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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532108/assessing-stiffness-of-nanofibres-in-bacterial-cellulose-hydrogels-numerical-experimental-framework
#1
Xing Gao, Emrah Sozumert, Zhijun Shi, Guang Yang, Vadim V Silberschmidt
This work presents a numerical-experimental framework for assessment of stiffness of nanofibres in a fibrous hydrogel - bacterial cellulose (BC) hydrogel - based on a combination of in-aqua mechanical testing, microstructural analysis and finite-element (FE) modelling. Fibrous hydrogels attracted growing interest as potential replacements to some tissues. To assess their applicability, a comprehensive understanding of their mechanical response under relevant conditions is desirable; a lack of such knowledge is mainly due to changes at microscale caused by deformation that are hard to evaluate in-situ because of the dimensions of nanofibres and aqueous environment...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532053/functionalized-fe3o4-graphene-oxide-nanocomposites-with-hairpin-aptamers-for-the-separation-and-preconcentration-of-trace-pb-2-from-biological-samples-prior-to-determination-by-icp-ms
#2
Mojtaba Shamsipur, Leila Farzin, Mahmoud Amouzadeh Tabrizi, Shahab Sheibani
Lead (Pb) as a topically poisonous metal represents a serious threat to the ecological environment and especially to human beings. Therefore, it is urgent to develop a rapid and reliable monitoring technique for this heavy metal in the environmental samples. In the present study, we have designed a selective and sensitive method for the determination of ultratrace contents of Pb(2+) in biological samples, based on the guanine (G)-quadruplex formed by the aptamer with hairpin structure and Pb(2+). For this purpose, Pb(2+) specific aptamer serving as affinity probe to capture and separate trace amounts of the analyte, was covalently linked to Fe3O4/graphene oxide (GO) surface by using a suitable cross-linking agent...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531861/greenhouse-gases-from-membrane-bioreactors-mathematical-modelling-sensitivity-and-uncertainty-analysis
#3
Giorgio Mannina, Alida Cosenza, George A Ekama
In this study a new mathematical model to quantify greenhouse gas emissions (namely, carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide) from membrane bioreactors (MBRs) is presented. The model has been adopted to predict the key processes of a pilot plant with pre-denitrification MBR scheme, filled with domestic and saline wastewater. The model was calibrated by adopting an advanced protocol based on an extensive dataset. In terms of nitrous oxide, the results show that an important role is played by the half saturation coefficients related to nitrogen removal processes and the model factors affecting the oxygen transfer rate in the aerobic and MBR tanks...
May 6, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531261/age-of-acquiring-causal-human-papillomavirus-hpv-infections-leveraging-simulation-models-to-explore-the-natural-history-of-hpv-induced-cervical-cancer
#4
Emily A Burger, Jane J Kim, Stephen Sy, Philip E Castle
Background.: Although new human papillomavirus (HPV) infections can occur at all ages, the age at which women acquire their "causal" HPV infection that develops into cervical cancer is poorly understood and practically unobservable. We aimed to estimate the age distribution at which individuals acquired their causal HPV infection in the absence of HPV vaccination or screening to help guide the optimal use of both. Methods.: Using an empirically calibrated mathematical model that simulates the natural history of cervical cancer, we estimated the cumulative number of causal HPV infections by age, stratified by HPV genotype (HPV16 vs...
May 20, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531187/multi-scale-computational-study-of-the-mechanical-regulation-of-cell-mitotic-rounding-in-epithelia
#5
Ali Nematbakhsh, Wenzhao Sun, Pavel A Brodskiy, Aboutaleb Amiri, Cody Narciso, Zhiliang Xu, Jeremiah J Zartman, Mark Alber
Mitotic rounding during cell division is critical for preventing daughter cells from inheriting an abnormal number of chromosomes, a condition that occurs frequently in cancer cells. Cells must significantly expand their apical area and transition from a polygonal to circular apical shape to achieve robust mitotic rounding in epithelial tissues, which is where most cancers initiate. However, how cells mechanically regulate robust mitotic rounding within packed tissues is unknown. Here, we analyze mitotic rounding using a newly developed multi-scale subcellular element computational model that is calibrated using experimental data...
May 22, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531164/dual-polarization-observations-of-slowly-varying-solar-emissions-from-a-mobile-x-band-radar
#6
Marco Gabella, Andreas Leuenberger
The radio noise that comes from the Sun has been reported in literature as a reference signal to check the quality of dual-polarization weather radar receivers for the S-band and C-band. In most cases, the focus was on relative calibration: horizontal and vertical polarizations were evaluated versus the reference signal mainly in terms of standard deviation of the difference. This means that the investigated radar receivers were able to reproduce the slowly varying component of the microwave signal emitted by the Sun...
May 22, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528872/computational-study-to-investigate-effect-of-tonometer-geometry-and-patient-specific-variability-on-radial-artery-tonometry
#7
Pranjal Singh, Mohammed Ikbal Choudhury, Sitikantha Roy, Anamika Prasad
Tonometry-based devices are valuable method for vascular function assessment and for measurement of blood pressure. However current design and calibration methods rely on simple models, neglecting key geometrical features, and anthropometric and property variability among patients. Understanding impact of these influences on tonometer measurement is thus essential for improving outcomes of current devices, and for proposing improved design. Towards this goal, we present a realistic computational model for tissue-device interaction using complete wrist section with hyperelastic material and frictional contact...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528744/locked-in-the-icehouse-evolution-of-an-endemic-epimeria-amphipoda-crustacea-species-flock-on-the-antarctic-shelf
#8
Marie L Verheye, Thierry Backeljau, Cédric d'Udekem d'Acoz
The Antarctic shelf's marine biodiversity has been greatly influenced by the climatic and glacial history of the region. Extreme temperature changes led to the extinction of some lineages, while others adapted and flourished. The amphipod genus Epimeria is an example of the latter, being particularly diverse in the Antarctic region. By reconstructing a time-calibrated phylogeny based on mitochondrial (COI) and nuclear (28S and H3) markers and including Epimeria species from all oceans, this study provides a temporal and geographical framework for the evolution of Antarctic Epimeria...
May 18, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528720/in%C3%A2-vivo-dosimetry-in-gynecological-applications-a-feasibility-study
#9
Marion P R Van Gellekom, Richard A M Canters, Frank J W M Dankers, Agnes Loopstra, Elzbieta M van der Steen-Banasik, Marie A D Haverkort
PURPOSE: To investigate the feasibility of in vivo dosimetry using microMOSFET dosimeters in patients treated with brachytherapy using two types of gynecological applicators. METHODS AND MATERIALS: In this study, a microMOSFET was placed in an empty needle of an Utrecht Interstitial Fletcher applicator or MUPIT (Martinez Universal Perineal Interstitial Template) applicator for independent verification of treatment delivery. Measurements were performed in 10 patients, with one to three microMOSFETs per applicator and repeated for one to four fractions, resulting in 50 in vivo measurements...
May 18, 2017: Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528635/relocation-is-the-key-to-successful-correlative-fluorescence-and-scanning-electron-microscopy
#10
Delfine Cheng, Gerald Shami, Marco Morsch, Minh Huynh, Patrick Trimby, Filip Braet
In this chapter the authors report on an automated hardware and software solution enabling swift correlative sample array mapping of fluorescently stained molecules within cells and tissues across length scales. Samples are first observed utilizing wide-field optical and fluorescence microscopy, followed by scanning electron microscopy, using calibration points on a dedicated sample-relocation holder. We investigated HeLa cells in vitro, fluorescently labeled for monosialoganglioside one (GM-1), across both imaging platforms within tens of minutes of initial sample preparation...
2017: Methods in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528467/changes-in-deviation-of-absorbed-dose-to-water-among-users-by-chamber-calibration-shift
#11
Tetsurou Katayose, Hidetoshi Saitoh, Mitsunobu Igari, Weishan Chang, Shimpei Hashimoto, Mie Morioka
PURPOSE: The JSMP01 dosimetry protocol had adopted the provisional (60)Co calibration coefficient [Formula: see text], namely, the product of exposure calibration coefficient N C and conversion coefficient k D,X. After that, the absorbed dose to water D w standard was established, and the JSMP12 protocol adopted the [Formula: see text] calibration. In this study, the influence of the calibration shift on the measurement of D w among users was analyzed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The intercomparison of the D w using an ionization chamber was annually performed by visiting related hospitals...
May 20, 2017: Japanese Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528314/development-of-a-macroporous-ceramic-passive-sampler-for-the-monitoring-of-cytostatic-drugs-in-water
#12
Helena Franquet-Griell, Victor Pueyo, Jorge Silva, Victor M Orera, Silvia Lacorte
The aim of this study was to develop and calibrate a macroporous ceramic passive sampler (MCPS) for the monitoring of anticancer drugs in wastewater. This system was designed by the Spanish Research Council (CSIC) and consists in a porous ceramic tube to allow a high diffusion of contaminants. The MCPS has been calibrated for 16 cytostatic drugs over time periods up to 9 d in spiked water under controlled laboratory conditions. Optimal uptake was accomplished for 7 compounds, namely ifosfamide, cyclophosphamide, capecitabine, prednisone, megestrol, cyproterone and mycophenolic acid, whereas cytarabine was not adsorbed in the receiving phase and the rest were hydrolyzed over the deployment period...
May 11, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527922/bronchodilator-therapy-for-chronic-cough
#13
REVIEW
Maria Gabriella Matera, Paola Rogliani, Alessandro Zanasi, Mario Cazzola
Experimental studies indicate that airway calibre increases the sensitivity of the afferents involved in the cough reflex but it has proved difficult to demonstrate that airway calibre increases the sensitivity of the afferents involved in the cough reflex. Therefore, bronchodilators might have a role, although rather minor, in the treatment of cough. However, although bronchodilators represent the standard of care in the treatment of airway obstruction associated with asthma or COPD, controversy persists regarding the mechanism(s) by which these agents alleviate cough...
May 17, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527795/the-use-of-mid-infrared-spectrometry-to-estimate-the-ration-composition-of-lactating-dairy-cows
#14
M Klaffenböck, A Steinwidder, C Fasching, G Terler, L Gruber, G Mészáros, J Sölkner
The composition of cow milk is strongly affected by the feeding regimen. Because milk components are routinely determined using mid-infrared (MIR) spectrometry, MIR spectra could also be used to estimate an animal's ration composition. The objective of this study was to determine whether and how well amounts of dry matter intake and the proportions of concentrates, hay, grass silage, maize silage, and pasture in the total ration can be estimated using MIR spectra at an individual animal level. A total of 10,200 milk samples and sets of feed intake data were collected from 90 dairy cows at 2 experimental farms of the Agricultural Research and Education Centre in Raumberg-Gumpenstein, Austria...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527605/analysis-of-gafchromic-ebt3-film-calibration-irradiated-with-gamma-rays-from-different-systems-gamma-knife-and-cobalt-60-unit
#15
Monsen Najafi, Ghazale Geraily, Alireza Shirazi, Mahbod Esfahani, Javad Teimouri
In recent years, Gafchromic films are used as an advanced instrument for dosimetry systems. The EBT3 films are a new generation of Gafchromic films. Our main interest is to compare the response of the EBT3 films exposed to gamma rays provided by the Theratron 780C as a conventional radiotherapy system and the Leksell Gamma Knife as a stereotactic radiotherapy system (SRS). Both systems use Cobalt-60 sources, thus using the same energy. However, other factors such as source-to-axis distance, number of sources, dose rate, direction of irradiation, shape of phantom, the field shape of radiation, and different scatter contribution may influence the calibration curve...
May 17, 2017: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527380/measurement-differences-between-turbidity-instruments-and-their-implications-for-suspended-sediment-concentration-and-load-calculations-a-sensor-inter-comparison-study
#16
A Rymszewicz, J J O'Sullivan, M Bruen, J N Turner, D M Lawler, E Conroy, M Kelly-Quinn
The use of turbidity for indicating environmentally detrimental levels of suspended and colloidal matter in freshwater systems, and for defining acceptable water quality standards in national and European drinking water regulations, is well established. Turbidity is therefore frequently adopted as a surrogate for suspended sediment concentrations (SSC), or as a relative and objective measure of water clarity in monitoring programmes. Through systematic, controlled experimentation, we tested the response of 12 commercially available turbidity sensors, of various designs, to gauge their measurement consistency when benchmarked against pre-prepared sediment suspensions of known SSC...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527034/simultaneous-determination-of-selected-hormones-endocrine-disruptor-compounds-and-pesticides-in-water-medium-at-trace-levels-by-gc-ms-after-dispersive-liquid-liquid-microextraction
#17
Dotse Selali Chormey, Çağdaş Büyükpınar, Fatma Turak, Okan Tarık Komesli, Sezgin Bakırdere
The need to enhance food safety has led to major advancements in pesticide productions, and though many benefits have been gained, environmental contamination has also risen from these chemicals that tend to persist in the environment. Some pesticides, together with other chemicals commonly called endocrine disruptor compounds, block the receptor sites of hormones or mimic displaced hormones, leading to imbalanced hormonal levels that result in health disorders and diseases. These chemicals occur at trace levels and are not directly detected by conventional analytical methods...
June 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527025/pose-aware-c-arm-for-automatic-re-initialization-of-interventional-2d-3d-image-registration
#18
Javad Fotouhi, Bernhard Fuerst, Alex Johnson, Sing Chun Lee, Russell Taylor, Greg Osgood, Nassir Navab, Mehran Armand
PURPOSE: In minimally invasive interventions assisted by C-arm imaging, there is a demand to fuse the intra-interventional 2D C-arm image with pre-interventional 3D patient data to enable surgical guidance. The commonly used intensity-based 2D/3D registration has a limited capture range and is sensitive to initialization. We propose to utilize an opto/X-ray C-arm system which allows to maintain the registration during intervention by automating the re-initialization for the 2D/3D image registration...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526942/development-of-a-new-risk-nomogram-of-perioperative-major-adverse-cardiac-events-for-chinese-patients-undergoing-colorectal-carcinoma-surgery
#19
Juhong Zhang, Ying Xiao, Daya Yang, Xiaodong Zhuang, Ling Wang, Xiuren Gao, Zhibin Huang
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to create a new risk nomogram to predict perioperative major adverse cardiac events in patients undergoing colorectal carcinoma surgery. METHODS: A total of 1899 patients who underwent colorectal carcinoma surgery at a tertiary teaching hospital in China between 2007 and 2012 were recruited. Logistic regression analysis was used to define risk factors for major adverse cardiac events. A nomogram-predicting model was built based on the logistic regression model and discrimination was tested by receiver operating characteristic curves...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526525/high-throughput-estimation-of-specific-activities-of-enzyme-mutants-in-cell-lysates-through-immunoturbidimetric-assay-of-proteins
#20
Xiaolan Yang, Yiran Feng, Huimin Chong, Deqiang Wang, Xiaolei Hu, Jun Pu, Chang-Guo Zhan, Fei Liao
High-throughput estimation of specific activities of an enzyme and its mutants in a group (enzyme/mutants) in cell lysates via high-throughput assay of their activities and separate immunoturbidimetric assay (ITA) of their proteins was proposed. Pseudomonas aeruginosa arylsulfatase (PAAS) and Bacillus fastidious uricase (BFU) served as two models. ITA employed 0.75 mg of antisera against PAAS or BFU as the reference in 96-well microplates to measure the difference of extinction at 340 and 700 nm. According to the calibration curve, ITA quantified the reference from 0...
May 16, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
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