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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156558/indoor-temperatures-in-low-cost-housing-in-johannesburg-south-africa
#1
Nisha Naicker, June Teare, Yusentha Balakrishna, Caradee Yael Wright, Angela Mathee
Ambient and indoor temperature affects thermal comfort and human health. In a changing climate with a predicted change in temperature extremes, understanding indoor temperatures, both hot and cold, of different housing types is important. This study aimed to assess the hourly, daily and monthly variation in indoor temperatures in different housing types, namely formal houses, informal houses, flats, government-built low-cost houses and old, apartheid era low-cost housing, in five impoverished urban communities in Johannesburg, South Africa...
November 18, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156444/survival-of-microbes-in-earth-s-stratosphere
#2
REVIEW
Priya DasSarma, Shiladitya DasSarma
The remarkable survival of microorganisms high above the surface of the Earth is of increasing interest. At stratospheric levels, multiple stressors including ultraviolet and ionizing radiation, low temperatures, hypobaric conditions, extreme desiccation, and nutrient scarcity are all significant challenges. Our understanding of which microorganisms are capable of tolerating such stressful conditions has been addressed by stratospheric sample collection and survival assays, through launching and recovery, and exposure to simulated conditions in the laboratory...
November 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156281/dry-hot-stress-significantly-reduced-the-nitrogenase-activity-of-epiphytic-cyanolichen
#3
Shuai Liu, Wenyao Liu, Xianmeng Shi, Su Li, Tao Hu, Liang Song, Chuansheng Wu
Nitrogen (N) fixed by epiphytic cyanolichens (i.e. lichens that contain cyanobacterial symbionts) is thought to be the most important resource of this nutrient in some natural forest ecosystems. Although a great deal of work has been carried out to evaluate the biomass of this group as well as its contribution to ecosystem N budgets, empirical studies are needed to confirm the N input responses by cyanolichens under climate change conditions (dry-hot stress) as well as to determine the factors that control this process...
November 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156275/agricultural-susceptibility-to-monsoon-variability-a-district-level-analysis-of-maharashtra-india
#4
Deepika Swami, Prashant Dave, Devanathan Parthasarathy
Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) variability has always been a feature affecting Indian agriculture. However, nature of this variability is varying in the backdrop of climate change, and as a consequence, agriculture is getting significantly affected and subsequently threatening food security. To address the climate variability, most of the studies conducted so far have focused on a coarse scale such as Central India or Western Ghats. However, finer scale analysis for identification and quantification of the link between agriculture vulnerability and climate variables has not yet been attempted in a comprehensive manner...
November 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156091/multifarious-anchovy-and-sardine-regimes-in-the-humboldt-current-system-during-the-last-150-years
#5
Renato Salvatteci, David Field, Dimitri Gutierrez, Tim Baumgartner, Vicente Ferreira, Luc Ortlieb, Abdel Sifeddine, Daniel Grados, Arnaud Bertrand
The Humboldt Current System (HCS) has the highest production of forage fish in the world, though it is highly variable and the future of the primary component, anchovy, is uncertain in the context of global warming. Paradigms based on late 20(th) century observations suggest that large-scale forcing controls decadal-scale fluctuations of anchovy and sardine across different boundary currents of the Pacific. We develop records of anchovy and sardine fluctuations since 1860 AD using fish scales from multiple sites containing laminated sediments and compare them with Pacific basin-scale and regional indices of ocean-climate variability...
November 20, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156088/climate-mediated-changes-in-marine-ecosystem-regulation-during-el-ni%C3%A3-o
#6
Martin Lindegren, David M Checkley, J Anthony Koslow, Ralf Goericke, Mark D Ohman
The degree to which ecosystems are regulated through bottom-up, top-down or direct physical processes represents a long-standing issue in ecology, with important consequences for resource management and conservation. In marine ecosystems, the role of bottom-up and top-down forcing has been shown to vary over spatio-temporal scales, often linked to highly variable and heterogeneously distributed environmental conditions. Ecosystem dynamics in the Northeast Pacific have been suggested to be predominately bottom-up regulated...
November 20, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156083/toward-ecologically-realistic-predictions-of-species-distributions-a-cross-time-example-from-tropical-montane-cloud-forests
#7
Lázaro Guevara, Beth E Gerstner, Jamie M Kass, Robert P Anderson
There is an urgent need for more ecologically realistic models for better predicting the effects of climate change on species' potential geographic distributions. Here we build ecological niche models using MAXENT and test whether selecting predictor variables based on biological knowledge and selecting ecologically realistic response curves can improve cross-time distributional predictions. We also evaluate how the method chosen for extrapolation into nonanalog conditions affects the prediction. We do so by estimating the potential distribution of a montane shrew (Mammalia, Soricidae, Cryptotis mexicanus) at present and the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM)...
November 20, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156051/natural-and-anthropogenic-influences-on-the-mating-system-of-the-common-morning-glory
#8
Diego F Alvarado-Serrano, Shu-Mei Chang, Regina S Baucom
Evolutionary biologists remain puzzled by the often dramatic variation of mating strategies within single species. Of particular interest is the extent to which environmental conditions shape patterns of variation of mating system components within mixed mating species, and how widespread anthropogenic manipulations may influence these associations. Here, we address this question in the common morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea) by combining a dataset of floral traits, estimates of the mating system, and relevant environmental factors compiled for 22 populations of this species distributed along a wide range of environments from the Southeast and midwest USA...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155862/a-multi-paradigm-framework-to-assess-the-impacts-of-climate-change-on-end-use-energy-demand
#9
Roshanak Nateghi, Sayanti Mukherjee
Projecting the long-term trends in energy demand is an increasingly complex endeavor due to the uncertain emerging changes in factors such as climate and policy. The existing energy-economy paradigms used to characterize the long-term trends in the energy sector do not adequately account for climate variability and change. In this paper, we propose a multi-paradigm framework for estimating the climate sensitivity of end-use energy demand that can easily be integrated with the existing energy-economy models...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155841/habitat-and-soil-related-drivers-of-the-root-associated-fungal-community-of-quercus-suber-in-the-northern-moroccan-forest
#10
Fatima Zahra Maghnia, Younes Abbas, Frédéric Mahé, Benaissa Kerdouh, Estelle Tournier, Mohamed Ouadji, Pierre Tisseyre, Yves Prin, Naïma El Ghachtouli, Salah Eddine Bakkali Yakhlef, Robin Duponnois, Hervé Sanguin
Soil fungi associated with plant roots, notably ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungi, are central in above- and below-ground interactions in Mediterranean forests. They are a key component in soil nutrient cycling and plant productivity. Yet, major disturbances of Mediterranean forests, particularly in the Southern Mediterranean basin, are observed due to the greater human pressures and climate changes. These disturbances highly impact forest cover, soil properties and consequently the root-associated fungal communities...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155765/continuous-hydrologic-and-water-quality-monitoring-of-vernal-ponds
#11
Odette Mina, Heather E Gall, Joseph W Chandler, Jeremy Harper, Malcolm Taylor
Vernal ponds, also referred to as vernal pools, provide critical ecosystem services and habitat for a variety of threatened and endangered species. However, they are vulnerable parts of the landscapes that are often poorly understood and understudied. Land use and management practices, as well as climate change are thought to be a contribution to the global amphibian decline. However, more research is needed to understand the extent of these impacts. Here, we present methodology for characterizing a vernal pond's morphology and detail a monitoring station that can be used to collect water quantity and quality data over the duration of a vernal pond's hydroperiod...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155464/both-life-history-plasticity-and-local-adaptation-will-shape-range-wide-responses-to-climate-warming-in-the-tundra-plant-silene-acaulis
#12
Megan L Peterson, Daniel F Doak, William F Morris
Many predictions of how climate change will impact biodiversity have focused on range shifts using species-wide climate tolerances, an approach that ignores the demographic mechanisms that enable species to attain broad geographic distributions. But these mechanisms matter, as responses to climate change could fundamentally differ depending on the contributions of life history plasticity vs local adaptation to species-wide climate tolerances. In particular, if local adaptation to climate is strong, populations across a species' range - not only those at the trailing range edge - could decline sharply with global climate change...
November 20, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155460/antarctic-emerald-rockcod-have-the-capacity-to-compensate-for-warming-when-uncoupled-from-co2-acidification
#13
Brittany E Davis, Erin E Flynn, Nathan A Miller, Frederick A Nelson, Nann A Fangue, Anne E Todgham
Increases in atmospheric CO2 levels and associated ocean changes are expected to have dramatic impacts on marine ecosystems. Although the Southern Ocean is experiencing some of the fastest rates of change, few studies have explored how Antarctic fishes may be affected by co-occurring ocean changes, and even fewer have examined early life stages. To date, no studies have characterized potential trade-offs in physiology and behavior in response to projected multiple climate change stressors (ocean acidification and warming) on Antarctic fishes...
November 20, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154557/in-the-shadow-of-coal-how-large-scale-industries-contributed-to-present-day-regional-differences-in-personality-and-well-being
#14
Martin Obschonka, Michael Stuetzer, Peter J Rentfrow, Leigh Shaw-Taylor, Max Satchell, Rainer K Silbereisen, Jeff Potter, Samuel D Gosling
Recent research has identified regional variation of personality traits within countries but we know little about the underlying drivers of this variation. We propose that the Industrial Revolution, as a key era in the history of industrialized nations, has led to a persistent clustering of well-being outcomes and personality traits associated with psychological adversity via processes of selective migration and socialization. Analyzing data from England and Wales, we examine relationships between the historical employment share in large-scale coal-based industries (coal mining and steam-powered manufacturing industries that used this coal as fuel for their steam engines) and today's regional variation in personality and well-being...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154047/association-of-diurnal-temperature-range-with-daily-mortality-in-england-and-wales-a-nationwide-time-series-study
#15
Yunquan Zhang, Minjin Peng, Lu Wang, Chuanhua Yu
BACKGROUND: Diurnal temperature range (DTR) reflects within-day temperature variability and is closely associated with climate change. In comparison to temperature extremes, up-to-date DTR-health evidence at the regional and national scales has been still very limited worldwide, especially in Europe. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to provide nationwide estimates for DTR-associated effects on mortality, and explore whether season and regional-level characteristics modify DTR-mortality relation in United Kingdom...
November 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153551/remote-sensing-based-deforestation-analysis-in-mahanadi-and-brahmaputra-river-basin-in-india-since-1985
#16
M D Behera, P Tripathi, P Das, S K Srivastava, P S Roy, C Joshi, P R Behera, J Deka, P Kumar, M L Khan, O P Tripathi, T Dash, Y V N Krishnamurthy
Land use and land cover (LULC) change has been recognized as a key driver of global climate change by influencing land surface processes. Being in constant change, river basins are always subjected to LULC changes, especially decline in forest cover to give way for agricultural expansion, urbanization, industrialization etc. We used on-screen digital interpretation technique to derive LULC maps from Landsat images at three decadal intervals i.e., 1985, 1995 and 2005 of two major river basins of India. Rain-fed, Mahanadi river basin (MRB) attributed to 55% agricultural area wherein glacier-fed, Brahmaputra river basin (BRB) had only 16% area under agricultural land...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153471/comparison-of-built-environment-adaptations-to-heat-exposure-and-mortality-during-hot-weather-west-midlands-region-uk
#17
Jonathon Taylor, Paul Wilkinson, Roberto Picetti, Phil Symonds, Clare Heaviside, Helen L Macintyre, Michael Davies, Anna Mavrogianni, Emma Hutchinson
There is growing recognition of the need to improve protection against the adverse health effects of hot weather in the context of climate change. We quantify the impact of the Urban Heat Island (UHI) and selected adaptation measures made to dwellings on temperature exposure and mortality in the West Midlands region of the UK. We used 1) building physics models to assess indoor temperatures, initially in the existing housing stock and then following adaptation measures (energy efficiency building fabric upgrades and/or window shutters), of representative dwelling archetypes using data from the English Housing Survey (EHS), and 2) modelled UHI effect on outdoor temperatures...
November 16, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153162/a-100-year-review-a-century-of-change-in-temperate-grazing-dairy-systems
#18
J R Roche, D P Berry, A M Bryant, C R Burke, S T Butler, P G Dillon, D J Donaghy, B Horan, K A Macdonald, K L Macmillan
From 1917 to 2017, dairy grazing systems have evolved from uncontrolled grazing of unimproved pastures by dual-purpose dairy-beef breeds to an intensive system with a high output per unit of land from a fit-for-purpose cow. The end of World War I signaled significant government investments in agricultural research institutes around the world, which coincided with technological breakthroughs in milk harvesting and a recognition that important traits in both plants and animals could be improved upon relatively rapidly through genetic selection...
December 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152888/the-sensitivity-of-breeding-songbirds-to-changes-in-seasonal-timing-is-linked-to-population-change-but-cannot-be-directly-attributed-to-the-effects-of-trophic-asynchrony-on-productivity
#19
Samantha E Franks, James W Pearce-Higgins, Sian Atkinson, James R Bell, Marc S Botham, Tom M Brereton, Richard Harrington, David I Leech
A consequence of climate change has been an advance in the timing of seasonal events. Differences in the rate of advance between trophic levels may result in predators becoming mismatched with prey availability, reducing fitness and potentially driving population declines. Such "trophic asynchrony" is hypothesized to have contributed to recent population declines of long-distance migratory birds in particular. Using spatially extensive survey data from 1983 to 2010 to estimate variation in spring phenology from 280 plant and insect species and the egg-laying phenology of 21 British songbird species, we explored the effects of trophic asynchrony on avian population trends and potential underlying demographic mechanisms...
November 20, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152817/how-complex-should-models-be-comparing-correlative-and-mechanistic-range-dynamics-models
#20
Damien A Fordham, Cleo Bertelsmeier, Barry W Brook, Regan Early, Dora Neto, Stuart C Brown, Sébastien Ollier, Miguel B Araújo
Criticism has been levelled at climate-change-induced forecasts of species range shifts that do not account explicitly for complex population dynamics. The relative importance of such dynamics under climate change is, however, undetermined because direct tests comparing the performance of demographic models vs. simpler ecological niche models are still lacking owing to difficulties in evaluating forecasts using real-world data. We provide the first comparison of the skill of coupled ecological-niche-population models and ecological niche models in predicting documented shifts in the ranges of 20 British breeding bird species across a 40-year period...
November 20, 2017: Global Change Biology
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