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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926886/-keratectomy-combined-with-intrastromal-injection-of-voriconazole-in-treating-fungal-keratitis
#1
S X Li, J Biang, X Li, L T Zhang, W Y Shi
Objective: To investigate the treatment effect of keratectomy combined with intrastromal injection of voriconazole on fungal keratitis. Methods: Retrospective study. Ninety-eight fungal keratitis patients (98 eyes) were treated by keratectomy combined with intrastromal injection of voriconazole in Shandong Eye Hospital from January 2013 to May 2015. The corneal ulcers were mostly located in the paracentral or peripheral cornea, which incompletely blocked the pupil area. Slit lamp and anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) were used for lesion detection...
September 11, 2017: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926460/peripheral-bacterial-septic-arthritis-review-of-diagnosis-and-management
#2
Ahmed S Hassan, Allison Rao, Augustine M Manadan, Joel A Block
Septic arthritis refers to an infection in a joint due to a bacterial, mycobacterial, or fungal cause. Joint infections are a serious cause of morbidity and mortality and constitute a true musculoskeletal emergency. The estimated incidence of septic arthritis in the general population is between 2 and 6 cases per 100,000 people per year. The most common presentation is an acute monoarthritis. Identification of organisms in the synovial fluid is the criterion standard for diagnosis. Synovial fluid aspiration should be performed prior to initiating antibiotics...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Rheumatology: Practical Reports on Rheumatic & Musculoskeletal Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926447/effect-of-peripheral-nerve-block-on-length-of-stay-after-total-knee-arthroplasty
#3
Jung-Won Hwang, Young-Tae Jeon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925907/atrial-fibrillation-ablation-increases-inflammation-chemokine-modulation-suppresses-activation-of-leukocytes-isolated-after-ablation
#4
Alexandra Lucas, Mohammad Al-Ani, Sriram Ambadapadi, Jordan R Yaron, Donghang Zheng, Adisson Fortunel, Maia Doroton-Guevara, Liying Liu, Sufi Morshed, Jay Fricker, William Miles, Matthew McKillop
AIMS: Atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation is associated with increased circulating markers of inflammation. Innate immune, or inflammation, pathways up-regulate mononuclear cell responses and may increase risk for recurrent arrhythmia. Chemokines and serine protease coagulation pathways both activate innate immune responses. Here, we measured inflammatory markers in peripheral blood samples from patients after cryoballoon and/or radiofrequency pulmonary vein isolation and assessed the capacity for inhibition of chemokine and serine protease pathways to block cell activation...
September 18, 2017: Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925884/prevention-and-treatment-for-chemotherapy-induced-peripheral-neuropathy-therapies-based-on-cipn-mechanisms
#5
Lang-Yue Hu, Wen-Li Mi, Gen-Cheng Wu, Yan-Qing Wang, Qi-Liang Mao-Ying
BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a progressive, enduring, and often irreversible adverse effect of many antineoplastic agents, among which sensory abnormities are common and the most suffering issues. The pathogenesis of CIPN has not been completely understood, and strategies for CIPN prevention and treatment are still open problems for medicine. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this paper is to review the mechanism-based therapies against sensory abnormities in CIPN...
September 15, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924383/functional-analysis-of-a-novel-foxl2-indel-mutation-in-chinese-families-with-blepharophimosis-ptosis-epicanthus-inversus-syndrome-type-i
#6
Peiwei Chai, Fang Li, Jiayan Fan, Ruobin Jia, He Zhang, Xianqun Fan
Background: Blepharophimosis-ptosis-epicanthus inversus syndrome (BPES) is an autosomal dominant disease with a low incidence rate. Indel mutations in the forkhead box L2 (FOXL2) gene cause two types of BPES that are distinguished by the presence (type I) or absence (type II) of premature ovarian failure (POF). The purpose of this study was to identify a possible deletion in FOXL2 in Chinese families with BPES and to clarify its relationship with POF. Methods: An autosomal dominant Chinese BPES family with four generations was enrolled in this study...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922231/use-of-regional-anesthesia-for-outpatient-surgery-within-the-united-states-a-prevalence-study-using-a-nationwide-database
#7
Rodney A Gabriel, Brian M Ilfeld
BACKGROUND: Regional anesthesia is of benefit for outpatient surgery given its demonstrated improvement in analgesia and decrease in complications, resulting in shorter average recovery room times and lower hospital readmission rates. Unfortunately, there are few epidemiological studies outlining the overall utilization of peripheral nerve blocks (PNBs) in this setting. Therefore, the primary objective of this study was to report the overall utilization of several types of PNBs among all candidate cases in the outpatient setting within the United States...
September 14, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921418/coping-with-phantom-limb-pain
#8
Damien P Kuffler
Phantom limb pain is a chronic neuropathic pain that develops in 45-85% of patients who undergo major amputations of the upper and lower extremities and appears predominantly during two time frames following an amputation: the first month and later about 1 year. Although in most patients the frequency and intensity of pain diminish over time, severe pain persists in about 5-10%. It has been proposed that factors in both the peripheral and central nervous systems play major roles in triggering the development and maintenance of pain associated with extremity amputations...
September 18, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920671/development-of-a-multifunctional-nanobiointerface-based-on-self-assembled-fusion-protein-rsbpa-zz-for-blood-cell-enrichment-and-phenotyping
#9
Mario Rothbauer, Martin Frauenlob, Karoline Gutkas, Michael B Fischer, Eva Kathrin Sinner, Seta Küpcü, Peter Ertl
We present a multifunctional nanobiointerface for blood cell capture and phenotyping applications that features both excellent antifouling properties and high antibody activity. Multifunctionality is accomplished by modifying polymeric materials using self-assembled S-layer fusion-protein rSbpA/ZZ to immobilize high density antibodies at the two protein A binding sites of the rSbpA/ZZ nanolattice structure. Controlled orientation and alignment of the antibodies reduced antibody consumption 100-fold and increased cell capture efficiency 4-fold over standard methodologies...
September 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919812/the-effect-of-local-topical-analgesics-on-incisional-pain-in-a-pig-model
#10
David Castel, Itai Sabbag, Sigal Meilin
Interest in the development of new topical/local drug administration for blocking pain at peripheral sites, with maximum drug activity and minimal systemic effects, is on the rise. In the review article by Kopsky and Stahl, four critical barriers in the process of research and development of topical analgesics were indicated. The active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and the formulation are among the major challenges. The road to the development of such drugs passes through preclinical studies. These studies, if planned correctly, should serve as guidance for choosing the right API and formulation...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919455/is-there-a-role-for-il-17-in-the-pathogenesis-of-systemic-sclerosis
#11
REVIEW
Carlo Chizzolini, Aleksandra Maria Dufour, Nicolò Costantino Brembilla
In systemic sclerosis (SSc) immuno-inflammatory events are central to disease development. Amongst other mediators of inflammation, interleukin 17 (IL-17) and Th17 cells have been reported to be increased in the peripheral blood and target organs including involved skin in SSc. They participate and amplify inflammatory responses by inducing the production of cytokines such as IL-6, chemokines such as CCL2 and CXCL8 (IL-8), matrix metalloproteinases-1, -2, -9 and the expression of adhesion molecules in stromal cells including fibroblasts and endothelial cells...
September 14, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919254/palmitic-acid-stimulates-energy-metabolism-and-inhibits-insulin-pi3k-akt-signaling-in-differentiated-human-neuroblastoma-cells-the-role-of-mtor-activation-and-mitochondrial-ros-production
#12
Erika Calvo-Ochoa, Karina Sánchez-Alegría, Cecilia Gómez-Inclán, Patricia Ferrera, Clorinda Arias
The high consumption of saturated lipids has been largely associated with the increasing prevalence of metabolic diseases. In particular, saturated fatty acids such as palmitic acid (PA) have been implicated in the development of insulin resistance in peripheral tissues. However, how neurons develop insulin resistance in response to lipid overload is not fully understood. Here, we used cultured rat cortical neurons and differentiated human neuroblastoma cells to demonstrate that PA blocks insulin-induced metabolic activation, inhibits the activation of the insulin/PI3K/Akt pathway and activates mTOR kinase downstream of Akt...
September 15, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918051/lrrk2-antisense-oligonucleotides-ameliorate-%C3%AE-synuclein-inclusion-formation-in-a-parkinson-s-disease-mouse-model
#13
Hien Tran Zhao, Neena John, Vedad Delic, Karli Ikeda-Lee, Aneeza Kim, Andreas Weihofen, Eric E Swayze, Holly B Kordasiewicz, Andrew B West, Laura A Volpicelli-Daley
No treatments exist to slow or halt Parkinson's disease (PD) progression; however, inhibition of leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) activity represents one of the most promising therapeutic strategies. Genetic ablation and pharmacological LRRK2 inhibition have demonstrated promise in blocking α-synuclein (α-syn) pathology. However, LRRK2 kinase inhibitors may reduce LRRK2 activity in several tissues and induce systemic phenotypes in the kidney and lung that are undesirable. Here, we test whether antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) provide an alternative therapeutic strategy, as they can be restricted to the CNS and provide a stable, long-lasting reduction of protein throughout the brain...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915149/bulleyaconitine-a-preferably-reduces-tetrodotoxin-sensitive-sodium-current-in-uninjured-dorsal-root-ganglion-neurons-of-neuropathic-rats-probably-via-inhibition-of-protein-kinase-c
#14
Man-Xiu Xie, Rui-Ping Pang, Jie Yang, Kai-Feng Shen, Jing Xu, Xiong-Xiong Zhong, Shao-Kun Wang, Xiao-Long Zhang, Yan-Qing Liu, Xian-Guo Liu
Oral Bulleyaconitine A (BLA) is effective for treating neuropathic pain in human patients, but the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Here, we tested whether BLA blocked voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Compelling evidence shows that voltage-gated sodium channels are upregulated in uninjured DRG neurons but downregulated in injured ones following peripheral nerve injury. We found that BLA preferably inhibited Na currents in uninjured DRG neurons in neuropathic rats...
July 17, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913901/real-time-continuous-monitoring-of-injection-pressure-at-the-needle-tip-for-peripheral-nerve-blocks-description-of-a-new-method
#15
C Quadri, A Saporito, X Capdevila
The measurement of injection pressure during the performance of peripheral nerve blocks can be pivotal to detect intraneural placement of the needle tip and thus avoid intrafascicular injection. However, injection pressure can only be measured along the injection line (tubing), which is influenced by several factors. The primary aim of this feasibility study was to describe and validate the principle of a novel nerve-block needle conceived for real-time continuous monitoring of injection pressures at the needle tip...
September 14, 2017: Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913874/an-algorithmic-approach-to-diagnose-haematolymphoid-neoplasms-in-effusion-by-combining-morphology-immunohistochemistry-and-molecular-cytogenetics
#16
L Chen, J S Zhang, D G Liu, D Cui, Z L Meng
OBJECTIVE: There are limited studies of cytology diagnosis of haematopoietic and lymphoid tumours in serosal effusion except for occasional case reports. We would like to demonstrate an algorithmic approach for accurate diagnosis, especially in patients without previous history. METHODS: We reviewed 36 cases of lymphoma diagnosed in serosal effusion following an algorithmic approach. Suspected tumour cells were classified into small, intermediate and large sizes and two characteristic forms of plasmacytoid and Reed Sternberg-like on smears (step 1), followed by utilising panels of immunohistochemical markers and Epstein-Barr encoding region in situ hybridisation on cell blocks (step 2)...
September 15, 2017: Cytopathology: Official Journal of the British Society for Clinical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912683/nano-scale-biophysical-and-structural-investigations-on-intact-and-neuropathic-nerve-fibers-by-simultaneous-combination-of-atomic-force-and-confocal-microscopy
#17
Gonzalo Rosso, Ivan Liashkovich, Peter Young, Victor Shahin
The links between neuropathies of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), including Charcot-Marie-Tooth1A and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies, and impaired biomechanical and structural integrity of PNS nerves remain poorly understood despite the medical urgency. Here, we present a protocol describing simultaneous structural and biomechanical integrity investigations on isolated nerve fibers, the building blocks of nerves. Nerve fibers are prepared from nerves harvested from wild-type and exemplary PNS neuropathy mouse models...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905370/neuromodulation-and-devices-in-trigeminal-neuralgia
#18
Kevin Weber
PREMISE: Trigeminal neuralgia is a severe facial pain disorder that has been studied for decades. Classical trigeminal neuralgia (CTN) is either idiopathic or caused by neurovascular compression. The related painful trigeminal neuropathies are often secondary to other causes, such as multiple sclerosis or trauma. PROBLEM: Therapies for trigeminal neuralgia and neuropathy have often been pharmacologic or surgical. Pharmacologic therapies are not effective in some cases and often cause side effects, some substantial...
September 14, 2017: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904214/after-nerve-injury-lineage-tracing-shows-that-myelin-and-remak-schwann-cells-elongate-extensively-and-branch-to-form-repair-schwann-cells-which-shorten-radically-on-remyelination
#19
Jose A Gomez-Sanchez, Kjara S Pilch, Milou van der Lans, Shaline V Fazal, Cristina Benito, Laura J Wagstaff, Rhona Mirsky, Kristjan R Jessen
There is consensus that, distal to peripheral nerve injury, myelin and Remak cells reorganize to form cellular columns, Bungner's bands, which are indispensable for regeneration. However, knowledge of the structure of these regeneration tracks has not advanced for decades and the structure of the cells that form them, denervated or repair Schwann cells, remains obscure. Furthermore, the origin of these cells from myelin and Remak cells and their ability to give rise to myelin cells after regeneration has not been demonstrated directly, although these conversions are believed to be central to nerve repair...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904199/calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-induces-hiv-1-proteasomal-degradation-in-mucosal-langerhans-cells
#20
Morgane Bomsel, Yonatan Ganor
The neuro-immune dialogue between peripheral neurons and Langerhans cells (LCs) within mucosal epithelia protects against incoming pathogens. LCs rapidly internalize human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) upon its sexual transmission and then trans-infect CD4+ T-cells. We recently found that the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), secreted mucosally from peripheral neurons, inhibits LCs-mediated HIV-1 trans-infection. Herein, we investigated the mechanism of CGRP-induced inhibition, focusing on HIV-1 degradation in LCs and its interplay with trans-infection...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Virology
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