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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351566/patterns-in-reef-fish-assemblages-insights-from-the-chagos-archipelago
#1
Melita Samoilys, Ronan Roche, Heather Koldewey, John Turner
Understanding the drivers of variability in the composition of fish assemblages across the Indo-Pacific region is crucial to support coral reef ecosystem resilience. Whilst numerous relationships and feedback mechanisms between the functional roles of coral reef fishes and reef benthic composition have been investigated, certain key groups, such as the herbivores, are widely suggested to maintain reefs in a coral-dominated state. Examining links between fishes and reef benthos is complicated by the interactions between natural processes, disturbance events and anthropogenic impacts, particularly fishing pressure...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351323/fire-forbids-fifty-fifty-forest
#2
Egbert H van Nes, Arie Staal, Stijn Hantson, Milena Holmgren, Salvador Pueyo, Rafael E Bernardi, Bernardo M Flores, Chi Xu, Marten Scheffer
Recent studies have interpreted patterns of remotely sensed tree cover as evidence that forest with intermediate tree cover might be unstable in the tropics, as it will tip into either a closed forest or a more open savanna state. Here we show that across all continents the frequency of wildfires rises sharply as tree cover falls below ~40%. Using a simple empirical model, we hypothesize that the steepness of this pattern causes intermediate tree cover (30‒60%) to be unstable for a broad range of assumptions on tree growth and fire-driven mortality...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351020/a-dynamic-state-model-of-migratory-behavior-and-physiology-to-assess-the-consequences-of-environmental-variation-and-anthropogenic-disturbance-on-marine-vertebrates
#3
Enrico Pirotta, Marc Mangel, Daniel P Costa, Bruce Mate, Jeremy A Goldbogen, Daniel M Palacios, Luis A Hückstädt, Elizabeth A McHuron, Lisa Schwarz, Leslie New
Integrating behavior and physiology is critical to formulating new hypotheses on the evolution of animal life-history strategies. Migratory capital breeders acquire most of the energy they need to sustain migration, gestation, and lactation before parturition. Therefore, when predicting the impact of environmental variation on such species, a mechanistic understanding of the physiology of their migratory behavior is required. Using baleen whales as a model system, we developed a dynamic state variable model that captures the interplay among behavioral decisions, energy, reproductive needs, and the environment...
February 2018: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350842/from-grey-to-green-efficacy-of-eco-engineering-solutions-for-nature-based-coastal-defence
#4
Rebecca L Morris, Teresa M Konlechner, Marco Ghisalberti, Stephen E Swearer
Climate change is increasing the threat of erosion and flooding along coastlines globally. Engineering solutions (e.g. seawalls and breakwaters) in response to protecting coastal communities and associated infrastructure are increasingly becoming economically and ecologically unsustainable. This has led to recommendations to create or restore natural habitats, such as sand dunes, saltmarsh, mangroves, seagrass and kelp beds, and coral and shellfish reefs, to provide coastal protection in place of (or to complement) artificial structures...
January 19, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350475/water-deficit-disrupts-male-gametophyte-development-in-quercus-ilex
#5
Olga Bykova, Jean-Marc Limousin, Jean-Marc Ourcival, Isabelle Chuine
Tree species distribution, and hence forest biodiversity, rely on the reproductive capacity of trees which is currently affected by climate change. Drought-induced pollen sterility could increase as a consequence of more intense and more frequent droughts projected for temperate and Mediterranean regions and threaten the sexual regeneration of trees in these regions. To evaluate this possibility, we examined the effect of long-term partial rainfall exclusion (-27% of precipitation) on male reproductive development in holm oak, Quercus ilex, one of the most important and widespread tree species of the Mediterranean region...
January 19, 2018: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350284/a-positive-relationship-between-spring-temperature-and-productivity-in-20-songbird-species-in-the-boreal-zone
#6
Kalle Meller, Markus Piha, Anssi V Vähätalo, Aleksi Lehikoinen
Anthropogenic climate warming has already affected the population dynamics of numerous species and is predicted to do so also in the future. To predict the effects of climate change, it is important to know whether productivity is linked to temperature, and whether species' traits affect responses to climate change. To address these objectives, we analysed monitoring data from the Finnish constant effort site ringing scheme collected in 1987-2013 for 20 common songbird species together with climatic data. Warm spring temperature had a positive linear relationship with productivity across the community of 20 species independent of species' traits (realized thermal niche or migration behaviour), suggesting that even the warmest spring temperatures remained below the thermal optimum for reproduction, possibly due to our boreal study area being closer to the cold edge of all study species' distributions...
January 19, 2018: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349607/molecular-characterization-of-fagaceae-species-using-inter-primer-binding-site-ipbs-markers
#7
João Paulo Coutinho, Ana Carvalho, Antonio Martín, José Lima-Brito
Retrotransposons (RTNs) contribute for genome evolution, influencing its size and structure. We investigated the utility of the RTN-based markers inter-primer binding site (iPBS) for the molecular characterization of 25 Fagaceae species from genera Castanea, Fagus and Quercus. The assessment of genetic diversity, relationships and structure, as well as taxonomic classification of Fagaceae based on molecular data is important for definition of conservation, forestry management strategies and discrimination among natural hybrids and their parents since natural hybridization may increase with the climate changes...
January 18, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349533/hendra-virus-spillover-is-a-bimodal-system-driven-by-climatic-factors
#8
Gerardo Martin, Carlos Yanez-Arenas, Raina K Plowright, Carla Chen, Billie Roberts, Lee F Skerratt
Understanding environmental factors driving spatiotemporal patterns of disease can improve risk mitigation strategies. Hendra virus (HeV), discovered in Australia in 1994, spills over from bats (Pteropus sp.) to horses and thence to humans. Below latitude - 22°, almost all spillover events to horses occur during winter, and above this latitude spillover is aseasonal. We generated a statistical model of environmental drivers of HeV spillover per month. The model reproduced the spatiotemporal pattern of spillover risk between 1994 and 2015...
January 18, 2018: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349478/affinity-to-host-population-stimulates-physical-growth-in-adult-offspring-of-turkish-migrants-in-germany
#9
Aydan Özer, Christiane Scheffler
Because of political conflicts and climate change, migration will be increased worldwide and integration in host societies is a challenge also for migrants. We hypothesize that migrants, who take up the challenge in a new social environment are taller than migrants who do not pose this challenge. We analyze by a questionnaire possible social, nutritional and ethnic influencing factors to body height (BH) of adult offspring of Turkish migrants (n = 82, 39 males) aged from 18 to 34 years (mean age 24.6 years)...
January 18, 2018: Anthropologischer Anzeiger; Bericht über die Biologisch-anthropologische Literatur
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349299/limited-contribution-of-ancient-methane-to-surface-waters-of-the-u-s-beaufort-sea-shelf
#10
Katy J Sparrow, John D Kessler, John R Southon, Fenix Garcia-Tigreros, Kathryn M Schreiner, Carolyn D Ruppel, John B Miller, Scott J Lehman, Xiaomei Xu
In response to warming climate, methane can be released to Arctic Ocean sediment and waters from thawing subsea permafrost and decomposing methane hydrates. However, it is unknown whether methane derived from this sediment storehouse of frozen ancient carbon reaches the atmosphere. We quantified the fraction of methane derived from ancient sources in shelf waters of the U.S. Beaufort Sea, a region that has both permafrost and methane hydrates and is experiencing significant warming. Although the radiocarbon-methane analyses indicate that ancient carbon is being mobilized and emitted as methane into shelf bottom waters, surprisingly, we find that methane in surface waters is principally derived from modern-aged carbon...
January 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348646/intergenerational-equity-can-help-to-prevent-climate-change-and-extinction
#11
Adrian Treves, Kyle A Artelle, Chris T Darimont, William S Lynn, Paul Paquet, Francisco J Santiago-Ávila, Rance Shaw, Mary C Wood
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 18, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348632/climate-degradation-and-extreme-icing-events-constrain-life-in-cold-adapted-mammals
#12
J Berger, C Hartway, A Gruzdev, M Johnson
Despite the growth in knowledge about the effects of a warming Arctic on its cold-adapted species, the mechanisms by which these changes affect animal populations remain poorly understood. Increasing temperatures, declining sea ice and altered wind and precipitation patterns all may affect the fitness and abundance of species through multiple direct and indirect pathways. Here we demonstrate previously unknown effects of rain-on-snow (ROS) events, winter precipitation, and ice tidal surges on the Arctic's largest land mammal...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348468/the-potential-impact-of-invasive-woody-oil-plants-on-protected-areas-in-china-under-future-climate-conditions
#13
Guanghui Dai, Jun Yang, Siran Lu, Conghong Huang, Jing Jin, Peng Jiang, Pengbo Yan
Biodiesel produced from woody oil plants is considered a green substitute for fossil fuels. However, a potential negative impact of growing woody oil plants on a large scale is the introduction of highly invasive species into susceptible regions. In this study, we examined the potential invasion risk of woody oil plants in China's protected areas under future climate conditions. We simulated the current and future potential distributions of three invasive woody oil plants, Jatropha curcas, Ricinus communis, and Aleurites moluccana, under two climate change scenarios (RCP2...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348464/150-000-year-palaeoclimate-record-from-northern-ethiopia-supports-early-multiple-dispersals-of-modern-humans-from-africa
#14
Henry F Lamb, C Richard Bates, Charlotte L Bryant, Sarah J Davies, Dei G Huws, Michael H Marshall, Helen M Roberts
Climatic change is widely acknowledged to have played a role in the dispersal of modern humans out of Africa, but the timing is contentious. Genetic evidence links dispersal to climatic change ~60,000 years ago, despite increasing evidence for earlier modern human presence in Asia. We report a deep seismic and near-continuous core record of the last 150,000 years from Lake Tana, Ethiopia, close to early modern human fossil sites and to postulated dispersal routes. The record shows varied climate towards the end of the penultimate glacial, followed by an abrupt change to relatively stable moist climate during the last interglacial...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348403/ice-volume-and-climate-changes-from-a-6000-year-sea-level-record-in-french-polynesia
#15
N Hallmann, G Camoin, A Eisenhauer, A Botella, G A Milne, C Vella, E Samankassou, V Pothin, P Dussouillez, J Fleury, J Fietzke
Mid- to late-Holocene sea-level records from low-latitude regions serve as an important baseline of natural variability in sea level and global ice volume prior to the Anthropocene. Here, we reconstruct a high-resolution sea-level curve encompassing the last 6000 years based on a comprehensive study of coral microatolls, which are sensitive low-tide recorders. Our curve is based on microatolls from several islands in a single region and comprises a total of 82 sea-level index points. Assuming thermosteric contributions are negligible on millennial time scales, our results constrain global ice melting to be 1...
January 18, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347896/-impact-of-different-types-of-fathers-on-family-climate-in-young-adulthood-a-multi-perspective-longitudinal-study-on-14-to-27-year-olds-and-their-fathers
#16
Fabian J Escher, Inge Seiffge-Krenke
Impact of Different Types of Fathers on Family Climate in Young Adulthood: A Multi-perspective Longitudinal Study on 14 to 27 Year Olds and their Fathers In a 13 year longitudinal study, the influence of three types of fathers on the family climate was analyzed. In a sample of 213 subjects, their 169 fathers and their 210 mothers, the family environment ( Family Environment Scales) was examined when the subjects were young adults (M = 26.89, SD = 1.32). The results of the study point to significant changes in family climate in those young adults who described their father as increasingly negative (N = 28) or distant (N = 11) when in adolescence...
January 2018: Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346653/emergence-of-acute-subacute-infant-juvenile-paracoccidioidomycosis-in-northeast-argentina-effect-of-climatic-and-anthropogenic-changes
#17
Gustavo Giusiano, Clarisa Aguirre, Claudia Vratnica, Florencia Rojas, Teresa Corallo, María Emilia Cattana, Mariana Fernández, Javier Mussin, María de Los Angeles Sosa
Argentina has two endemic areas of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). Bordering Paraguay and Brazil, Northeast Argentina (NEA) comprises the area with the highest incidence where the chronic adult clinical form has historically been reported. Juvenile form in children and adolescents is rare in this area since only one case was reported in the last 10 years. Despite this, between 2010 and 2012, several cases of acute/subacute clinical forms in children aged 10 to 16 (median 12) were detected. In the last decade, the NEA region has been exposed to ecological variations as consequences of certain climatic and anthropogenic changes, including El Niño-Southern Oscillation phenomenon during 2009, and deforestation...
January 13, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346453/yearly-fluctuations-of-flower-landscape-in-a-mediterranean-scrubland-consequences-for-floral-resource-availability
#18
Víctor Flo, Jordi Bosch, Xavier Arnan, Clara Primante, Ana M Martín González, Helena Barril-Graells, Anselm Rodrigo
Species flower production and flowering phenology vary from year to year due to extrinsic factors. Inter-annual variability in flowering patterns may have important consequences for attractiveness to pollinators, and ultimately, plant reproductive output. To understand the consequences of flowering pattern variability, a community approach is necessary because pollinator flower choice is highly dependent on flower context. Our objectives were: 1) To quantify yearly variability in flower density and phenology; 2) To evaluate whether changes in flowering patterns result in significant changes in pollen/nectar composition...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346418/the-relationship-of-lung-function-with-ambient-temperature
#19
Joseph M Collaco, Lawrence J Appel, John McGready, Garry R Cutting
BACKGROUND: Lung function is complex trait with both genetic and environmental factors contributing to variation. It is unknown how geographic factors such as climate affect population respiratory health. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether ambient air temperature is associated with lung function (FEV1) in the general population. DESIGN/SETTING: Associations between spirometry data from two National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) periods representative of the U...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346369/the-rise-of-neglected-tropical-diseases-in-the-new-texas
#20
REVIEW
Peter J Hotez
Within the last five years, the State of Texas has experienced either transmission or outbreaks of Ebola, chikungunya, West Nile, and Zika virus infections. Autochthonous transmission of neglected parasitic and bacterial diseases has also become increasingly reported. The rise of such emerging and neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) has not occurred by accident but instead reflects rapidly evolving changes and shifts in a "new" Texas beset by modern and globalizing forces that include rapid expansions in population together with urbanization and human migrations, altered transportation patterns, climate change, steeply declining vaccination rates, and a new paradigm of poverty known as "blue marble health...
January 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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