...
December 1, 2016: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888933/review-on-modeling-heat-transfer-and-thermoregulatory-responses-in-human-body
#2
REVIEW
Ming Fu, Wenguo Weng, Weiwang Chen, Na Luo
Several mathematical models of human thermoregulation have been developed, contributing to a deep understanding of thermal responses in different thermal conditions and applications. In these models, the human body is represented by two interacting systems of thermoregulation: the controlling active system and the controlled passive system. This paper reviews the recent research of human thermoregulation models. The accuracy and scope of the thermal models are improved, for the consideration of individual differences, integration to clothing models, exposure to cold and hot conditions, and the changes of physiological responses for the elders...
December 2016: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888833/interaction-of-rat-alveolar-macrophages-with-dental-composite-dust
#3
K L Van Landuyt, S M Cokic, C Asbach, P Hoet, L Godderis, F X Reichl, B Van Meerbeek, A Vennemann, M Wiemann
BACKGROUND: Dental composites have become the standard filling material to restore teeth, but during the placement of these restorations, high amounts of respirable composite dust (<5 μm) including many nano-sized particles may be released in the breathing zone of the patient and dental operator. Here we tested the respirable fraction of several composite particles for their cytotoxic effect using an alveolar macrophage model system. ​METHODS: Composite dust was generated following a clinical protocol, and the dust particles were collected under sterile circumstances...
November 26, 2016: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881573/intestinal-na-k-2cl-cotransporter-2-plays-a-crucial-role-in-hyperosmotic-transitions-of-a-euryhaline-teleost
#4
Andrew J Esbaugh, Brett Cutler
Euryhaline fishes, such as the red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), must quickly transition between hyperosmotic and hypoosmotic physiological strategies. When freshwater individuals transition to seawater they are exposed to increased diffusive water loss and ion gain. To maintain osmoregulatory balance these animals must drink and absorb seawater through the intestine, followed by ion excretion at the gills. The ability of fishes to transition between strategies can limit the magnitude of osmotic shock that can be tolerated...
November 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869558/polynitroxylated-pegylated-hemoglobin-a-novel-small-volume-therapeutic-for-traumatic-brain-injury-resuscitation-comparison-to-whole-blood-and-dose-response-evaluation
#5
Erik C Brockman, Travis C Jackson, C Edward Dixon, Hulya Bayir, Robert Clark, Vincent A Vagni, Keri L Janesko, Catherine Byrd, Li Ma, Carleton J C Hsia, Patrick M Kochanek
: Resuscitation with polynitroxylated pegylated hemoglobin (PNPH), a PEGylated bovine hemoglobin decorated with nitroxides, eliminated the need for fluid administration, reduced ICP and brain edema, and produced neuroprotection in vitro and in vivo vs. lactated Ringer's (LR) in experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI) plus hemorrhagic shock (HS). HYPOTHESIS: Resuscitation with PNPH will improve acute physiology vs. whole blood after TBI+HS and will be safe and effective across a wide dosage range...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836902/active-versus-sedentary-lifestyle-from-weaning-to-adulthood-and-susceptibility-to-ozone-in-rats
#6
Christopher J Gordon, Pamela M Phillips, Allan Ledbetter, Samantha J Snow, M C Schladweiler, Andrew F M Johnstone, Urmilla P Kodavanti
The prevalence of a sedentary (SED) life style combined with calorically rich diets has spurred the rise in childhood obesity which, in turn, translates to adverse health effects in adulthood. Obesity and lack of active (ACT) lifestyle may increase susceptibility to air pollutants. We housed 22 day-old female Long-Evans rats in a cage without (SED) or with a running wheel (ACT). After 10 weeks the rats ran 310 ± 16.3 km (SEM). Responses of SED and ACT rats to whole-body O3 (0, 0.25, 0.5, or 1.0 ppm; 5 hr/day for 2 days) was assessed...
November 11, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820941/functions-of-exosomes-and-microbial-extracellular-vesicles-in-allergy-and-contact-and-delayed-type-hypersensitivity
#7
Katarzyna Nazimek, Krzysztof Bryniarski, Philip W Askenase
Extracellular vesicles, such as exosomes, are newly recognized intercellular conveyors of functional molecular mechanisms. Notably, they transfer RNAs and proteins between different cells that can then participate in the complex pathogenesis of allergic and related hypersensitivity responses and disease mechanisms, as described herein. This review highlights this important new appreciation of the in vivo participation of such extracellular vesicles in the interactions between allergy-mediating cells. We take into account paracrine epigenetic exchanges mediated by surrounding stromal cells and the endocrine receipt of exosomes from distant cells via the circulation...
2016: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757236/salinity-tolerances-of-two-australian-freshwater-turtles-chelodina-expansa-and-emydura-macquarii-testudinata-chelidae
#8
Deborah S Bower, David M Scheltinga, Simon Clulow, John Clulow, Craig E Franklin, Arthur Georges
Freshwater biota experience physiological challenges in regions affected by salinization, but often the effects on particular species are poorly understood. Freshwater turtles are of particular concern as they appear to have limited ability to cope with environmental conditions that are hyperosmotic to their body fluids. Here, we determined the physiological responses of two Australian freshwater chelid turtles, Emydura macquarii and Chelodina expansa, exposed to freshwater (0‰) and brackish water (15‰, representing a hyperosmotic environment)...
2016: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749997/dumping-syndrome-after-esophageal-gastric-or-bariatric-surgery-pathophysiology-diagnosis-and-management
#9
A P van Beek, M Emous, M Laville, J Tack
BACKGROUND: Dumping syndrome, a common complication of esophageal, gastric or bariatric surgery, includes early and late dumping symptoms. Early dumping occurs within 1 h after eating, when rapid emptying of food into the small intestine triggers rapid fluid shifts into the intestinal lumen and release of gastrointestinal hormones, resulting in gastrointestinal and vasomotor symptoms. Late dumping occurs 1-3 h after carbohydrate ingestion, caused by an incretin-driven hyperinsulinemic response resulting in hypoglycemia...
October 17, 2016: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736042/lung-and-cardiac-ultrasound-for-hemodynamic-monitoring-of-patients-with-severe-pre-eclampsia
#10
J Ambrozic, G Brzan Simenc, K Prokselj, N Tul, M Cvijic, M Lucovnik
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate lung and cardiac ultrasound for the assessment of fluid tolerance and fluid responsiveness before and after delivery in pregnant women with severe pre-eclampsia (PE). METHODS: This was a prospective observational study of singleton pregnant women with severe PE and healthy term controls. Lung ultrasound echo comet score (ECS), which denotes the amount of extravascular lung water, was obtained using the 28-rib interspaces technique. The echocardiographic E/e' ratio, measured by pulsed-wave and tissue Doppler, was used as a marker of diastolic left ventricular function...
October 13, 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697141/follicular-t-helper-cells-and-il-21-in-rheumatic-diseases
#11
Tue Kruse Rasmussen
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are lifelong diseases with increased mortality and chronic pains. They are both characterized by immunological imbalances causing the immune system attack and destroy the bodies own tissues (called autoimmune disease). The best treatment, we are currently able to offer these patients, cause significant side-effects and can not prevent significant loss of quality of life. At the heart of the disease mechanisms in RA and SLE are subsets of immune cells called T and B cells...
October 2016: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677765/metabolic-effects-of-orally-administered-small-molecule-agonists-of-gpr55-and-gpr119-in-multiple-low-dose-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-and-incretin-receptor-knockout-mice
#12
Aine M McKillop, Brian M Moran, Yasser H A Abdel-Wahab, Noella M Gormley, Peter R Flatt
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Abnormal cannabidiol (Abn-CBD) and AS-1269574 are potent selective agonists for GPR55 and GPR119, respectively. The present study evaluated the actions and ability of these small-molecule agonists to counteract experimental diabetes in mice. METHODS: Diabetes was induced in NIH Swiss mice by five consecutive daily intraperitoneal injections of 40 mg/(kg body weight) streptozotocin. Diabetic mice received daily oral administration of Abn-CBD or AS-1269574 (0...
September 27, 2016: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642236/advantages-of-extracellular-ubiquitin-in-modulation-of-immune-responses
#13
REVIEW
Rusudan Sujashvili
T and B lymphocytes play a central role in protecting the human body from infectious pathogens but occasionally they can escape immune tolerance, become activated, and induce autoimmune diseases. All deregulated cellular processes are associated with improper functioning of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) in eukaryotic cells. The role of ubiquitin in regulation of immune responses and in autoimmune diseases is only beginning to emerge. Ubiquitin is found in intra- and extracellular fluids and is involved in regulation of numerous cellular processes...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27556272/an-update-on-intradialytic-cardiac-dysfunction
#14
Aghogho Odudu, Christopher W McIntyre
Cardiac dysfunction is a key factor in the high morbidity and mortality rates seen in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Much of the dysfunction is manifest as adverse changes in cardiac and vascular structure prior to commencing dialysis. This adverse vascular remodeling arises as a dysregulation between pro- and antiproliferative signaling pathways in response to hemodynamic and nonhemodynamic factors. The HD procedure itself further promotes cardiomyopathy by inducing hypotension and episodic regional cardiac ischemia that precedes global dysfunction, fibrosis, worsening symptoms, and increased mortality...
November 2016: Seminars in Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27553192/an-assessment-of-the-central-disposition-of-intranasally-administered-insulin-lispro-in-the-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-healthy-volunteers-and-beagle-dogs
#15
Stephen Lowe, Emanuele Sher, Graham Wishart, Kimberley Jackson, Eunice Yuen, Claire Brittain, Siew Chinn Fong, David O Clarke, William H Landschulz
Intranasally administered regular insulin and insulin aspart have shown cognitive benefit for patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). To support development of intranasally administered insulin analogs for AD, the central disposition of intranasal insulin lispro in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of healthy volunteers was investigated. Healthy volunteers (N = 8) received two sequential doses of intranasal insulin lispro (48 or 80 IU followed by 160 IU) by Aero Pump in an open-label, single-period study with serial CSF and serum sampling over 5 hours after each dose...
August 23, 2016: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27544812/development-and-in-vivo-safety-assessment-of-tenofovir-loaded-nanoparticles-in-film-as-a-novel-vaginal-microbicide-delivery-system
#16
Alexandra Machado, Cassilda Cunha-Reis, Francisca Araújo, Rute Nunes, Vítor Seabra, Domingos Ferreira, José das Neves, Bruno Sarmento
UNLABELLED: Topical pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with antiretroviral drugs holds promise in preventing vaginal transmission of HIV. However, significant biomedical and social issues found in multiple past clinical trials still need to be addressed in order to optimize protection and users' adherence. One approach may be the development of improved microbicide products. A novel delivery platform comprising drug-loaded nanoparticles (NPs) incorporated into a thin polymeric film base (NPs-in-film) was developed in order to allow the vaginal administration of the microbicide drug candidate tenofovir...
October 15, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27540244/tolvaptan-use-in-severe-neonatal-autosomal-dominant-polycystic-kidney-disease-adpkd-the-pharmaceutical-challenge
#17
Kazeem Olalekan, Andy Fox, Rodney Gilbert
BACKGROUND: Unlicensed medications are used all the time in the management of diseases in childhood. Tolvaptan (Jinarc®) is a vasopressin V2-receptor antagonist licensed for use to slow the progression of cyst development and renal insufficiency of ADPKD in adults with CKD stage 1 to 3 with evidence of rapidly progressing disease. Studies of animal models implicate the antidiuretic hormone arginine vasopressin and its messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) as promoters of kidney-cyst cell proliferation and luminal fluid secretion...
September 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27485480/seminal-fluid-and-fertility-in-women
#18
REVIEW
Sarah A Robertson, David J Sharkey
Seminal fluid is often viewed as simply a vehicle to carry sperm to fertilize the oocyte, but a more complex function in influencing female reproductive physiology is now evident. Remarkably, seminal fluid contains soluble and exosome-born signaling agents that interact with the female reproductive tract to prime the immune response, with consequences for fertility and pregnancy outcome. Experiments in rodent models demonstrate a key role for seminal fluid in enabling robust embryo implantation and optimal placental development...
September 1, 2016: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27466082/surface-chemistry-regulates-the-sensitivity-and-tolerability-of-osteoblasts-to-various-magnitudes-of-fluid-shear-stress
#19
Yan Li, Jinfeng Wang, Juan Xing, Yuanliang Wang, Yanfeng Luo
Scaffolds provide a physical support for osteoblasts and act as the medium to transfer mechanical stimuli to cells. To verify our hypothesis that the surface chemistry of scaffolds regulates the perception of cells to mechanical stimuli, the sensitivity and tolerability of osteoblasts to fluid shear stress (FSS) of various magnitudes (5, 12, 20 dynes/cm(2) ) were investigated on various surface chemistries (-OH, -CH3 , -NH2 ), and their follow-up effects on cell proliferation and differentiation were examined as well...
July 28, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27458380/the-extracellular-calcium-sensing-receptor-in-the-intestine-evidence-for-regulation-of-colonic-absorption-secretion-motility-and-immunity
#20
REVIEW
Lieqi Tang, Catherine Y Cheng, Xiangrong Sun, Alexandra J Pedicone, Mansour Mohamadzadeh, Sam X Cheng
Different from other epithelia, the intestinal epithelium has the complex task of providing a barrier impeding the entry of toxins, food antigens, and microbes, while at the same time allowing for the transfer of nutrients, electrolytes, water, and microbial metabolites. These molecules/organisms are transported either transcellularly, crossing the apical and basolateral membranes of enterocytes, or paracellularly, passing through the space between enterocytes. Accordingly, the intestinal epithelium can affect energy metabolism, fluid balance, as well as immune response and tolerance...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
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