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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327187/schistosomiasis-is-more-prevalent-than-previously-thought-what-does-it-mean-for-public-health-goals-policies-strategies-guidelines-and-intervention-programs
#1
REVIEW
Daniel G Colley, Tamara S Andros, Carl H Campbell
Mapping and diagnosis of infections by the three major schistosome species (Schistosoma haematobium, S. mansoni and S. japonicum) has been done with assays that are known to be specific but increasingly insensitive as prevalence declines or in areas with already low prevalence of infection. This becomes a true challenge to achieving the goal of elimination of schistosomiasis because the multiplicative portion of the life-cycle of schistosomes, in the snail vector, favors continued transmission as long as even a few people maintain low numbers of worms that pass eggs in their excreta...
March 22, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325371/the-role-of-spatial-statistics-in-the-control-and-elimination-of-neglected-tropical-diseases-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-focus-on-human-african-trypanosomiasis-schistosomiasis-and-lymphatic-filariasis
#2
M C Stanton
Disease control and elimination programmes can benefit greatly from accurate information on the spatial variability of disease risk, particularly when risk is highly spatially heterogeneous. Due to advances in statistical methodology, coupled with the increased availability of geospatial technology, this information is becoming increasingly accessible. In this chapter we describe recent advancements in spatial methods associated with the analysis of disease data measured at the point-level and demonstrate their application to the control and elimination of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs)...
2017: Advances in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321678/analysis-of-formaldehyde-and-acrolein-in-the-aqueous-samples-using-a-novel-needle-trap-device-containing-nanoporous-silica-aerogel-sorbent
#3
Abdullah Barkhordari, Mansour R Azari, Rezvan Zendehdel, Mahmoud Heidari
In this research, a needle trap device (NTD) packed with nanoporous silica aerogel as a sorbent was used as a new technique for sampling and analysis of formaldehyde and acrolein compounds in aqueous and urine samples. The obtained results were compared with those of the commercial sorbent Carboxen1000. Active sampling was used and a 21-G needle was applied for extraction of gas in the sample headspace. The optimization of experimental parameters like salt addition, temperature and desorption time was done and the performance of the NTD for the extraction of the compounds was evaluated...
April 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320882/contributions-of-the-n-terminal-and-c-terminal-domains-of-initiation-factor-3-towards-its-functions-in-the-fidelity-of-initiation-and-anti-association-of-the-ribosomal-subunits
#4
Shreya Ayyub, Divya Dobriyal, Umesh Varshney
Initiation factor 3 (IF3) is one of the three conserved prokaryotic translation initiation factors essential for protein synthesis and cellular survival. Bacterial IF3 is composed of a conserved architecture of N- and C- terminal globular domains (NTD and CTD) joined by a linker region. IF3 is a ribosome anti-association factor which also modulates selection of start codon and initiator tRNA. All the functions of IF3 have been attributed to its CTD by in vitro studies. However, in vivo relevance of these findings has not been investigated...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315682/n-terminal-domain-of-the-cholesterol-transporter-niemann-pick-c1-like-1-npc1l1-is-essential-for-%C3%AE-tocopherol-transport
#5
Jun Kamishikiryo, Misaki Haraguchi, Shunsuke Nakashima, Yuka Tasaka, Hiroe Narahara, Narumi Sugihara, Tetsuya Nakamura, Tetsuo Morita
Both cholesterol and α-tocopherol are essential lipophilic nutrients for humans and animals. Although cholesterol in excess causes severe problems such as coronary heart disease, it is a necessary component of cell membranes and is the precursor for the biosynthesis of steroid hormones and bile acids. Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) is a cholesterol transporter that is highly expressed in the small intestine and liver in humans and plays an important role in cholesterol homeostasis. Cholesterol promotes NPC1L1 endocytosis, which is an early step in cholesterol uptake...
March 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306720/inhibition-of-androgen-receptor-by-decoy-molecules-delays-progression-to-castration-recurrent-prostate-cancer
#6
Jae-Kyung Myung, Gang Wang, Helen H L Chiu, Jun Wang, Nasrin R Mawji, Marianne D Sadar
Androgen receptor (AR) is a member of the steroid receptor family and a therapeutic target for all stages of prostate cancer. AR is activated by ligand binding within its C-terminus ligand-binding domain (LBD). Here we show that overexpression of the AR NTD to generate decoy molecules inhibited both the growth and progression of prostate cancer in castrated hosts. Specifically, it was shown that lentivirus delivery of decoys delayed hormonal progression in castrated hosts as indicated by increased doubling time of tumor volume, prolonged time to achieve pre-castrate levels of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and PSA nadir...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297669/molecular-landscape-of-the-ribosome-pre-initiation-complex-during-mrna-scanning-structural-role-for-eif3c-and-its-control-by-eif5
#7
Eiji Obayashi, Rafael E Luna, Takashi Nagata, Pilar Martin-Marcos, Hiroyuki Hiraishi, Chingakham Ranjit Singh, Jan Peter Erzberger, Fan Zhang, Haribabu Arthanari, Jacob Morris, Riccardo Pellarin, Chelsea Moore, Ian Harmon, Evangelos Papadopoulos, Hisashi Yoshida, Mahmoud L Nasr, Satoru Unzai, Brytteny Thompson, Eric Aube, Samantha Hustak, Florian Stengel, Eddie Dagraca, Asokan Ananbandam, Philip Gao, Takeshi Urano, Alan G Hinnebusch, Gerhard Wagner, Katsura Asano
During eukaryotic translation initiation, eIF3 binds the solvent-accessible side of the 40S ribosome and recruits the gate-keeper protein eIF1 and eIF5 to the decoding center. This is largely mediated by the N-terminal domain (NTD) of eIF3c, which can be divided into three parts: 3c0, 3c1, and 3c2. The N-terminal part, 3c0, binds eIF5 strongly but only weakly to the ribosome-binding surface of eIF1, whereas 3c1 and 3c2 form a stoichiometric complex with eIF1. 3c1 contacts eIF1 through Arg-53 and Leu-96, while 3c2 faces 40S protein uS15/S13, to anchor eIF1 to the scanning pre-initiation complex (PIC)...
March 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295633/neural-tube-closure-and-embryonic-metabolism
#8
REVIEW
Yoshifumi Yamaguchi, Hidenobu Miyazawa, Masayuki Miura
Neural tube closure (NTC) is an embryonic process during formation of the mammalian central nervous system. Disruption of the dynamic, sequential events of NTC can cause neural tube defects (NTD) leading to spina bifida and anencephaly in the newborn. NTC is affected by inherent factors such as genetic mutation or if the mother is exposed to certain environmental factors such as intake of harmful chemicals, maternal infection, irradiation, malnutrition, and inadequate or excessive intake of specific nutrients...
March 13, 2017: Congenital Anomalies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291250/site-to-site-interdomain-communication-may-mediate-different-loss-of-function-mechanisms-in-a-cancer-associated-nqo1-polymorphism
#9
Encarnación Medina-Carmona, Jose L Neira, Eduardo Salido, Julian E Fuchs, Rogelio Palomino-Morales, David J Timson, Angel L Pey
Disease associated genetic variations often cause intracellular enzyme inactivation, dysregulation and instability. However, allosteric communication of mutational effects to distant functional sites leading to loss-of-function remains poorly understood. We characterize here interdomain site-to-site communication by which a common cancer-associated single nucleotide polymorphism (c.C609T/p.P187S) reduces the activity and stability in vivo of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1). NQO1 is a FAD-dependent, two-domain multifunctional stress protein acting as a Phase II enzyme, activating cancer pro-drugs and stabilizing p53 and p73α oncosuppressors...
March 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290985/synaptic-transmission-and-plasticity-require-ampa-receptor-anchoring-via-its-n-terminal-domain
#10
Jake F Watson, Hinze Ho, Ingo H Greger
AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) mediate fast excitatory neurotransmission and are selectively recruited during activity-dependent plasticity to increase synaptic strength. A prerequisite for faithful signal transmission is the positioning and clustering of AMPARs at postsynaptic sites. The mechanisms underlying this positioning have largely been ascribed to the receptor cytoplasmic C-termini and to AMPAR-associated auxiliary subunits, both interacting with the postsynaptic scaffold. Here, using mouse organotypic hippocampal slices, we show that the extracellular AMPAR N-terminal domain (NTD), which projects midway into the synaptic cleft, plays a fundamental role in this process...
March 14, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287170/crystal-structures-reveal-n-terminal-domain-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-clpd-to-be-highly-divergent-from-that-of-clpc1
#11
Chinmayee Mohapatra, Manas Kumar Jagdev, Dileep Vasudevan
The caseinolytic protease machinery associated chaperone protein ClpC is known to be present in bacteria, plants and other eukaryotes, whereas ClpD is unique to plants. Plant ClpC and ClpD proteins get localized into chloroplast stroma. Herein, we report high resolution crystal structures of the N-terminal domain of Arabidopsis thaliana ClpC1 and ClpD. Surprisingly, AtClpD, but not AtClpC1, deviates from the typical N-terminal repeat domain organization of known Clp chaperones and have only seven α-helices, instead of eight...
March 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286005/overall-shapes-of-the-smc-scpab-complex-are-determined-by-balance-between-constraint-and-relaxation-of-its-structural-parts
#12
Katsuhiko Kamada, Masayuki Su'etsugu, Hiraku Takada, Makoto Miyata, Tatsuya Hirano
The SMC-ScpAB complex plays a crucial role in chromosome organization and segregation in many bacteria. It is composed of a V-shaped SMC dimer and an ScpAB subcomplex that bridges the two Structural Maintenance of Chromosomes (SMC) head domains. Despite its functional significance, the mechanistic details of SMC-ScpAB remain obscure. Here we provide evidence that ATP-dependent head-head engagement induces a lever movement of the SMC neck region, which might help to separate juxtaposed coiled-coil arms. Binding of the ScpA N-terminal domain (NTD) to the SMC neck region is negatively regulated by the ScpB C-terminal domain...
March 7, 2017: Structure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274878/crystal-structures-of-the-ubx-domain-of-human-ubxd7-and-its-complex-with-p97-atpase
#13
Zhi-Hui Li, Yong Wang, Min Xu, Tao Jiang
In humans, UBXD7 (also called UBXN7), an adaptor of p97 ATPase, can participate in the degradation of misfolded or damaged proteins in the p97-mediated ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS). UBXD7 binds to ubiquitinated substrates via its UBA domain and interacts with p97 N-terminal domain through its UBX domain to recruit p97 or the p97 core complex (p97/NPL4/UFD1). Here, we report the crystal structures of the UBX domain of UBXD7 (UBXD7(UBX)) at 2.0 Å resolution and its complex with p97 N-terminal domain (p97(NTD)-UBXD7(UBX) complex) at 2...
March 6, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270505/essential-role-of-the-flexible-linker-on-the-conformational-equilibrium-of-bacterial-peroxiredoxin-reductase-for-effective-regeneration-of-peroxiredoxin
#14
Neelagandan Kamariah, Birgit Eisenhaber, Frank Eisenhaber, Gerhard Gruber
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can damage DNA, proteins, and lipids, so cells have antioxidant systems that regulate ROS. In many bacteria, a dedicated peroxiredoxin reductase, alkyl hydroperoxide reductase subunit F (AhpF), catalyzes the rapid reduction of the redox-active disulfide center of the antioxidant protein peroxiredoxin (AhpC) to detoxify ROS such as hydrogen peroxide, organic hydroperoxide, and peroxynitrite. AhpF is a flexible multi-domain protein that enables a series of electron transfers among the redox centers by accepting reducing equivalents from NADH...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260517/capi-computational-model-for-apicoplast-inhibitors-prediction-against-plasmodium-parasite
#15
Surabhi Dixit, Deepak Singla
Background Discovery of apicoplast as a drug target offers a new direction in the development of novel anti-malarial compounds, especially against the drug-resistant strains. Drugs such as azithromycin were reported to block the apicoplast development that leads to unusual phenotypes affecting the parasite. This phenomenon suggeststhat identification of new apicoplast inhibitors will aid in the anti-malarial drug discovery. Therefore, in this study, we developed a computational model to predict apicoplast inhibitors by applying state-of-the-art machine learning techniques...
March 1, 2017: Current Computer-aided Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244241/folate-receptors-and-neural-tube-closure
#16
REVIEW
Hirotomo Saitsu
Neural tube defects (NTD) are among the most common human congenital malformations, affecting 0.5-8/1000 of live births. Human clinical trials have shown that periconceptional folate supplementation significantly decreases the occurrence of NTD in offspring. However, the mechanism by which folate acts on NTD remains largely unknown. Folate receptor (Folr) is one of the three membrane proteins that mediate cellular uptake of folates. Recent studies suggest that mouse Folr1 (formerly referred to as Fbp1) is essential for neural tube closure...
February 28, 2017: Congenital Anomalies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242235/homocysteine-induced-changes-in-cell-proliferation-and-differentiation-in-the-chick-embryo-spinal-cord-implications-for-mechanisms-of-neural-tube-defects-ntd
#17
Karoline Kobus-Bianchini, Gilian Fernando Bourckhardt, Dib Ammar, Evelise Maria Nazari, Yara Maria Rauh Müller
Maternal hyperhomocysteinemia during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of NTD in the offspring. Our study investigated the effects of homocysteine (Hcy) on proliferation and neuronal differentiation of the spinal cord cells in a chick embryo model. Embryos were treated with 20μmol D-L Hcy/50μL saline solution at embryonic day 2 (E2) and analyzed at embryonic days 4 (E4) and 6 (E6). Control embryos received exclusively 50μL saline solution. We performed immunolocalization and flow cytometry analyses using antibodies anti-phosphohistone H3 (pH3), anti-proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), anti-β-tubulin III and anti-p53...
February 24, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239667/disregard-of-neurological-impairments-associated-with-neglected-tropical-diseases-in-africa
#18
Emmanuel Quansah, Esther Sarpong, Thomas K Karikari
Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) affect people in the bottom billion poorest in the world. These diseases are concentrated in rural areas, conflict zones and urban slums in Africa and other tropical areas. While the World Health Organization recognizes seventeen priority NTDs, the list of conditions present in Africa and elsewhere that are eligible to be classified as NTDs is much longer. Although NTDs are generally marginalized, their associated neurological burden has been almost completely disregarded...
June 2016: ENeurologicalSci
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213741/assembly-of-photoactive-orange-carotenoid-protein-from-its-domains-unravels-a-carotenoid-shuttle-mechanism
#19
Marcus Moldenhauer, Nikolai N Sluchanko, David Buhrke, Dmitry V Zlenko, Neslihan N Tavraz, Franz-Josef Schmitt, Peter Hildebrandt, Eugene G Maksimov, Thomas Friedrich
The photoswitchable orange carotenoid protein (OCP) is indispensable for cyanobacterial photoprotection by quenching phycobilisome fluorescence upon photoconversion from the orange OCP(O) to the red OCP(R) form. Cyanobacterial genomes frequently harbor, besides genes for orange carotenoid proteins (OCPs), several genes encoding homologs of OCP's N- or C-terminal domains (NTD, CTD). Unlike the well-studied NTD homologs, called Red Carotenoid Proteins (RCPs), the role of CTD homologs remains elusive. We show how OCP can be reassembled from its functional domains...
February 17, 2017: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207792/partnering-for-impact-integrated-transmission-assessment-surveys-for-lymphatic-filariasis-soil-transmitted-helminths-and-malaria-in-haiti
#20
Alaine Kathryn Knipes, Jean Frantz Lemoine, Franck Monestime, Carl R Fayette, Abdel N Direny, Luccene Desir, Valery E Beau de Rochars, Thomas G Streit, Kristen Renneker, Brian K Chu, Michelle A Chang, Kimberly E Mace, Kimberly Y Won, Patrick J Lammie
BACKGROUND: Since 2001, Haiti's National Program for the Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis (NPELF) has worked to reduce the transmission of lymphatic filariasis (LF) through annual mass drug administration (MDA) with diethylcarbamazine and albendazole. The NPELF reached full national coverage with MDA for LF in 2012, and by 2014, a total of 14 evaluation units (48 communes) had met WHO eligibility criteria to conduct LF transmission assessment surveys (TAS) to determine whether prevalence had been reduced to below a threshold, such that transmission is assumed to be no longer sustainable...
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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