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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645916/structures-and-dynamics-of-hibernating-ribosomes-from-staphylococcus-aureus-mediated-by-intermolecular-interactions-of-hpf
#1
Iskander Khusainov, Quentin Vicens, Rustam Ayupov, Konstantin Usachev, Alexander Myasnikov, Angelita Simonetti, Shamil Validov, Bruno Kieffer, Gulnara Yusupova, Marat Yusupov, Yaser Hashem
In bacteria, ribosomal hibernation shuts down translation as a response to stress, through reversible binding of stress-induced proteins to ribosomes. This process typically involves the formation of 100S ribosome dimers. Here, we present the structures of hibernating ribosomes from human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus containing a long variant of the hibernation-promoting factor (SaHPF) that we solved using cryo-electron microscopy. Our reconstructions reveal that the N-terminal domain (NTD) of SaHPF binds to the 30S subunit as observed for shorter variants of HPF in other species...
June 23, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631291/folate-deficiency-disturbs-hsa-let-7-g-level-through-methylation-regulation-in-neural-tube-defects
#2
Li Wang, Shaofang Shangguan, Yu Xin, Shaoyan Chang, Zhen Wang, Xiaolin Lu, Lihua Wu, Bo Niu, Ting Zhang
Folic acid deficiency during pregnancy is believed to be a high-risk factor for neural tube defects (NTDs). Disturbed epigenetic modifications, including miRNA regulation, have been linked to the pathogenesis of NTDs in those with folate deficiency. However, the mechanism by which folic acid-regulated miRNA influences this pathogenesis remains unclear. It is believed that DNA methylation is associated with dysregulated miRNA expression. To clarify this issue, here we measured the methylation changes of 22 miRNAs in 57 human NTD cases to explore whether such changes are involved in miRNA regulation in NTD cases through folate metabolism...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629183/an-amyloidogenic-sequence-at-the-n-terminus-of-the-androgen-receptor-impacts-polyglutamine-aggregation
#3
Emmanuel Oppong, Gunter Stier, Miriam Gaal, Rebecca Seeger, Melanie Stoeck, Marc-André Delsuc, Andrew C B Cato, Bruno Kieffer
The human androgen receptor (AR) is a ligand inducible transcription factor that harbors an amino terminal domain (AR-NTD) with a ligand-independent activation function. AR-NTD is intrinsically disordered and displays aggregation properties conferred by the presence of a poly-glutamine (polyQ) sequence. The length of the polyQ sequence as well as its adjacent sequence motifs modulate this aggregation property. AR-NTD also contains a conserved KELCKAVSVSM sequence motif that displays an intrinsic property to form amyloid fibrils under mild oxidative conditions...
June 19, 2017: Biomolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624468/fish-mass-immunization-against-virus-with-recombinant-spiny-bacterins
#4
Julio Coll
Bacterins obtained from recombinant bacteria displaying heterologous antigens in its surface coded by prokaryotic rather than eukaryotic expression plasmids (here called "spiny" bacterins or spinycterins), have been used to increase fish immunogenicity of recombinant viral protein fragments. To explore their immunogenicity, five bacterial-specific membrane anchor-motifs characterized in the literature (Nmistic, Mistic, NTD, YAIN and YBEL) were genetically fused to the immunorelevant cystein-free 117 amino acid fragment II from the ORF149 of cyprinid herpes virus 3 (frgIICyHV3)...
June 15, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623428/quantitative-measurement-of-pard3-copy-number-variations-in-human-neural-tube-defects
#5
Yonghui Gao, Jianhua Wang, Shaofang Shangguan, Yihua Bao, Xiaoli Lu, Jizhen Zou, Yaohua Dai, Junling Liu, Ting Zhang
Although more than 200 genes are known to be related to neural tube defects (NTDs), the exact molecular basis is still unclear. Evaluating the contribution of copy number variation (CNV) might be a priority because CNV involves changes in the copy number of large segments of DNA, leading to phenotypic traits and disease susceptibility. Recent studies have documented that the polarity protein partitioning defective 3 homolog (Pard3) plays an essential role in the process of neural tube closure. The aim of this study was to assess the role of PARD3 CNVs in the etiology of human NTDs...
June 16, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604726/rif1-maintains-telomeres-and-mediates-dna-repair-by-encasing-dna-ends
#6
Stefano Mattarocci, Julia K Reinert, Richard D Bunker, Gabriele A Fontana, Tianlai Shi, Dominique Klein, Simone Cavadini, Mahamadou Faty, Maksym Shyian, Lukas Hafner, David Shore, Nicolas H Thomä, Ulrich Rass
In yeast, Rif1 is part of the telosome, where it inhibits telomerase and checkpoint signaling at chromosome ends. In mammalian cells, Rif1 is not telomeric, but it suppresses DNA end resection at chromosomal breaks, promoting repair by nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ). Here, we describe crystal structures for the uncharacterized and conserved ∼125-kDa N-terminal domain of Rif1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Rif1-NTD), revealing an α-helical fold shaped like a shepherd's crook. We identify a high-affinity DNA-binding site in the Rif1-NTD that fully encases DNA as a head-to-tail dimer...
June 12, 2017: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600041/lessons-from-the-mohw-compensation-pilot-program-on-birth-incidents-first-step-and-looking-forward
#7
Tsung-Hsi Wang, Shu-Fen Lin, Kun-Yu Tsai, Yu-Fu Liu
OBJECTIVE: In Taiwan, the number of medical disputes and litigation has increased dramatically over the past 20 years. The seriousness of medical disputes continuing grows in clinical practice, especially in obstetricians. This study provided a possible solution to the medical dispute litigation issue. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Ministry of Health and Welfare (MOHW) compensation program for birth incidents has been implemented since 2012 and it provided pecuniary compensation for mothers, newborns, and fetuses who got injured or died in birth-related medical incidents...
June 2017: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598244/accumulation-of-undegraded-autophagosomes-by-expression-of-dominant-negative-stx17-syntaxin-17-mutants
#8
Masaaki Uematsu, Taki Nishimura, Yuriko Sakamaki, Hayashi Yamamoto, Noboru Mizushima
Macroautophagy/autophagy, which is one of the main degradation systems in the cell, is mediated by a specialized organelle, the autophagosome. Purification of autophagosomes prior to fusion with lysosomes is important for both mechanistic and physiological studies of the autophagosome. Here, we report a simple method to accumulate undigested autophagosomes. Overexpression of the autophagosomal Qa-SNARE STX17 (syntaxin 17) lacking the N-terminal domain (NTD) or N-terminally tagged GFP-STX17 causes accumulation of autophagosomes...
June 9, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587231/a-novel-lid-covering-peptide-inhibitor-of-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-derived-from-%C3%AE-d-conotoxin-gexxa
#9
Longjin Yang, Han-Shen Tae, Zhou Fan, Xiaoxia Shao, Shaoqiong Xu, Suwen Zhao, David J Adams, Chunguang Wang
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) play a fundamental role in nervous signal transmission, therefore various antagonists and agonists are highly desired to explore the structure and function of nAChRs. Recently, a novel dimeric αD-conotoxin GeXXA was identified to inhibit nAChRs by binding at the top surface of the receptors, and the monomeric C-terminal domain (CTD) of αD-GeXXA retains some inhibitory activity. In this study, the internal dimeric N-terminal domain (NTD) of this conopeptide was further investigated...
June 5, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584581/preconceptional-use-of-folic-acid-and-knowledge-about-folic-acid-among-low-income-pregnant-women-in-korea
#10
Jihyun Kim, Miyong Yon, Cho-Il Kim, Yoonna Lee, Gui-Im Moon, Jinhwan Hong, Taisun Hyun
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Folic acid supplementation before pregnancy is known to significantly reduce the risk of having a baby with neural tube defects (NTDs). Therefore, it is important for women to be aware of the effects of folic acid supplementation before pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the awareness and preconceptional use of folic acid and to assess the current knowledge about folic acid among low-income pregnant women in Korea. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A questionnaire survey was conducted in 2012...
June 2017: Nutrition Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579621/fetal-pathology-of-neural-tube-defects-an-overview-of-68-cases
#11
Katharina Schoner, Roland Axt-Fliedner, Rainer Bald, Barbara Fritz, Juergen Kohlhase, Thomas Kohl, Helga Rehder
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of neural tube defects worldwide is 1 - 2 per 1000 neonates. Neural tube defects result from a disturbance of neurulation in the 3rd or 4th week of development and thus represent the earliest manifestation of organ malformation. Neural tube defects (NTD) are classified into cranial dysraphism leading to anencephaly or meningoencephalocele and spinal dysraphism with or without meningomyelocele. In isolated form they have multifactorial causes, and the empirical risk of recurrence in Central Europe is 2%...
May 2017: Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569432/plasma-folate-levels-and-associated-factors-in-women-planning-to-become-pregnant-in-a-population-with-high-prevalence-of-neural-tube-defects
#12
Rui Ma, Linlin Wang, Lei Jin, Zhiwen Li, Aiguo Ren
BACKGROUND: Optimal blood folate levels of women before pregnancy are critical to the prevention of neural tube defects (NTDs). However, few studies have focused on blood folate levels of women planning to become pregnant. The aims of this study were to assess plasma folate levels in women who planned to become pregnant in a population with high prevalence of NTDs, to identify factors associated with plasma folate levels, and to evaluate the risk of NTDs at the population level. METHODS: A total of 2065 women were enrolled at the time of premarital health check-up in two rural counties in northern China from November 2009 to December 2012...
June 1, 2017: Birth defects research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566288/point-mutations-in-transactive-response-dna-binding-protein-43-tdp-43-s-n-terminal-domain-compromise-its-stability-dimerization-and-functions
#13
Miguel Mompeán, Valentina Romano, David Pantoja-Uceda, Cristiana Stuani, Francisco E Baralle, Emanuele Buratti, Douglas V Laurents
Transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) performs multiple tasks in mRNA processing, transport and translational regulation, but it also forms aggregates implicated in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). TDP-43's N-terminal domain (NTD) is important for these activities and dysfunctions; however, there is an open debate about whether or not it adopts a specifically folded, stable structure. Here, we studied NTD mutations designed to destabilize its structure utilizing NMR and fluorescence spectroscopies, analytical ultracentrifugation, splicing assays and in cell microscopy...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552302/amino-silica-graphene-oxide-nanocomposite-coated-cotton-as-an-efficient-sorbent-for-needle-trap-device
#14
Nahid Heidari, Alireza Ghiasvand, Sana Abdolhosseini
Cotton and silica are easily available and plentiful natural materials, with significant sorptive properties, which can be provided easily at low prices. In this research, a novel and effective sorbent was synthesized by covalent attachment of amino-silica/graphene oxide nanocomposite to the cotton (Cot/GO/Si) and packed into a stainless steel needle for preparation a needle trap device (NTD). The nanocomposite sorbent was characterized by SEM and FT-IR. The Cot/GO/Si packed NTD was used for direct extraction of PAHs from polluted soil samples, followed by GC-FID measurement...
July 4, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545108/ntd-policy-priorities-science-values-and-agenda-setting
#15
Ana S Iltis, Kirstin R W Matthews
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542653/-folate-and-pregnancy-current-concepts-it-is-required-folic-acid-supplementation
#16
Erika Castaño, Raúl Piñuñuri, Sandra Hirsch, Ana María Ronco
Folate intake during pregnancy is essential for an adequate fetal and placental development and for the long time health of the individual. Its deficiency may induce fetal pathologies, including neural tube disease (NTD). Therefore, several countries implemented public policies to fortify foods with folic acid (FA). Chile started the fortification of wheat flour with FA in the year 2000, decreasing a 43% the prevalence of NTD. However, despite the high consumption of bread (the main fortified food with FA) by our population, a high number of pregnant women consume FA supplements, thus, over passing the maximal recommended FA intake...
April 2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537221/ethical-stumbling-blocks-in-uncovering-folate-deficiency-as-a-preventable-cause-of-spina-bifida
#17
Lars H Breimer, Torbjörn K Nilsson
The year 2016 witnessed the anniversaries of several key events related to the prevention of neural tube defects (NTD) with folate supplementation. However, the road leading up to this achievement was full of stumbling blocks, both in terms of research ethics and researcher ethics. First, the decisions of ethics review boards differed with respect to allowing placebo groups in folate trials, thus reducing the level of evidence obtained from the earliest studies. Second, statisticians insisted on analysing the outcome of a trial by intention-to-treat - which turned out to be non-significant - rather than by treatment received, which was statistically significant...
May 18, 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536523/positive-modulatory-interactions-of-nmda-receptor-glun1-2b-ligand-binding-domains-attenuate-antagonists-activity
#18
Douglas Bledsoe, Ceyhun Tamer, Ivana Mesic, Christian Madry, Bradley G Klein, Bodo Laube, Blaise M Costa
N-methyl D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) play crucial role in normal brain function and pathogenesis of neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. Functional tetra-heteromeric NMDAR contains two obligatory GluN1 subunits and two identical or different non-GluN1 subunits that include six different gene products; four GluN2 (A-D) and two GluN3 (A-B) subunits. The heterogeneity of subunit combination facilities the distinct function of NMDARs. All GluN subunits contain an extracellular N-terminal Domain (NTD) and ligand binding domain (LBD), transmembrane domain (TMD) and an intracellular C-terminal domain (CTD)...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536429/a-novel-neutralizing-monoclonal-antibody-targeting-the-n-terminal-domain-of-the-mers-cov-spike-protein
#19
Yingzhu Chen, Shuai Lu, Hao Jia, Yao Deng, Jianfang Zhou, Baoying Huang, Yueyang Yu, Jiaming Lan, Wenling Wang, Yongliang Lou, Kun Qin, Wenjie Tan
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has caused fatal infections, some through hospital-acquired transmission, in affected regions since its emergence in 2012. Although the virus is not pandemic among humans, it poses a great threat to public health due to its zoonotic origin. Thus, both preventative and therapeutic countermeasures are urgently needed. In this study, we discovered a panel of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against MERS-CoV, which mapped to a wide range of regions on the spike (S) protein of the virus...
May 24, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529950/tumor-selective-cytotoxicity-of-nitidine-results-from-its-rapid-accumulation-into-mitochondria
#20
Hironori Iwasaki, Masashi Inafuku, Naoyuki Taira, Seikoh Saito, Hirosuke Oku
We identified a nitidine- (NTD-) accumulating organelle and evaluated the net cytotoxicity of accumulated NTD. To evaluate tumor cell selectivity of the drug, we evaluated its selective cytotoxicity against 39 human cancer cell lines (JFCR39 panel), and the profile was compared with those of known anticancer drugs. Organelle specificity of NTD was visualized using organelle-targeted fluorescent proteins. Real-time analysis of cell growth, proliferation, and cytotoxicity was performed using the xCELLigence system...
2017: BioMed Research International
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