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Spreading depression

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441521/lost-in-distractors-reduced-autobiographical-memory-specificity-and-dispersed-activation-spreading-over-distractors-in-working-memory
#1
Keisuke Takano, Jun Moriya, Filip Raes
Studies on autobiographical memory retrieval highlight the prominence of rapid and direct access to a specific event memory. Because it has been believed that autobiographical memory retrieval mostly relies on an effortful generative process, there is little empirical evidence on the early stage of information processing that contributes to autobiographical memory specificity (AMS). Therefore, we investigated the associations between AMS and automatic activation of information stimulated by rapid presentation of emotional words...
April 19, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433459/depressive-disorders-processes-leading-to-neurogeneration-and-potential-novel-treatments
#2
REVIEW
Gregory M Brown, Roger S McIntyre, Joshua Rosenblat, Rüdiger Hardeland
Mood disorders are wide spread with estimates that one in seven of the population are affected at some time in their life (Kessler et al., 2012). Many of those affected with severe depressive disorders have cognitive deficits which may progress to frank neurodegeneration. There are several peripheral markers shown by patients who have cognitive deficits that could represent causative factors and could potentially serve as guides to the prevention or even treatment of neurodegeneration. Circadian rhythm misalignment, immune dysfunction and oxidative stress and circadian rhythm misalignment are key pathologic processes implicated in neurodegeneration and cognitive dysfunction in depressive disorders...
April 19, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430860/increased-brainstem-perfusion-but-no-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-during-attacks-of-migraine-with-aura
#3
Anders Hougaard, Faisal M Amin, Casper E Christensen, Samaira Younis, Frauke Wolfram, Stig P Cramer, Henrik B W Larsson, Messoud Ashina
The migraine aura is characterized by transient focal cortical disturbances causing dramatic neurological symptoms that are usually followed by migraine headache. It is currently not understood how the aura symptoms are related to the headache phase of migraine. Animal studies suggest that cortical spreading depression, the likely mechanism of migraine aura, causes disruption of the blood-brain barrier and noxious stimulation of trigeminal afferents leading to activation of brainstem nuclei and triggering of migraine headache...
April 18, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430533/new-directions-in-the-rational-design-of-electrical-and-magnetic-seizure-therapies-individualized-low-amplitude-seizure-therapy-ilast-and-magnetic-seizure-therapy-mst
#4
Thomas Radman, Sarah H Lisanby
Electroconvulsive therapy remains a key treatment option for severe cases of depression, but undesirable side-effects continue to limit its use. Innovations in the design of novel seizure therapies seek to improve its risk benefit ratio through enhanced control of the focality of stimulation. The design of seizure therapies with increased spatial precision is motivated by avoiding stimulation of deep brain structures implicated in memory retention, including the hippocampus. The development of two innovations in seizure therapy-individualized low-amplitude seizure therapy (iLAST) and magnetic seizure therapy (MST), are detailed...
April 21, 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422967/craniodental-and-humeral-morphology-of-a-new-species-of-masrasector-teratodontinae-hyaenodonta-placentalia-from-the-late-eocene-of-egypt-and-locomotor-diversity-in-hyaenodonts
#5
Matthew R Borths, Erik R Seiffert
Hyaenodonta is a diverse clade of carnivorous mammals that were part of terrestrial faunas in the Paleogene of Eurasia and North America, but the oldest record for the group is Afro-Arabian, making the record there vital for understanding the evolution of this wide-spread group. Previous studies show an ancient split between two major clades of hyaenodonts that converged in hypercarnivory: Hyainailourinae and Hyaenodontinae. These clades are each supported by cranial characters. Phylogenetic analyses of hyaenodonts also support the monophyly of Teratodontinae, an Afro-Arabian clade of mesocarnivorous to hypercarnivorous hyaenodonts...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383988/do-unto-others-how-cognitive-fusion-shapes-the-transmission-of-moral-behavior
#6
Nate C Carnes, Jeffrey P Winer
Moral transmission is the concept that moral behaviors can be contagious, spreading from person to person like a pathogen of social influence. We investigated how cognitive fusion-a transdiagnostic vulnerability to diverse mental health problems-influences moral transmission across 3 studies (N = 891) using real behavioral outcomes, including economic game decisions and donations to charity. The findings suggest that cognitively fused individuals are more susceptible to moral transmission because (a) they are more likely to pay forward or pay back moral behavior, and (b) they are more likely to engage in compensatory moral behavior...
April 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382614/migraine-with-multiple-sensory-auras
#7
Nicodemus E Oey, Yew Long Lo
Migraine auras are typically visual in nature but can manifest as disturbances in somatosensory, auditory, and olfactory senses. Reports of multiple sensory auras are rare in the literature, but their existence may offer novel insights into the pathogenesis of this highly common yet complex neurological condition. Here we report a case of multiple sensory auras involving somatosensory, auditory, and olfactory disturbances in a patient with migraine without visual manifestations. A 45-year-old woman with a 20-year history of migrainous headaches presented with complaints of rightsided facial and hand numbness and paraesthesia...
December 15, 2016: Acta Neurologica Taiwanica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376786/psychological-predictors-of-change-in-the-number-of-musculoskeletal-pain-sites-among-norwegian-employees-a-prospective-study
#8
Jan Olav Christensen, Sissel Johansen, Stein Knardahl
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of syndromes of widespread musculoskeletal pain remains an enigma. The present study sought to determine if psychological states, job satisfaction, pain intensity, and sleep problems contributed to the spread and decline of the number of musculoskeletal pains. METHODS: A sample of 2989 Norwegian employees completed a questionnaire at baseline and follow-up 2 years later. Data were analyzed with multinomial and ordinal logistic regression analyses to determine effects on direction and degree of change of number of pain sites (NPS)...
April 4, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372497/astrocyte-mediated-inflammation-in-cortical-spreading-depression
#9
Amir Ghaemi, Leila Alizadeh, Shahnaz Babaei, Maryam Jafarian, Maryam Khaleghi Ghadiri, Sven G Meuth, Stjepana Kovac, Ali Gorji
Background Cortical spreading depression (CSD) related diseases such as migraine, cerebrovascular diseases, and epilepsy have been associated with reactive astrocytosis, yet the mechanisms of these tissue changes remain unclear. CSD-induced inflammatory response has been proposed to play a role in some neurological disorders and thus may also contribute to reactive astrocytosis. Methods Using ex vivo brain slices and in vitro astrocytic cultures, we aimed to characterize CSD related changes in astrocytes and markers of inflammation by immunocyto- and immunohistochemistry...
January 1, 2017: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365776/deletion-of-aquaporin-4-curtails-extracellular-glutamate-elevation-in-cortical-spreading-depression-in-awake-mice
#10
Rune Enger, Didrik B Dukefoss, Wannan Tang, Klas H Pettersen, Daniel M Bjørnstad, P Johannes Helm, Vidar Jensen, Rolf Sprengel, Koen Vervaeke, Ole P Ottersen, Erlend A Nagelhus
Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is a phenomenon that challenges the homeostatic mechanisms on which normal brain function so critically depends. Analyzing the sequence of events in CSD holds the potential of providing new insight in the physiological processes underlying normal brain function as well as the pathophysiology of neurological conditions characterized by ionic dyshomeostasis. Here, we have studied the sequential progression of CSD in awake wild-type mice and in mice lacking aquaporin-4 (AQP4) or inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate type 2 receptor (IP3R2)...
January 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359031/emergence-of-depression-following-job-loss-prospectively-predicts-lower-rates-of-reemployment
#11
Catherine A Stolove, Isaac R Galatzer-Levy, George A Bonanno
Job loss has been associated with the emergence of depression and subsequent long-term diminished labor market participation. In a sample of 500 adults who lost their jobs, trajectories of depression severity from four years before to four years after job loss were identified using Latent Growth Mixture Modeling. Rates of unemployment by trajectory were compared at two and four years following job loss. Four trajectories demonstrated optimal model fit including resilience (72%), chronic pre-to-post job loss depression (9%), emergent depression (10%), and remitting depression (9%)...
March 22, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350195/standard-sampling-microdialysis-and-spreading-depolarizations-in-patients-with-malignant-hemispheric-stroke
#12
Alexandra Pinczolits, Anna Zdunczyk, Nora F Dengler, Nils Hecht, Christina M Kowoll, Christian Dohmen, Rudolf Graf, Maren Kl Winkler, Sebastian Major, Jed A Hartings, Jens P Dreier, Peter Vajkoczy, Johannes Woitzik
Spreading depolarizations (SD) occur in high frequency in patients with malignant hemispheric stroke (MHS). Experimentally, SDs cause marked increases in glutamate and lactate, whereas glucose decreases. Here, we studied extracellular brain glutamate, glucose, lactate, pyruvate and the lactate/pyruvate ratio in relationship to SDs after MHS. We inserted two microdialysis probes in peri-infarct tissue at 5 and 15 mm to the infarct in close proximity to a subdural electrode strip. During 2356.6 monitoring hours, electrocorticography (ECoG) revealed 697 SDs in 16 of 18 patients...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331360/clear-differences-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-proteome-between-women-with-chronic-widespread-pain-and-healthy-women-a-multivariate-explorative-cross-sectional-study
#13
Patrik Olausson, Bijar Ghafouri, Emmanuel Bäckryd, Björn Gerdle
INTRODUCTION: Frequent chronic local pain can develop into chronic widespread pain (CWP). The spread of pain is correlated with pain intensity, anxiety, and depression, conditions that ultimately lead to a poor quality of life. Knowledge is incomplete about CWP's etiology, although it has been suggested that both central hyperexcitability and/or a combination with peripheral factors may be involved. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) could act as a mirror for the central nervous system as proteins are signal substances that activate the formation of algesics and control nociceptive processes...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325558/l-citrulline-ameliorates-cerebral-blood-flow-during-cortical-spreading-depression-in-rats-involvement-of-nitric-oxide-and-prostanoids-mediated-pathway
#14
Yuki Kurauchi, Koichi Mokudai, Asami Mori, Kenji Sakamoto, Tsutomu Nakahara, Masahiko Morita, Ayako Kamimura, Kunio Ishii
l-Citrulline is a potent precursor of l-arginine, and exerts beneficial effect on cardiovascular system via nitric oxide (NO) production. Migraine is one of the most popular neurovascular disorder, and imbalance of cerebral blood flow (CBF) observed in cortical spreading depression (CSD) contributes to the mechanism of migraine aura. Here, we investigated the effect of l-citrulline on cardiovascular changes to KCl-induced CSD. in rats. Intravenous injection of l-citrulline prevented the decrease in CBF, monitored by laser Doppler flowmetry, without affecting mean arterial pressure and heart rate during CSD...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320692/longitudinal-changes-in-psychological-states-in-online-health-community-members-understanding-the-long-term-effects-of-participating-in-an-online-depression-community
#15
Albert Park, Mike Conway
BACKGROUND: Major depression is a serious challenge at both the individual and population levels. Although online health communities have shown the potential to reduce the symptoms of depression, emotional contagion theory suggests that negative emotion can spread within a community, and prolonged interactions with other depressed individuals has potential to worsen the symptoms of depression. OBJECTIVE: The goals of our study were to investigate longitudinal changes in psychological states that are manifested through linguistic changes in depression community members who are interacting with other depressed individuals...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316601/the-interplay-between-radioresistant-caco-2-cells-and-the-immune-system-increases-epithelial-layer-permeability-and-alters-signaling-protein-spectrum
#16
Jacopo Morini, Gabriele Babini, Sofia Barbieri, Giorgio Baiocco, Andrea Ottolenghi
Colorectal cancer is one of the most frequent type of cancer, with a higher incidence in the developed countries. Colorectal cancer is usually managed with both surgeries, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Radiotherapy has the well-known advantage of targeting the tumor, minimizing normal tissue exposure. Nevertheless, during radiation treatment, exposure of healthy tissues is of great concern, in particular because of the effects on the intestinal barrier functions and on cells belonging to the immune system...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315444/directional-spread-of-activity-in-synaptic-networks-of-the-human-lateral-amygdala
#17
Stéphanie Graebenitz, Manuela Cerina, Jörg Lesting, Olga Kedo, Ali Gorji, Heinz Pannek, Volkmar Hans, Karl Zilles, Hans-Christian Pape, Erwin-Josef Speckmann
Spontaneous epileptiform activity has previously been observed in lateral amygdala (LA) slices derived from patients with intractable-temporal lobe epilepsy. The present study aimed to characterize intranuclear LA synaptic connectivity and to test the hypothesis that differences in the spread of flow of neuronal activity may relate to spontaneous epileptiform activity occurrence. Electrical activity was evoked through electrical microstimulation in acute human brain slices containing the LA, signals were recorded as local field potentials combined with fast optical imaging of voltage-sensitive dye fluorescence...
March 15, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285863/low-dose-ketamine-use-in-the-emergency-department-a-new-direction-in-pain-management
#18
A Pourmand, M Mazer-Amirshahi, C Royall, R Alhawas, R Shesser
There is a need for alternative non-opioid analgesics for the treatment of acute, chronic, and refractory pain in the emergency department (ED). Ketamine is a fast acting N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist that provides safe and effective analgesia. The use of low dose ketamine (LDK) (<1mg/kg) provides sub-dissociative levels of analgesia and has been studied as an alternative and/or adjunct to opioid analgesics. We reviewed 11 studies using LDK either alone or in combination with opioid analgesics in the ED...
March 2, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283957/migraine-and-stroke-what-s-the-link-what-to-do
#19
REVIEW
Anna Gryglas, Robert Smigiel
Migraine and stroke are common, disabling neurologic disorders, with a high socioeconomic burden. A link between them has been proposed years ago, and various theories have been proposed to explain this bidirectional relation. However, the precise causes remain unclear. We briefly summarize existing hypotheses of this correlation seeking for recommendations for stroke prevention in migraineurs, if any exist. Among the strongest suggested theories of migraine-stroke association are cortical spreading depression, endovascular dysfunction, vasoconstriction, neurogenic inflammation, hypercoagulability, increased prevalence of vascular risk factors, shared genetic defects, cervical artery dissection, and patent foramen ovale...
March 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278750/the-ethics-of-researching-intimate-partner-violence-in-global-health-a-case-study-from-global-health-research
#20
Jenevieve Mannell, Adrian Guta
There has been an increase in attention to intimate partner violence (IPV) as a health issue that contributes to the spread of HIV, physical and emotional stress, depression, substance use, serious injuries, and higher rates of mortality in low-income settings. This paper explores the ethical implications raised by research on IPV by global health scholars. Drawing on Hedgecoe's work on critical bioethics to analyse a qualitative study of IPV in Rwanda, this paper discusses the risks and benefits of conducting research on IPV as part of the global health agenda...
February 20, 2017: Global Public Health
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