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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934550/structural-and-mechanical-roles-for-the-c-terminal-non-repetitive-domain-become-apparent-in-recombinant-spider-aciniform-silk
#1
Lingling Xu, Thierry Lefèvre, Kathleen E Orrell, Qing Meng, Michèle Auger, Xiang-Qin Liu, Jan K Rainey
Spider aciniform (or wrapping) silk is the toughest of the seven types of spider silks/glue due to a combination of high elasticity and strength. Like most spider silk proteins (spidroins), aciniform spidroin (AcSp1) has a large core repetitive domain flanked by relatively short N- and C-terminal non-repetitive domains (the NTD and CTD, respectively). The major ampullate silk protein (MaSp) CTD has been shown to control protein solubility and fiber formation, but the aciniform CTD function remains unknown. Here, we compare fiber mechanical properties, solution-state structuring, and fibrous state secondary structural composition and orientation relative to native aciniform silk for two AcSp1 repeat units with or without fused AcSp1- and MaSp-derived CTDs alongside three AcSp1 repeat units without a CTD...
September 21, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916724/a-novel-mechanism-for-ca-2-calmodulin-dependent-protein-kinase-ii-targeting-to-l-type-ca-2-channels-that-initiates-long-range-signaling-to-the-nucleus
#2
Xiaohan Wang, Christian R Marks, Tyler L Perfitt, Terunaga Nakagawa, Amy Lee, David A Jacobson, Roger J Colbran
Neuronal excitation can induce new mRNA transcription, a phenomenon called excitation-transcription (E-T) coupling. Among several pathways implicated in E-T coupling, activation of voltage-gated L-type Ca(2+) channels (LTCCs) in the plasma membrane can initiate a signaling pathway that ultimately increases nuclear CREB phosphorylation and, in most cases, expression of immediate early genes. Initiation of this long-range pathway has been shown to require recruitment of Ca(2+)-sensitive enzymes to a nanodomain in the immediate vicinity of the LTCC by an unknown mechanism...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910299/access-to-benznidazole-for-chagas-disease-in-the-united-states-cautious-optimism
#3
Jonathan D Alpern, Rogelio Lopez-Velez, William M Stauffer
Drugs for neglected tropical diseases (NTD) are being excessively priced in the United States. Benznidazole, the first-line drug for Chagas disease, may become approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and manufactured by a private company in the US, thus placing it at risk of similar pricing. Chagas disease is an NTD caused by Trypanosoma cruzi; it is endemic to Latin America, infecting 8 million individuals. Human migration has changed the epidemiology causing nonendemic countries to face increased challenges in diagnosing and managing patients with Chagas disease...
September 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894244/impact-of-protein-o-glcnacylation-on-neural-tube-malformation-in-diabetic-embryopathy
#4
Gyuyoup Kim, Lixue Cao, E Albert Reece, Zhiyong Zhao
Diabetes mellitus in early pregnancy can cause neural tube defects (NTDs) in embryos by perturbing protein activity, causing cellular stress, and increasing programmed cell death (apoptosis) in the tissues required for neurulation. Hyperglycemia augments a branch pathway in glycolysis, the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP), to increase uridine diphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc). GlcNAc can be added to proteins by O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) to regulate protein activity. In the embryos of diabetic mice, OGT is highly activated in association with increases in global protein O-GlcNAcylation...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893908/the-intrinsically-disordered-n-terminal-domain-of-galectin-3-dynamically-mediates-multisite-self-association-of-the-protein-through-fuzzy-interactions
#5
Yu-Hao Lin, De-Chen Qiu, Wen-Han Chang, Yi-Qi Yeh, U-Ser Jeng, Fu-Tong Liu, Jie-Rong Huang
Galectins are a family of lectins that bind β-galactosides through their conserved carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) and can induce aggregation with glycoproteins or glycolipids on the cell surface and thereby regulate cell activation, migration, adhesion, and signaling. Galectin-3 has an intrinsically disordered N-terminal domain (NTD) and a canonical CRD. Unlike the other 14 known galectins in mammalian cells, which have dimeric or tandem-repeated CRDs enabling multivalency for various functions, galectin-3 is monomeric, and its functional multivalency therefore is somewhat of a mystery...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893534/solution-structure-of-the-n-terminal-domain-of-mediator-subunit-med26-and-molecular-characterization-of-its-interaction-with-eaf1-and-taf7
#6
Zoé Lens, François-Xavier Cantrelle, Riccardo Peruzzini, Xavier Hanoulle, Frédérique Dewitte, Elisabeth Ferreira, Jean-Luc Baert, Didier Monté, Marc Aumercier, Vincent Villeret, Alexis Verger, Isabelle Landrieu
MED26 is a subunit of Mediator, a large complex central to the regulation of gene transcription by RNA Polymerase II (RNA Pol II). MED26 plays a role in the switch between the initiation and elongation phases of RNA Pol II-mediated transcription process. Regulation of these steps requires successive binding of MED26 N-Terminal domain (NTD) to TBP-associated factor 7 (TAF7) and EAF1 (Eleven-nineteen lysine-rich in leukemia-Associated Factor 1). In order to investigate the mechanism of regulation by MED26, MED26-NTD structure was solved by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), revealing a 4-helix bundle...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878431/podoconiosis-in-ethiopia-from-neglect-to-priority-public-health-problem
#7
Kebede Deribe, Biruck Kebede, Belete Mengistu, Henok Negussie, Mesfin Sileshi, Mossie Tamiru, Sara Tomczyk, Fasil Tekola-Ayele, Gail Davey, Amha Fentaye
Podoconiosis is a geochemical disease occurring in individuals exposed to red clay soil of volcanic origin. This Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD) is highly prevalent in Ethiopia. According to the nationwide mapping in 2013, the disease is endemic in 345 districts, where an estimated 35 million people live. The government of Ethiopia prioritized podoconiosis as one of eight priority NTDs and included it in the national integrated master plan for NTDs. An integrated lymphoedema management guideline has been developed...
2017: Ethiopian Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878427/mortality-and-disability-adjusted-life-years-dalys-for-common-neglected-tropical-diseases-in-ethiopia-1990-2015-evidence-from-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2015
#8
A Deribew, B Kebede, G A Tessema, Y A Adama, A Misganaw, T Gebre, A Hailu, S Biadgilign, A Amberbir, B Desalegn, A A Abajobir, O Shafi, S F Abera, N Negussu, B Mengistu, A T Amare, A Mulugeta, Z Kebede, B Mengistu, Z Tadesse, M Sileshi, M Tamiru, E A Chromwel, S D Glenn, J D Stanaway, K Deribe
INTRODUCTION: Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are important public health problems in Ethiopia. In 2013, the Federal Ministry of Health (FMOH) has launched a national NTD master plan to eliminate major NTDs of public health importance by 2020. Benchmarking the current status of NTDs in the country is important to monitor and evaluate the progress in the implementation of interventions and their impacts. Therefore, this study aims to assess the trends of mortality and Disability-adjusted Life-Years (DALY) for the priority NTDs over the last 25 years...
2017: Ethiopian Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870534/assessing-the-insecticide-susceptibility-status-of-field-population-of-phlebotomus-papatasi-diptera-psychodidae-in-a-hyperendemic-area-of-zoonotic-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-esfahan-province-central-iran
#9
Leila Shirani-Bidabadi, Alireza Zahraei-Ramazani, Mohammad Reza Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Yavar Rassi, Amir Ahmad Akhavan, Mohammad Ali Oshaghi, Ahmad Ali Enayati, Zahra Saeidi, Reza Jafari, Hassan Vatandoost
Leishmaniasis is a Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD) and emerging parasitic infection that affect mainly poor regions around the world. This study aimed to determine the baseline susceptibility of Phlebotomus papatasi to commonly used insecticides in a hyper endemic area using WHO standard procedure in central Iran. A total of 4-5 replicates containing 120-200 sand flies were used for each insecticide. Baseline susceptibility to DDT and pyrethroids was assessed on 5326 specimens collected from the study area...
September 8, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863261/characterization-of-hsp90-co-chaperone-p23-cleavage-by-caspase-7-uncovers-a-peptidase-substrate-interaction-involving-intrinsically-disordered-regions
#10
Cyrielle Martini, Mikaël Bédard, Pierre Lavigne, Jean-Bernard Denault
Caspases are cysteinyl peptidases involved in inflammation and apoptosis during which hundreds of proteins are cleaved by executioner caspase-3 and -7. Despite the fact that caspase-3 has a higher catalytic activity, caspase-7 is more proficient at cleaving poly(ADP ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) because it uses an exosite within its N-terminal domain (NTD). Here, we demonstrate that molecular determinants also located in the NTD enhance the recognition and proteolysis of the Hsp90 co-chaperone p23. Structure-activity relationship analyses using mutagenesis of caspase-7 NTD and kinetics show that residues 36 to 45 of caspase-7, which overlap with residues necessary for efficacious PARP1 cleavage, participate in p23 recognition...
September 1, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862178/spectrum-of-prenatally-detected-central-nervous-system-malformations-neural-tube-defects-continue-to-be-the-leading-foetal-malformation
#11
Anjurani Siddesh, Geetika Gupta, Ram Sharan, Meenal Agarwal, Shubha R Phadke
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Prenatal diagnosis of malformations is an important method of prevention and control of congenital anomalies with poor prognosis. Central nervous system (CNS) malformations amongst these are the most common. The information about the prevalence and spectrum of prenatally detected malformations is crucial for genetic counselling and policymaking for population-based preventive programmes. The objective of this study was to study the spectrum of prenatally detected CNS malformations and their association with chromosomal abnormalities and autopsy findings...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828375/community-based-field-implementation-scenarios-of-a-short-message-service-reporting-tool-for-lymphatic-filariasis-case-estimates-in-africa-and-asia
#12
Hayley E Mableson, Sarah Martindale, Michelle C Stanton, Charles Mackenzie, Louise A Kelly-Hope
BACKGROUND: Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a neglected tropical disease (NTD) targeted for global elimination by 2020. Currently there is considerable international effort to scale-up morbidity management activities in endemic countries, however there remains a need for rapid, cost-effective methods and adaptable tools for obtaining estimates of people presenting with clinical manifestations of LF, namely lymphoedema and hydrocele. The mHealth tool 'MeasureSMS-Morbidity' allows health workers in endemic areas to use their own mobile phones to send clinical information in a simple format using short message service (SMS)...
2017: MHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821617/janus-kinase-3-regulates-adherens-junction-and-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-through-beta-catenin
#13
Jayshree Mishra, Jugal Kishore Das, Narendra Kumar
Compromise in adherens junction (AJ) is associated with several chronic inflammatory diseases. Previously we reported that Janus kinase-3, a non-receptor tyrosine kinase plays a crucial role in AJ formation through its interaction with beta-catenin. In this report, we characterize the structural determinants responsible for Jak3 interactions with beta-catenin and determine the functional implications of previously unknown tyrosine residues on beta-catenin phosphorylated by Jak3. We demonstrate that Jak3 auto-phosphorylation was the rate- limiting step during Jak3 trans-phosphorylation of beta-catenin where Jak3 directly phosphorylated three tyrosine residues viz...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813004/lactose-binding-induces-opposing-dynamics-changes-in-human-galectins-revealed-by-nmr-based-hydrogen-deuterium-exchange
#14
Chih-Ta Henry Chien, Meng-Ru Ho, Chung-Hung Lin, Shang-Te Danny Hsu
Galectins are β-galactoside-binding proteins implicated in a myriad of biological functions. Despite their highly conserved carbohydrate binding motifs with essentially identical structures, their affinities for lactose, a common galectin inhibitor, vary significantly. Here, we aimed to examine the molecular basis of differential lactose affinities amongst galectins using solution-based techniques. Consistent dissociation constants of lactose binding were derived from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence, isothermal titration calorimetry and bio-layer interferometry for human galectin-1 (hGal1), galectin-7 (hGal7), and the N-terminal and C-terminal domains of galectin-8 (hGal8(NTD) and hGal8(CTD), respectively)...
August 16, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805617/molecular-cytogenetic-characterization-of-a-duplication-of-15q24-2-q26-2-associated-with-anencephaly-and-neural-tube-defect
#15
Chih-Ping Chen, Chen-Yu Chen, Schu-Rern Chern, Peih-Shan Wu, Shin-Wen Chen, Shih-Ting Lai, Chen-Chi Lee, Chien-Wen Yang, Wayseen Wang
OBJECTIVE: We present molecular cytogenetic characterization of a duplication of 15q24.2-q26.2 associated with anencephaly and neural tube defect (NTD). CASE REPORT: A 35-year-old pregnant woman was found to have a fetus with anencephaly by prenatal ultrasound at 12 weeks of gestation. The pregnancy was subsequently terminated, and a malformed fetus was delivered with anencephaly. Cytogenetic analysis of the cultured placental tissues revealed a karyotype of 46,XX,dup(15) (q24...
August 2017: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801997/prevalence-of-low-bone-mass-among-adolescents-with-nontransfusion-dependent-hemoglobin-e-%C3%AE-thalassemia-and-its-relationship-with-anemia-severity
#16
Pairunyar Nakavachara, Jaturat Petchkul, Krittha Jeerawongpanich, Pornpimol Kiattisakthavee, Teerarat Manpayak, Parichat Netsakulnee, Katharee Chaichanwattanakul, Julaporn Pooliam, Somdet Srichairatanakool, Vip Viprakasit
BACKGROUND: Low bone mass is common among adolescents with transfusion-dependent β-thalassemia despite adequate transfusion and iron chelation. However, there are few reports regarding bone mineral density (BMD) among adolescents with nontransfusion-dependent thalassemia (NTDT). Indeed, only BMD data in patients with nontransfusion-dependent (NTD) β-thalassemia intermedia have been reported. No previous study has investigated BMD among adolescents with NTD hemoglobin (Hb) E/β-thalassemia...
August 12, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797243/polymorphism-and-structure-of-style-specific-arabinogalactan-proteins-as-determinants-of-pollen-tube-growth-in-nicotiana
#17
Andrzej K Noyszewski, Yi-Cheng Liu, Koichiro Tamura, Alan G Smith
BACKGROUND: Pollen tube growth and fertilization are key processes in angiosperm sexual reproduction. The transmitting tract (TT) of Nicotiana tabacum controls pollen tube growth in part by secreting pistil extensin-like protein III (PELPIII), transmitting-tract-specific (TTS) protein and 120 kDa glycoprotein (120 K) into the stylar extracellular matrix. The three arabinogalactan proteins (AGP) are referred to as stylar AGPs and are the focus of this research. The transmitting tract regulates pollen tube growth, promoting fertilization or rejecting pollen tubes...
August 10, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793309/the-microbiome-in-urogenital-schistosomiasis-and-induced-bladder-pathologies
#18
Adewale S Adebayo, Mangesh Survayanshi, Shrikanth Bhute, Atinuke M Agunloye, Raphael D Isokpehi, Chiaka I Anumudu, Yogesh S Shouche
BACKGROUND: Human schistosomiasis is a highly prevalent neglected tropical disease (NTD) caused by Schistosoma species. Research on the molecular mechanisms influencing the outcomes of bladder infection by Schistosoma haematobium is urgently needed to develop new diagnostics, therapeutics and infection prevention strategies. The objective of the research study was to determine the microbiome features and changes in urine during urogenital schistosomiasis and induced bladder pathologies...
August 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763666/are-concentrations-of-alkaline-earth-elements-in-maternal-hair-associated-with-risk-of-neural-tube-defects
#19
Zhenjiang Li, Bin Wang, Wenhua Huo, Yingying Liu, Yibing Zhu, Jing Xie, Zhiwen Li, Aiguo Ren
The relationship between maternal intake of alkaline earth elements (AEEs) during the period of neural tube closure and the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs) is still unclear. We propose that AEE deficiency during the early period of pregnancy is associated with an elevated risk of NTDs in the offspring. In this study, we recruited 191 women with NTD-affected pregnancies (cases) and 261 women who delivered healthy infants (controls). The concentrations of four AEEs (Ca, Mg, Sr, Ba) in maternal hair sections that grew during early pregnancy were analyzed...
December 31, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762673/interaction-between-maternal-and-paternal-shmt1-c1420t-predisposes-to-neural-tube-defects-in-the-fetus-evidence-from-case-control-and-family-based-triad-approaches
#20
Prasoona K Rebekah, Sunitha Tella, Srinadh Buragadda, Muni Kumari Tiruvatturu, Jyothy Akka
BACKGROUND: Neural tube defects (NTDs) are caused by the failure of neural tube formation which occurs during early embryonic development. NTDs are the most severe and leading cause of fetal mortality. Serine hydroxymethyl transferase (SHMT1) provides one-carbon units necessary for embryogenesis and defects in one-carbon production result in specific pathological conditions during pregnancy. The present study is aimed to evaluate the association of SHMT1 C1420T with NTD risk in the fetus using fetal, maternal and paternal groups by applying both case-control and family-based triad approaches...
July 17, 2017: Birth defects research
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