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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918275/the-association-between-ambient-temperature-and-the-risk-of-preterm-birth-in-china
#1
Tongjun Guo, Yuanyuan Wang, Hongguang Zhang, Ya Zhang, Jun Zhao, Yan Wang, Xiaoxu Xie, Long Wang, Qian Zhang, Dujia Liu, Yuan He, Ying Yang, Jihong Xu, Zuoqi Peng, Xu Ma
BACKGROUND: With the gradual increase of global warming, the impact of extreme temperatures on health has become a focus of attention, however, its relationship with preterm birth remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between exposure to extreme temperatures and preterm birth. METHODS: Temperature exposures and birth outcomes of 1,020,471 pregnant women from 132 cities in China were investigated. The pregnancy process was divided into different pregnancy periods...
September 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917825/fugitive-halocarbon-emissions-from-working-face-of-municipal-solid-waste-landfills-in-china
#2
Yanjun Liu, Wenjing Lu, Wafa Dastyar, Yanting Liu, Hanwen Guo, Xindi Fu, Hao Li, Ruihong Meng, Ming Zhao, Hongtao Wang
Halocarbons are important anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) due to their long lifetime and large characteristic factors. The present study for the first time assessed the global warming potential (GWP) of fugitive halocarbon emissions from the working face of landfills in China. The national emissions of five major halocarbons (CFC-11, CFC-113, CH2Cl2, CHCl3 and CCl4) from the working face of municipal solid waste landfills in China were provided through observation-based estimations. The fluxes of halocarbons from working face of landfills were observed much higher than covered cells in landfills hence representing the hot spots of landfill emissions...
September 13, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917173/synthetic-iron-hydr-oxide-glucose-associations-in-subsurface-soil-effects-on-decomposability-of-mineral-associated-carbon
#3
R C Porras, C E Hicks Pries, M S Torn, P S Nico
Soils are a globally important reservoir of organic carbon. There is a growing understanding that interactions with soil mineral phases contribute to the accumulation and retention of otherwise degradable organic matter (OM) in soils and sediments. However, the bioavailability of organic compounds in mineral-organic-associations (MOAs), especially under varying environmental conditions is not well known. To assess the impact of mineral association and warming on the decomposition of an easily respirable organic substrate (glucose), we conducted a series of laboratory incubations at different temperatures with field-collected soils from 10 to 20cm, 50-60cm, and 80-90cm depth...
September 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915463/freshwater-vulnerability-under-high-end-climate-change-a-pan-european-assessment
#4
A G Koutroulis, L V Papadimitriou, M G Grillakis, I K Tsanis, K Wyser, R A Betts
As freshwater availability is crucial for securing a sustainable, lower‑carbon future, there is a critical connection between water management and climate policies. Under a rapidly changing climate, it is more important than ever to estimate the degree of future water security. This is a challenging task as it depends on many different variables: the degree of warming and its consequent effects on hydrological resources, the water demand by different sectors, and the possible ameliorations or deteriorations of the effects due to climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies...
September 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914470/selective-electrochemical-reduction-of-co2-to-ethanol-on-b-and-n-codoped-nanodiamond
#5
Yanming Liu, Yujing Zhang, Kai Chen, Xie Quan, Xinfei Fan, Yan Su, Shuo Chen, Huimin Zhao, Yaobin Zhang, Hongtao Yu, Michael R Hoffmann
Electrochemical reduction of CO2 to ethanol, a clean and renewable liquid fuel with high heating value, is an attractive strategy for global warming mitigation and resource utilization. However, converting CO2 to ethanol remains great challenge due to the low activity, poor product selectivity and stability of electrocatalysts. Here, B and N codoped nanodiamond (BND) was reported as an efficient and stable electrode for selective reduction of CO2 to ethanol. Good ethanol selectivity was achieved on BND with high Faradaic efficiency of 93...
September 15, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913618/estimating-the-potential-of-energy-saving-and-carbon-emission-mitigation-of-cassava-based-fuel-ethanol-using-life-cycle-assessment-coupled-with-a-biogeochemical-process-model
#6
Dong Jiang, Mengmeng Hao, Jingying Fu, Guangjin Tian, Fangyu Ding
Global warming and increasing concentration of atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) have prompted considerable interest in the potential role of energy plant biomass. Cassava-based fuel ethanol is one of the most important bioenergy and has attracted much attention in both developed and developing countries. However, the development of cassava-based fuel ethanol is still faced with many uncertainties, including raw material supply, net energy potential, and carbon emission mitigation potential. Thus, an accurate estimation of these issues is urgently needed...
September 14, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912354/well-below-2-%C3%A2-c-mitigation-strategies-for-avoiding-dangerous-to-catastrophic-climate-changes
#7
Yangyang Xu, Veerabhadran Ramanathan
The historic Paris Agreement calls for limiting global temperature rise to "well below 2 °C." Because of uncertainties in emission scenarios, climate, and carbon cycle feedback, we interpret the Paris Agreement in terms of three climate risk categories and bring in considerations of low-probability (5%) high-impact (LPHI) warming in addition to the central (∼50% probability) value. The current risk category of dangerous warming is extended to more categories, which are defined by us here as follows: >1...
September 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910743/is-scena-a-good-approach-for-side-stream-integrated-treatment-from-an-environmental-and-economic-point-of-view
#8
Stefano Longo, Nicola Frison, Daniele Renzi, Francesco Fatone, Almudena Hospido
The environmental and economic benefits and burdens of including the first Short Cut Enhanced Nutrient Abatement (SCENA) into a real municipal wastewater treatment plant were evaluated using life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle cost (LCC). The implications of accomplishing nitrogen (N) removal and phosphorus (P) recovery via nitrite in the side stream were assessed taking into account the actual effluent quality improvement, the changes in the electricity and chemical consumption, N2O, CO2 and CH4 emissions and the effects of land application of biosolids, among others...
September 6, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910713/beneficial-effect-of-compost-utilization-on-reducing-greenhouse-gas-emissions-in-a-rice-cultivation-system-through-the-overall-management-chain
#9
Seung Tak Jeong, Gil Won Kim, Hyun Young Hwang, Pil Joo Kim, Sang Yoon Kim
Livestock manure application can stimulate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, especially methane (CH4) in rice paddy. The stabilized organic matter (OM) is recommended to suppress CH4 emission without counting the additional GHG emission during the composting process. To evaluate the effect of compost utilization on the net global warming potential (GWP) of a rice cropping system, the fluxes of GHGs from composting to land application were calculated by a life cycle assessment (LCA) method. The model framework was composed of GHG fluxes from industrial activities and biogenic GHG fluxes from the composting and rice cultivation processes...
September 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905897/impact-of-a-global-temperature-rise-of-1-5-degrees-celsius-on-asia-s-glaciers
#10
P D A Kraaijenbrink, M F P Bierkens, A F Lutz, W W Immerzeel
Glaciers in the high mountains of Asia (HMA) make a substantial contribution to the water supply of millions of people, and they are retreating and losing mass as a result of anthropogenic climate change at similar rates to those seen elsewhere. In the Paris Agreement of 2015, 195 nations agreed on the aspiration to limit the level of global temperature rise to 1.5 degrees Celsius ( °C) above pre-industrial levels. However, it is not known what an increase of 1.5 °C would mean for the glaciers in HMA...
September 13, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905461/assessment-of-ecosystem-resilience-to-hydroclimatic-disturbances-in-india
#11
Ashutosh Sharma, Manish Kumar Goyal
Recent studies have shown an increasing trend in hydroclimatic disturbances like droughts, which are anticipated to become more frequent and intense under global warming and climate change. Droughts adversely affect the vegetation growth and crop yield, which enhances the risks to food security for a country like India with over 1.2 billion people to feed. Here, we compared the response of terrestrial net primary productivity (NPP) to hydroclimatic disturbances in India at different scales (i.e., at river basins, land covers, and climate types) to examine the ecosystems' resilience to such adverse conditions...
September 14, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904751/the-thermal-niche-of-neotropical-nectar-feeding-bats-its-evolution-and-application-to-predict-responses-to-global-warming
#12
Stephanie Ortega-García, Lázaro Guevara, Joaquín Arroyo-Cabrales, Roberto Lindig-Cisneros, Enrique Martínez-Meyer, Ernesto Vega, Jorge E Schondube
The thermal niche of a species is one of the main determinants of its ecology and biogeography. In this study, we determined the thermal niche of 23 species of Neotropical nectar-feeding bats of the subfamily Glossophaginae (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae). We calculated their thermal niches using temperature data obtained from collection records, by generating a distribution curve of the maximum and minimum temperatures per locality, and using the inflection points of the temperature distributions to estimate the species optimal (STZ) and suboptimal (SRZ) zones of the thermal niche...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904141/extreme-diel-dissolved-oxygen-and-carbon-cycles-in-shallow-vegetated-lakes
#13
Mikkel R Andersen, Theis Kragh, Kaj Sand-Jensen
A common perception in limnology is that shallow lakes are homogeneously mixed owing to their small water volume. However, this perception is largely gained by downscaling knowledge from large lakes to their smaller counterparts. Here we show that shallow vegetated lakes (less than 0.6 m), in fact, undergo recurring daytime stratification and nocturnal mixing accompanied by extreme chemical variations during summer. Dense submerged vegetation effectively attenuates light and turbulence generating separation between warm surface waters and much colder bottom waters...
September 13, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902487/angiostrongylus-cantonensis-agent-of-a-sometimes-fatal-globally-emerging-infectious-disease-rat-lungworm-disease
#14
Robert H Cowie
Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the rat lungworm, is a dangerous invasive species that is the agent of a potentially fatal globally emerging infectious disease. Humans are infected most commonly by ingestion, deliberately or inadvertently, of the parasite larvae in their intermediate snail hosts. The larvae make their way to the brain where they can cause severe neurological damage before eventually dying. Symptoms of the disease are diverse, making it difficult to diagnose. Treatment is primarily with corticosteroids to reduce inflammation, while treatment with anthelmintics to kill the worms remains controversial...
September 13, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900253/leaf-thermotolerance-in-tropical-trees-from-a-seasonally-dry-climate-varies-along-the-slow-fast-resource-acquisition-spectrum
#15
Aniruddh Sastry, Deepak Barua
Knowledge of the upper limits of temperature tolerance is essential to understand how tropical trees will respond to global warming. We quantified leaf thermotolerance in 41 tree species growing in a seasonally dry tropical region of the Indian subcontinent to examine: (1) differences between evergreen and deciduous species; (2) relationships with leaf mass per area (LMA) and leaf size; and, (3) seasonal variation in thermotolerance. Thermotolerance ranged from 45.5 °C to 50.5 °C among species, was higher for evergreen than deciduous species, and was negatively related to a continuous estimate of deciduousness...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900142/earth-system-feedback-statistically-extracted-from-the-indian-ocean-deep-sea-sediments-recording-eocene-hyperthermals
#16
Kazutaka Yasukawa, Kentaro Nakamura, Koichiro Fujinaga, Minoru Ikehara, Yasuhiro Kato
Multiple transient global warming events occurred during the early Palaeogene. Although these events, called hyperthermals, have been reported from around the globe, geologic records for the Indian Ocean are limited. In addition, the recovery processes from relatively modest hyperthermals are less constrained than those from the severest and well-studied hothouse called the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. In this study, we constructed a new and high-resolution geochemical dataset of deep-sea sediments clearly recording multiple Eocene hyperthermals in the Indian Ocean...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900099/rapid-global-ocean-atmosphere-response-to-southern-ocean-freshening-during-the-last-glacial
#17
Chris S M Turney, Richard T Jones, Steven J Phipps, Zoë Thomas, Alan Hogg, A Peter Kershaw, Christopher J Fogwill, Jonathan Palmer, Christopher Bronk Ramsey, Florian Adolphi, Raimund Muscheler, Konrad A Hughen, Richard A Staff, Mark Grosvenor, Nicholas R Golledge, Sune Olander Rasmussen, David K Hutchinson, Simon Haberle, Andrew Lorrey, Gretel Boswijk, Alan Cooper
Contrasting Greenland and Antarctic temperatures during the last glacial period (115,000 to 11,650 years ago) are thought to have been driven by imbalances in the rates of formation of North Atlantic and Antarctic Deep Water (the 'bipolar seesaw'). Here we exploit a bidecadally resolved (14)C data set obtained from New Zealand kauri (Agathis australis) to undertake high-precision alignment of key climate data sets spanning iceberg-rafted debris event Heinrich 3 and Greenland Interstadial (GI) 5.1 in the North Atlantic (~30,400 to 28,400 years ago)...
September 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898825/evaluation-of-biochar-powder-on-oxygen-supply-efficiency-and-global-warming-potential-during-mainstream-large-scale-aerobic-composting
#18
Xueqin He, Longjian Chen, Lujia Han, Ning Liu, Ruxiu Cui, Hongjie Yin, Guangqun Huang
This study investigated the effects of biochar powder on oxygen supply efficiency and global warming potential (GWP) in the large-scale aerobic composting pattern which includes cyclical forced-turning with aeration at the bottom of composting tanks in China. A 55-day large-scale aerobic composting experiment was conducted in two different groups without and with 10% biochar powder addition (by weight). The results show that biochar powder improves the holding ability of oxygen, and the duration time (O2>5%) is around 80%...
August 17, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895927/association-between-childhood-diarrhoeal-incidence-and-climatic-factors-in-urban-and-rural-settings-in-the-health-district-of-mbour-senegal
#19
Sokhna Thiam, Aminata N Diène, Ibrahima Sy, Mirko S Winkler, Christian Schindler, Jacques A Ndione, Ousmane Faye, Penelope Vounatsou, Jürg Utzinger, Guéladio Cissé
We assessed the association between childhood diarrhoeal incidence and climatic factors in rural and urban settings in the health district of Mbour in western Senegal. We used monthly diarrhoeal case records among children under five years registered in 24 health facilities over a four-year period (2011-2014). Climatic data (i.e., daily temperature, night temperature and rainfall) for the same four-year period were obtained. We performed a negative binomial regression model to establish the relationship between monthly diarrhoeal incidence and climatic factors of the same and the previous month...
September 12, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895899/effects-of-heat-stress-on-construction-labor-productivity-in-hong-kong-a-case-study-of-rebar-workers
#20
Wen Yi, Albert P C Chan
Global warming is bringing more frequent and severe heat waves, and the result will be serious for vulnerable populations such as construction workers. Excessive heat stress has profound effects on physiological responses, which cause occupational injuries, fatalities and low productivity. Construction workers are particularly affected by heat stress, because of the body heat production caused by physically demanding tasks, and hot and humid working conditions. Field studies were conducted between August and September 2016 at two construction training grounds in Hong Kong...
September 12, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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