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Cefotaxime

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351260/fatty-acid-based-microemulsions-to-combat-ophthalmia-neonatorum-caused-by-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-and-staphylococcus-aureus
#1
Ummara Butt, Amr ElShaer, Lori A S Snyder, Ali A Al-Kinani, Adam Le Gresley, Raid G Alany
The bacterial species Neisseria gonorrhoeae (N. gonorrhoeae) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) are amongst the main microorganisms that cause ophthalmia neonatorum. The current treatment involves the use of various antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin, cephalosporin, ceftriaxone and cefotaxime. However, this treatment strategy is becoming more ineffective due to the antibiotic resistance in N. gonorrhoeae. The current study explores the potential use of fatty acid based microemulsions (ME) to prevent N. gonorrhoeae and S...
January 19, 2018: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349897/antibiogram-and-genetic-diversity-of-salmonella-enterica-with-zoonotic-potential-isolated-from-morbid-native-chickens-and-pigeons-in-egypt
#2
E Abdeen, W Elmonir, I I A Suelam, W S Mousa
AIMS: This study investigated the possible role of Fayoumi chickens and pigeons in the transmission of multidrug resistant (MDR) Salmonella with zoonotic potential. METHODS AND RESULTS: Morbid Fayoumi chickens (70) and pigeons (30) were examined to detect the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella and to detect and sequence sodC-1 gene as a zoonotic and phylogenetic marker. Salmonella isolates were detected in 14.3% and 20% of the examined Fayoumi chickens and pigeons, respectively...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340979/effect-of-moisture-content-of-chitin-calcium-silicate-on-rate-of-degradation-of-cefotaxime-sodium
#3
Suhair S Al-Nimry, Khouloud A Alkhamis
Assessment of incompatibilities between active pharmaceutical ingredient and pharmaceutical excipients is an important part of preformulation studies. The objective of the work was to assess the effect of moisture content of chitin calcium silicate of two size ranges (two specific surface areas) on the rate of degradation of cefotaxime sodium. The surface area of the excipient was determined using adsorption method. The effect of moisture content of a given size range on the stability of the drug was determined at 40°C in the solid state...
January 16, 2018: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340851/comparison-of-antibiotic-dosing-recommendations-for-neonatal-sepsis-from-established-reference-sources
#4
T B Y Liem, E M A Slob, J U M Termote, T F W Wolfs, A C G Egberts, C M A Rademaker
Background Incorrect dosing is the most frequent prescribing error in neonatology, with antibiotics being the most frequently prescribed medicines. Computer physician order entry and clinical decision support systems can create consistency contributing to a reduction of medication errors. Although evidence-based dosing recommendations should be included in such systems, the evidence is not always available and subsequently, dosing recommendations mentioned in guidelines and textbooks are often based on expert opinion...
January 16, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323530/prevalence-and-molecular-characterization-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-raw-milk-and-raw-milk-cheese-in-egypt
#5
Rabee A Ombarak, Atsushi Hinenoya, Abdel-Rahman M Elbagory, Shinji Yamasaki
The goal of this study was to examine antimicrobial resistance and characterize the implicated genes in 222 isolates of Escherichia coli from 187 samples of raw milk and the two most popular cheeses in Egypt. E. coli isolates were tested for susceptibility to 12 antimicrobials by a disk diffusion method. Among the 222 E. coli isolates, 66 (29.7%) were resistant to one or more antimicrobials, and half of these resistant isolates showed a multidrug resistance phenotype (resistance to at least three different drug classes)...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316517/functional-metagenomics-reveals-a-novel-carbapenem-hydrolyzing-mobile-beta-lactamase-from-indian-river-sediments-contaminated-with-antibiotic-production-waste
#6
Nachiket P Marathe, Anders Janzon, Stathis D Kotsakis, Carl-Fredrik Flach, Mohammad Razavi, Fanny Berglund, Erik Kristiansson, D G Joakim Larsson
Evolution has provided environmental bacteria with a plethora of genes that give resistance to antibiotic compounds. Under anthropogenic selection pressures, some of these genes are believed to be recruited over time into pathogens by horizontal gene transfer. River sediment polluted with fluoroquinolones and other drugs discharged from bulk drug production in India constitute an environment with unprecedented, long-term antibiotic selection pressures. It is therefore plausible that previously unknown resistance genes have evolved and/or are promoted here...
January 6, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315029/correlations-among-resistances-to-different-antimicrobial-compounds-in-salmonella-strains-from-hen-eggshells
#7
Maria Luisa Fernández Márquez, María José Grande Burgos, Rubén Pérez Pulido, Antonio Gálvez, Rosario Lucas López
Persistence of antibiotic-resistant Salmonella in the food chain may depend on strain tolerance to other antimicrobials and also on biofilm formation capacity. Yet, there is limited information on sensitivity of antibiotic-resistant Salmonella to other antimicrobials, such as phenolic compounds, chemical preservatives, or antimicrobial peptides. This study aimed at correlating antimicrobial resistance and biofilm formation capacity in antibiotic-resistant, biocide-tolerant Salmonella strains from hen eggshells...
February 2018: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313577/a-randomized-controlled-phase-iii-clinical-trial-to-evaluate-the-efficacy-and-tolerability-of-risorine-with-conventional-rifampicin-in-the-treatment-of-newly-diagnosed-pulmonary-tuberculosis-patients
#8
Naresh Patel, K Jagannath, Agam Vora, Mukesh Patel, Anand Patel
Background: The overall goals for treatment of Tuberculosis (TB) are to cure individual patient and to minimize the transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. At the time of study conduction, the standard treatment for newly diagnosed tuberculosis patients consisted of an intensive phase for two months with four drugs (HRZE), followed by continuation phase for four months with two drugs (HR). Rifampicin, which is very effective against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, in both the phases of treatment, has certain concerns, which includes, decreased bioavailability with chronic use and hepatotoxicity...
September 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290234/bacterial-meningitis-antibiotic-treatment
#9
R Cohen, J Raymond, L Hees, D Pinquier, E Grimprel, C Levy
The implementation of pneumococal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) 7 then 13 valent (Prevenar13®) in 2010-2011 has significantly changed the profile of pneumococcal meningitis. Since 3 years, the National Pediatric Meningitis Network of the Pediatric Infectious Disease Group (GPIP) and the National Reference Centre of Pneumococci have reported no cases of meningitis due to pneumococcus resistant to third-generation cephalosporins (3GC): cefotaxime or ceftriaxone. In the light of these new data, vancomycin should no longer be prescribed at the initial phase of pneumococcal meningitis treatment (confirmed or only suspected) and this antibiotic should only be added when 3GC minimum inhibitory concentration of the strain isolated is greater than 0...
December 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286017/a-case-of-invasive-infection-caused-by-a-highly-virulent-strain-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-displaying-hypermucoviscosity-in-a-patient-with-hepatic-involvement-without-liver-abscess
#10
Margherita Scapaticci, Marta Biscaro, Francesco Burelli, Lucio Cadamuro, Renzo Biscaro, Andrea Bartolini
Klebsiella pneumoniae is an opportunistic nosocomial pathogen belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family that is associated with a wide range of infections. In the 1980s a new hypervirulent (hypermucoviscous) variant of Klebsiella pneumoniae (hvKP) emerged in southeast Asia and is now increasingly spreading to Western countries due to an invasive syndrome. hvKP isolates can cause serious, life-threatening community-acquired infections in younger healthy hosts, including liver abscess, pneumonia, meningitis and endophthalmitis...
December 1, 2017: Le Infezioni in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279590/distribution-of-adeb-and-ndm-1-genes-in-multidrug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-isolated-from-infected-wound-of-patients-admitted-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-bangladesh
#11
M J Hasan, S M Shamsuzzaman
BACKGROUND: The adeB gene in Acinetobacter baumannii regulates the bacterial internal drug efflux pump that plays a significant role in drug resistance. The aim of our study was to determine the occurrence of adeB gene in multidrug resistant and New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase-1 (NDM- 1) gene in imipenem resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from wound swab samples in a tertiary care hospital of Bangladesh. METHODS: A total of 345 wound swab samples were tested for bacterial pathogens...
December 2017: Malaysian Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279444/detection-of-escherichia-coli-producing-ctx-m-1-group-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamases-from-pigs-in-aichi-prefecture-japan-between-2015-and-2016
#12
Chihiro Norizuki, Kumiko Kawamura, Jun-Ichi Wachino, Masahiro Suzuki, Noriyuki Nagano, Takaaki Kondo, Yoshichika Arakawa
We investigated the prevalence and characteristics of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli isolates from Japanese pigs. A total of 345 pig fecal specimens were collected from 30 farms in Aichi prefecture, Japan, between June 2015 and April 2016, and 22 unique ESBL-producing E. coli were isolated from 16 samples of eight farms. The ESBL types included CTX-M-15 (54.5%), CTX-M-55 (27.2%), CTX-M-3 (0.9%), and CTX-M-14 (0.9%). The predominant plasmid replicon type was IncN, and they carried blaCTX-M-55...
December 26, 2017: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278970/a-clinical-and-microbiological-study-of-puerperal-sepsis-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-india
#13
Jayasree Vankuru, Rashmi Bagga, Tanuja Muthyala, Vikas Gautam, Sunil Sethi, Vanita Jain, Pooja Sikka
OBJECTIVE: This prospective study was carried out to evaluate the clinical profile and bacterial isolates among women with puerperal sepsis in a tertiary hospital in North India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Women with puerperal sepsis (n = 45) admitted from January 2015 to April 2016 were followed prospectively. Cultures were obtained from cervix, blood, urine, and pyoperitoneum. Initial antibiotics were cefotaxime or piperacillin with tazobactam plus amikacin plus clindamycin or metronidazole and were changed according to sensitivity...
January 7, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273509/diversity-of-virulence-genes-in-multidrug-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-isolated-from-burn-wound-infections
#14
Fakhri Haghi, Habib Zeighami, Arefeh Monazami, Farnaz Toutouchi, Shima Nazaralian, Ghazal Naderi
Multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa has frequently been reported as the cause of nosocomial outbreaks of burn wound infections. The pathogenesis of P. aeruginosa is partly due to the production of several cell-associated and extracellular virulence factors. A total of 93 P. aeruginosa isolated from burn wound infections were investigated for antimicrobial susceptibility and distribution of virulence genes. All (100%) isolates were resistant to one or more antimicrobial agents. The most frequent resistance found against ampicillin (91...
December 19, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29272983/sub-inhibitory-concentration-of-essential-oils-induces-antibiotic-resistance-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#15
Barbara Turchi, Simone Mancini, Luisa Pistelli, Basma Najar, Filippo Fratini
Fourteen Staphylococcus aureus wild strains were stressed with sub-inhibitory concentration of five essential oils: Leptospermum scoparium (manuka), Origanum majorana (marjoram), Origanum vulgare (oregano), Satureja montana (winter savoury) and Thymus vulgaris (thyme). Antibiotics susceptibility profiles of the strains were determined by agar disk diffusion method before and after EOs treatment. The following antibiotics were employed: amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, amikacin, ampicillin, amoxicillin, aztreonam, ceftazidime, cephalothin, ciprofloxacin, colistin, cefotaxime, doxycycline, enrofloxacin, erythromycin, gentamicin, cephalexin, neomycin, piperacillin, rifampin, streptomycin, trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole, tetracycline and tobramycin...
December 22, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258474/full-title-peripheral-venous-catheter-complications-in-children-predisposing-factors-in-a-multicenter-prospective-cohort-study
#16
Rim Ben Abdelaziz, Habiba Hafsi, Hela Hajji, Hela Boudabous, Amel Ben Chehida, Ali Mrabet, Khadija Boussetta, Sihem Barsaoui, Azza Sammoud, Mourad Hamzaoui, Hatem Azzouz, Néji Tebib
BACKGROUND: Peripheral venous catheterization (PVC) is frequently used in children. This procedure is not free from potential complications. Our purpose was to identify the types and incidences of PVC complications in children and their predisposing factors in a developing country. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational multicenter study in five pediatric and pediatric surgery departments over a period of 2 months. Two hundred fifteen PVC procedures were conducted in 98 children...
December 19, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244831/antimicrobial-susceptibility-and-molecular-epidemiology-of-clinical-enterobacter-cloacae-bloodstream-isolates-in-shanghai-china
#17
Su Wang, Shu-Zhen Xiao, Fei-Fei Gu, Jin Tang, Xiao-Kui Guo, Yu-Xing Ni, Jie-Ming Qu, Li-Zhong Han
BACKGROUND: Enterobacter cloacae is a major nosocomial pathogen causing bloodstream infections. We retrospectively conducted a study to assess antimicrobial susceptibility and phylogenetic relationships of E. cloacae bloodstream isolates in two tertiary university-affiliated hospitals in Shanghai, in order to facilitate managements of E. cloacae bloodstream infections and highlight some unknowns for future prevention. METHODS: Fifty-three non-duplicate E. cloacae bloodstream isolates were consecutively collected from 2013 to 2016...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243150/characterization-of-multiple-antibiotic-resistance-of-culturable-microorganisms-and-metagenomic-analysis-of-total-microbial-diversity-of-marine-fish-sold-in-retail-shops-in-mumbai-india
#18
Onkar A Naik, Ravindranath Shashidhar, Devashish Rath, Jayant R Bandekar, Archana Rath
Marine fish species were analyzed for culturable and total metagenomic microbial diversity, antibiotic resistance (AR) pattern, and horizontal gene transfer in culturable microorganisms. We observed a high AR microbial load of 3 to 4 log CFU g-1. Many fish pathogens like Providencia, Staphylococcus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter, Vagococcus, and Aeromonas veronii were isolated. Photobacterium and Vibrio were two major fish and human pathogens which were identified in the fish metagenome. Other pathogens that were identified were Shewanella, Acinetobacter, Psychrobacter, and Flavobacterium...
December 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238335/treatment-with-cefotaxime-affects-expression-of-conjugation-associated-proteins-and-conjugation-transfer-frequency-of-an-inci1-plasmid-in-escherichia-coli
#19
Thea S B Møller, Gang Liu, Anders Boysen, Line E Thomsen, Freja L Lüthje, Sisse Mortensen, Jakob Møller-Jensen, John E Olsen
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is the major mechanism responsible for spread of antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic treatment has been suggested to promote HGT, either by directly affecting the conjugation process itself or by selecting for conjugations subsequent to DNA transfer. However, recent research suggests that the effect of antibiotic treatment on plasmid conjugation frequencies, and hence the spread of resistance plasmids, may have been overestimated. We addressed the question by quantifying transfer proteins and conjugation frequencies of a blaCTX-M-1 encoding IncI1 resistance plasmid in Escherichia coli MG1655 in the presence and absence of therapeutically relevant concentrations of cefotaxime (CTX)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229762/multiple-substitutions-lead-to-increased-loop-flexibility-and-expanded-specificity-in-acinetobacter-baumannii-carbapenemase-oxa-239
#20
Thomas M Harper, Cynthia M June, Magdalena A Taracila, Robert A Bonomo, Rachel A Powers, David A Leonard
OXA-239 is a class D carbapenemase isolated from an Acinetobacter baumannii strain found in Mexico.  This enzyme is a variant of OXA-23 with three amino acid substitutions in or near the active site.  These substitutions cause OXA-239 to hydrolyze late-generation cephalosporins and the monobactam aztreonam with greater efficiency than OXA-23.  OXA-239 activity against the carbapenems doripenem and imipenem is reduced approximately 3-fold and 20-fold respectively.  Further analysis demonstrated that two of the substitutions (P225S and D222N) are largely responsible for the observed alteration of kinetic parameters, while the third (S109L) may serve to stabilize the protein...
December 11, 2017: Biochemical Journal
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