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Global warming

Celine Tasset, Avilash Singh Yadav, Sridevi Sureshkumar, Rupali Singh, Lennard van der Woude, Maxim Nekrasov, David Tremethick, Martijn van Zanten, Sureshkumar Balasubramanian
Ambient temperature affects plant growth and even minor changes can substantially impact crop yields. The underlying mechanisms of temperature perception and response are just beginning to emerge. Chromatin remodeling, via the eviction of the histone variant H2A.Z containing nucleosomes, is a critical component of thermal response in plants. However, the role of histone modifications remains unknown. Here, through a forward genetic screen, we identify POWERDRESS (PWR), a SANT-domain containing protein known to interact with HISTONE DEACETYLASE 9 (HDA9), as a novel factor required for thermomorphogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana...
March 16, 2018: PLoS Genetics
Lu Shen, Loretta J Mickley, Eric M Leibensperger, Mingwei Li
We find that summertime air quality in the eastern U.S. displays strong dependence on North Atlantic sea surface temperatures, resulting from large-scale ocean-atmosphere interactions. Using observations, reanalysis data sets, and climate model simulations, we further identify a multidecadal variability in surface air quality driven by the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). In one-half cycle (~35 years) of the AMO from cold to warm phase, summertime maximum daily 8 h ozone concentrations increase by 1-4 ppbv and PM2...
December 28, 2017: Geophysical Research Letters
Aixue Hu, Susan C Bates
Observational evidence points to a warming global climate accompanied by rising sea levels which impose significant impacts on island and coastal communities. Studies suggest that internal climate processes can modulate projected future sea level rise (SLR) regionally. It is not clear whether this modulation depends on the future climate pathways. Here, by analyzing two sets of ensemble simulations from a climate model, we investigate the potential reduction of SLR, as a result of steric and dynamic oceanographic affects alone, achieved by following a lower emission scenario instead of business-as-usual one over the twenty-first century and how it may be modulated regionally by internal climate variability...
March 14, 2018: Nature Communications
Trung Bui, Thanh-Son Dao, Truong-Giang Vo, Miquel Lürling
Warming climate is predicted to promote cyanobacterial blooms but the toxicity of cyanobacteria under global warming is less well studied. We tested the hypothesis that raising temperature may lead to increased growth rates but to decreased microcystin (MC) production in tropical Microcystis strains. To this end, six Microcystis strains were isolated from different water bodies in Southern Vietnam. They were grown in triplicate at 27 °C (low), 31 °C (medium), 35 °C (high) and 37 °C (extreme). Chlorophyll-a-, particle- and MC concentrations as well as dry-weights were determined...
March 14, 2018: Toxins
Emma L Cross, Elizabeth M Harper, Lloyd S Peck
The inability of organisms to cope in changing environments poses a major threat to their survival. Rising carbon dioxide concentrations, recently exceeding 400 μatm, are rapidly warming and acidifying our oceans. Current understanding of organism responses to this environmental phenomenon is based mainly on relatively short- to medium-term laboratory and field experiments, which cannot evaluate the potential for long-term acclimation and adaptation, the processes identified as most important to confer resistance...
March 14, 2018: Global Change Biology
Winnie-Pui-Pui Liew, Sabran Mohd-Redzwan
The secondary metabolites produced by fungi known as mycotoxins, are capable of causing mycotoxicosis (diseases and death) in human and animals. Contamination of feedstuffs as well as food commodities by fungi occurs frequently in a natural manner and is accompanied by the presence of mycotoxins. The occurrence of mycotoxins' contamination is further stimulated by the on-going global warming as reflected in some findings. This review comprehensively discussed the role of mycotoxins (trichothecenes, zearalenone, fumonisins, ochratoxins, and aflatoxins) toward gut health and gut microbiota...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Yonggang Liu, Ming Zhang, Zhengyu Liu, Yan Xia, Yi Huang, Yiran Peng, Jiang Zhu
Climate models generally fail to produce a warmer (by as much as 0.5 °C) early to mid-Holocene than the pre-industrial in the global annual temperature, which has been termed the Holocene temperature conundrum. Here we use a fully coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model to test whether the conundrum can be partially resolved by considering the fact that atmospheric dust loading was much reduced during the early to mid-Holocene. Our experiments show that the global annual mean surface temperature increases by 0...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Hamish McGowan, John Nikolaus Callow, Joshua Soderholm, Gavan McGrath, Micheline Campbell, Jian-Xin Zhao
Annual resolution reconstructions of alpine temperatures are rare, particularly for the Southern Hemisphere, while no snow cover reconstructions exist. These records are essential to place in context the impact of anthropogenic global warming against historical major natural climate events such as the Roman Warm Period (RWP), Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and Little Ice Age (LIA). Here we show for a marginal alpine region of Australia using a carbon isotope speleothem reconstruction, warming over the past five decades has experienced equivalent magnitude of temperature change and snow cover decline to the RWP and MCA...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Joanne M Bennett, Piero Calosi, Susana Clusella-Trullas, Brezo Martínez, Jennifer Sunday, Adam C Algar, Miguel B Araújo, Bradford A Hawkins, Sally Keith, Ingolf Kühn, Carsten Rahbek, Laura Rodríguez, Alexander Singer, Fabricio Villalobos, Miguel Ángel Olalla-Tárraga, Ignacio Morales-Castilla
How climate affects species distributions is a longstanding question receiving renewed interest owing to the need to predict the impacts of global warming on biodiversity. Is climate change forcing species to live near their critical thermal limits? Are these limits likely to change through natural selection? These and other important questions can be addressed with models relating geographical distributions of species with climate data, but inferences made with these models are highly contingent on non-climatic factors such as biotic interactions...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Data
Josef Greimler, Christian H Schulze, Patricio López Sepúlveda, Patricio Novoa, Alejandro Gatica, Karl Reiter, Johannes Wessely, Carlos Baeza, Patricio Peñailillo, Eduardo Ruiz, Tod Stuessy
Oceanic islands are vulnerable ecosystems and their flora has been under pressure since the arrival of the first humans. Human activities and both deliberately and inadvertently introduced biota have had and continue to have a severe impact on island endemic plants. The number of alien plants has increased nearly linearly on many islands, perhaps resulting in extinction-based saturation of island floras. Here, we provide evidence for such a scenario in Alejandro Selkirk, Robinson Crusoe Islands (Archipelago Juan Fernández, Chile)...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Jacob E Hill, Travis L DeVault, James C Beasley, Olin E Rhodes, Jerrold L Belant
Vultures provide an essential ecosystem service through removal of carrion, but globally, many populations are collapsing and several species are threatened with extinction. Widespread declines in vulture populations could increase the availability of carrion to other organisms, but the ways facultative scavengers might respond to this increase have not been thoroughly explored. We aimed to determine whether facultative scavengers increase carrion consumption in the absence of vulture competition and whether they are capable of functionally replacing vultures in the removal of carrion biomass from the landscape...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Vinícius Barreto-Silva, Marcelo Bigliassi, Priscila Chierotti, Leandro R Altimari
Immersive environments induced by audiovisual stimuli are hypothesised to facilitate the control of movements and ameliorate fatigue-related symptoms during exercise. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of pleasant and unpleasant audiovisual stimuli on perceptual and psychophysiological responses during moderate-intensity exercises performed on an electromagnetically braked cycle ergometer. Twenty young adults were administered three experimental conditions in a randomised and counterbalanced order: unpleasant stimulus (US; e...
March 12, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Xuepeng Zhao, Yangang Liu, Fangquan Yu, Andrew K Heidinger
Long-term (1981-2011) satellite climate data records of clouds and aerosols are used to investigate the aerosol-cloud interaction of marine water cloud from a climatology perspective. Our focus is on identifying the regimes and regions where the aerosol indirect effects (AIEs) are evident in long-term averages over the global oceans through analyzing the correlation features between aerosol loading and the key cloud variables including cloud droplet effective radius (CDER), cloud optical depth (COD), cloud water path (CWP), cloud top height (CTH), and cloud top temperature (CTT)...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Geophysical Research. Atmospheres: JGR
Cuicui Mu, Lili Li, Xiaodong Wu, Feng Zhang, Lin Jia, Qian Zhao, Tingjun Zhang
Deep carbon pool in permafrost regions is an important component of the global terrestrial carbon cycle. However, the greenhouse gas production from deep permafrost soils is not well understood. Here, using soils collected from 5-m deep permafrost cores from meadow and wet meadow on the northern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP), we investigated the effects of temperature on CO2 and N2 O production under aerobic incubations and CH4 production under anaerobic incubations. After a 35-day incubation, the CO2, N2 O and CH4 production at -2 °C to 10 °C were 0...
March 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Guoxing Li, Qun Guo, Yang Liu, Yixue Li, Xiaochuan Pan
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Global warming has attracted worldwide attention. Numerous studies have indicated that stroke is associated with temperature; however, few studies are available on the projections of the burden of stroke attributable to future climate change. We aimed to investigate the future trends of stroke years of life lost (YLL) associated with global warming. METHODS: We collected death records to examine YLL in Tianjin, China, from 2006 to 2011. We fitted a standard time-series Poisson regression model after controlling for trends, day of the week, relative humidity, and air pollution...
March 9, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Gregory D Kearney, Ronny A Bell
The geographic position and high level of poverty in the southeastern United States are significant risk factors that contribute to the region's high vulnerability to climate change. The goal of this study was to evaluate beliefs and perceptions of global warming among those living in poverty in the poorest counties in the southeastern United States. Results from this project may be used to support public health efforts to increase climate-related messaging to vulnerable and underserved communities. This was an ecological study that analyzed public opinion poll estimates from previously gathered national level survey data (2016)...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
Cin-Ty A Lee, Hehe Jiang, Elli Ronay, Daniel Minisini, Jackson Stiles, Matthew Neal
On greater than million year timescales, carbon in the ocean-atmosphere-biosphere system is controlled by geologic inputs of CO2 through volcanic and metamorphic degassing. High atmospheric CO2 and warm climates in the Cretaceous have been attributed to enhanced volcanic emissions of CO2 through more rapid spreading at mid-ocean ridges and, in particular, to a global flare-up in continental arc volcanism. Here, we show that global flare-ups in continental arc magmatism also enhance the global flux of nutrients into the ocean through production of windblown ash...
March 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Fábio M DaMatta, Rodrigo Avila, Amanda Cardoso, Samuel Martins, José C Ramalho
Coffee is one of the most important global crops and provides a livelihood to millions of people living in developing countries. Coffee species have been described as being highly sensitive to climate change, as largely deduced from modelling studies based on predictions of rising temperatures and changing rainfall patterns. Here, we discuss the physiological responses of the coffee tree in the context of present and ongoing climate changes, including drought, heat and light stresses, and interactions between these factors...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Arif Ullah, Dilawar Khan, Imran Khan, Shaofeng Zheng
The increasing trend of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ) is the main cause of harmful anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, which may result in environmental pollution, global warming, and climate change. These issues are expected to adversely affect the agricultural ecosystem and well-being of the society. In order to minimize food insecurity and prevent hunger, a timely adaptation is desirable to reduce potential losses and to seek alternatives for promoting a global knowledge system for agricultural sustainability...
March 7, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Kazuaki Tokuhashi, Tadafumi Uchimaru, Kenji Takizawa, Shigeo Kondo
The rate constants for the reactions of OH radical with ( E)-CF3 CF=CHCl, ( Z)-CF3 CF=CHCl, ( E)-CHF2 CF=CHCl, and ( Z)-CHF2 CF=CHCl have been measured over the temperature range of 250-430K. Kinetic measurements have been performed using flash and laser photolysis methods combined with laser induced fluorescence. Arrhenius rate constants have been determined as k(( E)-CF3 CF=CHCl) = (1.09±0.03)×10-12 ∙exp[(50±10)K/ T], k(( Z)-CF3 CF=CHCl) = (8.02±0.19)×10-13 ∙exp[-(100±10)K/ T], k(( E)-CHF2 CF=CHCl) = (1...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
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