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Ying Han, Yangmin Zheng, Jingpu Zhang, Changqin Hu
Most third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins, such as cefotaxime, cefmenoxime, cefepime, and cefpirome, contain an aminothiazoyl ring at the C-7 position. Drug impurity, which may be produced either during synthesis or upon degradation, can induce adverse effects. Various reports have indicated that neurotoxicity is a side effect of cephalosporin. In this study, we developed methods for assessing the free-swimming activities and behaviors in zebrafish larvae in response to continuous darkness and stimulation of light-to-dark photoperiod transition by chemical treatments...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Niki Oikonomopoulou, Ana Belén Martínez López, Javier Urbano Villaescusa, María Del Carmen Molina Molina, Laura Butragueño Laiseca, Daniel Barraca Nuñez, Olalla Álvarez Blanco
INTRODUCTION: Acute tubulointerstitial nephritis (ATIN) is a rare entity in the pediatric age. It is de fined by the infiltration of the renal parenchyma by mononuclear and/or polynuclear cells with se condary involvement of the tubules, without glomerular injury. It can be triggered by infections or immunological diseases, drugs like NSAIDs or be of idiopathic origin. OBJECTIVE: To raise awareness among pediatricians about the prescription of NSAIDs, especially to patients of less than a year old, since they can provoke renal damage...
December 2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
Nicholas Agyepong, Usha Govinden, Alex Owusu-Ofori, Sabiha Yusuf Essack
Background: Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria have emerged as major clinical and therapeutic dilemma in hospitals in Ghana.To describe the prevalence and profile of infections attributable to multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria among patients at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in the Ashanti region of Ghana. Methods: Bacterial cultures were randomly selected from the microbiology laboratory from February to August, 2015. Bacterial identification and minimum inhibitory concentrations were conducted using standard microbiological techniques and the Vitek-2 automated system...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Congming Wu, Yingchao Wang, Xiaomin Shi, Shuang Wang, Hongwei Ren, Zhangqi Shen, Yang Wang, Juchun Lin, Shaolin Wang
Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) strains are emerging around the world as a source of resistance to β-lactam antibiotics such as ampicillin, cefotaxime, and ceftazidime. mcr-1 is a novel plasmid-mediated gene conferring resistance to colistin. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of ESBL-EC mcr-1 of chicken origin in the different provinces of China during 2008-2014. Overall, 341 of 821 isolates were determined to be ESBL-EC strains, and the proportion of ESBL-positive strains almost doubled from 2008 to 2014...
March 14, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Md Shahadat Hossan, Hassan Jindal, Sarah Maisha, Chandramathi Samudi Raju, Shamala Devi Sekaran, Veeranoot Nissapatorn, Fatima Kaharudin, Lim Su Yi, Teng Jin Khoo, Mohammed Rahmatullah, Christophe Wiart
CONTEXT: The resistance of bacteria to antibiotics is raising serious concern globally. Asian medicinal plants could improve the current treatment strategies for bacterial infections. The antibacterial properties of medicinal plants used by the Khyang tribe in Bangladesh have not been investigated. OBJECTIVE: The present study examines the antibacterial properties of 18 medicinal plants used by the Khyang tribe in day-to-day practice against human pathogenic bacteria...
December 2018: Pharmaceutical Biology
Timothy Palzkill
The most common mechanism of resistance to β-lactam antibiotics in Gram-negative bacteria is the production of β-lactamases that hydrolyze the drugs. Class A β-lactamases are serine active-site hydrolases that include the common TEM, CTX-M, and KPC enzymes. The TEM enzymes readily hydrolyze penicillins and older cephalosporins. Oxyimino-cephalosporins, such as cefotaxime and ceftazidime, however, are poor substrates for TEM-1 and were introduced, in part, to circumvent β-lactamase-mediated resistance. Nevertheless, the use of these antibiotics has lead to evolution of numerous variants of TEM with mutations that significantly increase the hydrolysis of the newer cephalosporins...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
Annie W T Lee, Johnson K S Lam, Ricky K W Lam, Wan H Ng, Ella N L Lee, Vicky T Y Lee, Po P Sze, Rahim Rajwani, Kitty S C Fung, Wing K To, Rodney A Lee, Dominic N C Tsang, Gilman K H Siu
Objective: This study evaluated the capability of a MALDI Biotyper system equipped with the newly introduced MBT STAR-BL module to simultaneously perform species identification and β-lactamase-mediated resistance detection in bacteremia -causing bacteria isolated from cultured isolates and patient-derived blood cultures (BCs). Methods: Two hundred retrospective cultured isolates and 153 prospective BCs containing Gram-negative rods (GNR) were collected and subjected to direct bacterial identification, followed by the measurement of β-lactamase activities against ampicillin, piperacillin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and meropenem using the MBT STAR-BL module...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Julius C Mwita, Sajini Souda, Mgaywa Gmd Magafu, Amos Massele, Brian Godman, Michael Mwandri
OBJECTIVES: Antibiotic prophylaxis in surgery is known to reduce the rate of surgical site infections (SSI) as well as shorten hospital stay. However, there is currently a scarcity of data on antibiotic prophylaxis and SSIs among African countries including Botswana. Consequently, this study aimed to address this. METHODS: A prospective study involving 400 patients was carried out at a leading tertiary hospital in Botswana from 2014-2015. Patients' demographic information, type of surgery performed and peri-operative use of antibiotics were documented...
March 9, 2018: Hospital Practice (Minneapolis)
Qifa Song, Zhaojun Xu, Hong Gao, Danyang Zhang
Purpose: Several factors contribute to the complexity of quinolone resistance in Salmonella , including >2000 different Salmonella serotypes, a variety of hosts for Salmonella , and wide use of quinolones in human beings and animals. We thus aimed to obtain an overview of the development of quinolone resistance and relevant molecular mechanisms of such a resistance in Salmonella species. Materials and methods: A total of 1,776 Salmonella isolates were collected in Ningbo, China, between 2005 and 2016...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Min-Suk Yang, Dong-Yoon Kang, Bomi Seo, Hye Jung Park, So-Young Park, Mi-Yeong Kim, Kyung Hee Park, So-My Koo, Young-Hee Nam, Sujeong Kim, Jae-Woo Jung, Tae-Bum Kim, Gwang Cheon Jang, Hyeon-Jong Yang, Young-Min Ahn, Jung-Won Park, Hye-Ryun Kang
BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated the incidence of anaphylaxis induced by individual or structurally similar cephalosporins. The aims of the study were to assess the incidence of cephalosporin-induced anaphylaxis and evaluate the clinical efficacy of screening skin tests. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, we obtained information on total cephalosporin use and cephalosporin-induced anaphylaxis in intravenous cephalosporin recipients in 12 general hospitals between 2013 and 2015...
March 8, 2018: Allergy
María Araque, Indira Labrador
Objectives: Antimicrobial resistant extended-spectrum-β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) have been shown to be present in healthy communities. This study examined healthy children from the rural Andean village of Llano del Hato, Mérida, Venezuela, who have had little or no antibiotic exposure to determine the prevalence of fecal carriage of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC). Methods: A total of 78 fecal samples were collected in healthy children aged from 1 to 5 years...
January 2018: Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives
Chen-Hsiang Lee, I-Ling Chen, Chia-Chin Li, Chun-Chih Chien
Objectives: Cefotaxime-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CE) infections are intractable, with limited treatment options. Though carbapenems are frequently prescribed for CE infections, the emergence of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae is of huge concern. Flomoxef is effective against CE in vitro, and some clinical data on its demonstrated effectiveness against CE bloodstream infections (BSIs) exists. Patients and methods: We conducted a retrospective study on adults with BSI caused by flomoxef-susceptible CE to investigate the efficacy of flomoxef compared with that of ertapenem...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Ana Verónica Martínez-Vázquez, Gildardo Rivera-Sánchez, Krystal Lira Méndez, Miguel Ángel Reyes-López, Virgilio Bocanegra-García
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to determinate the prevalence of Escherichia coli and its resistance to antimicrobials and the presence of virulence genes in retail samples of beef and pork in several locations in Tamaulipas. METHODS: In this work, a total of 106 samples (beef and pork) collected from August 2013 to March 2014, were analyzed to detect Escherichia coli and then analyzed for virulence, antibiotic resistance gene detection, and tested for susceptibility to 16 antimicrobials...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
S W Zuo, Z L Ni, Y B Yao, R S Yang, S K Wang, Y H Zhou
Objective: To investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility of Brucella and to provide a scientific basis for rational drug use and effective treatment of patients with brucellosis. Methods: A total of 41 Brucella strains were isolated from the blood of patients with brucellosis in 5 counties and 2 districts in Yuxi City, China from 2014 to 2016. The susceptibility to 23 antimicrobial drugs was tested using Kirby-Bauer (K-B) disk diffusion method and the sizes of antimicrobial rings were recorded. The susceptibility testing results were interpreted according to the Drug Susceptibility Testing Guideline (2009 version) ...
December 20, 2017: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
Sergio Villalpando-Guzmán, Carlos Ramón Vázquez-Quiñones, Iván Natividad-Bonifacio, Everardo Curiel-Quesada, Elsa Irma Quiñones-Ramírez, Carlos Vázquez-Salinas
BACKGROUND: Food of animal origin is often involved in salmonellosis outbreaks. AIM: To evaluate the frequency of Salmonella enterica in chicken, beef and pork ground meat (a total of 2,592 samples) obtained from travelling markets and supermarkets at the Iztapalapa area of Mexico City, in order to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility and adherence capacity of isolated strains. METHODS: Isolation of S. enterica was carried out according to the BAM-FDA, the microbial susceptibility according with CLSI and adherence assay on HEp-2 cell line according with Baffone et al...
October 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
Dae Woon Song, Byung Kwan Park, Suk Won Suh, Seung Eun Lee, Jong Won Kim, Joong-Min Park, Hye Ryoun Kim, Mi-Kyung Lee, Yoo Shin Choi, Beom Gyu Kim, Yong Gum Park
PURPOSE: Essential treatment of acute appendicitis is surgical resection with the use of appropriate antibiotics. In order to effectively treat acute appendicitis, it is important to identify the microorganism of acute appendicitis and evaluate the effective antibiotics. METHODS: A total of 694 patients who underwent appendectomy for acute appendicitis and had positive microbial result between 2006 and 2015 were recruited. For microbial assessment, luminal contents of the appendix were swabbed after appendectomy...
February 27, 2018: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
Assiya El Kettani, Fakhreddine Maaloum, Idrissa Diawara, Khalid Katfy, Nadia Harrar, Khalid Zerouali, Houria Belabbes, Naima Elmdaghri
Background and Objectives: Acinetobacter baumannii bacteremia are grave because of the multi-resistance of the organism to antibiotics. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of A. baumannii isolated from blood cultures and to describe their antibiotic resistance patterns. Materials and Methods: A retrospective longitudinal study was conducted on blood cultures between 2010 and 2014 from all Ibn Rochd University Hospital intensive care units; it was based on the exploitation of microbiology laboratory database (duplicates were excluded)...
December 2017: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
Shahram Mobaraki, Mohammad Aghazadeh, Mohammad Hossein Soroush Barhaghi, Mohammad Yousef Memar, Hamid Reza Goli, Pourya Gholizadeh, Hossein Samadi Kafil
BACKGROUND: The presence of Class 1, 2 and 3 integrons in clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa with multi-drug resistance phenotype has rendered the organism as a new concern. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of Class 1, 2 and 3 integrons in multi-drug resistant clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa collected from hospitals in the city of Tabriz Materials and Methods: A total of 200 P. aeruginosa non-duplicated clinical isolates were collected from inpatients and outpatients in different wards of hospitals from May to November 2016...
March 2018: BioMedicine
Yen-Hung Liu, Yu-Tsung Huang, Chun-Hsing Liao, Po-Ren Hsueh
A high prevalence of gonococcal resistance to various antimicrobials as well as Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates exhibiting resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins have been reported in the past few decades. A total of 226 N. gonorrhoeae isolates obtained from the National Taiwan University Hospital from 2001 to 2013 were evaluated. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the isolates to antimicrobials were determined by the agar dilution method and interpreted using the 2017 clinical breakpoints or epidemiological cut-off values recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST)...
February 22, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Chenyang Li, Greta Gölz, Thomas Alter, Andrea Barac, Stefan Hertwig, Carolin Riedel
Yersinia enterocolitica is a zoonotic enteropathogenic bacterium that can cause acute gastroenteritis and mesenteric lymphadenitis. Although Y. enterocolitica is common in animals, food, and the environment, the reservoirs and transmission routes of this pathogen are still not fully understood. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of Y. enterocolitica in seafood in Germany, because only limited data are available on that topic. Seafood samples were purchased from retail shops in Berlin, Germany and examined for the presence of Y...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
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