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Adapted sport

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332730/biomechanical-factors-associated-with-running-economy-and-performance-of-elite-kenyan-distance-runners-a-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
Nassib Tawa, Quinette Louw
BACKGROUND: Running economy (RE) is a determinant of performance in endurance sports and is a complex multi-factorial measure which reflects the combined functioning of bio-mechanical, neuro-muscular, metabolic and cardio-respiratory factors some of which are hereditary or adapt to coaching. Kenyan distance runners have dominated major global events with their unmatched performance for decades and this phenomenon has prompted several investigations aimed at establishing possible factors associated with their performance...
January 2018: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320519/the-effect-of-small-sided-games-with-different-levels-of-opposition-on-the-tactical-behaviour-of-young-footballers-with-different-levels-of-sport-expertise
#2
Alba Práxedes, Alberto Moreno, Alexander Gil-Arias, Fernando Claver, Fernando Del Villar
To optimize players' tactical abilities, coaches need to design training sessions with representative learning tasks, such as, small-sided games. Moreover, it is necessary to adapt the complexity of the tasks to the skill level of the athletes to maximally improve their perceptual, visual and attentive abilities. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of two teaching programs, each utilizing modified games with varied levels of opposition, on decision-making and action execution in young players with different levels of sports expertise...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315892/effects-of-fasted-vs-fed-state-exercise-on-performance-and-post-exercise-metabolism-a-systematic-review-meta-analysis
#3
REVIEW
Tom P Aird, Robert W Davies, Brian P Carson
The effects of nutrition on exercise metabolism and performance remains an important topic among sports scientists, clinical, and athletic populations. Recently, fasted exercise has garnered interest as a beneficial stimulus which induces superior metabolic adaptations to fed exercise in key peripheral tissues. Conversely, pre-exercise feeding augments exercise performance compared with fasting conditions. Given these seemingly divergent effects on performance and metabolism, an appraisal of the literature is warranted...
January 6, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310699/planning-a-sports-training-program-using-adaptive-particle-swarm-optimization-with-emphasis-on-physiological-constraints
#4
Nattapon Kumyaito, Preecha Yupapin, Kreangsak Tamee
OBJECTIVE: An effective training plan is an important factor in sports training to enhance athletic performance. A poorly considered training plan may result in injury to the athlete, and overtraining. Good training plans normally require expert input, which may have a cost too great for many athletes, particularly amateur athletes. The objectives of this research were to create a practical cycling training plan that substantially improves athletic performance while satisfying essential physiological constraints...
January 8, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307100/the-general-adaptation-syndrome-a-foundation-for-the-concept-of-periodization
#5
REVIEW
Aaron J Cunanan, Brad H DeWeese, John P Wagle, Kevin M Carroll, Robert Sausaman, W Guy Hornsby, G Gregory Haff, N Travis Triplett, Kyle C Pierce, Michael H Stone
Recent reviews have attempted to refute the efficacy of applying Selye's general adaptation syndrome (GAS) as a conceptual framework for the training process. Furthermore, the criticisms involved are regularly used as the basis for arguments against the periodization of training. However, these perspectives fail to consider the entirety of Selye's work, the evolution of his model, and the broad applications he proposed. While it is reasonable to critically evaluate any paradigm, critics of the GAS have yet to dismantle the link between stress and adaptation...
January 6, 2018: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282696/cardiac-biomarkers-release-in-preadolescent-athletes-after-an-high-intensity-exercise
#6
A Peretti, L Mauri, A Masarin, G Annoni, A Corato, A Maloberti, Cristina Giannattasio, G Vignati
INTRODUCTION: An elevation of cardiac troponins has been described in healthy athletes after endurance exercises. The clinical significance of this increase is unclear and the lack of awareness of this phenomenon may lead to inappropriate management of these subjects. AIM: We sought to determine wether an intensive cycling training could determine a biomarkers elevation. METHODS: We evaluated serum high sensitivity cardiac troponin T, NH(2)-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, CK-MB and CK in 21 healthy male preadolescent athletes (age 9...
December 27, 2017: High Blood Pressure & Cardiovascular Prevention: the Official Journal of the Italian Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280684/sport-related-concussive-convulsions-a-systematic-review
#7
Nicholas O Kuhl, Aaron M Yengo-Kahn, Hannah Burnette, Gary S Solomon, Scott L Zuckerman
OBJECTIVES: The incidence of sport-related concussion (SRC) continues to rise. Presentations of concussed athletes vary from subtle symptoms to notable signs. Between the 4th and 5th iterations of the Concussion in Sport Group (CISG) guidelines, concussive convulsions were removed as a modifying factor, but little evidence or discussion supported this change. While considerable research exists regarding post-traumatic epilepsy in moderate to severe traumatic brain injury, convulsions following SRC are relatively understudied...
December 27, 2017: Physician and Sportsmedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244075/the-athlete-s-heart-is-a-proarrhythmic-heart-and-what-that-means-for-clinical-decision-making
#8
Hein Heidbuchel
Recurring questions when dealing with arrhythmias in athletes are about the cause of the arrhythmia and, more importantly, about the eligibility of the athlete to continue sports activities. In essence, the relation between sports and arrhythmias can be understood along three lines: sports as arrhythmia trigger on top of an underlying problem, sports as arrhythmic substrate promotor, or sports as substrate inducer. Often, there is no sharp divider line between these entities. The athlete's heart, a heart that adapts so magically to cope with the demands of exercise, harbours many structural and functional changes that by themselves predispose to arrhythmia development, at the atrial, nodal and ventricular levels...
December 13, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242826/a-triassic-plesiosaurian-skeleton-and-bone-histology-inform-on-evolution-of-a-unique-body-plan
#9
Tanja Wintrich, Shoji Hayashi, Alexandra Houssaye, Yasuhisa Nakajima, P Martin Sander
Secondary marine adaptation is a major pattern in amniote evolution, accompanied by specific bone histological adaptations. In the aftermath of the end-Permian extinction, diverse marine reptiles evolved early in the Triassic. Plesiosauria is the most diverse and one of the longest-lived clades of marine reptiles, but its bone histology is least known among the major marine amniote clades. Plesiosaurians had a unique and puzzling body plan, sporting four evenly shaped pointed flippers and (in most clades) a small head on a long, stiffened neck...
December 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239986/practical-model-of-low-volume-paddling-based-sprint-interval-training-improves-aerobic-and-anaerobic-performances-in-professional-female-canoe-polo-athletes
#10
Mohsen Sheykhlouvand, Erfan Khalili, Mohammadali Gharaat, Hamid Arazi, Mousa Khalafi, Bahman Tarverdizadeh
Brief, intense exercise training employing running and cycling as exercise interventions may induce aerobic and anaerobic adaptations in athletes from wide range of sports. However, this has not been studied extensively for those sports in which the upper-body is predominantly involved. Our purpose was to examine the effects of kayak paddling-based sprint interval training (SIT) on cardiorespiratory fitness and anaerobic performance. 16 professional female canoe polo athletes (age = 27.6 ± 1.9 years; height = 165...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238320/understanding-appearance-enhancing-drug-use-in-sport-using-an-enactive-approach-to-body-image
#11
Denis Hauw, Jean Bilard
From an enactive approach to human activity, we suggest that the use of appearance-enhancing drugs is better explained by the sense-making related to body image rather than the cognitive evaluation of social norms about appearance and consequent psychopathology-oriented approach. After reviewing the main psychological disorders thought to link body image issues to the use of appearance-enhancing substances, we sketch a flexible, dynamic and embedded account of body image defined as the individual's propensity to act and experience in specific situations...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238242/heart-rate-variability-is-a-moderating-factor-in-the-workload-injury-relationship-of-competitive-crossfit%C3%A2-athletes
#12
Sean Williams, Thomas Booton, Matthew Watson, Daniel Rowland, Marco Altini
Heart rate variability (HRV) is a popular tool for monitoring training adaptation and readiness in athletes, but it also has the potential to indicate early signs of somatic tissue overload prior to the onset of pain or fully developed injury. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the interaction between HRV, workloads, and risk of overuse problems in competitive CrossFit™ athletes. Daily resting HRV and workloads (duration × session-RPE) were recorded in six competitive CrossFit™ athletes across a 16 week period...
December 2017: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237355/cross-cultural-adaptation-of-the-victorian-institute-of-sports-assessment-achilles-visa-a-questionnaire-for-spanish-athletes
#13
Sergio Hernández-Sánchez, Emilio José Poveda-Pagán, Yasser Alakhdar, Maria Dolores Hidalgo-Montesinos, César Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, José L Arias-Buría
Study Design Clinical measurement study. Background Achilles tendinopathy is a prevalent sport-related injury. The Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment-Achilles (VISA-A) questionnaire is a widely-used patient-reported outcome to assess the severity of symptoms for this injury. Objective To adapt the VISA-A questionnaire into Spanish and to assess its psychometric properties. Methods Cross-cultural adaptation was conducted according to recommended guidelines. The Spanish VISA-A (VISA-A-Sp) questionnaire was administered to 210 subjects: 70 healthy students, 70 active at risk subjects (participating in running and jumping) and 70 patients with Achilles tendinopathy diagnosis...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233302/validation-of-a-motivation-survey-tool-for-pharmacy-students-exploring-a-link-to-professional-identity-development
#14
Martina F Mylrea, Tarun Sen Gupta, Beverley D Glass
INTRODUCTION: Self-determination theory (SDT), which describes a continuum of motivation regulators, is proposed as an appropriate framework to study pharmacy student motivation. The aim was to develop a Pharmacy Motivation Scale (Pharm-S) to determine motivation regulators in undergraduate students and explore a possible link to professional identity development. METHODS: The Pharm-S was adapted from the SDT-based, Sports Motivation Scale (SMS-II), and administered to undergraduate students in an Australian pharmacy course...
September 2017: Currents in Pharmacy Teaching & Learning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222606/hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-hpa-axis-functioning-in-overtraining-syndrome-findings-from-endocrine-and-metabolic-responses-on-overtraining-syndrome-eros-eros-hpa-axis
#15
Flavio A Cadegiani, Claudio E Kater
BACKGROUND: Overtraining syndrome (OTS) results from excessive training load without adequate recovery and leads to decreased performance and fatigue. The pathophysiology of OTS in athletes is not fully understood, which makes accurate diagnosis difficult. Previous studies indicate that alterations in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may be responsible for OTS; however, the data is not conclusive. This study aimed to compare, through gold standard and exercise-independent tests, the response of the HPA axis in OTS-affected athletes (OTS group) to healthy physically active subjects (ATL group) and healthy non-active subjects (NCS group)...
December 8, 2017: Sports Medicine—Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220620/mediating-peer-teaching-for-learning-games-an-action-research-intervention-across-three-consecutive-sport-education-seasons
#16
Cláudio Farias, Isabel Mesquita, Peter A Hastie, Toni O'Donovan
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to provide an integrated analysis of a teacher's peer-teaching mediation strategies, the student-coaches' instruction, and the students' gameplay development across 3 consecutive seasons of sport education. METHOD: Twenty-six 7th-grade students participated in 3 consecutive sport education seasons of invasion games (basketball, handball, and soccer). The research involved 3 action research cycles, 1 per season, and each cycle included the processes of planning, acting and monitoring, reflecting, and fact finding...
December 8, 2017: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213057/a-catch-up-illusion-arising-from-a-distance-dependent-perception-bias-in-judging-relative-movement
#17
Tobias Meilinger, Bärbel Garsoffky, Stephan Schwan
The perception of relative target movement from a dynamic observer is an unexamined psychological three body problem. To test the applicability of explanations for two moving bodies participants repeatedly judged the relative movements of two runners chasing each other in video clips displayed on a stationary screen. The chased person always ran at 3 m/s with an observer camera following or leading at 4.5, 3, 1.5 or 0 m/s. We harmonized the chaser speed in an adaptive staircase to determine the point of subjective equal movement speed between runners and observed (i) an underestimation of chaser speed if the runners moved towards the viewer, and (ii) an overestimation of chaser speed if the runners moved away from the viewer, leading to a catch-up illusion in case of equidistant runners...
December 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212511/comparing-the-chinese-versions-of-two-knee-specific-questionnaires-ikdc-and-koos-reliability-validity-and-responsiveness
#18
Chien-Chih Huang, Wen-Shiang Chen, Mei-Wun Tsai, Wendy Tzyy-Jiuan Wang
BACKGROUND: The International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form (IKDC) and the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) are knee-specific questionnaires that have been widely used and translated into numerous languages. However, the differences in the psychometric properties between the Chinese IKDC and KOOS remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to conduct a cross-cultural adaptation of the Chinese IKDC and Chinese KOOS and to compare the psychometric properties of these two measures in patients with various knee injuries from the acute stage up to 12 weeks after receiving treatment...
December 6, 2017: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206096/danish-translation-of-the-foot-and-ankle-outcome-score
#19
Peter Larsen, Anne Marie Boe, Annika B Iyer, Rasmus Elsøe
INTRODUCTION: The Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FOAS) is a standardized instrument used to report on injury-specific clinical status following foot- and ankle-related problems. The primary aim of this study was to translate and conduct a cross-cultural adaptation of the FAOS into a Danish setting, including testing absolute agreement and the test-retest reliability of the questionnaire. METHODS: Translation of the FAOS questionnaire was 
carried out according to the Principles of Good Practice for the Translation and Cultural Adaptation Process for Patient-
Reported Outcomes Measures: report of the Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research Task Force 
for Translation and Cultural Adaptation...
December 2017: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194049/preserving-the-shoulder-function-of-an-elite-para-triathlete-a-case-report
#20
Robert Diaz, Allison H Stoll, Monica E Rho, Cheri A Blauwet
Shoulder pain in wheelchair users that participate in competitive adaptive sports can be a troublesome condition. Shoulder pain not only affects athletic performance, but also functional activities such as wheelchair propulsion and weight bearing during transfers. Managing pain in these athletes thus presents a unique challenge due to the difficulty in achieving relative rest and the need to modify athletic shoulder-focused rehabilitation strategies. In all athletes, it is vital to establish an early, accurate diagnosis and optimize conservative treatment prior to considering surgical interventions in order to avoid excessive shoulder-related morbidity, loss of function, and worse - loss of independence...
November 29, 2017: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
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