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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911771/stability-folding-dynamics-and-long-range-conformational-transition-of-the-synaptic-t-snare-complex
#1
Xinming Zhang, Aleksander A Rebane, Lu Ma, Feng Li, Junyi Jiao, Hong Qu, Frederic Pincet, James E Rothman, Yongli Zhang
Synaptic soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) couple their stepwise folding to fusion of synaptic vesicles with plasma membranes. In this process, three SNAREs assemble into a stable four-helix bundle. Arguably, the first and rate-limiting step of SNARE assembly is the formation of an activated binary target (t)-SNARE complex on the target plasma membrane, which then zippers with the vesicle (v)-SNARE on the vesicle to drive membrane fusion. However, the t-SNARE complex readily misfolds, and its structure, stability, and dynamics are elusive...
November 28, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910331/next-generation-gamma-ray-cherenkov-detectors-for-the-national-ignition-facility
#2
H W Herrmann, Y H Kim, A M McEvoy, A B Zylstra, C S Young, F E Lopez, J R Griego, V E Fatherley, J A Oertel, W Stoeffl, H Khater, J E Hernandez, A Carpenter, M S Rubery, C J Horsfield, S Gales, A Leatherland, T Hilsabeck, J D Kilkenny, R M Malone, J D Hares, J Milnes, W T Shmayda, C Stoeckl, S H Batha
The newest generation of Gas Cherenkov Detector (GCD-3) employed in Inertial Confinement Fusion experiments at the Omega Laser Facility has provided improved performance over previous generations. Comparison of reaction histories measured using two different deuterium-tritium fusion products, namely gamma rays using GCD and neutrons using Neutron Temporal Diagnostic (NTD), have provided added credibility to both techniques. GCD-3 is now being brought to the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to supplement the existing Gamma Reaction History (GRH-6m) located 6 m from target chamber center (TCC)...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899597/thermotoga-maritima-nusg-domain-interaction-mediates-autoinhibition-and-thermostability
#3
Johanna Drögemüller, Christin Schneider, Kristian Schweimer, Martin Strauß, Birgitta M Wöhrl, Paul Rösch, Stefan H Knauer
NusG, the only universally conserved transcription factor, comprises an N- and a C-terminal domain (NTD, CTD) that are flexibly connected and move independently in Escherichia coli and other organisms. In NusG from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima (tmNusG), however, NTD and CTD interact tightly. This closed state stabilizes the CTD, but masks the binding sites for the interaction partners Rho, NusE and RNA polymerase (RNAP), suggesting that tmNusG is autoinhibited. Furthermore, tmNusG and some other bacterial NusGs have an additional domain, DII, of unknown function...
November 29, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891782/using-state-and-provincial-surveillance-programs-to-reduce-risk-of-recurrence-of-neural-tube-defects-in-the-united-states-and-canada-a-missed-opportunity
#4
Timothy J Flood, Chelsea M Rienks, Alina L Flores, Cara T Mai, Barbara K Frohnert, Rachel E Rutkowski, Jane A Evans, Russell S Kirby
BACKGROUND: Once a woman has had a fetus or infant affected with a neural tube defect (NTD), the risk of recurrence is approximately 3%. This risk can be significantly reduced by folic acid supplement consumption during the periconceptional period; however, this requires women at risk to be adequately informed about the appropriate dosage and timing of supplement intake before planning another pregnancy. As birth defects surveillance programs are tasked with identifying and documenting NTD-affected pregnancies and births, they are in a unique position to support recurrence prevention activities...
November 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part A, Clinical and Molecular Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888125/initiating-ntd-programs-targeting-schistosomiasis-and-soil-transmitted-helminthiasis-in-two-provinces-of-the-democratic-republic-of-the-congo-establishment-of-baseline-prevalence-for-mass-drug-administration
#5
Achille Kabore, Moudachirou Ibikounle, Jean Jacques Tougoue, Sylvain Mupoyi, Martin Ndombe, Scott Shannon, Eric A Ottesen, Faustin Mukunda, Naomi Awaca
BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis (SCH) and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) are widely distributed in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and constitute a serious public health problem. As recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), before launching mass chemotherapy to control these diseases, parasitological surveys were conducted in sentinel sites in six health zones (HZs) in Bandundu and Maniema provinces. Baseline prevalence and intensity of infection for SCH and STH were determined to establish the appropriate treatment plan using Praziquantel (PZQ) and Albendazole (ALB)...
November 22, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886045/nutrition-one-carbon-metabolism-and-neural-tube-defects-a-review
#6
REVIEW
Kelei Li, Mark L Wahlqvist, Duo Li
Neural tube defects (NTDs) are a group of severe congenital malformations, induced by the combined effects of genes and the environment. The most valuable finding so far has been the protective effect of folic acid supplementation against NTDs. However, many women do not take folic acid supplements until they are pregnant, which is too late to prevent NTDs effectively. Long-term intake of folic acid-fortified food is a good choice to solve this problem, and mandatory folic acid fortification should be further promoted, especially in Europe, Asia and Africa...
November 23, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883265/genomic-approaches-to-the-assessment-of-human-spina-bifida-risk
#7
REVIEW
M Elizabeth Ross, Christopher E Mason, Richard H Finnell
Structural birth defects are a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in children world-wide, affecting as much as 6% of all live births. Among these conditions, neural tube defects (NTDs), including spina bifida and anencephaly, arise from a combination of complex gene and environment interactions that are as yet poorly understood within human populations. Rapid advances in massively parallel DNA sequencing and bioinformatics allow for analyses of the entire genome beyond the 2% of the genomic sequence covering protein coding regions...
November 24, 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part A, Clinical and Molecular Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881182/research-prevalence-of-neural-tube-defects-khartoum-sudan-august-2014-july-2015
#8
Ilham M Omer, Osman M Abdullah, Inaam N Mohammed, Lina A Abbasher
BACKGROUND: Neural tube defects (NTDs) are birth defects that results from failure of the neural tube to develop properly during early pregnancy. METHODS: We studied the prevalence of neural tube defects in newborns admitted to the NICU in Soba University and Omdurman Maternity hospitals, during the period 1st August 2014 to 31st July 2015. A cross-sectional hospital based study, involved all newborns with any type of neural tube defect admitted to the NICU in the study area during the study period...
November 24, 2016: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876076/bladder-outlet-obstruction-a-rare-complication-of-the-neglected-schistosome-schistosoma-haematobium-two-case-reports-and-public-health-challenges
#9
Valirie Ndip Agbor, Tsi Njim, Franklin Ngu Mbolingong
BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is a severe parasitic infestation with debilitating complications and is the third most devastating tropical disease in the world. It is one of the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) with a high disease-burden. We present two rare cases of bladder outlet obstruction: one which led to a chronic kidney disease and ultimately death and a second which recovered after treatment with praziquantel. CASE PRESENTATIONS: A 72 year old male presented with lower urinary tract symptoms which culminated in an episode of acute urinary retention...
November 22, 2016: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875031/prevalence-of-neural-tube-defects-in-a-rural-area-of-north-india-from-2001-to-2014-a-population-based-survey
#10
Shashi Kant, Sumit Malhotra, Arvind Kumar Singh, Partha Haldar, Ravneet Kaur, Puneet Misra, Neerja Gupta
BACKGROUND: Neural tube defects (NTDs) are one of the commonest birth defects. There was paucity of community-based data on occurrence of NTDs in India, especially from rural parts of the country. Against this background, the current study was carried out with main objectives to determine the prevalence of NTDs and its specific types (anencephaly, spina bifida and encephalocele) in a rural community setting over the time period 2001 to 2014. METHODS: This was a community-based cross-sectional study carried out in 28 villages of Ballabgarh Tehsil of Faridabad district in north India (population ∼ 96,000)...
November 22, 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part A, Clinical and Molecular Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864941/male-old-and-low-income-to-predispose-epilepsy-in-migraineurs
#11
Tomor Harnod, Yu-Chiao Wang, Chun-Hung Tseng
AIMS: This study investigated whether sex, age, income, and any comorbidity affect subsequent epilepsy development in migraineurs. METHODS: A total of 4915 men diagnosed with migraine who were aged older than 20 years were identified as the study cohort. A total of 4882 female migraineurs were included in the comparison cohort. We calculated the adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) for the risk of epilepsy in the two cohorts after adjustment for age and comorbidity. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to analyze the cumulative epilepsy incidence, and the log-rank test was used to estimate the differences between the two cumulative incidence curves...
November 16, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860192/metabolite-profiling-of-whole-murine-embryos-reveals-metabolic-perturbations-associated-with-maternal-valproate-induced-neural-tube-closure-defects
#12
Darya Akimova, Bogdan J Wlodarczyk, Ying Lin, M Elizabeth Ross, Richard H Finnell, Qiuying Chen, Steven S Gross
BACKGROUND: Valproic acid (VPA) is prescribed therapeutically for multiple conditions, including epilepsy. When taken during pregnancy, VPA is teratogenic, increasing the risk of several birth and developmental defects including neural tube defects (NTDs). The mechanism by which VPA causes NTDs remains controversial and how VPA interacts with folic acid (FA), a vitamin commonly recommended for the prevention of NTDs, remains uncertain. We sought to address both questions by applying untargeted metabolite profiling analysis to neural tube closure (NTC) stage mouse embryos...
November 18, 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part A, Clinical and Molecular Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857789/epidemiology-of-the-neural-tube-defects-in-kashmir-valley
#13
Masood Ahmed Laharwal, Arif Hussain Sarmast, Altaf Umer Ramzan, Abrar Ahad Wani, Nayil Khursheed Malik, Sajad Hussain Arif, Masooma Rizvi
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND: Neural tube defects (NTD) are the most common congenital malformations affecting the brain and spinal cord and have a multifactorial etiology. Genetic and environmental factors have been found to cause these defects, both individually and in combination. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence, types, demographics, risk factors, and other associated anomalies relevant to NTDs in Kashmir Valley. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 2-year hospital-based prospective study was carried out from November 2013 to October 2015...
July 2016: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847362/domain-interaction-studies-of-hsv-1-tegument-protein-ul16-reveal-its-interaction-with-mitochondria
#14
Pooja Chadha, Akua Sarfo, Dan Zhang, Thomas Abraham, Jillian Carmichael, Jun Han, John W Wills
: The UL16 tegument protein of herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) is conserved among all herpesviruses and plays many roles during replication. This protein has an N-terminal domain (NTD) that has been shown to bind to several viral proteins, including UL11, VP22, and glycoprotein E, and these interactions are negatively regulated by a C-terminal domain (CTD). Thus, in pair-wise transfections, UL16-binding is enabled only when the CTD is absent or altered. Based on these results, we hypothesized that direct interactions occur between the NTD and CTD...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843847/peri-conceptional-supplementation-of-folic-acid-knowledge-and-practices-of-pregnant-women-and-health-providers
#15
Vartika Saxena, Manisha Naithani, Ranjeeta Kumari, Richa Singh, Pranoti Das
CONTEXT: Neural tube defects (NTDs) are one of the most common congenital anomalies. NTDs are preventable if folic acid (FA) is supplemented before and during conception. Knowledge and supplementation of FA by pregnant women as well as it's timely provision by health providers is crucial in reducing the burden of NTDs in the community. AIM: To study the knowledge and supplementation of FA by pregnant women and it's prescription/provision by health providers. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the block Doiwala, District Dehradun, Uttarakhand...
April 2016: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842865/monitoring-the-efficacy-of-drugs-for-neglected-tropical-diseases-controlled-by-preventive-chemotherapy
#16
REVIEW
M Albonico, B Levecke, P T LoVerde, A Montresor, R Prichard, J Vercruysse, J P Webster
In the last decade, pharmaceutical companies, governments and global health organisations under the leadership of the World Health Organization (WHO) have pledged large-scale donations of anthelmintic drugs, including ivermectin (IVM), praziquantel (PZQ), albendazole (ALB) and mebendazole (MEB). This worldwide scale-up in drug donations calls for strong monitoring systems to detect any changes in anthelmintic drug efficacy. This review reports on the outcome of the WHO Global Working Group on Monitoring of Neglected Tropical Diseases Drug Efficacy, which consists of three subgroups: (i) soil-transmitted helminthiases (ALB and MEB); (ii) onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis (IVM); and (iii) schistosomiasis (PZQ)...
December 2015: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836794/the-risk-factors-costs-and-survival-analysis-of-invasive-vre-infections-at-a-medical-center-in-eastern-taiwan
#17
Hui-Li Jiang, Zi Zhou, Lih-Shinn Wang, Ya Fang, Yi-Hwei Li, Cheng-I Chu
OBJECTIVE: To analyze 48 cases the risk factors of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) infections, the antibiotic costs after infection, and the survival conditions. DESIGN: 1:3 matched case-control study a medical center in the eastern Taiwan area. The case group, patients with VRE bacterial strains detected at the sterile sites, and the control group were randomly selected from invasive vancomycin-sensitive Enterococcus (VSE) infected patients at the nearest time point by taking the occurrence time of each VRE infection case as the reference time...
November 9, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835934/the-conformational-feasibility-for-the-formation-of-reaching-dimer-in-asv-and-hiv-integrase-a-molecular-dynamics-study
#18
Sangeetha Balasubramanian, Muthukumaran Rajagopalan, Ravi Shankar Bojja, Anna Marie Skalka, Mark D Andrake, Amutha Ramaswamy
Retroviral integrases are reported to form alternate dimer assemblies like the core-core dimer and reaching dimer. The core-core dimer is stabilized predominantly by an extensive interface between two catalytic core domains. The reaching dimer is stabilized by N-terminal domains (NTD) that reach to form intermolecular interfaces with the other subunit's core and C-terminal domains (CTD), as well as CTD-CTD interactions. In this study, molecular dynamics (MD), Brownian dynamics (BD) simulations, and free energy analyses, were performed to elucidate determinants for the stability of the reaching dimer forms of full-length ASV and HIV IN, and to examine the role of the C-tails (the last ~16-18 residues at the C-termini) in their structural dynamics...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832325/secular-trends-in-incidence-and-recurrence-rates-of-hip-fracture-a-nationwide-population-based-study
#19
F-P Chen, Y-C Shyu, T-S Fu, C-C Sun, A-S Chao, T-L Tsai, T-S Huang
: We assessed the incidence of hip fracture and second hip fractures in Taiwan from 2001 to 2012. Age-standardized incidence rates decreased after 2005. However, mortality rate after first hip fracture was substantial compared to second hip fracture rate in a competing risk model. INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study is to assess the incidence rates (IRs) of hip fractures, including changes in trends and medical costs, and second hip fractures in the Taiwanese population...
November 10, 2016: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831563/tissue-type-plasminogen-activator-controls-neuronal-death-by-raising-surface-dynamics-of-extrasynaptic-nmda-receptors
#20
Flavie Lesept, Arnaud Chevilley, Julie Jezequel, Laurent Ladépêche, Richard Macrez, Margaux Aimable, Sophie Lenoir, Thomas Bertrand, Laëtitia Rubrecht, Pascale Galea, Laurent Lebouvier, Karl-Uwe Petersen, Yannick Hommet, Eric Maubert, Carine Ali, Laurent Groc, Denis Vivien
N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are ion channels whose synaptic versus extrasynaptic localization critically influences their functions. This distribution of NMDARs is highly dependent on their lateral diffusion at the cell membrane. Each obligatory subunit of NMDARs (GluN1 and GluN2) contains two extracellular clamshell-like domains with an agonist-binding domain and a distal N-terminal domain (NTD). To date, the roles and dynamics of the NTD of the GluN1 subunit in NMDAR allosteric signaling remain poorly understood...
November 10, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
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