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Global warming

Anthony C Jones, James M Haywood, Nick Dunstone, Kerry Emanuel, Matthew K Hawcroft, Kevin I Hodges, Andy Jones
Solar geoengineering refers to a range of proposed methods for counteracting global warming by artificially reducing sunlight at Earth's surface. The most widely known solar geoengineering proposal is stratospheric aerosol injection (SAI), which has impacts analogous to those from volcanic eruptions. Observations following major volcanic eruptions indicate that aerosol enhancements confined to a single hemisphere effectively modulate North Atlantic tropical cyclone (TC) activity in the following years. Here we investigate the effects of both single-hemisphere and global SAI scenarios on North Atlantic TC activity using the HadGEM2-ES general circulation model and various TC identification methods...
November 14, 2017: Nature Communications
Jaime Martinez-Urtaza, Ronny van Aerle, Michel Abanto, Julie Haendiges, Robert A Myers, Joaquin Trinanes, Craig Baker-Austin, Narjol Gonzalez-Escalona
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the leading cause of seafood-related infections with illnesses undergoing a geographic expansion. In this process of expansion, the most fundamental change has been the transition from infections caused by local strains to the surge of pandemic clonal types. Pandemic clone sequence type 3 (ST3) was the only example of transcontinental spreading until 2012, when ST36 was detected outside the region where it is endemic in the U.S. Pacific Northwest causing infections along the U.S. northeast coast and Spain...
November 14, 2017: MBio
W Herbert Wilson
This citizen-science project is the first systematic study of patterns of spring migration of Maine migratory birds. A comparison of arrival data from the Maine Ornithological Society from 1899-1911 with the modern data (1994-2017) collected for this study indicated that most species are now not arriving earlier, contrary to the predictions of earlier arrivals in the face of global warming. Arrival was synchronous across the lower two-thirds of the state for most species, although some species showed delayed arrivals along the northeastern coast compared to southern coastal areas...
November 12, 2017: Biology
Travis A Courtney, Mario Lebrato, Nicholas R Bates, Andrew Collins, Samantha J de Putron, Rebecca Garley, Rod Johnson, Juan-Carlos Molinero, Timothy J Noyes, Christopher L Sabine, Andreas J Andersson
Modern reef-building corals sustain a wide range of ecosystem services because of their ability to build calcium carbonate reef systems. The influence of environmental variables on coral calcification rates has been extensively studied, but our understanding of their relative importance is limited by the absence of in situ observations and the ability to decouple the interactions between different properties. We show that temperature is the primary driver of coral colony (Porites astreoides and Diploria labyrinthiformis) and reef-scale calcification rates over a 2-year monitoring period from the Bermuda coral reef...
November 2017: Science Advances
Paul F Hoffman, Dorian S Abbot, Yosef Ashkenazy, Douglas I Benn, Jochen J Brocks, Phoebe A Cohen, Grant M Cox, Jessica R Creveling, Yannick Donnadieu, Douglas H Erwin, Ian J Fairchild, David Ferreira, Jason C Goodman, Galen P Halverson, Malte F Jansen, Guillaume Le Hir, Gordon D Love, Francis A Macdonald, Adam C Maloof, Camille A Partin, Gilles Ramstein, Brian E J Rose, Catherine V Rose, Peter M Sadler, Eli Tziperman, Aiko Voigt, Stephen G Warren
Geological evidence indicates that grounded ice sheets reached sea level at all latitudes during two long-lived Cryogenian (58 and ≥5 My) glaciations. Combined uranium-lead and rhenium-osmium dating suggests that the older (Sturtian) glacial onset and both terminations were globally synchronous. Geochemical data imply that CO2 was 10(2) PAL (present atmospheric level) at the younger termination, consistent with a global ice cover. Sturtian glaciation followed breakup of a tropical supercontinent, and its onset coincided with the equatorial emplacement of a large igneous province...
November 2017: Science Advances
K Haustein, M R Allen, P M Forster, F E L Otto, D M Mitchell, H D Matthews, D J Frame
We propose a simple real-time index of global human-induced warming and assess its robustness to uncertainties in climate forcing and short-term climate fluctuations. This index provides improved scientific context for temperature stabilisation targets and has the potential to decrease the volatility of climate policy. We quantify uncertainties arising from temperature observations, climate radiative forcings, internal variability and the model response. Our index and the associated rate of human-induced warming is compatible with a range of other more sophisticated methods to estimate the human contribution to observed global temperature change...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jacob B Socolar, Peter N Epanchin, Steven R Beissinger, Morgan W Tingley
Species respond to climate change in two dominant ways: range shifts in latitude or elevation and phenological shifts of life-history events. Range shifts are widely viewed as the principal mechanism for thermal niche tracking, and phenological shifts in birds and other consumers are widely understood as the principal mechanism for tracking temporal peaks in biotic resources. However, phenological and range shifts each present simultaneous opportunities for temperature and resource tracking, although the possible role for phenological shifts in thermal niche tracking has been widely overlooked...
November 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Vanessa Moreira Câmara Fernandes, Náthali Maria Machado de Lima, Daniel Roush, Jennifer Rudgers, Scott L Collins, Ferran Garcia-Pichel
Cyanobacteria typically colonize the surface of arid soils, building biological soil crust (biocrusts) that provide a variety of ecosystem benefits, ranging from fertilization to stabilization against erosion. We investigated how future scenarios in precipitation anticipated for the Northern Chihuahuan Desert affected abundance and composition of biocrust cyanobacteria in two grassland ecosystems. Scenarios included a decrease in precipitation and a delay of monsoon rainfall. After three years, both treatments negatively affected cyanobacteria, although the effects of monsoon delay were milder than those of decreased precipitation...
November 10, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
Qing Zeng, Yamian Zhang, Li Wen, Zhaxijie Li, Hairui Duo, Guangchun Lei
Climate change affects the distribution and persistence of wildlife. Broad scale studies have demonstrated that climate change shifts the geographic ranges and phenology of species. These findings are influential for making high level strategies but not practical enough to guide site specific management. In this study, we explored the environment factors affecting the population of Bar-headed Goose in the key breeding site of Qinghai using generalized additive mixed model (GAMM). Our results showed that 1) there were significant increasing trends in climate variables and river flows to the Qinghai Lake; 2) NDVI in the sites decreased significantly despite the regional positive trend induced by the warmer and wetter climate; 3) NDVI at site scale was negatively correlated to lake water level; and 4) the abundance of Bar-headed Goose decreased significantly at all sites...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
Sjannie Lefevre, David J McKenzie, Göran E Nilsson
In a recent Opinion paper, Pauly and Cheung (2017) argue against the criticisms we raised (Lefevre et al., 2017) about the Gill-Oxygen Limitation Theory (GOLT) and its application in modelling. Rather than providing point-by-point responses to their arguments we highlight some key issues that, in our opinion, disqualify GOLT as a mechanistic basis for model projections about the future size of fishes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
November 9, 2017: Global Change Biology
Rutger A Wilschut, Julio C P Silva, Paolina Garbeva, Wim H van der Putten
An increasing number of studies report plant range expansions to higher latitudes and altitudes in response to global warming. However, consequences for interactions with other species in the novel ranges are poorly understood. Here, we examine how range-expanding plant species interact with root-feeding nematodes from the new range. Root-feeding nematodes are ubiquitous belowground herbivores that may impact the structure and composition of natural vegetation. Because of their ecological novelty, we hypothesized that range-expanding plant species will be less suitable hosts for root-feeding nematodes than native congeneric plant species...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Stephanie Chedraoui, Alain Abi-Rizk, Marc El-Beyrouthy, Lamis Chalak, Naim Ouaini, Loïc Rajjou
Caper (Capparis spinosa L.) is a xerophytic shrub with a remarkable adaptability to harsh environments. This plant species is of great interest for its medicinal/pharmacological properties and its culinary uses. Its phytochemical importance relies on many bioactive components present in different organs and its cultivation can be of considerable economic value. Moreover, taxonomic identification of C. spinosa L. has been difficult due to its wide heterogeneity, and many authors fell into confusion due to the scarcity of genetic studies...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Per Wegge, Jørund Rolstad
Global warming is predicted to adversely affect the reproduction of birds, especially in northern latitudes. A recent study in Finland inferred that declining populations of black grouse, Tetrao tetrix, could be attributed to advancement of the time of mating and chicks hatching too early-supporting the mismatch hypothesis. Here, we examine the breeding success of sympatric capercaillie, T. urogallus, and black grouse over a 38-year period in southeast Norway. Breeding season temperatures increased, being most pronounced in April...
November 15, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Lingxue Yu, Tingxiang Liu, Kun Bu, Fengqin Yan, Jiuchun Yang, Liping Chang, Shuwen Zhang
Global warming has contributed to the extension of the growing season in North Hemisphere. In this paper, we investigated the spatial characteristics of the date of the start of the season (SOS), the date of the end of the season (EOS) and the length of the season (LOS) and their change trends from 1982 to 2015 in Northeast China. Our results showed that there was a significant advance of SOS and a significant delay of EOS, especially in the north part of Northeast China. For the average change slope of EOS in the study area, the delay trend was 0...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
D P S Bekaert, B D Hamlington, B Buzzanga, C E Jones
Over the past century, the Hampton Roads area of the Chesapeake Bay region has experienced one of the highest rates of relative sea level rise on the Atlantic coast of the United States. This rate of relative sea level rise results from a combination of land subsidence, which has long been known to be present in the region, and rising seas associated with global warming on long timescales and exacerbated by shifts in ocean dynamics on shorter timescales. An understanding of the current-day magnitude of each component is needed to create accurate projections of future relative sea level rise upon which to base planning efforts...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
K L Ricke, R J Millar, D G MacMartin
In the aftermath of the Paris Agreement, the climate science and policy communities are beginning to assess the feasibility and potential benefits of limiting global warming to 1.5 °C or 2 °C above preindustrial. Understanding the dependence of the magnitude and duration of possible temporary exceedance (i.e., "overshoot") of temperature targets on sustainable energy decarbonization futures and carbon dioxide (CO2) removal rates will be an important contribution to this policy discussion. Drawing upon results from the mitigation literature and the IPCC Working Group 3 (WG3) scenario database, we examine the global mean temperature implications of differing, independent pathways for the decarbonization of global energy supply and the implementation of negative emissions technologies...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
Huda Mahmoud, Liny Jose
Corals that naturally thrive under extreme conditions are gaining increasing attention due to their importance as living models to understand the impact of global warming on world corals. Here, we present the first metagenomic study of viral communities in corals thriving in a thermally variable water body in which the temperature fluctuates between 11 and 39°C in different seasons. The viral assemblages of two of the most abundant massive (Porites harrisoni) and branching (Acropora downingi) corals in offshore and inshore reef systems in the northern Arabian Gulf were investigated...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Mingxing Sun, Yutao Wang, Lei Shi
Agricultural straw-based pulp making plays a vital role in pulp and paper industry, especially in forest deficient countries such as China. However, the environmental performance of straw-based pulp has scarcely been studied. A life cycle assessment on wheat straw-based pulp making in China was conducted to fill of the gaps in comprehensive environmental assessments of agricultural straw-based pulp making. On average, the global warming potential (GWP), GWP excluding biogenic carbon, acidification potential and eutrophication potential of wheat straw based pulp making are 2299kg CO2-eq, 4550kg CO2-eq, 16...
October 27, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Chad A Greene, Donald D Blankenship, David E Gwyther, Alessandro Silvano, Esmee van Wijk
Totten Glacier in East Antarctica has the potential to raise global sea level by at least 3.5 m, but its sensitivity to climate change has not been well understood. The glacier is coupled to the ocean by the Totten Ice Shelf, which has exhibited variable speed, thickness, and grounding line position in recent years. To understand the drivers of this interannual variability, we compare ice velocity to oceanic wind stress and find a consistent pattern of ice-shelf acceleration 19 months after upwelling anomalies occur at the continental shelf break nearby...
November 2017: Science Advances
Rajesh Singh, Michael S Guzman, Arpita Bose
The deep ocean and its sediments are a continuous source of non-methane short-chain alkanes (SCAs) including ethane, propane, and butane. Their high global warming potential, and contribution to local carbon and sulfur budgets has drawn significant scientific attention. Importantly, microbes can use gaseous alkanes and oxidize them to CO2, thus acting as effective biofilters. A relative decrease of these gases with a concomitant (13)C enrichment of propane and n-butane in interstitial waters vs. the source suggests microbial anaerobic oxidation...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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