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Payal A Makadia, Sarah A Najjar, Jami L Saloman, Peter Adelman, Bin Feng, Joseph F Margiotta, Kathryn M Albers, Brian M Davis
Epithelial cells of the colon provide a vital interface between the internal environment (lumen of the colon) and colon parenchyma. To examine epithelial-neuronal signaling at this interface, we analyzed mice in which channelrhodopsin (ChR2) was targeted to either TRPV1-positive afferents or to villin expressing colon epithelial cells. Expression of a ChR2-EYFP fusion protein was directed to either primary sensory neurons or to colon epithelial cells by crossing Ai32 mice with TRPV1-Cre or villin-Cre mice, respectively...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Sohit Paul Kanotra, Vil Vaitaitis, Hunter Hopkins, Meghan Fletcher, Courtney K Gonsoulin, Brent Keith
INTRODUCTION: Laryngomalacia can have a significant impact on swallowing function. Most of the studies in literature have focused on evaluating swallowing dysfunction in children with Laryngomalacia using clinical assessment and swallowing studies i.e. functional endoscopic evaluation of swallowing or videofluroscopic evaluation of swallowing. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the current study was to evaluate the parental perception of swallowing using a newly devised 10-point swallowing index before and after supraglottoplasty...
June 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
D W A Leno, F D Diallo, A Delamou, F D Komano, M Magassouba, D Niamy, J Tolno, N Keita
Aim: To assess feasibility of integrating family planning counselling into mass screening for cervical cancer in Guinea. Methodology: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted over a month in Guinea regional capital cities. The targeted population comprised women aged 15 to 49 years. Nearly 4000 women were expected for the screening campaigns that utilized VIA and VIL methods with confirmation of positive tests through biopsy. A local treatment was immediately performed when the patient was eligible...
2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology International
Artur Ganeev, Marina Nikitina, Vil Sitdikov, Rinat Islamgaliev, Andrew Hoffman, Haiming Wen
Grade 91 (9Cr-1Mo) steel was subjected to various heat treatments and then to high-pressure torsion (HPT) at different temperatures. Its microstructure was studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Effects of the tempering temperature and the HPT temperature on the microstructural features and microhardness in the ultrafine-grained (UFG) Grade 91 steel were researched. The study of the UFG structure formation takes into account two different microstructures observed: before HPT in both samples containing martensite and in fully ferritic samples...
April 19, 2018: Materials
Todd W Chapin, Michael A Mann, Gary L Brown, Traci L Leitheiser, Becky Anderson, David D Leedahl
Background: Bronchodilator therapy is a foundation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbation treatment. Although international guidelines recommend short-acting formulations given multiple times per day, long-acting formulations have not been adequately evaluated. The objective of our study was to determine the effectiveness of umeclidinium-vilanterol (UME/VIL), long-acting beta2-agonist/long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LABA/LAMA) as a once-daily alternative for treating COPD exacerbations in hospitalized patients...
January 24, 2018: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases: Journal of the COPD Foundation
Christopher St Vil, Joseph Richardson, Carnell Cooper
There is a body of research over the last three decades that has focused on the etiology of violence among victims of violent injury. This body of literature indicates that Black men are disproportionately represented among victims of violent injury seen in emergency departments and trauma centers across the country. Despite the disproportionate number of low-income young Black men treated for violent injury in urban trauma units and the growing body of literature accompanying it, little is known about the unique methodological challenges violent injury researchers face when conducting research on this vulnerable population in a clinical setting...
April 1, 2018: Violence and Victims
Joery Goossens, Maria Bjerke, Sara Van Mossevelde, Tobi Van den Bossche, Johan Goeman, Bart De Vil, Anne Sieben, Jean-Jacques Martin, Patrick Cras, Peter Paul De Deyn, Christine Van Broeckhoven, Julie van der Zee, Sebastiaan Engelborghs
BACKGROUND: We explored the diagnostic performance of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers in allowing differentiation between frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), as well as between FTLD pathological subtypes. METHODS: CSF levels of routine AD biomarkers (phosphorylated tau (p-tau181 ), total tau (t-tau), and amyloid-beta (Aβ)1-42 ) and neurofilament proteins, as well as progranulin levels in both CSF and serum were quantified in definite FTLD (n = 46), clinical AD (n = 45), and cognitively healthy controls (n = 20)...
March 20, 2018: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
Stephane Olindo, Severine Jeannin, Martine Saint-Vil, Aissatou Signate, Mireille Edimonana-Kaptue, Julien Joux, Harold Merle, Pascale Richard, Samuel Granjeaud, Philippe Cabre, Didier Smadja, Raymond Cesaire, Agnes Lezin
BACKGROUND: Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) has been discovered in 1980 and has been linked to tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) in 1985 in Martinique. There is no data on HAM/TSP incidence trends. We report, in the present work, the temporal trends incidence of HAM/TSP in Martinique over 25 years. METHODS: Martinique is a Caribbean French West Indies island deserved by a unique Neurology Department involved in HAM/TSP diagnosis and management. A registry has been set up since 1986 and patients diagnosed for a HAM/TSP were prospectively registered...
March 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Ivan A Yaremenko, Gabriel Dos Passos Gomes, Peter S Radulov, Yulia Yu Belyakova, Anatoliy E Vilikotskiy, Vera A Vil', Alexander A Korlyukov, Gennady I Nikishin, Igor V Alabugin, Alexander O Terent'ev
Reactions of 1,5-diketones with H2 O2 open an ozone-free approach to ozonides. Bridged ozonides are formed readily at room temperature in the presence of strong Brønsted or Lewis acids such as H2 SO4 , p-TsOH, HBF4 , or BF3 ·Et2 O. The expected bridged tetraoxanes, the products of double H2 O2 addition, were not detected. This procedure is readily scalable to produce gram quantities of the ozonides. Bridged ozonides are stable and can be useful as building blocks for bioconjugation and further synthetic transformations...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Marianne Goudreault, Nago Humbert, France Gauvin, Monia Marzouki, Catherine K Beaumier, Dickens St-Vil, Nelson Piché
INTRODUCTION: Pediatric surgeons are often involved in the management of severely or terminally ill patients. However, articles addressing their specific roles in the context of palliative care are almost inexistent. We sought to characterize the involvement of pediatric surgeons caring for children near end of life. METHODS: Chart review of children who had a procedure under general anesthesia within 6months of their death over a five-year period at a tertiary children's hospital (excluding traumas and neonatology cases)...
May 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Robin Holtedahl
BAKGRUNN: Knesmerter er blant de vanligste årsaker til konsultasjoner for muskel- og skjelettplager. Siktemålet med denne artikkelen er dels å gi en oversikt over de siste par tiårs forskning på atraumatiske og degenerativt betingede kneplager, dels å vurdere hvorvidt den sedvanlige praksis for utredning og behandling er i samsvar med denne forskningen. KUNNSKAPSGRUNNLAG: Artikkelen er basert på et utvalg av engelskspråklige studier av atraumatiske og degenerative knelidelser funnet ved søk i Medline, manuelle søk i artiklenes litteraturlister og litteraturforslag fra Mendeley...
March 6, 2018: Tidsskrift for Den Norske Lægeforening: Tidsskrift for Praktisk Medicin, Ny Række
Isabelle Hardy, Steven R McFaull, Marianne Beaudin, Dickens St-Vil, Élizabeth Rousseau
Introduction: Cheerleading has gradually become more popular in Canada and represents an accessible way for youth to be physically active. Objective: To determine the differences in the injuries encountered by cheerleaders according to their age, in order to propose safety guidelines that take into account the developmental stages of children. Method: Retrospective database review of cheerleading injuries extracted from the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP) database between 1990 and 2010...
June 2017: Paediatrics & Child Health
Morten Tryland, Kimberlee Beth Beckmen, Kathleen Ann Burek-Huntington, Eva Marie Breines, Joern Klein
BACKGROUND: The zoonotic Orf virus (ORFV; genus Parapoxvirus, Poxviridae family) occurs worldwide and is transmitted between sheep and goats, wildlife and man. Archived tissue samples from 16 Alaskan wildlife cases, representing mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus, n = 8), Dall's sheep (Ovis dalli dalli, n = 3), muskox (Ovibos moschatus, n = 3), Sitka black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis, n = 1) and caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti, n = 1), were analyzed. RESULTS: Clinical signs and pathology were most severe in mountain goats, affecting most mucocutaneous regions, including palpebrae, nares, lips, anus, prepuce or vulva, as well as coronary bands...
February 21, 2018: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Vera A Vil', Gabriel Dos Passos Gomes, Oleg V Bityukov, Konstantin A Lyssenko, Gennady I Nikishin, Igor V Alabugin, Alexander O Terent'ev
The instability of hydroxy peroxyesters, the elusive Criegee intermediates of the Baeyer-Villiger rearrangement, can be alleviated by selective deactivation of the stereoelectronic effects that promote the 1,2-alkyl shift. Stable cyclic Criegee intermediates constrained within a five-membered ring can be prepared by mild reduction of the respective hydroperoxy peroxyesters (β-hydroperoxy-β-peroxylactones) which were formed in high yields in reaction of β-ketoesters with BF3 ⋅Et2 O/H2 O2 .
March 19, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Virginie Bussières, Shreyas Roy, Johnny Deladoey, Élisabeth Rousseau, Dickens St-Vil, Nelson Piché
AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of the study was to evaluate the outcomes of prophylactic thyroidectomies performed in an academic setting in the context of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2) syndrome. METHODS: A chart review of patients <18years old who underwent prophylactic thyroidectomy for a MEN2 syndrome at a children's hospital between 2006 and 2015 was performed. MAIN RESULTS: The study included 21 patients (57% female) with a mean age of 6...
February 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Vera A Vil', Ivan A Yaremenko, Alexey I Ilovaisky, Alexander O Terent'ev
The biological activity of organic peroxides is usually associated with the antimalarial properties of artemisinin and its derivatives. However, the analysis of published data indicates that organic peroxides exhibit a variety of biological activity, which is still being given insufficient attention. In the present review, we deal with natural, semi-synthetic and synthetic peroxides exhibiting anthelmintic, antiprotozoal, fungicidal, antiviral and other activities that have not been described in detail earlier...
November 2, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Kamila A Alexander, Noelle M St Vil, Marilyn A Braithwaite-Hall, Michael Sanchez, Aletha Baumann, Gloria B Callwood, Jacquelyn C Campbell, Doris W Campbell
OBJECTIVES: Global evidence suggests that individuals who experience intimate partner violence (IPV) can have accelerated risk for HIV transmission. The U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) has high per capita rates of HIV and IPV that can have devastating effects on women's health. Catalysts for these health disparities may be shaped by cultural and social definitions of conventional masculinity. Thus, understanding USVI men's perceptions about HIV risks and IPV are a necessary component of developing strategies to improve women's health...
October 31, 2017: Ethnicity & Health
Zhuan-Fen Cheng, Christine A Cartwright
Previously, we generated mouse models of Rack1 deficiency to identify key functions for Rack1 in regulating growth of intestinal epithelia: suppressing crypt cell proliferation and regeneration, promoting differentiation and apoptosis, and repressing development of neoplasia. However, other than low body weight, we did not detect an overt phenotype in mice constitutively deleted of Rack1 in intestinal epithelia ( vil-Cre: Rack1fl/fl mice), presumably because Rack1 was deleted in <10% of the total surface area of the epithelia...
February 1, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Denis E O'Donnell, Amany F Elbehairy, Azmy Faisal, J Alberto Neder, Katherine A Webb
This randomized, double-blind, crossover study examined the physiological rationale for using a dual long-acting bronchodilator (umeclidinium/vilanterol (UME/VIL)) versus its muscarinic-antagonist component (UME) as treatment for dyspnea and exercise intolerance in moderate COPD. After each 4-week treatment period, subjects performed pulmonary function and symptom-limited constant-work rate cycling tests with diaphragm electromyogram (EMGdi), esophageal (Pes), gastric (Pga) and transdiaphragmatic (Pdi) pressure measurements...
January 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Ravit Linn, Yotam Tepper, Guy Bar-Oz
The Transfiguration scene depicted in a Byzantine church at Shivta, Israel, is one of two figurative examples of the scene from the early Christian period. The use of Egyptian blue pigment in the wall painting was investigated with various analytical methods. Visible Induced Luminescence (VIL) imaging was used in-situ in order to map the distribution of the Egyptian blue pigment in the painting. The VIL imaging revealed surprising insights into the understanding of the iconography and the technology of this rare painting...
2017: PloS One
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