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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635675/co-infection-with-marek-s-disease-virus-and-reticuloendotheliosis-virus-increases-illness-severity-and-reduces-marek-s-disease-vaccine-efficacy
#1
Guo-Rong Sun, Yan-Ping Zhang, Lin-Yi Zhou, Hong-Chao Lv, Feng Zhang, Kai Li, Yu-Long Gao, Xiao-Le Qi, Hong-Yu Cui, Yong-Qiang Wang, Li Gao, Qing Pan, Xiao-Mei Wang, Chang-Jun Liu
Marek's disease virus (MDV) and reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) cause Marek's disease (MD) and reticuloendotheliosis (RE), respectively. Co-infection with MDV and REV is common in chickens, causing serious losses to the poultry industry. However, experimental studies of such co-infection are lacking. In this study, Chinese field strains of MDV (ZW/15) and REV (JLR1501) were used as challenge viruses to evaluate the pathogenicity of co-infection and the influence of MD vaccination in chickens. Compared to the MDV-challenged group, the mortality and tumor rates increased significantly by 20...
June 21, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630260/cholesterol-auxotrophy-and-intolerance-to-ezetimibe-in-mice-with-srebp-2-deficiency-in-the-intestine
#2
Shunxing Rong, Jeffrey McDonald, Luke Engelking
Sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 (SREBP-2) activates transcription of all genes needed for cholesterol biosynthesis. To study SREBP-2 function in intestine, we generated a mouse model (Vil-BP2(-/-) ) in which Cre recombinase ablates SREBP-2 in intestinal epithelia. Intestines of Vil-BP2(-/-) mice had reduced expression of genes required for sterol synthesis, in vivo sterol synthesis rates, and epithelial cholesterol contents. On a cholesterol-free diet, they displayed chronic enteropathy with histological abnormalities of both villi and crypts, growth restriction, and reduced survival that was prevented by supplementation of cholesterol in the diet...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591779/elucidating-the-biological-roles-of-insulin-and-its-receptor-in-murine-intestinal-growth-and-function
#3
Stina Rikke Jensen, Sarah E Wheeler, Henning Hvid, Jonas Ahnfelt-Rønne, Bo Falck Hansen, Erica Nishimura, Grith Skytte Olsen, Patricia L Brubaker
The role of the intestinal insulin receptor (IR) is not well-understood. We therefore explored the effect of insulin (300 nmol/kg-d for 12d) on the intestine in sex-matched C57Bl/6J mice. The intestinal and metabolic profiles were also characterized in male and female intestinal-epithelial IR knockout (IE-irKO) mice as compared to all genetic controls, on a chow or Western diet (WD) for 4-12wk. Insulin treatment did not affect intestinal size, intestinal resistance or metabolic genes, but reduced proximal-colon crypt depth and acutely increased colonic AKT activation...
June 7, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491268/umeclidinium-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-latest-evidence-and-place-in-therapy
#4
REVIEW
Kesavan Suresh Babu, Jaymin Bhagwanji Morjaria
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity, mortality and health care expenditure throughout the world. COPD guidelines recommend the use of long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) either alone or in combination with a long-acting β2 agonist (LABA). For over 10 years, tiotropium was the only LAMA that was used in the management of COPD. Over the past few years, various new drugs have been identified that act on the muscarinic receptors and β2 receptors. Umeclidinium (Umec) is a new LAMA currently approved for use in patients with COPD either as monotherapy or in combination with vilanterol (Vil)...
April 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453840/modulation-of-the-host-environment-by-human-cytomegalovirus-with-viral-interleukin-10-in-peripheral-blood
#5
Vivian P Young, Margarette C Mariano, Carolyn C Tu, Kathryn M Allaire, Selmir Avdic, Barry Slobedman, Juliet V Spencer
Background.: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a herpesvirus with both lytic and latent life cycles. Human cytomegalovirus encodes 2 viral cytokines that are orthologs of human cellular interleukin 10 (cIL-10). Both cytomegalovirus interleukin 10 (cmvIL-10) and Latency-associated cytomegalovirus interleukin 10 (LAcmvIL-10) (collectively vIL-10) are expressed during lytic infection and cause immunosuppressive effects that impede virus clearance. LAcmvIL-10 is also expressed during latent infection of myeloid progenitor cells and monocytes and facilitates persistence...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451945/herpesviral-capture-of-immunomodulatory-host-genes
#6
REVIEW
Günther Schönrich, Mohammed O Abdelaziz, Martin J Raftery
Herpesviruses have acquired numerous genes from their hosts. Although these homologs are not essential for viral replication, they often have important immunomodulatory functions that ensure viral persistence in the host. Some of these viral molecules are called virokines as they mimic cellular cytokines of their host such as interleukin-10 (cIL-10). In recent years, many viral homologs of IL-10 (vIL-10s) have been discovered in the genome of members of the order Herpesvirales. For some, gene and protein structure as well as biological activity and potential use in the clinical context have been explored...
April 27, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409356/flair-to-visualize-veins-in-white-matter-lesions-a-new-tool-for-the-diagnosis-of-multiple-sclerosis
#7
T Campion, R J P Smith, D R Altmann, G C Brito, B P Turner, J Evanson, I C George, P Sati, D S Reich, M E Miquel, K Schmierer
OBJECTIVE: To explore the potential of a post-processing technique combining FLAIR and T2* (FLAIR*) to distinguish between lesions caused by multiple sclerosis (MS) from cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) in a clinical setting. METHODS: FLAIR and T2* head datasets acquired at 3T of 25 people with relapsing MS (pwRMS) and ten with pwSVD were used. After post-processing, FLAIR* maps were used to determine the proportion of white matter lesions (WML) showing the 'vein in lesion' sign (VIL), a characteristic histopathological feature of MS plaques...
April 13, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400195/egfr-in-tumor-associated-myeloid-cells-promotes-development-of-colorectal-cancer-in-mice-and-associates-with-outcomes-of%C3%A2-patients
#8
Sriram Srivatsa, Mariel C Paul, Claudia Cardone, Martin Holcmann, Nicole Amberg, Paulina Pathria, Michaela A Diamanti, Markus Linder, Gerald Timelthaler, Hans P Dienes, Lukas Kenner, Fritz Wrba, Gerald W Prager, Stefan Rose-John, Robert Eferl, Giuseppina Liguori, Gerardo Botti, Erika Martinelli, Florian R Greten, Fortunato Ciardiello, Maria Sibilia
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are the first-line therapy for patients with metastatic colorectal tumors without RAS mutations. However, EGFR inhibitors are ineffective in these patients, and tumor level of EGFR does not associate with response to therapy. We screened human colorectal tumors for EGFR-positive myeloid cells and investigated their association with patient outcome. We also performed studies in mice to evaluate how EGFR expression in tumor cells and myeloid cells contributes to development of colitis-associated cancer and ApcMin-dependent intestinal tumorigenesis...
April 9, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395046/a-qualitative-study-of-survival-strategies-used-by-low-income-black-women-who-experience-intimate-partner-violence
#9
Noelle M St Vil, Bushra Sabri, Vania Nwokolo, Kamila A Alexander, Jacquelyn C Campbell
Women who experience intimate partner violence (IPV) are often portrayed as helpless victims. Yet many women who experience IPV implement strategies to help them survive the abuse. This qualitative study sought to explore the survivor strategies used by low-income black women who experience IPV. Authors used a semistructured interview guide to survey 26 survivors who reported being in an IPV relationship in the past two years. Thematic analysis revealed three types of survivor strategies used by low-income black women: (1) internal (use of religion and becoming self-reliant), (2) interpersonal (leave the abuser or fight back), and (3) external (reliance on informal, formal, or both kinds of sources of support)...
January 1, 2017: Social Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244683/rapamycin-treatment-dose-dependently-improves-the-cystic-kidney-in-a-new-adpkd-mouse-model-via-the-mtorc1-and-cell-cycle-associated-cdk1-cyclin-axis
#10
Ao Li, Song Fan, Yuchen Xu, Jialin Meng, Xufeng Shen, Jun Mao, Li Zhang, Xiansheng Zhang, Gilbert Moeckel, Dianqing Wu, Guanqing Wu, Chaozhao Liang
Although translational research into autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and its pathogenesis has made considerable progress, there is presently lack of standardized animal model for preclinical trials. In this study, we developed an orthologous mouse model of human ADPKD by cross-mating Pkd2 conditional-knockout mice (Pkd2(f3) ) to Cre transgenic mice in which Cre is driven by a spectrum of kidney-related promoters. By systematically characterizing the mouse model, we found that Pkd2(f3/f3) mice with a Cre transgene driven by the mouse villin-1 promoter (Vil-Cre;Pkd2(f3/f3) ) develop overt cysts in the kidney, liver and pancreas and die of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) at 4-6 months of age...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160571/the-oncoprotein-gankyrin-promotes-the-development-of-colitis-associated-cancer-through-activation-of-stat3
#11
Toshiharu Sakurai, Hiroaki Higashitsuji, Hiroshi Kashida, Tomohiro Watanabe, Yoriaki Komeda, Tomoyuki Nagai, Satoru Hagiwara, Masayuki Kitano, Naoshi Nishida, Takaya Abe, Hiroshi Kiyonari, Katsuhiko Itoh, Jun Fujita, Masatoshi Kudo
Although long-standing colonic inflammation due to refractory inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) promotes the development of colitis-associated cancer (CAC), the molecular mechanisms accounting for the development of CAC remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of gankyrin in the development of CAC since gankyrin is overexpressed in sporadic colorectal cancers. We analyzed gene expression of colon tissues obtained from 344 patients with IBD and CAC and found that expression of gankyrin was much higher in colonic mucosa of patients with refractory IBD than in those with IBD in remission...
April 11, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158653/human-cytomegalovirus-hcmv-modulates-the-host-environment-with-vil-10-in-peripheral-blood
#12
Vivian P Young, Margarette C Mariano, Carolyn C Tu, Kathryn M Allaire, Selmir Avdic, Barry Slobedman, Juliet V Spencer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087701/the-ubiquitin-ligase-nedd4l-regulates-the-na-k-2cl-co-transporter-nkcc1-slc12a2-in-the-colon
#13
Chong Jiang, Hiroshi Kawabe, Daniela Rotin
The ubiquitin ligase Nedd4-like (Nedd4L, or Nedd4-2) binds to and regulates stability of the epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC) in salt-absorbing epithelia in the kidney, lung, and other tissues. Its role in the distal colon, which also absorbs salt and fluid and expresses ENaC, is unknown. Using a conditional knock-out approach to knock out Nedd4L in mice intestinal epithelium (Nedd4L(f/f) ;Vil-Cre(ERT2) ) we show here that Nedd4L depletion leads to a higher steady-state short circuit current (Isc) in mouse distal colon tissue relative to controls...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925492/antibacterial-antioxidant-and-anti-proliferative-properties-and-zinc-content-of-five-south-portugal-herbs
#14
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Ricardo Nunes, Pawel Pasko, Malgorzata Tyszka-Czochara, Agnieszka Szewczyk, Marek Szlosarczyk, Isabel S Carvalho
CONTEXT: Crataegus monogyna L. (Rosaceae) (CM), Equisetum telmateia L. (Equisataceae) (ET), Geranium purpureum Vil. (Geraniaceae) (GP), Mentha suaveolens Ehrh. (Lamiaceae) (MS), and Lavandula stoechas L. spp. luisieri (Lamiaceae) (LS) are all medicinal. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the antioxidant, antiproliferative and antimicrobial activities of plant extracts and quantify individual phenolics and zinc. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Aerial part extracts were prepared with water (W), ethanol (E) and an 80% mixture (80EW)...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914460/possible-mechanisms-of-acquisition-of-herpesvirus-virokines
#15
E A Gorshkova, E S Shilov
The genomes of certain types of human and primate herpesviruses contain functional homologs of important host cytokines (IL-6, IL-17, and IL-10), or so-called virokines. Virokines can interact with immune cell receptors, transmit a signal to them, and thus switch the type of immune response that facilitates viral infection development. In this work, we have summarized possible ways of virokine origin and proposed an evolutionary scenario of virokine acquisition with involvement of retroviral coinfection of the host...
November 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883065/cycles-of-circadian-illuminance-are-sufficient-to-entrain-and-maintain-circadian-locomotor-rhythms-in-drosophila
#16
Eunjoo Cho, Ji Hye Oh, Euna Lee, Young Rag Do, Eun Young Kim
Light at night disrupts the circadian clock and causes serious health problems in the modern world. Here, we show that newly developed four-package light-emitting diodes (LEDs) can provide harmless lighting at night. To quantify the effects of light on the circadian clock, we employed the concept of circadian illuminance (CIL). CIL represents the amount of light weighted toward the wavelengths to which the circadian clock is most sensitive, whereas visual illuminance (VIL) represents the total amount of visible light...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855896/lipase-catalyzed-esterification-of-ferulic-acid-with-lauryl-alcohol-in-ionic-liquids-and-antibacterial-properties-in-vitro-against-three-food-related-bacteria
#17
Yu-Gang Shi, Yu Wu, Xu-Yang Lu, Yue-Ping Ren, Qi Wang, Chen-Min Zhu, Di Yu, He Wang
Lauryl ferulate (LF) was synthesized through lipase-catalyzed esterification of ferulic acid (FA) with lauryl alcohol in a novel ionic liquid ([(EO)-3C-im][NTf2]), and its antibacterial activities was evaluated in vitro against three food-related bacteria. [(EO)-3C-im][NTf2] was first synthesized through incorporating alkyl ether moiety into the double imidazolium ring. [(EO)-3C-im][NTf2] containing hexane was found to be the most suitable for this reaction. The effects of various parameters were studied, and the maximum yield of LF (90...
April 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650182/viral-il-10-down-regulates-the-mhc-i-antigen-processing-operon-through-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway-in-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-cells
#18
Yan-Xin Ren, Jie Yang, Rui-Mei Sun, Li-Juan Zhang, Liu-Fang Zhao, Bao-Zhong Li, Lei Li, Hai-Ting Long, Qiang-Ming Sun, Yun-Chao Huang, Xiao-Jiang Li
The HLA-I antigen processing machinery (APM) plays a crucial role in the anticancer immune response. The loss of surface expression of HLA-I molecules is particularly important as this enables tumor cells to evade recognition and lysis by cytotoxic T-lymphocytes. Transcriptional control of the APM genes is regulated by the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). BCRFl is an Epstein-Barr virus homologue of human IL-10 (hIL-10) and is known as viral IL-10 (vIL-10). vIL-10 shares many immunosuppressive effects with hIL-10 but lacks the immunostimulatory effect of hIL-10...
December 2016: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27567807/a-decade-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-biomarkers-for-alzheimer-s-disease-in-belgium
#19
Charisse Somers, Hanne Struyfs, Joery Goossens, Ellis Niemantsverdriet, Jill Luyckx, Naomi De Roeck, Ellen De Roeck, Bart De Vil, Patrick Cras, Jean-Jacques Martin, Peter-Paul De Deyn, Maria Bjerke, Sebastiaan Engelborghs
During the past ten years, over 5,000 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were analyzed at the Reference Center for Biological Markers of Dementia (BIODEM), UAntwerp, for core Alzheimer's disease (AD) CSF biomarkers: amyloid-β peptide of 42 amino acids (Aβ1-42), total tau protein (T-tau), and tau phosphorylated at threonine 181 (P-tau181P). CSF biomarker analyses were performed using single-analyte ELISA kits. In-house validated cutoff values were applied: Aβ1-42 <638.5 pg/mL, T-tau >296.5 pg/mL, P-tau181P >56...
August 10, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27559418/rearrangements-of-organic-peroxides-and-related-processes
#20
REVIEW
Ivan A Yaremenko, Vera A Vil', Dmitry V Demchuk, Alexander O Terent'ev
This review is the first to collate and summarize main data on named and unnamed rearrangement reactions of peroxides. It should be noted, that in the chemistry of peroxides two types of processes are considered under the term rearrangements. These are conventional rearrangements occurring with the retention of the molecular weight and transformations of one of the peroxide moieties after O-O-bond cleavage. Detailed information about the Baeyer-Villiger, Criegee, Hock, Kornblum-DeLaMare, Dakin, Elbs, Schenck, Smith, Wieland, and Story reactions is given...
2016: Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry
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