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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926937/intensive-circulation-of-japanese-encephalitis-virus-in-peri-urban-sentinel-pigs-near-phnom-penh-cambodia
#1
Julien Cappelle, Veasna Duong, Long Pring, Lida Kong, Maud Yakovleff, Didot Budi Prasetyo, Borin Peng, Rithy Choeung, Raphaël Duboz, Sivuth Ong, San Sorn, Philippe Dussart, Arnaud Tarantola, Philippe Buchy, Véronique Chevalier
Despite the increased use of vaccination in several Asian countries, Japanese Encephalitis (JE) remains the most important cause of viral encephalitis in Asia in humans with an estimated 68,000 cases annually. Considered a rural disease occurring mainly in paddy-field dominated landscapes where pigs are amplifying hosts, JE may nevertheless circulate in a wider range of environment given the diversity of its potential hosts and vectors. The main objective of this study was to assess the intensity of JE transmission to pigs in a peri-urban environment in the outskirt of Phnom Penh, Cambodia...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922802/urban-breeding-corvids-as-disseminators-of-ticks-and-emerging-tick-borne-pathogens
#2
Attila D Sándor, Zsuzsa Kalmár, Ioana Matei, Angela Monica Ionică, Ioan-Daniel Mărcuţan
Crows (Corvidae) are common city dwellers worldwide and are increasingly important subjects of epidemiology studies. Although their importance as hosts and transmitters of a number of zoonotic parasites and pathogens is well known, there are no studies on their importance as tick hosts. After mosquitoes, ticks are the most important vectors of zoonotic pathogens, especially for those causing emerging zoonotic diseases. Pathogenic bacteria, especially Borrelia spp., Rickettsia spp., and Anaplasma spp., vectored by ticks, are the cause for most vector-borne diseases in Europe...
December 6, 2016: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922001/anthropogenic-impacts-on-mosquito-populations-in-north-america-over-the-past-century
#3
Ilia Rochlin, Ary Faraji, Dominick V Ninivaggi, Christopher M Barker, A Marm Kilpatrick
The recent emergence and spread of vector-borne viruses including Zika, chikungunya and dengue has raised concerns that climate change may cause mosquito vectors of these diseases to expand into more temperate regions. However, the long-term impact of other anthropogenic factors on mosquito abundance and distributions is less studied. Here, we show that anthropogenic chemical use (DDT; dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and increasing urbanization were the strongest drivers of changes in mosquito populations over the last eight decades in areas on both coasts of North America...
December 6, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915056/human-to-human-transmission-of-arthropod-borne-pathogens
#4
REVIEW
Byron E Martina, Luisa Barzon, Gorben P Pijlman, José de la Fuente, Annapaola Rizzoli, Linda J Wammes, Willem Takken, Ronald P van Rij, Anna Papa
Human-to-human (H2H) transmitted arthropod-borne pathogens are a growing burden worldwide, with malaria and dengue being the most common mosquito-borne H2H transmitted diseases. The ability of vectors to get infected by humans during a blood meal to further propel an epidemic depends on complex interactions between pathogens, vectors and humans, in which human interventions and demographic and environmental conditions play a significant role. Herein, we discuss the distal and proximal drivers affecting H2H vector-borne pathogen transmission and identify knowledge gaps and future perspectives...
December 1, 2016: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908772/anaplasma-platys-in-dogs-from-uruguay
#5
Luis Carvalho, Maria Teresa Armua-Fernandez, Nicolás Sosa, María Laura Félix, José Manuel Venzal
Anaplasmataceae family members include vector-borne bacteria of veterinary importance that may also affect humans. Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys are the main members of this family detected in dogs worldwide. In Uruguay there are not many published studies on tick-borne pathogens affecting dogs, the only haemoparasite molecularly confirmed in dogs, is the piroplasm Rangelia vitalii. The aim of the present work was to detect the presence of A. platys and E. canis in dogs and dogs-associated ticks of two localities in Northwestern Uruguay...
November 17, 2016: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906962/population-density-climate-variables-and-poverty-synergistically-structure-spatial-risk-in-urban-malaria-in-india
#6
Mauricio Santos-Vega, Menno J Bouma, Vijay Kohli, Mercedes Pascual
BACKGROUND: The world is rapidly becoming urban with the global population living in cities projected to double by 2050. This increase in urbanization poses new challenges for the spread and control of communicable diseases such as malaria. In particular, urban environments create highly heterogeneous socio-economic and environmental conditions that can affect the transmission of vector-borne diseases dependent on human water storage and waste water management. Interestingly India, as opposed to Africa, harbors a mosquito vector, Anopheles stephensi, which thrives in the man-made environments of cities and acts as the vector for both Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum, making the malaria problem a truly urban phenomenon...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905285/the-current-status-of-ticks-in-turkey-a-100-year-period-review-from-1916-to-2016
#7
Abdullah İnci, Alparslan Yıldırım, Önder Düzlü
Environmental and bio-ecological changes, some administrative and political mistakes, and global warming seriously affect the behaviors of ticks in Turkey and globally. The global public sensitivity toward tick infestations has increased along with increases in tick-borne diseases (TBDs). Recently, the World Health Organization (WHO) developed a new political concept, "One Health," for specific struggle strategies against tick infestations and TBDs. To highlight the importance of the issue, the WHO had declared the year 2015 for vector-borne diseases and adopted the slogan "small bites big threat"...
September 2016: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904417/global-warming-and-the-possible-globalization-of-vector-borne-diseases-a-call-for-increased-awareness-and-action
#8
Emmanuel O Balogun, Andrew J Nok, Kiyoshi Kita
Human activities such as burning of fossil fuels play a role in upsetting a previously more balanced and harmonious ecosystem. Climate change-a significant variation in the usual pattern of Earth's average weather conditions is a product of this ecosystem imbalance, and the rise in the Earth's average temperature (global warming) is a prominent evidence. There is a correlation between global warming and the ease of transmission of infectious diseases. Therefore, with global health in focus, we herein opine a stepping-up of research activities regarding global warming and infectious diseases globally...
2016: Tropical Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903326/characterizing-areas-of-potential-human-exposure-to-eastern-equine-encephalitis-virus-using-serological-and-clinical-data-from-horses
#9
J-P Rocheleau, J Arsenault, N H Ogden, L R Lindsay, M Drebot, P Michel
Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) is a rare but severe emerging vector-borne disease affecting human and animal populations in the northeastern United States where it is endemic. Key knowledge gaps remain about the epidemiology of EEE virus (EEEV) in areas where its emergence has more recently been reported. In Eastern Canada, viral activity has been recorded in mosquitoes and horses throughout the 2000s but cases of EEEV in humans have not been reported so far. This study was designed to provide an assessment of possible EEEV human exposure by modelling environmental risk factors for EEEV in horses, identifying high-risk environments and mapping risk in the province of Quebec, Canada...
December 1, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903308/joint-spatial-time-series-epidemiological-analysis-of-malaria-and-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-infection
#10
O A Adegboye, M Al-Saghir, D H Y Leung
Malaria and leishmaniasis are among the two most important health problems of many developing countries especially in the Middle East and North Africa. It is common for vector-borne infectious diseases to have similar hotspots which may be attributed to the overlapping ecological distribution of the vector. Hotspot analyses were conducted to simultaneously detect the location of local hotspots and test their statistical significance. Spatial scan statistics were used to detect and test hotspots of malaria and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Afghanistan in 2009...
December 1, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903305/priorities-and-needs-for-research-on-urban-interventions-targeting-vector-borne-diseases-rapid-review-of-scoping-and-systematic-reviews
#11
EDITORIAL
Clara Bermudez-Tamayo, Olive Mukamana, Mabel Carabali, Lyda Osorio, Florence Fournet, Kounbobr Roch Dabiré, Celina Turchi Marteli, Adolfo Contreras, Valéry Ridde
This paper highlights the critical importance of evidence on vector-borne diseases (VBD) prevention and control interventions in urban settings when assessing current and future needs, with a view to setting policy priorities that promote inclusive and equitable urban health services. Research should produce knowledge about policies and interventions that are intended to control and prevent VBDs at the population level and to reduce inequities. Such interventions include policy, program, and resource distribution approaches that address the social determinants of health and exert influence at organizational and system levels...
December 1, 2016: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903286/carrion-s-disease-an-eradicable-illness
#12
Cláudia Gomes, Maria J Pons, Juana Del Valle Mendoza, Joaquim Ruiz
Carrion's disease is a neglected tropical disease caused by Bartonella bacilliformis, a vector-borne pathogen restricted to the Andean valleys of Peru, Ecuador and Colombia. Carrion's disease is a biphasic illness; in the acute phase the case-fatality rate can be as high as 88 %, related to high parasitemia, arriving to almost all erythrocytes, and secondary bacterial infections close related with the development of transient immunosuppression in the earlier illness phases. In addition, there are an undefined number of asymptomatic carriers that are reservoirs of the etiological agent of Carrion's disease in endemic areas, they make take into account due to they are the perpetuators of this disease...
December 1, 2016: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898670/gray-wolf-exposure-to-emerging-vector-borne-diseases-in-wisconsin-with-comparison-to-domestic-dogs-and-humans
#13
Rocio F Jara, Adrian P Wydeven, Michael D Samuel
World-wide concern over emerging vector-borne diseases has increased in recent years for both animal and human health. In the United Sates, concern about vector-borne diseases in canines has focused on Lyme disease, anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, and heartworm which infect domestic and wild canids. Of these diseases, Lyme and anaplasmosis are also frequently diagnosed in humans. Gray wolves (Canis lupus) recolonized Wisconsin in the 1970s, and we evaluated their temporal and geographic patterns of exposure to these four vector-borne diseases in Wisconsin as the population expanded between 1985 and 2011...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895022/inhibition-of-plasmodium-liver-infection-by-ivermectin
#14
António M Mendes, Inês S Albuquerque, Marta Machado, Joana Pissarra, Patrícia Meireles, Miguel Prudêncio
Avermectins are powerful endectocides with an established potential to reduce the incidence of vector-borne diseases. Here, we show that several avermectins inhibit the hepatic stage of Plasmodium infection in vitro Notably, ivermectin potently inhibits liver infection in vivo, by impairing parasite development inside hepatocytes. This impairment has a clear impact on the ensuing blood stage parasitemia, reducing disease severity and enhancing host survival. Ivermectin has been proposed as a tool to control malaria transmission due to its effects on the mosquito vector...
November 28, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894354/do-mosquitoes-transmit-the-avian-malaria-like-parasite-haemoproteus-an-experimental-test-of-vector-competence-using-mosquito-saliva
#15
Rafael Gutiérrez-López, Josué Martínez-de la Puente, Laura Gangoso, Jiayue Yan, Ramón C Soriguer, Jordi Figuerola
BACKGROUND: The life-cycle of many vector-borne pathogens includes an asexual replication phase in the vertebrate host and sexual reproduction in the insect vector. However, as only a small array of parasites can successfully develop infective phases inside an insect, few insect species are competent vectors for these pathogens. Molecular approaches have identified the potential insect vectors of blood parasites under natural conditions. However, the effectiveness of this methodology for verifying mosquito competence in the transmission of avian malaria parasites and related haemosporidians is still under debate...
November 28, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894320/successful-malaria-elimination-in-the-ecuador-peru-border-region-epidemiology-and-lessons-learned
#16
Lyndsay K Krisher, Jesse Krisher, Mariano Ambuludi, Ana Arichabala, Efrain Beltrán-Ayala, Patricia Navarrete, Tania Ordoñez, Mark E Polhemus, Fernando Quintana, Rosemary Rochford, Mercy Silva, Juan Bazo, Anna M Stewart-Ibarra
BACKGROUND: In recent years, malaria (Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum) has been successfully controlled in the Ecuador-Peru coastal border region. The aim of this study was to document this control effort and to identify the best practices and lessons learned that are applicable to malaria control and to other vector-borne diseases. A proximal outcome evaluation was conducted of the robust elimination programme in El Oro Province, Ecuador, and the Tumbes Region, Peru. Data collection efforts included a series of workshops with local public health experts who played central roles in the elimination effort, review of epidemiological records from Ministries of Health, and a review of national policy documents...
November 28, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890043/epidemic-host-community-contribution-to-mosquito-borne-disease-transmission-ross-river-virus
#17
I S Koolhof, S Carver
Most vector-borne diseases infect multiple host species, but disentangling the relative importance of different host species to transmission can be complex. Here we study how host species' abundance and competence (duration and titre of parasitaemia) influence host importance during epidemic scenarios. We evaluate this theory using Ross River virus (RRV, family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus), a multi-host mosquito-borne disease with significant human health impacts across Australia and Papua New Guinea. We used host contribution models to find the importance of key hosts (possums, wallabies, kangaroos, horses, humans) in typical mammal communities around five Australian epidemic centres...
November 28, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887591/a-prospective-cohort-study-to-assess-seroprevalence-incidence-knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-willingness-to-pay-for-vaccine-and-related-risk-factors-in-dengue-in-a-high-incidence-setting
#18
Ruth Aralí Martínez-Vega, Alfonso J Rodriguez-Morales, Yalil Tomás Bracho-Churio, Mirley Enith Castro-Salas, Fredy Galvis-Ovallos, Ronald Giovanny Díaz-Quijano, María Lucrecia Luna-González, Jaime E Castellanos, José Ramos-Castañeda, Fredi Alexander Diaz-Quijano
BACKGROUND: Dengue is one of the most important vector-borne diseases in the world, causing significant morbidity and economic impact. In Colombia, dengue is a major public health problem. Departments of La Guajira, Cesar and Magdalena are dengue endemic areas. The objective of this research is to determine the seroprevalence and the incidence of dengue virus infection in the participating municipalities from these Departments, and also establish the association between individual and housing factors and vector indices with seroprevalence and incidence...
November 25, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881649/the-many-faces-of-the-flavivirus-ns5-protein-in-antagonism-of-type-i-interferon-signaling
#19
Sonja M Best
The vector-borne flaviviruses cause severe disease in humans on every inhabited continent on earth. Their transmission by arthropods, particularly mosquitoes, facilitates large emergence events such as witnessed with Zika virus (ZIKV) or West Nile virus in the Americas. Every vector-borne flavivirus examined thus far that causes disease in humans, from dengue virus to ZIKV, antagonizes the host type I interferon (IFN-I) response by preventing JAK-STAT signaling, suggesting that suppression of this pathway is an important determinant of infection...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876994/epidemiological-trend-of-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-two-endemic-focus-of-disease-south-of-iran
#20
Moosa Khosravani, Zahra Nasiri, Davood Keshavarz, Azam Rafat-Panah
Cutaneous leishmaniasis is one the most important zoonotic diseases has different invertebrate hosts in different parts of its range, the vectors are often closely related. Leishmaniasis is a world-wide vector borne disease, affecting 88 countries: especially in the Middle East and southwestern Asia. Nesokiaindica or M. libycuserythrourus are confirmed as reservoir and Phlebotomine sand flies are proven as vectors of the disease in the south of Iran. Patients' information collected from Firouzabad and Ghirokarzin county, Fars province in Iran during 2006-2014...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
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