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Nathan D Grubaugh, Jason T Ladner, Moritz U G Kraemer, Gytis Dudas, Amanda L Tan, Karthik Gangavarapu, Michael R Wiley, Stephen White, Julien Thézé, Diogo M Magnani, Karla Prieto, Daniel Reyes, Andrea M Bingham, Lauren M Paul, Refugio Robles-Sikisaka, Glenn Oliveira, Darryl Pronty, Carolyn M Barcellona, Hayden C Metsky, Mary Lynn Baniecki, Kayla G Barnes, Bridget Chak, Catherine A Freije, Adrianne Gladden-Young, Andreas Gnirke, Cynthia Luo, Bronwyn MacInnis, Christian B Matranga, Daniel J Park, James Qu, Stephen F Schaffner, Christopher Tomkins-Tinch, Kendra L West, Sarah M Winnicki, Shirlee Wohl, Nathan L Yozwiak, Joshua Quick, Joseph R Fauver, Kamran Khan, Shannon E Brent, Robert C Reiner, Paola N Lichtenberger, Michael J Ricciardi, Varian K Bailey, David I Watkins, Marshall R Cone, Edgar W Kopp, Kelly N Hogan, Andrew C Cannons, Reynald Jean, Andrew J Monaghan, Robert F Garry, Nicholas J Loman, Nuno R Faria, Mario C Porcelli, Chalmers Vasquez, Elyse R Nagle, Derek A T Cummings, Danielle Stanek, Andrew Rambaut, Mariano Sanchez-Lockhart, Pardis C Sabeti, Leah D Gillis, Scott F Michael, Trevor Bedford, Oliver G Pybus, Sharon Isern, Gustavo Palacios, Kristian G Andersen
Zika virus (ZIKV) is causing an unprecedented epidemic linked to severe congenital abnormalities. In July 2016, mosquito-borne ZIKV transmission was reported in the continental United States; since then, hundreds of locally acquired infections have been reported in Florida. To gain insights into the timing, source, and likely route(s) of ZIKV introduction, we tracked the virus from its first detection in Florida by sequencing ZIKV genomes from infected patients and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. We show that at least 4 introductions, but potentially as many as 40, contributed to the outbreak in Florida and that local transmission is likely to have started in the spring of 2016-several months before its initial detection...
May 24, 2017: Nature
Peter W Schreiber, Hugo Sax
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Mycobacterium chimaera infections following cardiac surgery have been reported from an increasing number of countries. These infections are characterized by a poor prognosis with a case fatality rate around 50% despite treatment. Since the first description in 2013, our understanding has grown steadily. Several outbreak investigations, case series, and experiments with heater-cooler units (HCUs) have been published. This review summarizes the current knowledge. RECENT FINDINGS: M...
May 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Di Wu, Feng Xie, Ling Xiao, Fen Feng, Shifang Huang, Lu He, Meiqing Liu, Qun Zhou, Lanfang Li, Linxi Chen
Apelin, an endogenous ligand for apelin receptor (APJ), is reported to be involved in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. In this study, we explored the mechanism of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by apelin-13/APJ system. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) rat model was established by constricting the abdominal aorta. Western blots were used for protein expression in LVH rats and cultured H9c2 cardiomyocytes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to monitor morphological features of cells. In addition, the diameter and volume of H9c2 cells were detected by Scepter™ Handheld Automated Cell Counter...
May 24, 2017: DNA and Cell Biology
Fumiyasu Matsubayashi, Yuki Koizumi, Ryo Takahashi, Minoru Yoshioka, Tomoharu Sato
The technique of jaw tracking can be used in volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). In this technique, jaw tracks apertures of the multi leaf collimator (MLC) during irradiation. It is reported that dose variation is occurred by the changing accuracy of MLC position in VMAT and IMRT. Though jaw moves dynamically in the irradiation by using this technique, the influence of the jaw position accuracy on dose variation is not examined. The purpose of this study is to verify the influence of jaw position accuracy on dose variation in VMAT using jaw tracking...
2017: Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi
Xiaoliang Zhang, Alastair Martin, Caroline Jordan, Prasheel Lillaney, Aaron Losey, Yong Pang, Jeffrey Hu, Mark Wilson, Daniel Cooke, Steven W Hetts
BACKGROUND: It is technically challenging to design compact yet sensitive miniature catheter radio frequency (RF) coils for endovascular interventional MR imaging. METHODS: In this work, a new design method for catheter RF coils is proposed based on the coaxial transmission line resonator (TLR) technique. Due to its distributed circuit, the TLR catheter coil does not need any lumped capacitors to support its resonance, which simplifies the practical design and construction and provides a straightforward technique for designing miniature catheter-mounted imaging coils that are appropriate for interventional neurovascular procedures...
April 2017: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
Martin Hetzl, Julia Winnerl, Luca Francaviglia, Max Kraut, Markus Döblinger, Sonja Matich, Anna Fontcuberta I Morral, Martin Stutzmann
The large surface-to-volume ratio of GaN nanowires implicates sensitivity of the optical and electrical properties of the nanowires to their surroundings. The implementation of an (Al,Ga)N shell with a larger band gap around the GaN nanowire core is a promising geometry to seal the GaN surface. We investigate the luminescence and structural properties of selective area-grown GaN-(Al,Ga)N core-shell nanowires grown on Si and diamond substrates. While the (Al,Ga)N shell allows a suppression of yellow defect luminescence from the GaN core, an overall intensity loss due to Si-related defects at the GaN/(Al,Ga)N interface has been observed in the case of Si substrates...
May 17, 2017: Nanoscale
Benedikt J Daurer, Kenta Okamoto, Johan Bielecki, Filipe R N C Maia, Kerstin Mühlig, M Marvin Seibert, Max F Hantke, Carl Nettelblad, W Henry Benner, Martin Svenda, Nicuşor Tîmneanu, Tomas Ekeberg, N Duane Loh, Alberto Pietrini, Alessandro Zani, Asawari D Rath, Daniel Westphal, Richard A Kirian, Salah Awel, Max O Wiedorn, Gijs van der Schot, Gunilla H Carlsson, Dirk Hasse, Jonas A Sellberg, Anton Barty, Jakob Andreasson, Sébastien Boutet, Garth Williams, Jason Koglin, Inger Andersson, Janos Hajdu, Daniel S D Larsson
This study explores the capabilities of the Coherent X-ray Imaging Instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source to image small biological samples. The weak signal from small samples puts a significant demand on the experiment. Aerosolized Omono River virus particles of ∼40 nm in diameter were injected into the submicrometre X-ray focus at a reduced pressure. Diffraction patterns were recorded on two area detectors. The statistical nature of the measurements from many individual particles provided information about the intensity profile of the X-ray beam, phase variations in the wavefront and the size distribution of the injected particles...
May 1, 2017: IUCrJ
H L Li, Y Hu, P J Meng, X Y Zhang, Y Y Xie, P L Huang
Objective: To investigate the peak time and peak area of elements in cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe QDs) using size exclusion chromatography-high-performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, as well as the biological stability of CdTe QDs in vivo and in vitro. Methods: Transmission electron microscope and ultraviolet fluorescence were used for characterization and synthesis of water-soluble CdTe QDs, and CdTe QDs were added to double-distilled water, mobile phase, or bovine serum medium to observe the change in stability after different periods of time...
March 20, 2017: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
Beatriz Rodriguez-Grande, Jan-Pieter Konsman
Gases have been long known to have essential physiological functions in the CNS such as respiration or regulation of vascular tone. Since gases have been classically considered to freely diffuse, research in gas biology has so far focused on mechanisms of gas synthesis and gas reactivity, rather than gas diffusion and transport. However, the discovery of gas pores during the last two decades and the characterization of diverse diffusion patterns through different membranes has raised the possibility that modulation of gas diffusion is also a physiologically relevant parameter...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Manli Zeng, Xingyu Wu, Fen Li, Wensheng She, Lin Zhou, Benyuan Pi, Zhiwen Xu, Xiaolin Huang
AIMS: Laminaria Japonica Polysaccharides (LJP) is a kind of plant polysaccharide isolated from Laminaria Japonica Aresch. LJP has a variety of biological activity, including anti-tumor, improving immune function, anti-radiation and others. This study observed the biological activity of LJP in vitro and in vivo on human nasopharyngeal carcinoma(NPC), and the possible anticancer mechanism was explored. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma cell lines CNE2 and HONE1 were used for the study...
May 10, 2017: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
Jinwoo Park, Ken T Wakabayashi, Caitlin Szalkowski, Rohan V Bhimani
Recent studies show that dense dopamine (DA) innervation from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to the olfactory tubercle (OT) may play an important role in processing multisensory information pertaining to arousal and reward, yet little is known about DA regulation in the OT. This is mainly due to the anatomical limitations of conventional methods of determining DA dynamics in small heterogeneous OT subregions located in the ventral most part of the brain. Additionally, there is increasing awareness that anteromedial and anterolateral subregions of the OT have distinct functional roles in natural and psychostimulant drug reinforcement as well as in regulating other types of behavioral responses, such as aversion...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
Albert Jang, Xiaoping Wu, Edward J Auerbach, Michael Garwood
PURPOSE: To introduce a method of designing single and parallel transmit (pTx) 3D adiabatic π pulses for inverting and refocusing spins that are insensitive to transmit B1 ( B1+) inhomogeneity. THEORY AND METHODS: A 3D adiabatic pulse is created by replacing each piece-wise constant element (or sub-pulse) of an adiabatic full passage (AFP) by a 2D selective pulse. In this study, the parent AFP is an HS1 and each sub-pulse is a 2D pulse derived from a jinc function designed using a spiral k-trajectory...
May 12, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Thomas L Sheppard, Stephen W T Price, Federico Benzi, Sina Baier, Michael Klumpp, Roland Dittmeyer, Wilhelm Schwieger, Jan-Dierk Grunwaldt
A Cu/ZnO/Al2O3@ZSM-5 core@shell catalyst active for one-step conversion of synthesis gas to dimethyl ether was imaged simultaneously and in situ using synchrotron-based X-ray Fluorescence (μ-XRF), X-ray Diffraction (μ-XRD) and Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM) Computed Tomography (CT) with micrometer spatial reso-lution. An identical sample volume was imaged stepwise, first under oxidizing and reducing atmospheres (imitating calcination and activation processes), and then under model reaction conditions for DME synthesis (H2:CO:CO2 ratio of 16:8:1, up to 250 °C)...
May 12, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Junming Su, Jiayue Zhao, Liangyu Li, Congcong Zhang, Chunguang Chen, Tao Huang, Aishui Yu
A high-capacity Si anode is always accompanied by very large volume expansion and structural collapse during the lithium-ion insertion/extraction process. To stabilize the structure of the Si anode, magnesium vapor thermal reduction has been used to synthesize porous Si and SiO2 (pSS) particles, followed by in situ growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in pSS pores through a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy have shown that the final product (pSS/CNTs) possesses adequate void space intertwined by uniformly distributed CNTs and inactive silica in particle form...
May 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
B A D van Bunnik, M E J Woolhouse
Consumption of antibiotics in food animals is increasing worldwide and is approaching, if not already surpassing, the volume consumed by humans. It is often suggested that reducing the volume of antibiotics consumed by food animals could have public health benefits. Although this notion is widely regarded as intuitively obvious there is a lack of robust, quantitative evidence to either support or contradict the suggestion. As a first step towards addressing this knowledge gap, we develop a simple mathematical model for exploring the generic relationship between antibiotic consumption by food animals and levels of resistant bacterial infections in humans...
April 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Philippe Guay, Stepan Gorgutsa, Sophie LaRochelle, Younes Messaddeq
In this paper, we report on a novel sensor for the contactless monitoring of the respiration rate, made from multi-material fibers arranged in the form of spiral antenna (2.45 GHz central frequency). High flexibility of the used composite metal-glass-polymer fibers permits their integration into a cotton t-shirt without compromising comfort or restricting movement of the user. At the same time, change of the antenna geometry, due to the chest expansion and the displacement of the air volume in the lungs, is found to cause a significant shift of the antenna operational frequency, thus allowing respiration detection...
May 6, 2017: Sensors
Helayaye Damitha Lakmali Abeynayaka, Takashi Asaeda, Yasuko Kaneko
Freshwater cyanobacterium Pseudanabaena galeata were cultured in chambers under artificially generated pressures, which correspond to the hydrostatic pressures at deep water. Variations occurred in gas vesicles volume, and buoyancy state of cells under those conditions were analyzed at different time intervals (5 min, 1 day, and 5 days). Variations in gas vesicles morphology of cells were observed by transmission electron microscopy images. Settling velocity (Vs) of cells which governs the buoyancy was observed with the aid of a modified optical microscope...
May 5, 2017: Environmental Management
Wenjie Zhu, Jingxuan Wang, Di Wu, Xitong Li, Yongming Luo, Caiyun Han, Wenhui Ma, Sufang He
Mesoporous silica materials (MSMs) of the MCM-41 type were rapidly synthesized by microwave heating using silica fume as silica source and evaluated as adsorbents for the removal of Cu(2+), Pb(2+), and Cd(2+) from aqueous solutions. The effects of microwave heating times on the pore structure of the resulting MSMs were investigated as well as the effects of different acids which were employed to adjust the solution pH during the synthesis. The obtained MCM-41 samples were characterized by nitrogen adsorption-desorption analyses, X-ray powder diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
Shahid Iqbal, Ali Bahadur, Aamer Saeed, Kebin Zhou, Muhammad Shoaib, Muhammad Waqas
Lithium-ion battery (LIB) is a revolutionary step in the electric energy storage technology for making green environment. In the present communication, a LIB anode material was constructed by using graphene/polyaniline/CuS nanocomposite (GR/PANI/CuS NC) as a high-performance electrode. Initially, pure covellite CuS nanoplates (NPs) of the hexagonal structure were synthesized by hydrothermal route and then GR/PANI/CuS NC was fabricated by in-situ polymerization of aniline in the presence of CuS NPs and graphene nanosheets (GR NSs) as host matrix...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Nelly Hobeika, Patrick Bouriat, Abdelhafid Touil, Daniel Broseta, Ross Brown, Jean Dubessy
Round glass capillaries are a basic tool in soft-matter science, but often are shunned due to the astigmatism they introduce in micro-graphs. Here, we show how refraction in a capillary can be a help instead of a hindrance to obtain precise and sensitive information on two important interfacial properties: the contact angle of two immiscible fluids and the presence of thin films on the capillary wall. Understanding optical cusps due to refraction allows direct measurement of the inner diameter of a capillary at the meniscus, which with the height of the meniscus cap, determines the contact angle...
May 5, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
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