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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352704/treatment-of-adult-chronic-indeterminate-chagas-disease-with-benznidazole-and-three-e1224-dosing-regimens-a-proof-of-concept-randomised-placebo-controlled-trial
#1
Faustino Torrico, Joaquim Gascon, Lourdes Ortiz, Cristina Alonso-Vega, María-Jesús Pinazo, Alejandro Schijman, Igor C Almeida, Fabiana Alves, Nathalie Strub-Wourgaft, Isabela Ribeiro
BACKGROUND: Chagas disease is a major neglected vector-borne disease. In this study, we investigated the safety and efficacy of three oral E1224 (a water-soluble ravuconazole prodrug) regimens and benznidazole versus placebo in adult chronic indeterminate Chagas disease. METHOD: In this proof-of-concept, double-blind, randomised phase 2 clinical trial, we recruited adults (18-50 years) with confirmed diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi infection from two outpatient units in Bolivia...
January 15, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352633/current-concerns-and-perspectives-on-zika-virus-co-infection-with-arboviruses-and-hiv
#2
REVIEW
Hussin A Rothan, Mehdi R M Bidokhti, Siddappa N Byrareddy
Dissemination of vector-borne viruses, such as Zika virus (ZIKV), in tropical and sub-tropical regions has a complicated impact on the immunopathogenesis of other endemic viruses such as dengue virus (DENV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The consequences of the possible co-infections with these viruses have specifically shown significant impact on the treatment and vaccination strategies. ZIKV is a mosquito-borne flavivirus from African and Asian lineages that causes neurological complications in infected humans...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346387/inferring-the-risk-factors-behind-the-geographical-spread-and-transmission-of-zika-in-the-americas
#3
Lauren M Gardner, András Bóta, Karthik Gangavarapu, Moritz U G Kraemer, Nathan D Grubaugh
BACKGROUND: An unprecedented Zika virus epidemic occurred in the Americas during 2015-2016. The size of the epidemic in conjunction with newly recognized health risks associated with the virus attracted significant attention across the research community. Our study complements several recent studies which have mapped epidemiological elements of Zika, by introducing a newly proposed methodology to simultaneously estimate the contribution of various risk factors for geographic spread resulting in local transmission and to compute the risk of spread (or re-introductions) between each pair of regions...
January 18, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346369/the-rise-of-neglected-tropical-diseases-in-the-new-texas
#4
REVIEW
Peter J Hotez
Within the last five years, the State of Texas has experienced either transmission or outbreaks of Ebola, chikungunya, West Nile, and Zika virus infections. Autochthonous transmission of neglected parasitic and bacterial diseases has also become increasingly reported. The rise of such emerging and neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) has not occurred by accident but instead reflects rapidly evolving changes and shifts in a "new" Texas beset by modern and globalizing forces that include rapid expansions in population together with urbanization and human migrations, altered transportation patterns, climate change, steeply declining vaccination rates, and a new paradigm of poverty known as "blue marble health...
January 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343494/uncovering-genomic-regions-associated-with-trypanosoma-infections-in-wild-populations-of-the-tsetse-fly-glossina-fuscipes
#5
Andrea Gloria-Soria, W Augustine Dunn, Xiaoqing Yu, Aurélien Vigneron, Kuang-Yao Lee, Mo Li, Brian L Weiss, Hongyu Zhao, Serap Aksoy, Adalgisa Caccone
Vector-borne diseases are responsible for more than one million deaths every year but genomic resources for most species responsible for their transmission are limited. This is true for neglected diseases such as sleeping sickness (Human African Trypanosomiasis), a disease caused by Trypanosoma parasites vectored by several species of tseste flies within the genus Glossina We describe an integrative approach that identifies statistical associations between trypanosome infection status of Glossina fuscipes fuscipes (Gff) flies from Uganda, for which functional studies are complicated because the species cannot be easily maintained in laboratory colonies, and ~73,000 polymorphic sites distributed across the genome...
January 17, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343279/spatial-distribution-and-habitat-characterization-of-mosquito-species-during-the-dry-season-along-the-mara-river-and-its-tributaries-in-kenya-and-tanzania
#6
Gabriel O Dida, Douglas N Anyona, Paul O Abuom, Daniel Akoko, Samson O Adoka, Ally-Said Matano, Philip O Owuor, Collins Ouma
BACKGROUND: Vector-borne diseases are increasingly becoming a major health problem among communities living along the major rivers of Africa. Although larger water bodies such as lakes and dams have been extensively researched, rivers and their tributaries have largely been ignored. This study sought to establish the spatial distribution of mosquito species during the dry season and further characterize their habitats along the Mara River and its tributaries. METHODS: In this cross-sectional survey, mosquito larvae were sampled along the Mara River, its two perennial tributaries (Amala and Nyangores), drying streams, and adjacent aquatic habitats (e...
January 18, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339054/the-dynamics-of-vector-borne-relapsing-diseases
#7
Cody Palmer, Erin Landguth, Emily Stone, Tammi Johnson
In this paper, we describe the dynamics of a vector-borne relapsing disease, such as tick-borne relapsing fever, using the methods of compartmental models. After some motivation and model description we provide a proof of a conjectured general form of the reproductive ratio R0, which is the average number of new infections produced by a single infected individual. A disease free equilibrium undergoes a bifurcation at R0=1 and we show that for an arbitrary number of relapses it is a transcritical bifurcation with a single branch of endemic equilibria that is locally asymptotically stable for R0 sufficiently close to 1...
January 12, 2018: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337661/maintaining-quality-of-candidate-strains-of-transgenic-mosquitoes-for-studies-in-containment-facilities-in-disease-endemic-countries
#8
John D Mumford, Adrian W Leach, Mark Q Benedict, Luca Facchinelli, M Megan Quinlan
Transgenic mosquitoes are being developed as novel components of area-wide approaches to vector-borne disease control. Best practice is to develop these in phases, beginning with laboratory studies, before moving to field testing and inclusion in control programs, to ensure safety and prevent costly field testing of unsuitable strains. The process of identifying and developing good candidate strains requires maintenance of transgenic colonies over many generations in containment facilities. By working in disease endemic countries with target vector populations, laboratory strains may be developed and selected for properties that will enhance intended control efficacy in the next phase, while avoiding traits that introduce unnecessary risks...
January 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336049/a-distinct-group-of-north-european-aedes-vexans-as-determined-by-mitochondrial-and-nuclear-markers
#9
T Lilja, K Troell, H Kirik, A Lindström
The floodwater mosquito Aedes (Aedimorphus) vexans (Meigen, 1830) (Diptera: Culicidae) is common in several areas of Sweden and is predicted to become more abundant in the wake of expected changes in precipitation and temperature caused by climate change. As well as being a nuisance, Ae. vexans can act as a vector of over 30 viruses. In the event of an outbreak of disease caused by a vector-borne virus, knowledge of the distribution, population structure and intermixing of populations from different locations will help direct resources to target locations to prevent spread of the pathogen...
January 16, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334340/identification-of-anti-filarial-leads-against-aspartate-semialdehyde-dehydrogenase-of-wolbachia-endosymbiont-of-brugia-malayi-combined-molecular-docking-and-molecular-dynamics-approaches
#10
Dhamodharan Prabhu, Sundaraj Rajamanikandan, Mathimaran Amala, Surekha Kanagarajan, Jeyaraman Jeyakanthan
Lymphatic filariasis is a debilitating vector borne parasitic disease that infects human lymphatic system by nematode Brugia malayi. Currently available anti-filarial drugs are effective only on the larval stages of parasite. So far, no effective drugs are available for humans to treat filarial infections. In this regard, aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (ASDase) in lysine biosynthetic pathway from Wolbachia endosymbiont Brugia malayi represents an attractive therapeutic target for the development of novel anti-filarial agents...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332596/synthesis-and-characterization-of-thiocarbohydrazones-and-their-inhibitory-potential-against-ignored-disease-leishmaniasis
#11
Nida Ghouri, Khalid Mohammed Khan, Arshia, M Iqbal Choudhary, Shahnaz Perveen
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis is a protozoan parasitic vector-borne disease which is endemic in 88 tropical countries. Infected sand fly is the main cause of this disease while, there are several vectors, parasites, and reservoirs involved in the transmission of this disease. Leishmania donovani, L. infantum, and L. chagasi are. common disease causing species, spread through sandflies. It is considered to be a focal disease having scattered foci. Leishmaniasis is a disease with a broad clinical spectrum...
January 14, 2018: Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331394/selected-epidemics-emerging-pathogens-vector-borne-illnesses
#12
EDITORIAL
Jerrold B Leikin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 10, 2018: Disease-a-month: DM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324760/bionomics-of-phlebotomus-argentipes-in-villages-in-bihar-india-with-insights-into-efficacy-of-irs-based-control-measures
#13
David M Poché, Rajesh B Garlapati, Shanta Mukherjee, Zaria Torres-Poché, Epco Hasker, Tahfizur Rahman, Aakanksha Bharti, Vishnu P Tripathi, Suman Prakash, Rahul Chaubey, Richard M Poché
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a deadly vector-borne disease. Approximately 90% of Indian VL cases occur in Bihar, where the sand fly, Phlebotomus argentipes, is the principal vector. Sand fly control in Bihar consists of indoor residual spraying (IRS), the practice of spraying the inner walls of village dwellings with insecticides. Prior researchers have evaluated success of IRS-control by estimating vector abundance in village houses, but the number of sampling periods (n = 2-3) were minimal, and outdoor-resting P...
January 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323879/malaria-derived-gpi-anchor-enhances-anti-pfs25-functional-antibodies-that-block-malaria-transmission
#14
Neeraj Kapoor, Ivana Vanjak, James Rozzelle, Aym Berges, Wei Chan, Gang Yin, Cuong Tran, Aaron K Sato, Alexander R Steiner, Thao P Pham, Ashley J Birkett, Carole Long, Jeff Fairman, Kazutoyo Miura
Malaria, one of the most common vector borne human diseas-es, is a major world health issue. In 2015 alone, more than 200 million people were infected with malaria, out of which, 429,000 died. Even though artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACT) are highly effective at treating malaria infections, novel efforts towards development of vaccines to prevent transmission are still needed. Pfs25, a post-fertilization stage parasite surface antigen, is a leading transmission-blocking vaccine (TBV) candidate. It is postulated that Pfs25 anchors to the cell membrane using a glycosylphosphatidyl-inositol (GPI) linker, which itself possesses proinflammatory properties...
January 11, 2018: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320544/diversity-patterns-leishmania-dna-detection-and-bloodmeal-identification-of-phlebotominae-sand-flies-in-villages-in-northern-colombia
#15
Camila González, Cielo León, Andrea Paz, Marla López, Gisell Molina, Diana Toro, Mario Ortiz, Juan Manuel Cordovez, María Claudia Atencia, Germán Aguilera, Catalina Tovar
Leishmaniases are neglected tropical diseases exhibiting complex transmission cycles due to the number of parasite species circulating, sand fly species acting as vectors and infected mammals, including humans, which are defined in the New World as accidental hosts. However, current transmission scenarios are changing, and the disease is no longer exclusively related to forested areas but urban transmission foci occur, involving some species of domestic animals as suspected reservoirs. The aim of this study was to determine the transmission cycles in urban environments by evaluating sand fly diversity, detection of Leishmania DNA, and bloodmeal sources through intra and peridomestic collections...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317702/surveillance-of-vector-borne-pathogens-under-imperfect-detection-lessons-from-chagas-disease-risk-mis-measurement
#16
Thaís Tâmara Castro Minuzzi-Souza, Nadjar Nitz, César Augusto Cuba Cuba, Luciana Hagström, Mariana Machado Hecht, Camila Santana, Marcelle Ribeiro, Tamires Emanuele Vital, Marcelo Santalucia, Monique Knox, Marcos Takashi Obara, Fernando Abad-Franch, Rodrigo Gurgel-Gonçalves
Vector-borne pathogens threaten human health worldwide. Despite their critical role in disease prevention, routine surveillance systems often rely on low-complexity pathogen detection tests of uncertain accuracy. In Chagas disease surveillance, optical microscopy (OM) is routinely used for detecting Trypanosoma cruzi in its vectors. Here, we use replicate T. cruzi detection data and hierarchical site-occupancy models to assess the reliability of OM-based T. cruzi surveillance while explicitly accounting for false-negative and false-positive results...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316967/ecological-distribution-and-population-dynamics-of-rift-valley-fever-virus-mosquito-vectors-diptera-culicidae-in-senegal
#17
Biram Biteye, Assane G Fall, Mamadou Ciss, Momar T Seck, Andrea Apolloni, Moussa Fall, Annelise Tran, Geoffrey Gimonneau
BACKGROUND: Many zoonotic infectious diseases have emerged and re-emerged over the last two decades. There has been a significant increase in vector-borne diseases due to climate variations that lead to environmental changes favoring the development and adaptation of vectors. This study was carried out to improve knowledge of the ecology of mosquito vectors involved in the transmission of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) in Senegal. METHODS: An entomological survey was conducted in three Senegalese agro-systems, Senegal River Delta (SRD), Senegal River Valley (SRV) and Ferlo, during the rainy season (July to November) of 2014 and 2015...
January 9, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310700/a-cross-sectional-study-of-the-filarial-and-leishmania-co-endemicity-in-two-ecologically-distinct-settings-in-mali
#18
Moussa Brema Sangare, Yaya Ibrahim Coulibaly, Siaka Yamoussa Coulibaly, Michel Emmanuel Coulibaly, Bourama Traore, Ilo Dicko, Ibrahim Moussa Sissoko, Sibiry Samake, Sekou Fantamady Traore, Thomas Bruce Nutman, Jesus Gilberto Valenzuela, Ousmane Faye, Shaden Kamhawi, Fabiano Oliveira, Roshanak Tolouei Semnani, Seydou Doumbia
BACKGROUND: Filariasis and leishmaniasis are two neglected tropical diseases in Mali. Due to distribution and associated clinical features, both diseases are of concern to public health. The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of co-infection with filarial (Wuchereria bancrofti and Mansonella perstans) and Leishmania major parasites in two ecologically distinct areas of Mali, the Kolokani district (villages of Tieneguebougou and Bougoudiana) in North Sudan Savanna area, and the district of Kolondieba (village of Boundioba) in the South Sudan Savanna area...
January 8, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309412/a-tetravalent-virus-like-particle-vaccine-designed-to-display-domain-iii-of-dengue-envelope-proteins-induces-multi-serotype-neutralizing-antibodies-in-mice-and-macaques-which-confer-protection-against-antibody-dependent-enhancement-in-ag129-mice
#19
Viswanathan Ramasamy, Upasana Arora, Rahul Shukla, Ankur Poddar, Rajgokul K Shanmugam, Laura J White, Melissa M Mattocks, Rajendra Raut, Ashiya Perween, Poornima Tyagi, Aravinda M de Silva, Siddhartha K Bhaumik, Murali Krishna Kaja, François Villinger, Rafi Ahmed, Robert E Johnston, Sathyamangalam Swaminathan, Navin Khanna
BACKGROUND: Dengue is one of the fastest spreading vector-borne diseases, caused by four antigenically distinct dengue viruses (DENVs). Antibodies against DENVs are responsible for both protection as well as pathogenesis. A vaccine that is safe for and efficacious in all people irrespective of their age and domicile is still an unmet need. It is becoming increasingly apparent that vaccine design must eliminate epitopes implicated in the induction of infection-enhancing antibodies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report a Pichia pastoris-expressed dengue immunogen, DSV4, based on DENV envelope protein domain III (EDIII), which contains well-characterized serotype-specific and cross-reactive epitopes...
January 8, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306179/vector-mediated-transmission-of-persistently-transmitted-plant-viruses
#20
REVIEW
Dongsheng Jia, Qian Chen, Qianzhuo Mao, Xiaofeng Zhang, Wei Wu, Hongyan Chen, Xiangzhen Yu, Zhiqiang Wang, Taiyun Wei
Many vector-borne plant viruses of agricultural importance are persistently transmitted from plant to plant by sap-sucking insects. So far, the mechanisms for vector-mediated horizontal transmission of the viruses to plant hosts and for vertical transmission to insect offspring have been poorly understood. During horizontal transmission, intact virions or virus-induced inclusions are exploited by persistently transmitted viruses to overcome the midgut and salivary gland barriers. The existing oocyte entry paths used by vitellogenin or symbiont bacteria can mediate the vertical transmission of viruses by female insects...
January 3, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
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