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Matti Uhari
Enterobacteriaceae can produce β-lactamases that are capable of hydrolysing extended-spectrum cephalosporins, namely cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, ceftizoxime and ceftatzidime. Today there are more than 1,600 different known β-lactamases (1) and, although the first reports of extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) were from Germany and England, ESBL producing bacteria have been particularly common in France (2). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
October 20, 2016: Acta Paediatrica
Ali Bilal, Muhamed-Kheir Taha, Laurence Caeymaex, Robert Cohen, Corinne Levy, Xavier Durrmeyer
Among 831 cases of neonatal bacterial meningitis occurring from 2001 to 2013, Neisseria meningitidis was the third most frequent bacterial species found. All cases occurred only in term neonates and were mainly late onset. Serogroup B accounted for 78% of cases. At diagnosis, 27% of cases had at least one sign of disease severity. All strains were susceptible to cefotaxime, but 12% showed intermediate susceptibility to penicillin G and to aminopenicillin.
November 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Gamze Ozgurhan, Oznur Vermezoglu, Didem Ocal Topcu, Adem Karbuz, Aysel Vehapoglu, Bulent Hacihamdioglu
Although rotavirus gastroenteritis is quite common in the pediatric population, secondary bacterial sepsis following rotavirus infection is a rare clinical entity. Gram-negative bacilli are the fifth most common cause of meningitis in infants but this infection rarely occurs after gastroenteritis. Here, we report a 2.5-month-old infant who developed Escherichia coli (E. coli) meningitis after acute rotavirus gastroenteritis. The 2.5-month-old male infant with fever, vomiting, and watery diarrhea that started 1 day earlier was admitted to the hospital...
2016: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Bhoomika, Sanjay Shakya, Anil Patyal, Nitin Eknath Gade
AIM: To assess the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) (blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaCTX-M) genes in Escherichia coli isolated from chicken meat, chevon meat, raw milk, and human urine and stool samples collected from tribal districts of Chhattisgarh, viz., Jagdalpur, Dantewada, Kondagaon, and Kanker. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 330 samples, comprising 98 chicken meat, 82 chevon meat, 90 raw milk, and 60 human urine and stool samples, were processed for isolation of E...
September 2016: Veterinary World
Nuntigar Sonsuwan, Patcharin Watcharinyanon, Kittisak Sawanyawisuth
OBJECTIVES: Acute otitis media (AOM) is a common infectious disease in children. Data regarding the distribution of causative pathogens are not universal. Tympanic perforation due to AOM may occur in 5-30% of AOM patients. The causative pathogens for AOM with tympanic perforation are limited. METHODS: This was a prospective study conducted at the Department of Otolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Thailand. All consecutive children diagnosed as having AOM with tympanic perforation were enrolled...
November 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Kathryn M Hart, Chris M W Ho, Supratik Dutta, Michael L Gross, Gregory R Bowman
TEM β-lactamase confers bacteria with resistance to many antibiotics and rapidly evolves activity against new drugs. However, functional changes are not easily explained by differences in crystal structures. We employ Markov state models to identify hidden conformations and explore their role in determining TEM's specificity. We integrate these models with existing drug-design tools to create a new technique, called Boltzmann docking, which better predicts TEM specificity by accounting for conformational heterogeneity...
October 6, 2016: Nature Communications
Malgorzata Szultka-Mlynska, Boguslaw Buszewski
High performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry was applied in the determination of in vitro metabolism products of selected antibiotic drugs (cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, fluconazole, gentamicin, clindamycin, linezolid, and metronidazole). The analytes were separated on a reversed phase C18 column, with acetonitrile and 0.1 % aqueous formic acid as the mobile phase. Tandem mass spectrometry with positive electrospray ionization was used to facilitate the structural characterization of the potential metabolites...
October 4, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Mosab Arafat, Cathrin Kirchhoefer, Momir Mikov
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cefotaxime is a class III drug according to the Biopharmaceutical Classification System due to low intestinal permeability based on poor oral bioavailability. Bile salt compounds have been shown to be effective additive for drug permeation through several biological membranes. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of a mixed micelles made of phosphatidylcholine, sodium deoxycholate, and loaded with a cefotaxime-3α,7α-dihydroxy-12-keto-5β-cholanate complex to enhance the oral bioavailability of cefotaxime in rats...
September 29, 2016: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
Astrid Balança
OBJECTIVE: We report an emphysematous cystitis in a diabetic patient complicated by peritonitis. OBSERVATIONS: A 66-year-old male presented to the emergency with septic shock. Patient's history: poorly controlled diabetes and prostate adenoma. Clinical examination revealed a surgical abdomen and signs of shock. Blood sugar was 6g/L. CRP 274mg/L. The abdomino-pelvic CT scan showed a perforated bladder with emphysema of the bladder wall and endoluminal air bubbles...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Song-Tao Han, Ying Fei, Jin-You Huang, Mei Xu, Li-Chan Chen, D Joshua Liao, Yu-Jie Tan
Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes that render bacteria resistant to antibiotics are commonly detected using phenotype testing, which is time consuming and not sufficiently accurate. To establish a better method, we used phenotype testing to identify ESBL-positive bacterial strains and conducted PCR to screen for TEM (named after the patient Temoneira who provided the first sample), sulfhydryl reagent variable (SHV), cefotaxime (CTX)-M-1, and CTX-M-9, the 4 most common ESBL types and subtypes. We then performed multiplex PCR with 1 primer containing a biotin and hybridized the PCR products with gene-specific probes that were coupled with microbeads and coated with a specific fluorescence...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Biomolecular Techniques: JBT
E M Le Coustumier, E Denes, C Martin, P Weinbreck
INTRODUCTION: Nocardiosis are uncommon. The diagnosis may be difficult, with significant morbidity and mortality, often occurring on frail patients. Few data are available in France. METHODS: A retrospective single center study was conducted from 2002 to 2014 and included all patients with at least one positive microbiological sample for Nocardia with a follow-up in our hospital. RESULTS: Nineteen patients, including 15 men, were included with a mean age of 58 years (25-85)...
September 19, 2016: La Revue de Médecine Interne
Sofia Maraki, Elpis Mantadakis, Viktoria Eirini Mavromanolaki, Diamantis P Kofteridis, George Samonis
BACKGROUND: Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as a major cause of nosocomial outbreaks. It is particularly associated with nosocomial pneumonia and bloodstream infections in immunocompromised and debilitated patients with serious underlying pathologies. Over the last two decades, a remarkable rise in the rates of multidrug resistance to most antimicrobial agents that are active against A. baumannii has been noted worldwide. We evaluated the rates of antimicrobial resistance and changes in resistance over a 5-year period (2010-2014) in A...
September 2016: Infection & Chemotherapy
Aneta Manda-Handzlik, W Bystrzycka, S Sieczkowska, U Demkow, O Ciepiela
Antibiotics directly inhibit the growth and kill microorganisms, and many of them have immunomodulatory properties. We investigated the influence of cefotaxime and gentamicin on the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) - recently described strategy employed by neutrophils to fight infections. We found that gentamicin inhibits NETs release by human neutrophils, while cefotaxime did not have any impact on this process. The information that antibiotics can modulate NETs release, can be useful in the therapy of infectious diseases in patients suffering from NET-related diseases...
September 20, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Raies A Mir, Thomas A Weppelmann, Judith A Johnson, Douglas Archer, J Glenn Morris, KwangCheol Casey Jeong
Third-generation cephalosporins are an important class of antibiotics that are widely used in treatment of serious Gram-negative bacterial infections. In this study, we report the isolation of bacteria resistant to the third-generation cephalosporin cefotaxime from cattle with no previous cefotaxime antibiotic exposure. The prevalence of cefotaxime-resistant bacteria was examined by a combination of culture based and molecular typing methods in beef cattle (n = 1341) from 8 herds located in North Central Florida...
2016: PloS One
Joanne G Wildenbeest, Ines Said, Bregje Jaeger, Reinier M van Hest, Diederik van de Beek, Dasja Pajkrt
Mycoplasma hominis is a commensal organism in the genitourinary tract that can cause life-threatening CNS infections in neonates after intrauterine infection or through vertical transmission during birth. We present a case of an 11-day-old neonate presenting with fever and supporting laboratory evidence of a CNS infection. No systemic maternal infection or maternal genitourinary tract infection occurred at the time of delivery. Empirical treatment was initiated, consisting of amoxicillin, cefotaxime, and aciclovir...
September 15, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Jette S Jung, Christina Hamacher, Birgit Gross, Katrin Sparbier, Christoph Lange, Markus Kostrzewa, Sören Schubert
With the increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria rapid identification of the pathogen and its individual antibiotic resistance is crucial to ensure adequate anti-infective treatment at the earliest time point. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry for the identification of bacteria directly from the blood culture bottle has been widely established; however, there is still an urgent need for new methods that allow for rapid resistance testing. Recently, a semi-quantitative MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry-based method for the prediction of antibiotic resistance has been described...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Esmail Abdollahzadeh, Seyed Mahdi Ojagh, Hedayat Hosseini, Ezzat Allah Ghaemi, Gholamreza Irajian, Masoud Naghizadeh Heidarlo
Fourteen Listeria monocytogenes isolates previously collected from seafood (n = 7) and human patients (n = 7) were studied for their antimicrobial susceptibility against eight common antimicrobials (ampicillin, penicillin, gentamicin, streptomycin, tetracycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, and cefotaxime). A high resistance level to ampicillin, cefotaxime (100%), and pencillin (57% in seafood isolates and 71.4% in clinical isolates) was observed in this study. However, all of the isolates were susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline...
September 10, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Mojtaba Anvarinejad, Maneli Amin Shahidi, Gholam Reza Pouladfar, Mohammad Ali Dehyadegari, Jalal Mardaneh
INTRODUCTION: Campylobacter jejuni is a slender, motile, non-spore-forming, helical-shaped, gram-negative bacterium. It is one of the most common causes of human gastroenteritis in the world. The aim of this study was to present a patient with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), who was infected with Campylobacter jejuni. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe the medical records of a pediatric ALL patient with bacteremia caused by C. jejuni, who was diagnosed at Amir hospital, Shiraz, Iran...
June 2016: Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
Shahram Shahraki-Zahedani, Shahnaz Rigi, Mohammad Bokaeian, Alireza Ansari-Moghaddam, Mehdi Moghadampour
INTRODUCTION: Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) are bacterial enzymes capable of hydrolyzing beta-lactams. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of TEM- and SHV-type ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strains in Zahedan, Southeast Iran. METHODS: A total of 170 non-repetitive K. pneumoniae strains were collected from patients referred to three teaching hospitals of Zahedan. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was determined for 17 antibiotics using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method...
July 2016: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
Sabrina Odenthal, Ömer Akineden, Ewald Usleber
Although the dairy farm environment is a known source of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria, surveillance data on ESBL in the milk production chain are still scarce. This study aimed at estimating the dimensions of the problem for public health and animal welfare by surveying ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in raw bulk tank milk in Germany. Samples from 866 dairy farms, comprising about 1% of the total number of dairy farms in Germany, were first screened for presence of cefotaxime-resistant bacteria by selective enrichment...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
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