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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429122/quantifying-golgi-structure-using-em-combining-volume-sem-and-stereology-for-higher-throughput
#1
REVIEW
Sophie Ferguson, Anna M Steyer, Terry M Mayhew, Yannick Schwab, John Milton Lucocq
Investigating organelles such as the Golgi complex depends increasingly on high-throughput quantitative morphological analyses from multiple experimental or genetic conditions. Light microscopy (LM) has been an effective tool for screening but fails to reveal fine details of Golgi structures such as vesicles, tubules and cisternae. Electron microscopy (EM) has sufficient resolution but traditional transmission EM (TEM) methods are slow and inefficient. Newer volume scanning EM (volume-SEM) methods now have the potential to speed up 3D analysis by automated sectioning and imaging...
April 20, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427627/hydrothermal-precipitation-preparation-of-cds-er-3-y3al5o12-zro2-coated-composite-and-sonocatalytic-degradation-of-caffeine
#2
Yingying Huang, Guowei Wang, Hongbo Zhang, Guanshu Li, Dawei Fang, Jun Wang, Youtao Song
Here, we reported a novel method to dispose caffeine by means of ultrasound irradiation combinated with CdS@(Er(3+):Y3Al5O12/ZrO2) coated composite as sonocatalyst. The CdS@(Er(3+):Y3Al5O12/ZrO2) was synthesized via hydrothermal-precipitation method and then characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS). After that, the sonocatalytic degradation of caffeine in aqueous solution was conducted adopting CdS@(Er(3+):Y3Al5O12/ZrO2) and CdS@ZrO2 coated composites as sonocatalysts...
July 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427043/neutron-radiation-shielding-properties-of-polymer-incorporated-self-compacting-concrete-mixes
#3
Santhosh M Malkapur, L Divakar, Mattur C Narasimhan, Narayana B Karkera, P Goverdhan, V Sathian, N K Prasad
In this work, the neutron radiation shielding characteristics of a class of novel polymer-incorporated self-compacting concrete (PISCC) mixes are evaluated. Pulverized high density polyethylene (HDPE) material was used, at three different reference volumes, as a partial replacement to river sand in conventional concrete mixes. By such partial replacement of sand with polymer, additional hydrogen contents are incorporated in these concrete mixes and their effect on the neutron radiation shielding properties are studied...
April 12, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424101/limited-impacts-of-truck-based-ultra-low-volume-applications-of-mosquito-adulticides-on-mortality-in-honey-bees-apis-mellifera
#4
F D Rinkevich, J W Margotta, V Pokhrel, T W Walker, R H Vaeth, W C Hoffman, B K Fritz, R G Danka, T E Rinderer, R L Aldridge, K J Linthicum, J A Ottea, K B Healy
Adulticides applied against mosquitoes can reduce vector populations during times of high arbovirus transmission. However, impacts of these insecticides on pollinators and other non-target organisms are of concern to mosquito control professionals, beekeepers and others. We evaluated mortality of Culex quinquefasciatus and Apis mellifera when caged insects were exposed to low and high label rates of four common adulticides (Aqua-Pursuit™ [permethrin], Duet® [prallethrin + sumithrin], Fyfanon® [malathion] and Scourge® [resmethrin]) at six distances up to 91...
April 20, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423028/four-human-plasmodium-species-quantification-using-droplet-digital-pcr
#5
Suttipat Srisutham, Naowarat Saralamba, Benoit Malleret, Laurent Rénia, Arjen M Dondorp, Mallika Imwong
Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) is a partial PCR based on water-oil emulsion droplet technology. It is a highly sensitive method for detecting and delineating minor alleles from complex backgrounds and provides absolute quantification of DNA targets. The ddPCR technology has been applied for detection of many pathogens. Here the sensitive assay utilizing ddPCR for detection and quantification of Plasmodium species was investigated. The assay was developed for two levels of detection, genus specific for all Plasmodium species and for specific Plasmodium species detection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421508/appendix-d-irvine-scientific-%C3%A2-vitrification-system
#6
Matthew VerMilyea, Amber Brewer
This chapter will describe the use of the Irvine Scientific(®) vitrification and warming solutions (Vit Kits(®)) along with a detailed protocol for the correct use of the CryoTip(®) vitrification device for human embryos and oocytes. Successful pregnancies have been reported after carrying out rapid vitrification methods of oocytes, cleavage stage embryos, and blastocysts using the CryoTip(®) (Popwell et al. Fertil Steril, 101:e20, 2014; Kuwayama et al. Reprod Biomed 11:608-614, 2005; Kuwayama et al. Fertil Steril 84:S187, 2005; Kuwayama et al...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415858/recent-advances-in-mitochondrial-disease
#7
Lyndsey Craven, Charlotte L Alston, Robert W Taylor, Doug M Turnbull
Mitochondrial disease is a challenging area of genetics because two distinct genomes can contribute to disease pathogenesis. It is also challenging clinically because of the myriad of different symptoms and, until recently, a lack of a genetic diagnosis in many patients. The last five years has brought remarkable progress in this area.Weprovide a brief overview of mitochondrial origin, function, and biology, which are key to understanding the genetic basis of mitochondrial disease. However, the primary purpose of this review is to describe the recent advances related to the diagnosis, genetic basis, and prevention of mitochondrial disease, highlighting the newly described disease genes and the evolving methodologies aimed at preventing mitochondrial DNA disease transmission...
April 17, 2017: Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411510/compressed-sensing-for-stem-tomography
#8
Laurène Donati, Masih Nilchian, Sylvain Trépout, Cédric Messaoudi, Sergio Marco, Michael Unser
A central challenge in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) is to reduce the electron radiation dosage required for accurate imaging of 3D biological nano-structures. Methods that permit tomographic reconstruction from a reduced number of STEM acquisitions without introducing significant degradation in the final volume are thus of particular importance. In random-beam STEM (RB-STEM), the projection measurements are acquired by randomly scanning a subset of pixels at every tilt view. In this work, we present a tailored RB-STEM acquisition-reconstruction framework that fully exploits the compressed sensing principles...
April 6, 2017: Ultramicroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388681/mule-deer-spatial-association-patterns-and-potential-implications-for-transmission-of-an-epizootic-disease
#9
María Fernanda Mejía-Salazar, Anne W Goldizen, Clementine S Menz, Ross G Dwyer, Simon P Blomberg, Cheryl L Waldner, Catherine I Cullingham, Trent K Bollinger
Animal social behaviour can have important effects on the long-term dynamics of diseases. In particular, preferential spatial relationships between individuals can lead to differences in the rates of disease spread within a population. We examined the concurrent influence of genetic relatedness, sex, age, home range overlap, time of year, and prion disease status on proximal associations of adult Rocky Mountain mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) in a chronic wasting disease endemic area. We also quantified the temporal stability of these associations across different sex, age, and disease status classes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388650/loss-in-lung-volume-and-changes-in-the-immune-response-demonstrate-disease-progression-in-african-green-monkeys-infected-by-small-particle-aerosol-and-intratracheal-exposure-to-nipah-virus
#10
Yu Cong, Margaret R Lentz, Abigail Lara, Isis Alexander, Christopher Bartos, J Kyle Bohannon, Dima Hammoud, Louis Huzella, Peter B Jahrling, Krisztina Janosko, Catherine Jett, Erin Kollins, Matthew Lackemeyer, Daniel Mollura, Dan Ragland, Oscar Rojas, Jeffrey Solomon, Ziyue Xu, Vincent Munster, Michael R Holbrook
Nipah virus (NiV) is a paramyxovirus (genus Henipavirus) that emerged in the late 1990s in Malaysia and has since been identified as the cause of sporadic outbreaks of severe febrile disease in Bangladesh and India. NiV infection is frequently associated with severe respiratory or neurological disease in infected humans with transmission to humans through inhalation, contact or consumption of NiV contaminated foods. In the work presented here, the development of disease was investigated in the African Green Monkey (AGM) model following intratracheal (IT) and, for the first time, small-particle aerosol administration of NiV...
April 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387775/synchrotron-ftir-mapping-of-mineralization-in-a-microfluidic-device
#11
Shunbo Li, Johannes Ihli, William J Marchant, Muling Zeng, Li Chen, Katia Wehbe, Gianfelice Cinque, Oscar Cespedes, Nik Kapur, Fiona C Meldrum
Fourier transform infrared micro-spectroscopy provides an effective means of performing rapid, non-destructive, and label-free analysis of specimens according to their vibrational modes. However, as water absorbs very strongly in the infrared region, analysis of aqueous solutions in transmission mode can suffer from problems with signal saturation. We here describe the fabrication of a novel microfluidic device that overcomes this problem. Devices with channel depths of just 3 μm were constructed from calcium fluoride using photolithography and hot embossing bonding, where calcium fluoride was selected due to its transparency in the IR region...
April 7, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383589/al-based-coordination-polymer-nanotubes-simple-preparation-post-modification-and-application-in-fe-3-ions-sensing
#12
Xiaoyao Dao, Yonghong Ni
Aluminum-based coordination polymers, MIL-110(Al) nanotubes, were successfully prepared from a mixed solution of methanol and ethanol with the volume ratio of 10 : 10 at room temperature in the absence of any template or surfactant; AlCl3 and sodium 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate (Na3BTC) were employed as the initial reactants. The composition, structure, and morphology of the as-obtained nanotubes were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES)...
April 19, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380301/environmental-risk-implications-of-metals-in-sludges-from-waste-water-treatment-plants-the-discovery-of-vast-stores-of-metal-containing-nanoparticles
#13
Feiyun Tou, Yi Yang, Jingnan Feng, Zuoshun Niu, Hui Pan, Yukun Qin, Xingpan Guo, Xiangzhou Meng, Min Liu, Michael F Hochella
Nanoparticle (NP) assessment in sludge materials, although of growing importance in eco- and biotoxicity studies, is commonly overlooked and, at best, understudied. In the present study, sewage sludge samples from across the mega-city of Shanghai, China were investigated for the first time using a sequential extraction method coupled with single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SP-ICP-MS) to quantify the abundance of metal-containing NPs in the extraction fractions and transmission electron microscopy to specifically identify the nanophases present...
April 14, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378867/multi-channel-silicone-rubber-traps-as-denuders-for-gas-particle-partitioning-of-aerosols-from-semi-volatile-organic-compounds
#14
Vesta Kohlmeier, George C Dragan, Erwin W Karg, Jürgen Schnelle-Kreis, Dietmar Breuer, Patricia B C Forbes, Egmont R Rohwer, Ralf Zimmermann
During many measurements it is important to account for possible changes in the gas-particle distribution of aerosols containing semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs). If denuders are combined with currently used personal air samplers, a simultaneous differential sampling of the gas and particle phase is possible. Here we analysed the transmission efficiency of denuders based on multi-channel silicone rubber traps (setup: 9 cm long glass liner (ID 4 mm), containing 22 parallel silicone rubber tubes (55 mm long, ID 0...
April 5, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377928/quantitative-pcr-and-digital-pcr-for-detection-of-ascaris-lumbricoides-eggs-in-reclaimed-water
#15
Lucrecia Acosta Soto, Ana Belén Santísima-Trinidad, Fernando Jorge Bornay-Llinares, Marcos Martín González, José Antonio Pascual Valero, Margarita Ros Muñoz
The reuse of reclaimed water from wastewater depuration is a widespread and necessary practice in many areas around the world and must be accompanied by adequate and continuous quality control. Ascaris lumbricoides is one of the soil-transmitted helminths (STH) with risk for humans due to its high infectivity and an important determinant of transmission is the inadequacy of water supplies and sanitation. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a limit equal to or lower than one parasitic helminth egg per liter, to reuse reclaimed water for unrestricted irrigation...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373685/early-neuromodulation-prevents-the-development-of-brain-and-behavioral-abnormalities-in-a-rodent-model-of-schizophrenia
#16
R Hadar, L Bikovski, M L Soto-Montenegro, J Schimke, P Maier, S Ewing, M Voget, F Wieske, T Götz, M Desco, C Hamani, J Pascau, I Weiner, C Winter
The notion that schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disorder in which neuropathologies evolve gradually over the developmental course indicates a potential therapeutic window during which pathophysiological processes may be modified to halt disease progression or reduce its severity. Here we used a neurodevelopmental maternal immune stimulation (MIS) rat model of schizophrenia to test whether early targeted modulatory intervention would affect schizophrenia's neurodevelopmental course. We applied deep brain stimulation (DBS) or sham stimulation to the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of adolescent MIS rats and respective controls, and investigated its behavioral, biochemical, brain-structural and -metabolic effects in adulthood...
April 4, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373680/activity-and-connectivity-changes-of-central-projection-areas-revealed-by-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-nav1-8-deficient-mice-upon-cold-signaling
#17
C Heindl-Erdmann, K Zimmermann, P Reeh, K Brune, A Hess
The voltage-gated sodium channel subtype NaV1.8 is expressed in the peripheral nervous system in primary afferent nociceptive C-fibers and is essential for noxious cold signaling. We utilized functional magnetic resonance imaging on NaV1.8-deficient (NaV1.8(-/-)) compared with wildtype (WT) mice to identify brain structures decoding noxious cold and/or heat signals. In NaV1.8(-/-) mice functional activity patterns, activated volumes and BOLD signal amplitudes are significantly reduced upon noxious cold stimulation whereas differences of noxious heat processing are less pronounced...
April 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370692/quality-evaluation-of-ultra-thin-samples-application-to-graphene
#18
K Cui, K Bosnick, R Indoe, M Malac, R A Mcleod
Many new materials emerging are strictly two dimensional (2D), often only one or two monolayers thick. They include transition metal dichalcogenides, such as MoS2 , and graphene. Graphene in particular appears to have many potential applications. Typically the crystalline film without contamination is of interest. Therefore, a reliable method is needed to routinely evaluate the quality of the synthesized samples. Here, we present one such candidate method that utilizes standard electron diffraction and low/medium magnification imaging in a rudimentary transmission electron microscope...
March 29, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367749/improving-voluntary-medical-male-circumcision-standards-adherence-and-post-procedure-follow-up-in-uganda-a-mixed-methods-study
#19
Sarah Smith Lunsford, John Byabagambi, Zachariah Falconer-Stout, Esther Karamagi
Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) has been demonstrated to reduce the transmission of HIV by 60%. Scaling up VMMC services requires that they be of high quality, socially accepted, and effective. We evaluated an intervention aimed at improving VMMC standards adherence and patient follow-up rates in nine facilities in Uganda. We also qualitatively explored why some men return for follow-up care and others do not. The completeness and quality of clinical documentation was poor at baseline, but significantly improved at endline...
March 2017: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366707/relative-effects-of-antiretroviral-therapy-and-harm-reduction-initiatives-on-hiv-incidence-in-british-columbia-canada-1996-2013-a-modelling-study
#20
Bohdan Nosyk, Xiao Zang, Jeong E Min, Emanuel Krebs, Viviane D Lima, M-J Milloy, Jean Shoveller, Rolando Barrios, P Richard Harrigan, Thomas Kerr, Evan Wood, Julio S G Montaner
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) and harm reduction services have been cited as key contributors to control of HIV epidemics; however, the specific contribution of ART has been questioned due to uncertainty of its true efficacy on HIV transmission through needle sharing. We aimed to isolate the independent effects of harm reduction services (opioid agonist treatment uptake and needle distribution volumes) and ART on HIV transmission via needle sharing in British Columbia, Canada, from 1996 to 2013...
March 30, 2017: Lancet HIV
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