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Volume transmission

Junyi Shen, Zhiming Zhao, Wei Shang, Chunli Liu, Beibei Zhang, Lingjie Zhao, Hui Cai
Diabetic cerebral infarction is with poorer prognosis and high rates of mortality. Ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1) has a wide variety of therapeutic values for central nervous system (CNS) diseases for the neuron protective effects. However, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) restricts Rg1 in reaching the CNS. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of Rg1 nanoparticle (PHRO, fabricated with γ-PGA, L-PAE (H), Rg1, and OX26 antibody), targeting transferrin receptor, on the diabetes rats complicated with diabetic cerebral infarction in vitro and in vivo...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Daniel R Swale, Zhilin Li, Felix Guerrero, Adalberto A Pérez De León, Lane D Foil
The arthropod salivary gland is of critical importance for horizontal transmission of pathogens, yet a detailed understanding of the ion conductance pathways responsible for saliva production and excretion is lacking. A superfamily of potassium ion channels, known as inward rectifying potassium (Kir) channels, is overexpressed in the Drosophila salivary gland by 32-fold when compared to the whole body mRNA transcripts. Therefore, we aimed to test the hypothesis that pharmacological and genetic depletion of salivary gland specific Kir channels alters the efficiency of the gland and reduced feeding capabilities using the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as a model organism that could predict similar effects in arthropod disease vectors...
September 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Weihua Wu, Shiyu Chen, Jiwei Zhai, Xinyi Liu, Tianshu Lai, Sannian Song, Zhitang Song
Superlattice-like Ge50Te50/Ge8Sb92 (SLL GT/GS) thin film was systematically investigated for multi-level storage and ultra-fast switching phase-change memory application. In situ resistance measurement indicates that SLL GT/GS thin film exhibits two distinct resistance steps with elevated temperature. The thermal stability of the amorphous state and intermediate state were evaluated with the Kissinger and Arrhenius plots. The phase-structure evolution revealed that the amorphous SLL GT/GS thin film crystallized into rhombohedral Sb phase first, then the rhombohedral GeTe phase...
October 6, 2017: Nanotechnology
Nan K Li, Huihui Kuang, William H Fuss, Stefan Zauscher, Efrosini Kokkoli, Yaroslava G Yingling
A comprehensive study is reported on the effect of salt concentration, polyelectrolyte block length, and polymer concentration on the morphology and structural properties of nanoaggregates self-assembled from BAB single-strand DNA (ssDNA) triblock polynucleotides in which A represents polyelectrolyte blocks and B represents hydrophobic neutral blocks. A morphological phase diagram above the gelation point is developed as a function of solvent ionic strength and polyelectrolyte block length utilizing an implicit solvent ionic strength method for dissipative particle dynamics simulations...
September 12, 2017: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Jiazhi He, Liyan You, Jianguo Mei
Polymer-based electrochromic smart windows are an emerging energy-saving technology. There are several technological hurdles in the development of organic electrochromics. In this article, the self-bleaching behaviors of a black electrochromic polymer (ECP-black) thin film were investigated. We found that the electrochemical break-in process led to a less dense morphology and the increased free volume facilitated ion permeation in the ECP-black thin films. The polarized interface between the polymer thin film and transparent indium-tin-oxide (ITO) electrode made charge transfer accessible, which caused the self-bleaching behaviors...
September 19, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
D T Nguyen, S D Findlay, J Etheridge
We assess a selection of electron probes in terms of the spatial resolution with which information can be derived about the structure of a specimen, as opposed to the nominal image resolution. Using Ge [001] as a study case, we investigate the scattering dynamics of these probes and determine their relative merits in terms of two qualitative criteria: interaction volume and interpretability. This analysis provides a 'menu of probes' from which an optimum probe for tackling a given materials science question can be selected...
September 7, 2017: Ultramicroscopy
Bing Lu, Bingjie Ma, Xinglan Deng, Wangwu Li, Zhenyu Wu, Hongbo Shu, Xianyou Wang
The cornlike ordered mesoporous silicon (OM-Si) particles modified by the nitrogen-doped carbon layer (OM-Si@NC) are successfully fabricated and used as the anode of lithium-ion battery (LIBs). The influences of the N-doped carbon layer on the structure and electrochemical properties of the OM-Si@NC composite are detailedly investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectrum, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and charge/discharge tests. The results reveal that the amorphous N-doped carbon layer can offer the abundant conductive pathways for fast lithium ion transportation and electron transfer, which not only leads to a high specific capacity under high ampere density but also serves as a structural barrier maintaining the whole integrity and settling the mechanical breaking due to the huge volume changes of Si host...
September 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Collin Kieffer, Mark S Ladinsky, Pamela J Bjorkman
HIV transmission within lymphoid tissues remains incompletely characterized at the level of individual cells and virions. Here we visually describe our approach to understanding HIV-1 dissemination at different levels of volume and resolution within lymphoid tissues from HIV-1-infected humanized mice. We combined tissue clearing techniques, immunostaining, and light sheet fluorescence microscopy to visualize large-volumes of intact tissue with single-cell resolution from HIV-1-infected humanized mice. In parallel, we imaged adjacent regions of tissue using electron microscopy and electron tomography to gain 3D ultrastructural information about the same tissue samples...
September 7, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Florian Vogl, Benjamin Bernet, Daniele Bolognesi, William R Taylor
PURPOSE: Cortical porosity is a key characteristic governing the structural properties and mechanical behaviour of bone, and its quantification is therefore critical for understanding and monitoring the development of various bone pathologies such as osteoporosis. Axial transmission quantitative acoustics has shown to be a promising technique for assessing bone health in a fast, non-invasive, and radiation-free manner. One major hurdle in bringing this approach to clinical application is the entanglement of the effects of individual characteristics (e...
2017: PloS One
M T B Clabbers, E van Genderen, W Wan, E L Wiegers, T Gruene, J P Abrahams
Three-dimensional nanometre-sized crystals of macromolecules currently resist structure elucidation by single-crystal X-ray crystallography. Here, a single nanocrystal with a diffracting volume of only 0.14 µm(3), i.e. no more than 6 × 10(5) unit cells, provided sufficient information to determine the structure of a rare dimeric polymorph of hen egg-white lysozyme by electron crystallography. This is at least an order of magnitude smaller than was previously possible. The molecular-replacement solution, based on a monomeric polyalanine model, provided sufficient phasing power to show side-chain density, and automated model building was used to reconstruct the side chains...
September 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section D, Structural Biology
Julien Ramade, Cyril Langlois, Michel Pellarin, Laurent Piccolo, Marie-Ange Lebeault, Thierry Epicier, Mimoun Aouine, Emmanuel Cottancin
Multimetallic nano-alloys display a structure and consequently physicochemical properties evolving in a reactive environment. Following and understanding this evolution is therefore crucial for future applications in gas sensing and heterogeneous catalysis. In view hereof, the structural evolution of oxidized Ag25In75 bimetallic nanoparticles under varying H2 partial pressures (PH2) and substrate temperatures (Ts) has been investigated in real-time through environmental transmission microscopy (E-TEM) while maintaining the atomic resolution...
September 6, 2017: Nanoscale
Masoumeh Mashkani, Ali Mehdinia, Ali Jabbari, Yasamin Bide, Mohammad Reza Nabid
Magnetically N-doped Carbon quantum dots has been synthesized via a simple chemical method and applied as a sorbent for the preconcentration and extraction of trace amounts of Pb(2+) from water and vegetable samples followed by flame atomic absorption spectrometric detection. The nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV-vis spectra, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer analysis and transmission electron microscopy. A central-composite design was used to find the optimum conditions for the preconcentration procedure through response surface methodology...
January 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Niar Gusnaniar, Jelmer Sjollema, Titik Nuryastuti, Brandon W Peterson, Betsy van de Belt-Gritter, Ed D de Jong, Henny C van der Mei, Henk J Busscher
Transmission is a main route for bacterial contamination, involving bacterial detachment from a donor and adhesion to receiver surfaces. This work aimed to compare transmission of an extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) producing and a non-EPS producing Staphylococcus epidermidis strain from biofilms on stainless steel. After transmission, donor surfaces remained fully covered with biofilm, indicating transmission through cohesive failure in the biofilm. Counter to the numbers of biofilm bacteria, the donor and receiver biofilm thicknesses did not add up to the pre-transmission donor biofilm thickness, suggesting more compact biofilms after transmission, especially for non-EPS producing staphylococci...
September 4, 2017: Biofouling
Maryam Masoudi Rad, Saied Nouri Khorasani, Laleh Ghasemi-Mobarakeh, Molamma P Prabhakaran, Mohammad Reza Foroughi, Mahshid Kharaziha, Niloufar Saadatkish, Seeram Ramakrishna
Membranes used in dentistry act as a barrier to prevent invasion of intruder cells to defected area and obtains spaces that are to be subsequently filled with new bone and provide required bone volume for implant therapy when there is insufficient volume of healthy bone at implant site. In this study a two-layered bioactive membrane were fabricated by electrospinning whereas one layer provides guided bone regeneration (GBR) and fabricated using poly glycerol sebacate (PGS)/polycaprolactone (PCL) and Beta tri-calcium phosphate (β-TCP) (5, 10 and 15%) and another one containing PCL/PGS and chitosan acts as guided tissue regeneration (GTR)...
November 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
M Fontana, L Porte, P Molina Cabrera
The correlation electron cyclotron emission diagnostic of tokamak à configuration variable has recently been upgraded. It now has the choice of three lines of sight: two horizontal lines placed on the low field side of the vessel, perpendicular to the magnetic field, and a dual-axis steerable antenna. The polarization of the radiation collected by the latter can be rotated using a universal polarizer situated in the transmission line. This line is also shared with a reflectometry system, allowing simultaneous measurements of temperature and density fluctuations in the same plasma volumes...
August 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Simone Graetzer, Pasquale Bottalico, Eric J Hunter
Conversational speech produced in noise can be characterised by increases in intelligibility relative to such speech produced in quiet. Listening difficulty (LD) is a metric that can be used to evaluate speech transmission performance more sensitively than intelligibility scores in situations in which performance is likely to be high. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the LD of speech produced in different noise and style conditions, to evaluate the spectral and durational speech modifications associated with these conditions, and to determine whether any of the spectral and durational parameters predicted LD...
August 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Hongtao Yang, Cong Wang, Chaoqiang Liu, Houwen Chen, Yifan Wu, Jintao Han, Zichang Jia, Wenjiao Lin, Deyuan Zhang, Wenting Li, Wei Yuan, Hui Guo, Huafang Li, Guangxin Yang, Deling Kong, Donghui Zhu, Kazuki Takashima, Liqun Ruan, Jianfeng Nie, Xuan Li, Yufeng Zheng
In the present study, pure zinc stents were implanted into the abdominal aorta of rabbits for 12 months. Multiscale analysis including micro-CT, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and histological stainings was performed to reveal the fundamental degradation mechanism of the pure zinc stent and its biocompatibility. The pure zinc stent was able to maintain mechanical integrity for 6 months and degraded 41.75 ± 29.72% of stent volume after 12 months implantation...
August 16, 2017: Biomaterials
Hiroyuki Yamada, Masashi Yamaguchi, Kiminori Shimizu, Somay Yamagata Murayama, Satoshi Mitarai, Chihiro Sasakawa, Hiroji Chibana
Structome analysis, the quantitative three-dimensional structural analysis of whole cells at the electron microscopic level, of Exophiala dermatitidis (black yeast), Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and Myojin spiral bacteria (MSB) have already been reported. Here, the results of the structome analysis of Escherichia coli cells based on transmission electron microscope observation of serial ultrathin sections was reported, and compared with the data obtained from phase contrast microscopy and scanning electron microscopy...
August 1, 2017: Microscopy
Xiaoping Lin, Jianmin Zhang, Xiaobin Tong, Han Li, Xi Pan, Peigong Ning, Qiuhong Li
Ag-Fe2O3 hollow spheres are synthesized by using Ag@C core-shell matrix as sacrificial templates. The morphologies and structures of the as-prepared samples are characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction energy dispersive, transmission electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. In contrast to Fe2O3 hollow spheres, Ag-Fe2O3 hollow spheres exhibit much higher electrochemical performances. The Ag-Fe2O3 composites exhibit an initial discharge capacity of 1030...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
Scott C Weaver, Caroline Charlier, Nikos Vasilakis, Marc Lecuit
Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) have a long history of emerging to infect humans, but during recent decades, they have been spreading more widely and affecting larger populations. This is due to several factors, including increased air travel and uncontrolled mosquito vector populations. Emergence can involve simple spillover from enzootic (wildlife) cycles, as in the case of West Nile virus accompanying geographic expansion into the Americas; secondary amplification in domesticated animals, as seen with Japanese encephalitis, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, and Rift Valley fever viruses; and urbanization, in which humans become the amplification hosts and peridomestic mosquitoes, mainly Aedes aegypti, mediate human-to-human transmission...
August 28, 2017: Annual Review of Medicine
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