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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091620/role-of-molecular-conformations-in-rubrene-polycrystalline-films-growth-from-vacuum-deposition-at-various-substrate-temperatures
#1
Ku-Yen Lin, Yan-Jun Wang, Ko-Lun Chen, Ching-Yuan Ho, Chun-Chuen Yang, Ji-Lin Shen, Kuan-Cheng Chiu
We report on the optical and structural characterization of rubrene polycrystalline films fabricated from vacuum deposition with various substrate temperatures (Tsub). Depending on Tsub, the role of twisted and planar rubrene conformational isomers on the properties of rubrene films is focused. The temperature (T)-dependent inverse optical transmission (IOT) and photoluminescence (PL) spectra were performed on these rubrene films. The origins of these IOT and PL peaks are explained in terms of the features from twisted and planar rubrene molecules and of the band characteristics from rubrene molecular solid films...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091597/direct-visualization-of-hydrogen-absorption-dynamics-in-individual-palladium-nanoparticles
#2
Tarun C Narayan, Fariah Hayee, Andrea Baldi, Ai Leen Koh, Robert Sinclair, Jennifer A Dionne
Many energy storage materials undergo large volume changes during charging and discharging. The resulting stresses often lead to defect formation in the bulk, but less so in nanosized systems. Here, we capture in real time the mechanism of one such transformation-the hydrogenation of single-crystalline palladium nanocubes from 15 to 80 nm-to better understand the reason for this durability. First, using environmental scanning transmission electron microscopy, we monitor the hydrogen absorption process in real time with 3 nm resolution...
January 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091562/unravelling-a-simple-method-for-the-low-temperature-synthesis-of-silicon-nanocrystals-and-monolithic-nanocrystalline-thin-films
#3
Ka-Hyun Kim, Erik V Johnson, Andrey G Kazanskii, Mark V Khenkin, Pere Roca I Cabarrocas
In this work, we present new results on the plasma processing and structure of hydrogenated polymorphous silicon (pm-Si:H) thin films. pm-Si:H thin films consist of a low volume fraction of silicon nanocrystals embedded in a silicon matrix with medium range order, and they possess this morphology as a significant contribution to their growth comes from the impact on the substrate of silicon clusters and nanocrystals synthesized in the plasma. Quadrupole mass spectrometry, ion flux measurements, and material characterization by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy all provide insight on the contribution to the growth by silicon nanocrystals during PECVD deposition...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090593/ultralm-and-minilm-locator-tools-for-smart-tracking-of-fluorescent-cells-in-correlative-light-and-electron-microscopy
#4
Elisabeth Brama, Christopher J Peddie, Gary Wilkes, Yan Gu, Lucy M Collinson, Martin L Jones
In-resin fluorescence (IRF) protocols preserve fluorescent proteins in resin-embedded cells and tissues for correlative light and electron microscopy, aiding interpretation of macromolecular function within the complex cellular landscape. Dual-contrast IRF samples can be imaged in separate fluorescence and electron microscopes, or in dual-modality integrated microscopes for high resolution correlation of fluorophore to organelle. IRF samples also offer a unique opportunity to automate correlative imaging workflows...
December 13, 2016: Wellcome Open Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088104/biofabrication-of-size-controllable-silver-nanoparticles-a-green-approach
#5
Sireesh Babu Maddinedi, Badal Kumar Mandal, Swetha Kameswari Maddili
A facile biosynthetic approach for the size controllable production of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using the leaf extract of Cinnamomum tsoi as reducing and capping agent is developed. The polyphenolic functionalities present in the extract are essentially responsible for the synthesis and stabilization of AgNPs. The size and morphology of the AgNPs were effectively tuned by changing the volume of the extract. The availability of oxidized polyphenols play key role in tuning the size and morphology of the prepared NPs...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054788/using-x-ray-microscopy-to-understand-how-nanoporous-materials-can-be-used-to-reduce-the-large-volume-change-in-alloy-anodes
#6
John Berkeley Cook, Terri Chai Lin, Eric Detsi, Johanna Nelson Weker, Sarah H Tolbert
Tin metal is an attractive negative electrode to replace graphite in Li-ion batteries due to its high energy density. However, tin undergoes a large volume change upon alloying with Li, which pulverizes the particles, and ultimately leads to short cycling lifetimes. Nanoporous materials have been shown to extend battery life well past what is observed in non-porous material. Despite the exciting potential of porous alloying anodes to significantly increase the energy density in Li-ion batteries, the fundamental physics of how nanoscale architectures accommodate the electrochemically induced volume changes are poorly understood...
January 5, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054226/picroside-ii-exerts-a-neuroprotective-effect-by-inhibiting-the-mitochondria-cytochrome-c-signal-pathway-following-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rats
#7
Hongyan Zhang, Li Zhai, Tingting Wang, Shan Li, Yunliang Guo
Stroke is a common neurodegenerative disease in the wide world, and mitochondrial defects underlie the pathogenesis of ischemia, especially during reperfusion. Picroside II, the principal active component of Picrorhiza, is a traditional Chinese medicine. Our previous study demonstrated that the best therapeutic dose and time window were injection of picroside II at a dose of 10-20 mg/kg body weight following cerebral ischemia by 1.5-2.0 h. In this paper, the neuroprotective effect and the mechanism of picroside II were investigated, as well as its involvement in antioxidant and mitochondria cytochrome C (CytC) signal pathway following ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052105/wsn-based-space-charge-density-measurement-system
#8
Dawei Deng, Haiwen Yuan, Jianxun Lv, Yong Ju
It is generally acknowledged that high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission line endures the drawback of large area, because of which the utilization of cable for space charge density monitoring system is of inconvenience. Compared with the traditional communication network, wireless sensor network (WSN) shows advantages in small volume, high flexibility and strong self-organization, thereby presenting great potential in solving the problem. Additionally, WSN is more suitable for the construction of distributed space charge density monitoring system as it has longer distance and higher mobility...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049777/preparing-fission-yeast-for-electron-microscopy
#9
Thomas H Giddings, Mary K Morphew, J Richard McIntosh
Freezing samples while simultaneously subjecting them to a rapid increase in pressure, which inhibits ice crystal formation, is a reliable method for cryofixing fission yeast. The procedure consists simply of harvesting cells and loading them into a high-pressure freezer (HPF), and then operating the device. If equipment for high-pressure freezing is not available, fission yeast can be frozen by plunging a monolayer of cells into a liquid cryogen, usually ethane or propane. Unlike the HPF, where relatively large volumes of cells can be frozen in a single run, plunge freezing requires cells to be dispersed in a layer <20 µm thick...
January 3, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048869/su-f-j-145-mri-guided-interventional-boost-radiotherapy-for-rectal-cancer-investigating-the-feasibility-of-adapting-the-anatomy
#10
J J E Kleijnen, A M Couwenberg, B van Asselen, J J W Lagendijk, M Intven, B W Raaymakers
PURPOSE: The recent development of an MRI-linac allows adaptation of treatments to the anatomy of the moment. This anatomy, in turn, could be altered into a more favorable situation for radiotherapy purposes. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential dosimetric benefits of manipulating rectal anatomy in MRI-guided interventional external-beam radiotherapy for rectal cancer. METHODS: For this retrospective analysis, four patients (1M/3F) diagnosed with rectal cancer were included...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047129/su-f-t-582-small-field-dosimetry-in-radiosurgery-collimators-with-a-stealth-chamber
#11
J Azcona, B Barbes
PURPOSE: The extraction of a reference signal for measuring small fields in scanning mode can be problematic. In this work we describe the use of a transmission chamber in small field dosimetry for radiosurgery collimators and compare TMR curves obtained with stereotactic diode and microionization chamber. METHODS: Four radiosurgery cones of diameters 5, 10, 12.5, and 15mm supplied by Elekta Medical were commissioned in a 6MV FFF beam from an Elekta Versa linac...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047050/su-c-brc-04-efficient-dose-calculation-algorithm-for-fff-imrt-with-a-simplified-bivariate-gaussian-source-model
#12
F Li, J Park, B Barraclough, B Lu, J Li, C Liu, G Yan
PURPOSE: To develop an efficient and accurate independent dose calculation algorithm with a simplified analytical source model for the quality assurance and safe delivery of Flattening Filter Free (FFF)-IMRT on an Elekta Versa HD. METHODS: The source model consisted of a point source and a 2D bivariate Gaussian source, respectively modeling the primary photons and the combined effect of head scatter, monitor chamber backscatter and collimator exchange effect. The in-air fluence was firstly calculated by back-projecting the edges of beam defining devices onto the source plane and integrating the visible source distribution...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047041/su-f-t-549-validation-of-a-method-for-in-vivo-3d-dose-reconstruction-for-sbrt-using-a-new-transmission-detector
#13
Y Nakaguchi, Y Shimohigashi, R Onizuka, T Ohno
PURPOSE: Recently, there has been increased clinical use of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). SBRT treatments will strongly benefit from in vivo patient dose verification, as any errors in delivery can be more detrimental to the radiobiology of the patient as compared to conventional therapy. In vivo dose measurements, a commercially available quality assurance platform which is able to correlate the delivered dose to the patient's anatomy and take into account tissue inhomogeneity, is the COMPASS system (IBA Dosimetry, Germany) using a new transmission detector (Dolphin, IBA Dosimetry)...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046326/su-f-t-568-qa-of-a-multi-target-multi-dose-vmat-srs
#14
D Roa, A Gonzales, J Kuo
PURPOSE: To, experimentally, corroborated the prescribed doses utilizing dosimeters (e.g. films and TLDs) that can provide high spatial resolution, allow dose measurement of multiple targets at once, and provide accurate dosimetric results. METHODS: A single-isocenter 6FFF SRS VMAT plan consisting of one 358° arc at 0° couch angle and four 179° arcs at 30°, 60°, 330° and 300° couch angles respectively, was generated in ECLIPSE v.11 using a Rando-Alderson anthropomorphic head phantom CT study...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046084/human-cough-as-a-two-stage-jet-and-its-role-in-particle-transport
#15
Jianjian Wei, Yuguo Li
The human cough is a significant vector in the transmission of respiratory diseases in indoor environments. The cough flow is characterized as a two-stage jet; specifically, the starting jet (when the cough starts and flow is released) and interrupted jet (after the source supply is terminated). During the starting-jet stage, the flow rate is a function of time; three temporal profiles of the exit velocity (pulsation, sinusoidal and real-cough) were investigated in this study, and our results showed that the cough flow's maximum penetration distance was in the range of a 50...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045044/in-situ-heavy-ion-irradiation-studies-of-nanopore-shrinkage-and-enhanced-radiation-tolerance-of-nanoporous-au
#16
Jin Li, C Fan, J Ding, S Xue, Y Chen, Q Li, H Wang, X Zhang
High energy particle radiations induce severe microstructural damage in metallic materials. Nanoporous materials with a giant surface-to-volume ratio may alleviate radiation damage in irradiated metallic materials as free surface are defect sinks. Here we show, by using in situ Kr ion irradiation in a transmission electron microscope at room temperature, that nanoporous Au indeed has significantly improved radiation tolerance comparing with coarse-grained, fully dense Au. In situ studies show that nanopores can absorb and eliminate a large number of radiation-induced defect clusters...
January 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043300/-influences-of-exendin-4-on-the-secretion-function-of-islet-beta-cells-from-rats-in-the-early-stage-of-severe-scald
#17
D X Zhao, L Ma, Z A Shen, D W Li, Y R Shang, K Yin, W F Cheng, X Wang, Z X Liu
Objective: To observe the secretion function changes of islet beta cells isolated from rats in the early stage of severe scald, and to explore the influence of them. Methods: Thirty-six Wistar rats were divided into sham injury (SI) group, sham injury+ exendin-4 (SIE) group, scald (S) group, and scald+ exendin-4 (SE) group according to the random number table, with 9 rats in each group. Rats in groups S and SE were inflicted with 50% total body surface area full-thickness scald by a 12-s immersion of back and a 6-s immersion of abdomen in 94 ℃ hot water...
December 20, 2016: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042822/enduring-sexually-dimorphic-impact-of-in-utero-exposure-to-elevated-levels-of-glucocorticoids-on-midbrain-dopaminergic-populations
#18
REVIEW
Glenda E Gillies, Kanwar Virdee, Ilse Pienaar, Felwah Al-Zaid, Jeffrey W Dalley
Glucocorticoid hormones (GCs) released from the fetal/maternal glands during late gestation are required for normal development of mammalian organs and tissues. Accordingly, synthetic glucocorticoids have proven to be invaluable in perinatal medicine where they are widely used to accelerate fetal lung maturation when there is risk of pre-term birth and to promote infant survival. However, clinical and pre-clinical studies have demonstrated that inappropriate exposure of the developing brain to elevated levels of GCs, either as a result of clinical over-use or after stress-induced activation of the fetal/maternal adrenal cortex, is linked with significant effects on brain structure, neurological function and behaviour in later life...
December 30, 2016: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039790/degradation-photocatalysis-of-tetrodotoxin-as-a-poison-by-gold-doped-pdo-nanoparticles-supported-on-reduced-graphene-oxide-nanocomposites-and-evaluation-of-its-antibacterial-activity
#19
Ali Fakhri, Mahsa Naji
In this project, synthesis of pure and gold doped PdO-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites by sonochemical and deposition-precipitation process was performed and characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy. The specific surface area of synthesized un-doped and Au doped PdO-RGO nanocomposites is 83.2, 109.1m(2)g(-1) and total pore volume is 0.31, 0.40cm(3)g(-1), respectively. With Tetrodotoxin as a target pollutant, photocatalytic system of UV+photocatalyst+H2O2 was set up...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038318/3d-ultrasound-imaging-in-frequency-domain-with-1d-array-transducer
#20
Zhihui Han, Hu Peng, Putian Lu
Freehand three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound imaging usually uses a moving elevation focused one-dimensional (1D) transducer to construct a series of B-mode slice images, and then these B-mode slice images are combined to form a 3D volume image. This method has poor elevation resolution and low frame rate. In this paper, a novel 3D imaging method with a moving 1D array transducer is proposed. Different from the freehand 3D reconstruction, a linear array transducer without elevation focusing is used in the proposed method, and the 1D transducer transmits limited diffraction beams and receives echo signals repeatedly when moving along the elevation direction...
December 16, 2016: Ultrasonics
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