Read by QxMD icon Read

Climate change

David M Bogner, Mark A Kaemingk, Melissa R Wuellner
Little is known about how hatch phenology (e.g., the start, peak, and duration of hatching) could influence subsequent recruitment of freshwater fishes into a population. We used two commonly sympatric fish species that exhibit different hatching phenologies to examine recruitment across multiple life stages. Nine yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) annual cohorts were sampled from 2004 through 2013 across larval, age-0, age-1, and age-2 life stages in a Nebraska (U.S.A.) Sandhill lake...
2016: PloS One
Deborah R Coen
The climate crisis has raised questions about the proper scale of historical analysis in the Anthropocene. After explaining how this methodological crisis differs from an earlier stand-off between proponents of microhistory and total history, this paper suggests a role for intellectual history in moving us beyond the current debate. What is needed is a history of "scaling"; that is, we need to historicize the process of mediating between different frameworks of measurement, even those that might at first appear incommensurable...
2016: Journal of the History of Ideas
Robert P Ellis, Mauricio A Urbina, Rod W Wilson
Exponentially rising CO2 (currently ~400 μatm) is driving climate change and causing acidification of both marine and freshwater environments. Physiologists have long known that CO2 directly affects acid-base and ion regulation, respiratory function and aerobic performance in aquatic animals. More recently, many studies have demonstrated that elevated CO2 projected for end of this century (e.g. 800-1000 μatm) can also impact physiology, and have substantial effects on behaviours linked to sensory stimuli (smell, hearing and vision) both having negative implications for fitness and survival...
October 20, 2016: Global Change Biology
Vendela K Lagerholm, Edson Sandoval-Castellanos, Amélie Vaniscotte, Olga R Potapova, Teresa Tomek, Zbigniew M Bochenski, Paul Shepherd, Nick Barton, Marie-Claire Van Dyck, Rebecca Miller, Jacob Höglund, Nigel G Yoccoz, Love Dalén, John R Stewart
Global warming is predicted to cause substantial habitat rearrangements, with the most severe effects expected to occur in high-latitude biomes. However, one major uncertainty is whether species will be able to shift their ranges to keep pace with climate-driven environmental changes. Many recent studies on mammals have shown that past range contractions have been associated with local extinctions rather than survival by habitat tracking. Here, we have used an interdisciplinary approach that combines ancient DNA techniques, coalescent simulations and species distribution modelling, to investigate how two common cold-adapted bird species, willow and rock ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus and Lagopus muta), respond to long-term climate warming...
October 20, 2016: Global Change Biology
Andrés Núñez, Guillermo Amo de Paz, Alberto Rastrojo, Ana M García, Antonio Alcamí, A Montserrat Gutiérrez-Bustillo, Diego A Moreno
The first part of this review ("Monitoring of airborne biological particles in outdoor atmosphere. Part 1: Importance, variability and ratios") describes the current knowledge on the major biological particles present in the air regarding their global distribution, concentrations, ratios and influence of meteorological factors in an attempt to provide a framework for monitoring their biodiversity and variability in such a singular environment as the atmosphere. Viruses, bacteria, fungi, pollen and fragments thereof are the most abundant microscopic biological particles in the air outdoors...
March 2016: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
Ali Sarhadi, María Concepción Ausín, Michael P Wiper
In a changing climate arising from anthropogenic global warming, the nature of extreme climatic events is changing over time. Existing analytical stationary-based risk methods, however, assume multi-dimensional extreme climate phenomena will not significantly vary over time. To strengthen the reliability of infrastructure designs and the management of water systems in the changing environment, multidimensional stationary risk studies should be replaced with a new adaptive perspective. The results of a comparison indicate that current multi-dimensional stationary risk frameworks are no longer applicable to projecting the changing behaviour of multi-dimensional extreme climate processes...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 19, 2016: Nature
Maria Valdivia-Garcia, Paul Weir, Zoe Frogbrook, David W Graham, David Werner
Trihalomethanes (THMs) are conditionally carcinogenic compounds formed during chlorine disinfection in water treatment processes around the world. THMs occur especially when source waters are subject to marine influences, high and-or regular precipitation, and elevated levels of organic matter. THMs formation is then rooted in geographic, operational and climatic factors, the relative importance of which can only be derived from large datasets and may change in the future. Ninety three full-scale Scottish water treatment plants (WTPs) were assessed from Jan 2011 to Jan 2013 to identify factors that promote THMs formation...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Anna P Muir, Flavia L D Nunes, Stanislas F Dubois, Fabrice Pernet
Acclimation and adaptation, which are key to species survival in a changing climate, can be observed in terms of membrane lipid composition. Remodelling membrane lipids, via homeoviscous adaptation (HVA), counteracts membrane dysfunction due to temperature in poikilotherms. In order to assess the potential for acclimation and adaptation in the honeycomb worm, Sabellaria alveolata, a reef-building polychaete that supports high biodiversity, we carried out common-garden experiments using individuals from along its latitudinal range...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Yaning Chen, Weihong Li, Haijun Deng, Gonghuan Fang, Zhi Li
The Tienshan Mountains, with its status as "water tower", is the main water source and ecological barrier in Central Asia. The rapid warming affected precipitation amounts and fraction as well as the original glacier/snowmelt water processes, thereby affecting the runoff and water storage. The ratio of snowfall to precipitation (S/P) experienced a downward trend, along with a shift from snow to rain. Spatially, the snow cover area in Middle Tienshan Mountains decreased significantly, while that in West Tienshan Mountains increased slightly...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Changliang Shao, Jiquan Chen, Linghao Li, Gang Dong, Juanjuan Han, Michael Abraha, Ranjeet John
Quantifying the surface energy fluxes of grazed and ungrazed steppes is essential to understand the roles of grasslands in local and global climate and in land use change. We used paired eddy-covariance towers to investigate the effects of grazing on energy balance (EB) components: net radiation (Rn ), latent heat (LE), sensible heat (H), and soil heat (G) fluxes on adjacent grazed and ungrazed areas in a desert steppe of the Mongolian Plateau for a two-year period (2010-2012). Near 95% of Rn was partitioned as LE and H, whereas the contributions of G and other components of the EB were 5% at an annual scale...
October 20, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Eric Capo, Didier Debroas, Fabien Arnaud, Typhaine Guillemot, Vincent Bichet, Laurent Millet, Emilie Gauthier, Charly Massa, Anne-Lise Develle, Cécile Pignol, Franck Lejzerowicz, Isabelle Domaizon
Assessing the extent to which changes in lacustrine biodiversity are affected by anthropogenic or climatic forces requires extensive paleolimnological data. We used high-throughput sequencing to generate time-series data encompassing over 2200 years of microbial eukaryotes (protists and Fungi) diversity changes from the sedimentary DNA record of 2 lakes (Lake Bourget in French Alps and Lake Igaliku in Greenland). From 176 samples, we sequenced a large diversity of microbial eukaryotes, with a total 16 386 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) distributed within 50 phylogenetic groups...
October 20, 2016: Molecular Ecology
A C Rietzler, C R Botta, M M Ribeiro, O Rocha, A L Fonseca
The aim of this study was to jointly show the results of three independent ecotoxicological studies performed to investigate pollutants in three Brazilian tropical reservoirs undergoing accelerated eutrophication. In order to accomplish this goal, the full toxicity identification and evaluation procedure (TIE approach) was performed, at Pampulha (Minas Gerais State) and Salto Grande and Barra Bonita reservoirs (São Paulo State). Acute and chronic toxicity tests were performed using the cladocerans Daphnia similis and Ceriodaphnia dubia (exotic) and Daphnia laevis and Ceriodaphnia silvestrii (native) as test organisms...
October 19, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Behnaz RaheliNamin, Samar Mortazavi, Abdolrassoul Salmanmahiny
The combination of degrading natural conditions and resources, climate change, growing population, urban development, and competition in a global market complicate optimization of land for agricultural products. The use of pesticides and fertilizers for crop production in the agricultural fields has become excessive in the recent years and Golestan Province of Iran is no exception in this regard. For this, effective management with an efficient and cost-effective practice should be undertaken, maintaining public service at a high level and preserving the environment...
November 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Mitsuhiro Denda
It has long been suggested that climate, especially atmospheric pressure change, can cause health problems ranging from migraine to myocardial infarction. Here, I hypothesize that the sensory system of epidermal keratinocytes mediates the influence of atmospheric pressure change on the human physiological condition. We previously demonstrated that even subtle changes of atmospheric pressure (5-20 hPa) induce elevation of intracellular calcium level in cultured human keratinocytes (excitation of keratinocytes)...
2016: Extreme Physiology & Medicine
Peter M Chapman
We are facing a dynamic future in the face of multiple stressors acting individually and in combination: climate change; habitat change/loss; overfishing; invasive species; harmful algal blooms/eutrophication; and, chemical contaminants. Historic assessment and management approaches will be inadequate for addressing risks from climate change and other stressors. Wicked problems (non-linear, complex, competing risks and benefits, not easily solvable), will become increasingly common. We are facing irreversible changes to our planetary living conditions...
October 16, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Andrew N Gherlenda, Ben D Moore, Anthony M Haigh, Scott N Johnson, Markus Riegler
BACKGROUND: Climate change factors such as elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations (e[CO2]) and altered rainfall patterns can alter leaf composition and phenology. This may subsequently impact insect herbivory. In sclerophyllous forests insects have developed strategies, such as preferentially feeding on new leaf growth, to overcome physical or foliar nitrogen constraints, and this may shift under climate change. Few studies of insect herbivory at elevated [CO2] have occurred under field conditions and none on mature evergreen trees in a naturally established forest, yet estimates for leaf area loss due to herbivory are required in order to allow accurate predictions of plant productivity in future climates...
October 19, 2016: BMC Ecology
Janis L Dickinson, Poppy McLeod, Robert Bloomfield, Shorna Allred
Jonathan Haidt's Moral Foundations Theory identifies five moral axes that can influence human motivation to take action on vital problems like climate change. The theory focuses on five moral foundations, including compassion, fairness, purity, authority, and ingroup loyalty; these have been found to differ between liberals and conservatives as well as Democrats and Republicans. Here we show, based on the Cornell National Social Survey (USA), that valuations of compassion and fairness were strong, positive predictors of willingness to act on climate change, whereas purity had a non-significant tendency in the positive direction (p = 0...
2016: PloS One
Ashley N Coutu, Julia Lee-Thorp, Matthew J Collins, Paul J Lane
East African elephants have been hunted for their ivory for millennia but the nineteenth century witnessed strongly escalating demand from Europe and North America. It has been suggested that one consequence was that by the 1880s elephant herds along the coast had become scarce, and to meet demand, trade caravans trekked farther into interior regions of East Africa, extending the extraction frontier. The steady decimation of elephant populations coupled with the extension of trade networks have also been claimed to have triggered significant ecological and socio-economic changes that left lasting legacies across the region...
2016: PloS One
Christian Rellstab, Stefan Zoller, Lorenz Walthert, Isabelle Lesur, Andrea R Pluess, René Graf, Catherine Bodénès, Christoph Sperisen, Antoine Kremer, Felix Gugerli
Testing how populations are locally adapted and predicting their response to their future environment is of key importance in view of climate change. Landscape genomics is a powerful approach to investigate genes and environmental factors involved in local adaptation. In a pooled amplicon sequencing approach of 94 genes in 71 populations, we tested if >3'500 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the three most common oak species in Switzerland (Quercus petraea, Q. pubescens, Q. robur) show an association with abiotic factors related to local topography, historical climate, and soil characteristics...
October 19, 2016: Molecular Ecology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"