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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153461/population-based-borrelia-burgdorferi-sensu-lato-seroprevalence-and-associated-risk-factors-in-finland
#1
Janko van Beek, Eeva Sajanti, Otto Helve, Jukka Ollgren, Mikko J Virtanen, Harri Rissanen, Outi Lyytikäinen, Jukka Hytönen, Jussi Sane
Lyme borreliosis (LB) is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Bb-sl) and is the most common vector-borne disease in Europe. The objectives of this study were to determine the Bb-sl seroprevalence among the general Finnish adult population and to identify risk factors associated with Bb-sl-seropositive status. Two thousand sera from a nationwide health survey from 2011 were tested by whole-cell sonicate IgG ELISA, C6 peptide ELISA, and recomBead IgG 2.0 and test results were linked to a general health questionnaire...
November 11, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152597/identification-of-spiroplasmainsolitum-symbionts-in-anopheles-gambiae
#2
Sharon T Chepkemoi, Enock Mararo, Hellen Butungi, Juan Paredes, Daniel Masiga, Steven P Sinkins, Jeremy K Herren
Background: Insect symbionts have the potential to block the transmission of vector-borne diseases by their hosts. The advancement of a symbiont-based transmission blocking strategy for malaria requires the identification and study of Anopheles symbionts. Methods: High throughput 16S amplicon sequencing was used to profile the bacteria associated with Anopheles gambiae sensu lato and identify potential symbionts. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with specific primers were subsequently used to monitor symbiont prevalence in field populations, as well as symbiont transmission patterns...
2017: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152314/seroprevalence-of-west-nile-virus-in-horses-in-different-moroccan-regions
#3
Abdennasser Benjelloun, Mehdi El Harrak, Paolo Calistri, Chafiqa Loutfi, Hafsa Kabbaj, Annamaria Conte, Carla Ippoliti, Maria Luisa Danzetta, Bouchra Belkadi
West Nile virus-associated disease is one of the most widespread vector-borne diseases in the world. In Morocco, the first cases were reported in horses in 1996 and the disease re-emerged in 2003 and in 2010. The objective of this work was to study the epidemiological situation of WNV-associated infection in Morocco, by quantifying the seroprevalence of anti-WNV IgM and IgG antibodies in horses in different bioclimatic regions-zones of Morocco in 2011. During the months of May, June and July 2011, 840 serum samples were collected from horses in four regions characterized by different environmental and climatic features such as altitude, temperature and precipitation...
November 2017: Veterinary Medicine and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150310/zika-virus-in-french-polynesia-2013-14-anatomy-of-a-completed-outbreak
#4
REVIEW
Didier Musso, Hervé Bossin, Henri Pierre Mallet, Marianne Besnard, Julien Broult, Laure Baudouin, José Eduardo Levi, Ester C Sabino, Frederic Ghawche, Marion C Lanteri, David Baud
The Zika virus crisis exemplified the risk associated with emerging pathogens and was a reminder that preparedness for the worst-case scenario, although challenging, is needed. Herein, we review all data reported during the unexpected emergence of Zika virus in French Polynesia in late 2013. We focus on the new findings reported during this outbreak, especially the first description of severe neurological complications in adults and the retrospective description of CNS malformations in neonates, the isolation of Zika virus in semen, the potential for blood-transfusion transmission, mother-to-child transmission, and the development of new diagnostic assays...
November 14, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149298/vector-borne-diseases-and-climate-change-a-european-perspective
#5
Jan C Semenza, Jonathan E Suk
Climate change has already impacted the transmission of a wide-range of vector-borne diseases in Europe, and it will continue to do so in the coming decades. Climate change has been implicated in the observed shift of ticks to elevated altitudes and latitudes, notably including the Ixodes ricinus tick species which is a vector for Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis. Climate change is also thought to have been a factor in the expansion of other important disease vectors in Europe: Aedes albopictus (the Asian tiger mosquito), which transmits diseases such as Zika, dengue, and chikungunya, and Phlebotomus sandfly species, which transmits diseases including Leishmaniasis...
November 15, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146711/ethics-health-policy-and-zika-from-emergency-to-global-epidemic
#6
Euzebiusz Jamrozik, Michael J Selgelid
Zika virus was recognised in 2016 as an important vector-borne cause of congenital malformations and Guillain-Barré syndrome, during a major epidemic in Latin America, centred in Northeastern Brazil. The WHO and Pan American Health Organisation (PAHO), with partner agencies, initiated a coordinated global response including public health intervention and urgent scientific research, as well as ethical analysis as a vital element of policy design. In this paper, we summarise the major ethical issues raised during the Zika epidemic, highlighting the PAHO ethics guidance and the role of ethics in emergency responses, before turning to ethical issues that are yet to be resolved...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145171/host-target-based-approaches-against-arboviral-diseases
#7
Rebeca Froes Rocha, Juliana Lemos Del Sarto, Rafael Elias Marques, Vivian Vasconcelos Costa, Mauro Martins Teixeira
In the 20th century, socioeconomic and environmental changes facilitated the reintroduction of mosquitoes in developing cities, resulting in the reintroduction of mosquito-borne viral diseases and the dispersal of their causative agents in a worldwide scale. Recurrent outbreaks of arboviral diseases are being reported, even in regions without a previous history of arboviral disease transmission. Of note, arboviral infections represented approximately 30% of all emerging vector-borne diseases of the last decade...
November 27, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141726/status-of-insecticide-resistance-in-papua-new-guinea-an-update-from-nation-wide-monitoring-of-anopheles-mosquitoes
#8
Gussy Koimbu, Cyrille Czeher, Michelle Katusele, Muker Sakur, Lemen Kilepak, Anthony Tandrapah, Manuel W Hetzel, Justin Pulford, Leanne Robinson, Stephan Karl
Insecticide resistance (IR) monitoring is an important component of vector-borne disease control. The last assessment of IR in Papua New Guinea (PNG) was conducted in 2010. Since then, vector populations have been exposed to higher levels of pyrethroids with the continued nation-wide distribution of insecticide-treated nets. Here, we provide an update on phenotypic IR in four highly malaria-endemic areas of PNG. IR against deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane was assessed using World Health Organization bioassays...
November 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133932/post-earthquake-zika-virus-surge-disaster-and-public-health-threat-amid-climatic-conduciveness
#9
Miguel Reina Ortiz, Nicole K Le, Vinita Sharma, Ismael Hoare, Edy Quizhpe, Enrique Teran, Eknath Naik, Hamisu M Salihu, Ricardo Izurieta
A recent major earthquake (M7.8), coupled with appropriate climatic conditions, led to significant destruction in Ecuador. Temperature variations, which may be induced by anthropogenic climate change, are often associated with changes in rainfall, humidity and pressure. Temperature and humidity are associated with ecological modifications that may favour mosquito breeding. We hypothesized that the disruptive ecological changes triggered by the earthquake, in the context of appropriate climatic conditions, led to an upsurge in Zika virus (ZIKV) infections...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133662/a-tiny-tick-can-cause-a-big-health-problem
#10
Manuel John, M Raman, Keith Ryan
Ticks are tiny crawling bugs in the spider family that feed by sucking blood from animals. They are second only to mosquitoes as vectors of human disease, both infectious and toxic. Infected ticks spread over a hundred diseases, some of which are fatal if undetected. They spread the spirochete (which multiplies in the insect's gut) with a subsequent bite to the next host. We describe the only reported cases of peri ocular tick bite from India that presented to us within a span of 3 days and its management. Due suspicion and magnification of the lesions revealed the ticks which otherwise masqueraded as small skin tags/moles on gross examination...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132371/survey-of-vector-borne-agents-in-feral-cats-and-first-report-of-babesia-gibsoni-in-cats-on-st-kitts-west-indies
#11
Patrick John Kelly, Liza Köster, Jing Li, Jilei Zhang, Ke Huang, Gillian Carmichael Branford, Silvia Marchi, Michel Vandenplas, Chengming Wang
BACKGROUND: As there is little data on vector-borne diseases of cats in the Caribbean region and even around the world, we tested feral cats from St Kitts by PCR to detect infections with Babesia, Ehrlichia and spotted fever group Rickettsia (SFGR) and surveyed them for antibodies to Rickettsia rickettsii and Ehrlichia canis. RESULTS: Whole blood was collected from apparently healthy feral cats during spay/ neuter campaigns on St Kitts in 2011 (N = 68) and 2014 (N = 52)...
November 13, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128861/atrial-cardiomyopathy-in-an-adult-labrador-retriever-dog
#12
E Bomassi, J Rousselot, S Libermann, I Raymond Letron, S Etchepareborde, C Misbach
A 7-year-old castrated male Labrador retriever was examined for a 10-day history of weakness and syncope. Physical examination revealed bradycardia and a grade III/VI left apical systolic heart murmur. Electrocardiography demonstrated bradycardia, absence of P waves and an atrio-ventricular nodal escape rhythm. Echocardiography revealed marked biatrial enlargement. Thoracic radiographs showed no evidence of pulmonary edema. Routine plasma biochemistry and electrolytes, basal serum cortisol, total thyroxin concentration, and complete blood count were within normal limits...
November 2017: Schweizer Archiv Für Tierheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126460/dirofilaria-repens-transmission-in-southeastern-finland
#13
Risto Pietikäinen, Stig Nordling, Sakari Jokiranta, Seppo Saari, Petra Heikkinen, Chris Gardiner, Anne-Marie Kerttula, Tiina Kantanen, Anna Nikanorova, Sauli Laaksonen, Antti Lavikainen, Antti Oksanen
BACKGROUND: The spread of vector-borne diseases to new regions has become a global threat due to climate change, increasing traffic, and movement of people and animals. Dirofilaria repens, the canine subcutaneous filarioid nematode, has expanded its distribution range northward during the last decades. The northernmost European locations, where the parasite life-cycle has been confirmed, are Estonia and the Novgorod Region in Russia. RESULTS: Herein, we describe an autochthonous D...
November 10, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126122/mode-and-rate-of-evolution-of-haemosporidian-mitochondrial-genomes-timing-the-radiation-of-avian-parasites
#14
M Andreína Pacheco, Nubia E Matta, Gediminas Valkiunas, Patricia G Parker, Beatriz Mello, Craig E Stanley, Miguel Lentino, M Alexandra Garcia-Amado, Michael Cranfield, Sergei L Kosakovsky Pond, Ananias A Escalante
Haemosporidians are a diverse group of vector-borne parasitic protozoa that includes the agents of human malaria; however, most of the described species are found in birds and reptiles. Although our understanding of these parasites' diversity has expanded by analyses of their mitochondrial genes, there is limited information on these genes' evolutionary rates. Here, 114 mitochondrial genomes (mtDNA) were studied from species belonging to four genera: Leucocytozoon, Haemoproteus, Hepatocystis, and Plasmodium...
November 6, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125860/autophagy-pathway-induced-by-a-plant-virus-facilitates-viral-spread-and-transmission-by-its-insect-vector
#15
Yong Chen, Qian Chen, Manman Li, Qianzhuo Mao, Hongyan Chen, Wei Wu, Dongsheng Jia, Taiyun Wei
Many viral pathogens are persistently transmitted by insect vectors and cause agricultural or health problems. Generally, an insect vector can use autophagy as an intrinsic antiviral defense mechanism against viral infection. Whether viruses can evolve to exploit autophagy to promote their transmission by insect vectors is still unknown. Here, we show that the autophagic process is triggered by the persistent replication of a plant reovirus, rice gall dwarf virus (RGDV) in cultured leafhopper vector cells and in intact insects, as demonstrated by the appearance of obvious virus-containing double-membrane autophagosomes, conversion of ATG8-I to ATG8-II and increased level of autophagic flux...
November 10, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124410/absence-of-haemosporidian-parasite-infections-in-the-long-lived-cory-s-shearwater-evidence-from-molecular-analyses-and-review-of-the-literature
#16
Letizia Campioni, Josué Martínez-de la Puente, Jordi Figuerola, José Pedro Granadeiro, Mónica C Silva, Paulo Catry
The apparent scarcity or absence of blood parasites in some avian groups, such as seabirds, has been related to intrinsic and extrinsic factors including host immunological capacity, host-parasite assemblage, and ecological parameters, but also to reduced sensitivity of some methods to detect low parasite prevalence/intensities of infection. Here, we examined the haemosporidian parasite prevalence in a breeding population of Cory's shearwater Calonectris diomedea borealis, a long-distance migrant seabird, nesting in the Macaronesian region, in the Eastern Atlantic...
November 9, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118655/the-burden-of-dengue-source-reduction-measures-and-serotype-patterns-in-myanmar-2011-to-2015-r2
#17
Pwint Mon Oo, Khin Thet Wai, Anthony D Harries, Hemant Deepak Shewade, Tin Oo, Aung Thi, Zaw Lin
Background: Myanmar is currently classified as a high burden dengue country in the Asian Pacific region. The Myanmar vector-borne diseases control (VBDC) program has collected data on dengue and source reduction measures since 1970, and there is a pressing need to collate, analyze, and interpret this information. The aim of this study was to describe the burden of hospital-based dengue disease, dengue control measures, and serotype patterns in Myanmar between 2011 and 2015. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study using annual records from the Dengue Fever/Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever Prevention and Control Project in Myanmar...
2017: Tropical Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117114/climatic-variables-and-malaria-morbidity-in-mutale-local-municipality-south-africa-a-19-year-data-analysis
#18
Abiodun M Adeola, Joel O Botai, Hannes Rautenbach, Omolola M Adisa, Katlego P Ncongwane, Christina M Botai, Temitope C Adebayo-Ojo
The north-eastern parts of South Africa, comprising the Limpopo Province, have recorded a sudden rise in the rate of malaria morbidity and mortality in the 2017 malaria season. The epidemiological profiles of malaria, as well as other vector-borne diseases, are strongly associated with climate and environmental conditions. A retrospective understanding of the relationship between climate and the occurrence of malaria may provide insight into the dynamics of the disease's transmission and its persistence in the north-eastern region...
November 8, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116538/environmentally-benign-nanometric-neem-laced-urea-emulsion-for-controlling-mosquito-population-in-environment
#19
Prabhakar Mishra, Merlyn Keziah Samuel, Ruchishya Reddy, Brij Kishore Tyagi, Amitava Mukherjee, Natarajan Chandrasekaran
The increasing risk of vector-borne diseases and the environmental pollution in the day-to-day life due to the usage of the conventional pesticides makes the role of nanotechnology to come into the action. The current study deals with one of the applications of nanotechnology through the formulation of neem urea nanoemulsion (NUNE). NUNE was formulated using neem oil, Tween 20, and urea using the microfluidization method. Prior to the development of nanoemulsion, the ratio of oil/surfactant/urea was optimized using the response surface modeling method...
November 8, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116038/borrelia-burgdorferi-glycosaminoglycan-binding-proteins-a-potential-target-for-new-therapeutics-against-lyme-disease
#20
Yi-Pin Lin, Lingyun Li, Fuming Zhang, Robert J Linhardt
The spirochete bacterium Borrelia burgdorferisensu lato is the causative agent of Lyme disease, the most common vector-borne disease in Europe and the United States. The spirochetes can be transmitted to humans via ticks, and then spread to different tissues, leading to arthritis, carditis and neuroborreliosis. Although antibiotics have commonly been used to treat infected individuals, some treated patients do not respond to antibiotics and experience persistent, long-term arthritis. Thus, there is a need to investigate alternative therapeutics against Lyme disease...
November 8, 2017: Microbiology
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