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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633891/aids-avian-flu-sars-mers-ebola-zika%C3%A2-what-next
#1
REVIEW
Leslie A Reperant, Albert D M E Osterhaus
Emerging infections have threatened humanity since times immemorial. The dramatic anthropogenic, behavioral and social changes that have affected humanity and the environment in the past century have accelerated the intrusion of novel pathogens into the global human population, sometimes with devastating consequences. The AIDS and influenza pandemics have claimed and will continue to claim millions of lives. The recent SARS and Ebola epidemics have threatened populations across borders. The emergence of MERS may well be warning signals of a nascent pandemic threat, while the potential for geographical spread of vector-borne diseases, such as Zika, but also Dengue and Chikungunya is unprecedented...
June 17, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633666/molecular-detection-of-vector-borne-pathogens-in-dogs-and-cats-from-qatar
#2
Ana Margarida Alho, Clara Lima, Maria Stefania Latrofa, Vito Colella, Silvia Ravagnan, Gioia Capelli, Luís Madeira de Carvalho, Luís Cardoso, Domenico Otranto
BACKGROUND: Vector-borne diseases (VBDs) have been increasingly reported in dogs and cats worldwide. However, no data are currently available regarding canine and feline VBDs in Qatar and limited information is available from other Persian Gulf countries. METHODS: Blood samples from 98 client-owned animals (i.e. 64 dogs and 34 cats) living in Doha (Qatar) were collected and the presence of genomic DNA of Anaplasma spp., Babesia spp., Dirofilaria spp., Ehrlichia spp...
June 20, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632488/vector-borne-pathogens-in-stray-dogs-in-northeastern-turkey
#3
Esin Guven, Hamza Avcioglu, Seyda Cengiz, Armagan Hayirli
This experiment was carried out to attain prevalence and molecular characterization of pathogens causing canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) including babesiosis, hepatozoonosis, leishmaniasis, filariosis (Dirofilaria immitis, Dirofilaria repens, and Acanthocheilonema reconditum), ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis), and anaplasmosis (Anaplasma platys) in stray dogs. The study material consisted of 133 asymptomatic female (n = 96) and male (n = 37) stray dogs (≤1 year old, n = 16 and 1-6 years old, n = 117) housed in the Animal Care and Rehabilitation Center, Erzurum, Northeastern Turkey...
June 20, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625886/zoonotic-and-vector-borne-diseases-in-urban-slums-opportunities-for-intervention
#4
Federico Costa, Ticiana Carvalho-Pereira, Mike Begon, Lee Riley, James Childs
Urban slums provide conditions that increase the risk of exposure to vector-borne and zoonotic pathogens. Large interventions, such as social and sanitary changes, are a priority but their implementation is challenging. Integration between the multidisciplinary understanding of pathogens' dynamics and community participatory approaches is a key prevention strategy.
June 15, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624159/from-the-laboratory-to-the-field-updating-capacity-building-in-medical-entomology
#5
Antonio Paulo Gouveia Almeida, Florence Fouque, Pascal Launois, Carla A Sousa, Henrique Silveira
Training and innovation in the field of medical entomology are essential to mitigate the burden of vector-borne diseases globally. However, there is a shortage of medical entomologists worldwide, and there are large discrepancies in capacity building in this field. In this article, we discuss the current situation, what is needed from the medical entomologist of today, and how we can bridge this gap.
June 14, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620811/serological-molecular-and-clinical-correlates-of-dengue-from-a-tertiary-care-centre-in-chennai-india
#6
Vigna Seshan, Gopalsamy Sarangan, Khaleefathullah Sheriff, Kaveri Krishnasamy, Gunasekaran Palani, Padma Srikanth
Dengue disease is caused by dengue viruses 1-4 and has been ranked by the World Health Organisation (WHO) as the fastest spreading vector-borne viral disease. Dengue is often underreported and misdiagnosed due to a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. Diagnosis of dengue is based on clinical case definitions and laboratory methods. Newer case definitions of dengue have been formulated by clinical studies in order to improve case detection. Owing to its epidemic potential, mortality and morbidity, there is a need for a rapid and accurate diagnostic assay for dengue in order to help the clinician in the early detection of cases and to prevent disease progression...
June 16, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620587/a-dual-luciferase-reporter-system-for-b-burgdorferi-measures-transcriptional-activity-during-tick-pathogen-interactions
#7
Philip P Adams, Carlos Flores Avile, Mollie W Jewett
Knowledge of the transcriptional responses of vector-borne pathogens at the vector-pathogen interface is critical for understanding disease transmission. Borrelia (Borreliella) burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease in the United States, is transmitted by the bite of infected Ixodes sp. ticks. It is known that B. burgdorferi has altered patterns of gene expression during tick acquisition, persistence and transmission. Recently, we and others have discovered in vitro expression of RNAs found internal, overlapping, and antisense to annotated open reading frames in the B...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620577/population-structure-of-the-soft-tick-ornithodoros-maritimus-and-its-associated-infectious-agents-within-a-colony-of-its-seabird-host-larus-michahellis
#8
Marlene Dupraz, Céline Toty, Elodie Devillers, Thomas Blanchon, Eric Elguero, Marion Vittecoq, Sara Moutailler, Karen D McCoy
The epidemiology of vector-borne zoonoses depends on the movement of both hosts and vectors, which can differ greatly in intensity across spatial scales. Because of their life history traits and small size, vector dispersal may be frequent, but limited in distance. However, little information is available on vector movement patterns at local spatial scales, and particularly for ticks, transmitting the greatest diversity of recognized infectious agents. To test the degree to which ticks can disperse and disseminate pathogens at local scales, we investigated the temporal dynamics and population structure of the soft tick Ornithodoros maritimus within a colony of its seabird host, the Yellow-legged gull Larus michahellis...
August 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606820/analysis-of-population-structure-and-insecticide-resistance-in-mosquitoes-of-the-genus-culex-anopheles-and-aedes-from-different-environments-of-greece-with-a-history-of-mosquito-borne-disease-transmission
#9
Max Fotakis, Alexandra Chaskopoulou, Linda Grigoraki, Alexandros Tsiamantas, Stella Kounadi, Loukas Georgiou, John Vontas
Greece has been recently affected by several mosquito borne diseases with the West Nile Virus (WNV) outbreak in 2010 being one of the largest reported in Europe. Currently at the epicenter of an economic and refugee crisis and visited by over 16 million tourists a year the integrated management of diseases transmitted by mosquitoes is a public health and economic priority. Vector control programs rely mainly on insecticides, however data on insecticide resistance and the mosquito fauna is essential for successful applications...
June 9, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602239/effects-of-malaria-infection-on-mosquito-olfaction-and-behavior-extrapolating-data-to-the-field
#10
REVIEW
Nina M Stanczyk, Mark C Mescher, Consuelo M De Moraes
Vector-borne pathogens have been shown to influence behavioral and other traits of their hosts and vectors across multiple systems, frequently in ways that enhance transmission. In malaria pathosystems, Plasmodium parasites have been reported to alter mosquito physiology, fitness and host-seeking behavior. Such effects on vector behavior have obvious medical relevance given their potential to influence disease transmission. However, most studies detailing these effects have faced methodological limitations, including experiments limited to laboratory settings with model vector/pathogen systems...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602238/chemical-signaling-in-mosquito-host-interactions-the-role-of-human-skin-microbiota
#11
REVIEW
Willem Takken, Niels O Verhulst
Anthropophilic mosquitoes use host-derived volatile compounds for host seeking. Recently it has become evident that many of these compounds are of microbial origin. Host seeking of mosquitoes is, therefore, a tritrophic relationship and suggests co-evolution between blood hosts and their microbial community to the benefit of the mosquito. Chemical analysis of bacterial headspace resulted in discovery of several compounds that make up the attractive blend to which mosquitoes respond. Future studies should determine which host factors shape the skin microbial community and attractive volatiles produced...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602233/immunity-host-physiology-and-behaviour-in-infected-vectors
#12
REVIEW
Courtney C Murdock, Shirley Luckhart, Lauren J Cator
When infection alters host behaviour such that the pathogen benefits, the behaviour is termed a manipulation. There are several examples of this fascinating phenomenon in many different systems. Vector-borne diseases are no exception. In some instances, as the term implies, pathogens directly interfere with host processes to control behaviour. However, host response to infection and host physiology are likely to play important roles in these phenotypes. We highlight the importance of considering host response and physiology from recent work on altered host-seeking in malaria parasite-infected mosquitoes and argue that this general approach will provide useful insights across vector-borne disease systems...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600407/working-together-to-fight-vector-borne-diseases
#13
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 10, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597088/viral-polymerase-inhibitors-t-705-and-t-1105-are-potential-inhibitors-of-zika-virus-replication
#14
Lei Cai, Yajie Sun, Yabin Song, Likun Xu, Zhuchun Bei, Dongna Zhang, Yuanyuan Dou, Hongquan Wang
Since 2015, 69 countries and territories have reported evidence of vector-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) transmission. Currently, there are no effective licensed vaccines or drugs available for the treatment or prevention of ZIKV infection. We tested a series of compounds for their ability to inhibit ZIKV replication in cell culture. The compounds in T-705 (favipiravir) and T-1105 were found to have antiviral activity, suggesting that these compounds are promising candidates for further development as specific antiviral drugs against ZIKV...
June 8, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586575/and-yet-one-more-adds-to-the-sorrow
#15
EDITORIAL
Muhammad Zeeshan Haroon, Mohammad Salim Wazir
Chikungunya is one of the vector borne diseases. It is caused by Chikungunya virus, an alpha virus, spread by the bite of female Aedes mosquito. Chikungunya is a non-fatal, self-limiting Dengue like illness which is characterized by high grade fever, headache, skin rash, and prolong debilitating arthralgia mostly affecting peripheral small joints. Treatment is usually supportive for the symptoms which includes antipyretic, analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs. Current outbreak in Karachi is the first declared outbreak in Pakistan...
October 2016: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584173/spatial-seasonal-and-climatic-predictive-models-of-rift-valley-fever-disease-across-africa
#16
David W Redding, Sonia Tiedt, Gianni Lo Iacono, Bernard Bett, Kate E Jones
Understanding the emergence and subsequent spread of human infectious diseases is a critical global challenge, especially for high-impact zoonotic and vector-borne diseases. Global climate and land-use change are likely to alter host and vector distributions, but understanding the impact of these changes on the burden of infectious diseases is difficult. Here, we use a Bayesian spatial model to investigate environmental drivers of one of the most important diseases in Africa, Rift Valley fever (RVF). The model uses a hierarchical approach to determine how environmental drivers vary both spatially and seasonally, and incorporates the effects of key climatic oscillations, to produce a continental risk map of RVF in livestock (as a proxy for human RVF risk)...
July 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583072/identification-of-candidate-transmission-blocking-antigen-genes-in-theileria-annulata-and-related-vector-borne-apicomplexan-parasites
#17
Laetitia Lempereur, Stephen D Larcombe, Zeeshan Durrani, Tulin Karagenc, Huseyin Bilgin Bilgic, Serkan Bakirci, Selin Hacilarlioglu, Jane Kinnaird, Joanne Thompson, William Weir, Brian Shiels
BACKGROUND: Vector-borne apicomplexan parasites are a major cause of mortality and morbidity to humans and livestock globally. The most important disease syndromes caused by these parasites are malaria, babesiosis and theileriosis. Strategies for control often target parasite stages in the mammalian host that cause disease, but this can result in reservoir infections that promote pathogen transmission and generate economic loss. Optimal control strategies should protect against clinical disease, block transmission and be applicable across related genera of parasites...
June 5, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582429/transmission-dynamics-and-control-of-rickettsia-rickettsii-in-populations-of-hydrochoerus-hydrochaeris-and-amblyomma-sculptum
#18
Gina Polo, Carlos Mera Acosta, Marcelo B Labruna, Fernando Ferreira
BACKGROUND: Brazilian Spotted Fever (BSF), caused by the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii, is the tick-borne disease that generates the largest number of human deaths in the world. In Brazil, the current increase of BSF human cases has been associated with the presence and expansion of capybaras Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, which act as primary hosts for the tick Amblyomma sculptum, vector of the R. rickettsii in this area. METHODS: We proposed a semi-discrete-time stochastic model to evaluate the role of capybaras in the transmission dynamics of R...
June 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579427/infections-of-wolbachia-may-destabilize-mosquito-population-dynamics
#19
Arndt Telschow, Florian Grziwotz, Philip Crain, Takeshi Miki, James W Mains, George Sugihara, Stephen L Dobson, Chih-Hao Hsieh
Recent efforts in controlling mosquito-borne diseases focus on biocontrol strategies that incapacitate pathogens inside mosquitoes by altering the mosquito's microbiome. A case in point is the introduction of Wolbachia into natural mosquito populations in order to eliminate Dengue virus. However, whether this strategy can successfully control vector-borne diseases is debated; particularly, how artificial infection affects population dynamics of hosts remains unclear. Here, we show that natural Wolbachia infections are associated with unstable mosquito population dynamics by contrasting Wolbachia-infected versus uninfected cage populations of the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus)...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577363/international-workshop-on-insecticide-resistance-in-vectors-of-arboviruses-december-2016-rio-de-janeiro-brazil
#20
Vincent Corbel, Dina M Fonseca, David Weetman, João Pinto, Nicole L Achee, Fabrice Chandre, Mamadou B Coulibaly, Isabelle Dusfour, John Grieco, Waraporn Juntarajumnong, Audrey Lenhart, Ademir J Martins, Catherine Moyes, Lee Ching Ng, Kamaraju Raghavendra, Hassan Vatandoost, John Vontas, Pie Muller, Shinji Kasai, Florence Fouque, Raman Velayudhan, Claire Durot, Jean-Philippe David
Vector-borne diseases transmitted by insect vectors such as mosquitoes occur in over 100 countries and affect almost half of the world's population. Dengue is currently the most prevalent arboviral disease but chikungunya, Zika and yellow fever show increasing prevalence and severity. Vector control, mainly by the use of insecticides, play a key role in disease prevention but the use of the same chemicals for more than 40 years, together with the dissemination of mosquitoes by trade and environmental changes, resulted in the global spread of insecticide resistance...
June 2, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
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