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Guo-Hua Liu, Long-Xian Zhang, Feng-Cai Zou, Zi-Guo Yuan, Guang-Hui Zhao, Min Hu, Xun Suo, Xing-Quan Zhu
China has made significant achievements in social-economic development in the last three decades, and the numbers of livestock and companion animals are rapidly increasing. Some advances have been made in the control and prevention of animal parasitic diseases, but there are still some significant challenges, particularly in relation to foodborne parasitic zoonoses and vector-borne diseases. In addition, new molecular (e.g., genomic and transcriptomic) technologies have been developed and are gradually being introduced into the veterinary parasitology field...
March 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Fernanda Seixas, Paulo Travassos, Teresa Coutinho, Ana Patrícia Lopes, Maria Stefania Latrofa, Maria Dos Anjos Pires, Luís Cardoso, Domenico Otranto
Ocular thelaziosis is caused by nematodes of the genus Thelazia (Spirurida, Thelaziidae), which inhabit the surface of the eyes and associated tissues. Thelazia callipaeda affects a range of mammal species, including humans, and in the last two decades has been reported in multiple European countries, being classified as an emergent vector-borne pathogen. In Portugal T. callipaeda is endemic in north-eastern areas, where it has been reported in domestic dogs, cats, red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and wild European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)...
March 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Mine Altinli, Filiz Gunay, Bulent Alten, Mylene Weill, Mathieu Sicard
BACKGROUND: Wolbachia are maternally transmitted bacteria that can manipulate their hosts' reproduction causing cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI). CI is a sperm-egg incompatibility resulting in embryonic death. Due to this sterilising effect on mosquitoes, Wolbachia are considered for vector control strategies. Important vectors for arboviruses, filarial nematodes and avian malaria, mosquitoes of Culex pipiens complex are suitable for Wolbachia-based vector control. They are infected with Wolbachia wPip strains belonging to five genetically distinct groups (wPip-I to V) within the Wolbachia B supergroup...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Tarini Ullal, Adam Birkenheuer, Shelly Vaden
Babesiosis is a hemoprotozoal tick-borne disease that is commonly associated with thrombocytopenia and anemia; however, renal involvement has been documented in dogs. The purpose of this retrospective study was to document azotemia and proteinuria in dogs infected with Babesia sp. and to describe the response to antiprotozoal therapy. The electronic database of the North Carolina State University Vector Borne Disease Laboratory was searched to identify dogs who were diagnosed with babesiosis and to determine if they had proteinuria and/or azotemia...
March 20, 2018: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Mary H Hayden, Erika Barrett, Guyah Bernard, Eunice N Toko, Maurice Agawo, Amanda M Okello, Jayleen K L Gunn, Kacey C Ernst
Increasing the active participation of professional women in vector control (VC) activities may help promote greater gender equity in the workplace and reduce the burden of vector-borne diseases. This stakeholder survey examined the current roles and perspective of professionals employed in the VC sector in Kenya, Indonesia, India, and other countries. The largest barriers that women face in pursuing leadership roles in the VC sector include lack of awareness of career opportunities, limitations based on cultural norms, and the belief that VC is men's work...
March 19, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Tiago D Serafim, Iliano V Coutinho-Abreu, Fabiano Oliveira, Claudio Meneses, Shaden Kamhawi, Jesus G Valenzuela
Sand flies, similar to most vectors, take multiple blood meals during their lifetime1-4 . The effect of subsequent blood meals on pathogens developing in the vector and their impact on disease transmission have never been examined. Here, we show that ingestion of a second uninfected blood meal by Leishmania-infected sand flies triggers dedifferentiation of metacyclic promastigotes, considered a terminally differentiated stage inside the vector5 , to a leptomonad-like stage, the retroleptomonad promastigote...
March 19, 2018: Nature Microbiology
Mary Marcondes, Karina Y Hirata, Juliana P Vides, Ludmila S V Sobrinho, Jaqueline S Azevedo, Thállitha S W J Vieira, Rafael F C Vieira
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has been increasingly recognized in cats living in areas endemic for the disease. Co-infection with Leishmania infantum and other infectious agents is well established in dogs. However, for cats, data on co-infections with L. infantum and other infectious agents are still sparse. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of vector-borne pathogens, Mycoplasma spp., feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) in cats from an area endemic for VL in southeastern Brazil...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Charalampos Attipa, Laia Solano-Gallego, Kostas Papasouliotis, Francesca Soutter, David Morris, Chris Helps, Scott Carver, Séverine Tasker
BACKGROUND: In the Mediterranean basin, Leishmania infantum is a major cause of disease in dogs, which are frequently co-infected with other vector-borne pathogens (VBP). However, the associations between dogs with clinical leishmaniosis (ClinL) and VBP co-infections have not been studied. We assessed the risk of VBP infections in dogs with ClinL and healthy controls. METHODS: We conducted a prospective case-control study of dogs with ClinL (positive qPCR and ELISA antibody for L...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Maria Flaminia Persichetti, Maria Grazia Pennisi, Angela Vullo, Marisa Masucci, Antonella Migliazzo, Laia Solano-Gallego
BACKGROUND: Cats can be carriers of infected arthropods and be infected with several vector-borne pathogens (VBP) but there is limited knowledge about their pathogenic role in cats. RESULTS: A cross-sectional controlled study investigated the clinical status and antibody (Bartonella henselae, Rickettsia conorii, Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia microti and Leishmania infantum) and/or blood PCR (Mycoplasma spp., Bartonella spp., Rickettsia spp...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Marta Baxarias, Alejandra Álvarez-Fernández, Pamela Martínez-Orellana, Sara Montserrat-Sangrà, Laura Ordeix, Alicia Rojas, Yaarit Nachum-Biala, Gad Baneth, Laia Solano-Gallego
BACKGROUND: The severity of canine leishmaniosis (CanL) due to Leishmania infantum might be affected by other vector-borne organisms that mimic its clinical signs and clinicopathological abnormalities. The aim of this study was to determine co-infections with other vector-borne pathogens based on serological and molecular techniques in dogs with clinical leishmaniosis living in Spain and to associate them with clinical signs and clinicopathological abnormalities as well as disease severity...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Sándor Hornok, László Sugár, Isabel G Fernández de Mera, José de la Fuente, Gábor Horváth, Tibor Kovács, Attila Micsutka, Enikő Gönczi, Barbara Flaisz, Nóra Takács, Róbert Farkas, Marina L Meli, Regina Hofmann-Lehmann
BACKGROUND: Hunting constitutes an important industry in Europe. However, data on the prevalence of vector-borne bacteria in large game animal species are lacking from several countries. Blood or spleen samples (239 and 270, respectively) were taken from red, fallow and roe deer, as well as from water buffaloes, mouflons and wild boars in Hungary, followed by DNA extraction and molecular analyses for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, haemoplasmas and rickettsiae. RESULTS: Based on blood samples, the prevalence rate of A...
March 20, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Bruce Y Lee, Sarah M Bartsch, Laura Skrip, Daniel L Hertenstein, Cameron M Avelis, Martial Ndeffo-Mbah, Carla Tilchin, Eric O Dumonteil, Alison Galvani
BACKGROUND: The 2020 Sustainable Development goals call for 100% certified interruption or control of the three main forms of Chagas disease transmission in Latin America. However, how much will achieving these goals to varying degrees control Chagas disease; what is the potential impact of missing these goals and if they are achieved, what may be left? METHODS: We developed a compartmental simulation model that represents the triatomine, human host, and non-human host populations and vector-borne, congenital, and transfusional T...
March 19, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Arran Hamlet, Kévin Jean, William Perea, Sergio Yactayo, Joseph Biey, Maria Van Kerkhove, Neil Ferguson, Tini Garske
BACKGROUND: Yellow fever virus (YFV) is a vector-borne flavivirus endemic to Africa and Latin America. Ninety per cent of the global burden occurs in Africa where it is primarily transmitted by Aedes spp, with Aedes aegypti the main vector for urban yellow fever (YF). Mosquito life cycle and viral replication in the mosquito are heavily dependent on climate, particularly temperature and rainfall. We aimed to assess whether seasonal variations in climatic factors are associated with the seasonality of YF reports...
March 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Susan Kane Patton, Bailey Phillips
Evidence-based strategies for nurses. ABSTRACT: Lyme disease is recognized as the most common vector-borne disease in the United States. Surveillance data indicate both increasing numbers of Lyme disease cases and geographic expansion of areas where the causative spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, can be found. With prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment in the acute stage, most patients will recover fully. Without treatment, however, the infecting pathogen remains within the body, often producing long-term complications, including musculoskeletal, neurologic, and cardiovascular effects...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Nursing
C Talero-Gutiérrez, A Rivera-Molina, C Pérez-Pavajeau, I Ossa-Ospina, C Santos-García, M C Rojas-Anaya, A de-la-Torre
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is an emergent worldwide public health problem. Historically, 84 countries have reported vector-borne ZIKV transmission, 61 of which report on-going transmission. It is a Flavivirus transmitted through arthropods belonging to the Aedes genus. Since 2015, ZIKV infections have increased dramatically; with 1.3 million people infected during 2015 in Brazil alone. This paper's objective is to highlight the conjectural epidemiological points of the virus' dissemination. The digital archives Pubmed, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane were searched for papers that assessed aspects of ZIKV transmission and epidemiology...
March 14, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Leone M Brown, Richard J Hall
Anthropogenic landscape features such as urban parks and gardens, landfills and farmlands can provide novel, seasonally reliable food sources that impact wildlife ecology and distributions. In historically migratory species, food subsidies can cause individuals to forgo migration and form partially migratory or entirely sedentary populations, eroding a crucial benefit of migration: pathogen avoidance through seasonal abandonment of transmission sites and mortality of infected individuals during migration. Since many migratory taxa are declining, and wildlife populations in urban areas can harbour zoonotic pathogens, understanding the mechanisms by which anthropogenic resource subsidies influence infection dynamics and the persistence of migration is important for wildlife conservation and public health...
May 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Fernando Araujo Monteiro, Christiane Weirauch, Márcio Felix, Cristiano Lazoski, Fernando Abad-Franch
In this chapter, we review and update current knowledge about the evolution, systematics, and biogeography of the Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae)-true bugs that feed primarily on vertebrate blood. In the Americas, triatomines are the vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease. Despite declining incidence and prevalence, Chagas disease is still a major public health concern in Latin America. Triatomines occur also in the Old World, where vector-borne T. cruzi transmission has not been recorded...
2018: Advances in Parasitology
Michael Turelli, Brandon S Cooper, Kelly M Richardson, Paul S Ginsberg, Brooke Peckenpaugh, Chenling X Antelope, Kevin J Kim, Michael R May, Antoine Abrieux, Derek A Wilson, Michael J Bronski, Brian R Moore, Jian-Jun Gao, Michael B Eisen, Joanna C Chiu, William R Conner, Ary A Hoffmann
Maternally transmitted Wolbachia, Spiroplasma, and Cardinium bacteria are common in insects [1], but their interspecific spread is poorly understood. Endosymbionts can spread rapidly within host species by manipulating host reproduction, as typified by the global spread of wRi Wolbachia observed in Drosophila simulans [2, 3]. However, because Wolbachia cannot survive outside host cells, spread between distantly related host species requires horizontal transfers that are presumably rare [4-7]. Here, we document spread of wRi-like Wolbachia among eight highly diverged Drosophila hosts (10-50 million years) over only about 14,000 years (5,000-27,000)...
March 2, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Nitika Pradhan, Prakash Pradhan, Sanghamitra Pati, Rupenangshu K Hazra
A retrospective analysis of malaria incidence, patterns and trends in Bargarh, a western district of Odisha, India, over five consecutive years (2012 to 2016) among various socio-demographic components was established from the National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP), Bargarh, as well as from district survey reports. The increasing trend in malariometric indices such as the Annual Blood Examination Rate (ABER), the Annual Parasite index (API) as well as the Total Positive Rate (TPR) reveals a better surveillance activity but an alarming situation for malaria...
March 1, 2018: Le Infezioni in Medicina
Simon R Rüegg, Sarah Welby, Hurria Yassin, Yves Van der Stede, Rebekka Nafzger, Helmut Saatkamp, Gertraud Schüpbach-Regula, Katharina D C Stärk
The aim of this study was to propose a procedure for optimising the cost-effectiveness of vector borne disease surveillance using a scenario tree model and cost-effectiveness analysis. The surveillance systems for Bluetongue Virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) implemented in Switzerland and Belgium were used as examples. In twenty four different, simulated population structures, passive surveillance and five designs of active surveillance were investigated. The influence of surveillance system design and parameters such as farmer disease awareness, veterinary disease awareness, herd and within-herd design prevalence on the overall surveillance system sensitivity were assessed...
February 13, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
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