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Spreading depression

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756530/the-occurrence-of-spontaneous-cortical-spreading-depression-is-increased-by-blood-constituents-and-impairs-neurological-recovery-after-subdural-hematoma-in-rats
#1
Harald Krenzlin, Daniel Jussen, Michaela Maria Plath, Stephan Tretzel, Tobias Kraemer, Oliver Kempski, Beat Alessandri
Acute subdural haemorrhage (ASDH) is common and associated with severe morbidity and mortality. To date, the role of spontaneous cortical spreading depression (sCSD) in exaggerating secondary injury after ASDH, is poorly understood. The present study contains two experimental groups: First, we investigated and characterized the occurrence of sCSD after subdural blood infusion (300 µl) via tissue impedance (IMP) measurement in a rat model. Second, we compared the occurrence and influence of sCSD on lesion growth and neurological deficit in the presence and absence of whole blood constituents...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740328/emerging-role-of-endo-cannabinoids-in-migraine
#2
REVIEW
Pinja Leimuranta, Leonard Khiroug, Rashid Giniatullin
In this mini-review, we summarize recent discoveries and present new hypotheses on the role of cannabinoids in controlling trigeminal nociceptive system underlying migraine pain. Individual sections of this review cover key aspects of this topic, such as: (i) the current knowledge on the endocannabinoid system (ECS) with emphasis on expression of its components in migraine related structures; (ii) distinguishing peripheral from central site of action of cannabinoids, (iii) proposed mechanisms of migraine pain and control of nociceptive traffic by cannabinoids at the level of meninges and in brainstem, (iv) therapeutic targeting in migraine of monoacylglycerol lipase and fatty acid amide hydrolase, enzymes which control the level of endocannabinoids; (v) dual (possibly opposing) actions of cannabinoids via anti-nociceptive CB1 and CB2 and pro-nociceptive TRPV1 receptors...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740014/different-patterns-of-epileptiform-like-activity-are-generated-in-the-sclerotic-hippocampus-from-patients-with-drug-resistant-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#3
Selvin Z Reyes-Garcia, Carla A Scorza, Noemi S Araújo, Nancy N Ortiz-Villatoro, Anaclara Prada Jardim, Ricardo Centeno, Elza Márcia Targas Yacubian, Jean Faber, Esper A Cavalheiro
Human hippocampal slice preparations from patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) associated with hippocampal sclerosis (HS) are excellent material for the characterization of epileptiform-like activity. However, it is still unknown if hippocampal regions as cornu Ammonis (CA) 1, CA3 and CA4, generate population epileptiform-like activity. Here, we investigated epileptiform activities of the subiculum, CA1, CA2, CA3, CA4 (induced by elevation of extracellular potassium concentration) and the dentate gyrus (induced with hilar stimulation and elevation of potassium concentration) from sclerotic hippocampi of patients with drug-resistant TLE...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722303/harnessing-migraines-for-neural-regeneration
#4
REVIEW
Jonathan M Borkum
The success of naturalistic or therapeutic neuroregeneration likely depends on an internal milieu that facilitates the survival, proliferation, migration, and differentiation of stem cells and their assimilation into neural networks. Migraine attacks are an integrated sequence of physiological processes that may protect the brain from oxidative stress by releasing growth factors, suppressing apoptosis, stimulating neurogenesis, encouraging mitochondrial biogenesis, reducing the production of oxidants, and upregulating antioxidant defenses...
April 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719284/characterization-of-helicobacter-pylori-na%C3%A3-ve-early-gastric-cancers
#5
Akihiro Yamada, Mitsuru Kaise, Naoko Inoshita, Takahito Toba, Kosuke Nomura, Yasutaka Kuribayashi, Satoshi Yamashita, Tsukasa Furuhata, Daisuke Kikuchi, Akira Matsui, Toshifumi Mitani, Osamu Ogawa, Toshiro Iizuka, Shu Hoteya
AIM: Helicobacter pylori-naïve gastric cancers(GCs) have not been well documented. We aimed to characterize early H. pylori-naïve GCs. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Of 666 patients with GC resected by endoscopic submucosal dissection, H. pylori-naïve patients were extracted according to the definition: no H. pylori eradication history, negative for serum H. pylori-antibody and current H. pylori-infection tests, and no gastric atrophy by pepsinogen (PG) test, endoscopy, and histology...
May 2, 2018: Digestion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719223/the-transient-receptor-potential-ankyrin-type-1-plays-a-critical-role-in-cortical-spreading-depression
#6
Liwen Jiang, Yan Wang, Yuewei Xu, Dongqing Ma, Minyan Wang
The transient receptor potential ankyrin type-1 (TRPA1) channels have been proposed as a potential target for migraine therapy. Yet the role of cortical TRPA1 channels in migraine mechanism has not been fully understood. Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is known as an underlying cause of migraine aura. The aim of this study is to investigate if cortical TRPA1 activity is required for CSD genesis and propagation. A mouse brain slice CSD model with intrinsic optical imaging was applied for TRPA1 signaling pharmacology...
April 29, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703787/dissociation-between-csd-evoked-metabolic-perturbations-and-meningeal-afferent-activation-and-sensitization-implications-for-mechanisms-of-migraine-headache-onset
#7
Jun Zhao, Dan Levy
The onset of the headache phase during attacks of migraine with aura, which occur in about 30% of migraineurs, is believed to involve cortical spreading depression (CSD) and the ensuing activation and sensitization of primary afferent neurons that innervate the intracranial meninges, and their related large vessels. The mechanism by which CSD enhances the activity and mechanosensitivity of meningeal afferents remains poorly understood, but may involve cortical metabolic perturbations. We employed extracellular single-unit recording of meningeal afferent activity and monitored changes in cortical blood flow and tissue partial pressure of oxygen (tpO2 ) in anesthetized male rats to test whether the prolonged cortical hypoperfusion and reduction in tissue oxygenation that occur in the wake of CSD contribute to meningeal nociception...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697154/a-phase-by-phase-review-of-migraine-pathophysiology
#8
David W Dodick
Migraine is a common, disabling neurological disorder characterized by multiple phases: premonitory, aura, headache, postdrome, and interictal. Our understanding of the pathophysiology of each phase of migraine has evolved over recent years. The premonitory phase begins as early as 3 days before the headache phase, and involves a complex interplay between various cortical and subcortical brain regions, including the hypothalamus and brainstem nuclei that modulate nociceptive signaling. The headache phase involves activation of the trigeminovascular system, a pathway that is well characterized...
May 2018: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695579/superficial-spreading-type-gastric-cancer-with-situs-inversus-totalis
#9
Tsutomu Namikawa, Sachi Tsuda, Kazune Fujisawa, Jun Iwabu, Sunao Uemura, Shigehiro Tsujii, Hiromichi Maeda, Hiroyuki Kitagawa, Michiya Kobayashi, Kazuhiro Hanazaki
Situs inversus totalis (SIT) is a congenital anomaly characterized by a complete mirror-image transposition of the thoracic and abdominal viscera. We report on a rare case of superficial spreading gastric cancer associated with SIT in a 66-year-old woman referred to our hospital for examination of gastric cancer initially diagnosed by medical check-up. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed a slightly depressed lesion in the lesser curvature side of the stomach. Abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed complete transposition of the abdominal viscera, confirming SIT...
May 2018: In Vivo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695168/cortical-spreading-depression-as-a-site-of-origin-for-migraine-role-of-cgrp
#10
Liesl N Close, Sajedeh Eftekhari, Minyan Wang, Andrew C Charles, Andrew F Russo
Premise Migraine is a complex neurologic disorder that leads to significant disability, yet remains poorly understood. Problem One potential triggering mechanism in migraine with aura is cortical spreading depression, which can activate the trigeminal nociceptive system both peripherally and centrally in animal models. A primary neuropeptide of the trigeminal system is calcitonin gene-related peptide, which is a potent vasodilatory peptide and is currently a major therapeutic target for migraine treatment. Despite the importance of both cortical spreading depression and calcitonin gene-related peptide in migraine, the relationship between these two players has been relatively unexplored...
January 1, 2018: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679192/the-disclosure-of-celebrity-major-depressive-disorder-diagnoses-in-hong-kong-its-effects-on-public-awareness-and-understanding-toward-the-illness
#11
Vivienne S Y Leung
This paper aims to examine consumer perception toward celebrity diagnoses of major depressive disorder (MDD) in Hong Kong and to provide insights into the effect of various factors on the persuasive effectiveness of MDD communication. A total of thirty-five interviews were conducted in April 2015. Interviewees in general are aware of celebrity MDD diagnoses, but they do not deem MDD as a threat to themselves. Hence, they are not motivated to learn more about the symptoms. Responses to celebrity MDD diagnoses are mixed...
April 21, 2018: Community Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671241/current-prophylactic-medications-for-migraine-and-their-potential-mechanisms-of-action
#12
REVIEW
Till Sprenger, M Viana, C Tassorelli
A relatively high number of different medications is currently used for migraine prevention in clinical practice. Although these compounds were initially developed for other indications and differ in their mechanisms of action, some general themes can be identified from the mechanisms at play. Efficacious preventive drugs seem to either suppress excitatory nervous signaling via sodium and/or calcium receptors, facilitate GABAergic inhibition, reduce neuronal sensitization, block cortical spreading depression and/or reduce circulating levels of CGRP...
April 18, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668855/the-negative-ultraslow-potential-electrophysiological-correlate-of-infarction-in-the-human-cortex
#13
Janos Lückl, Coline L Lemale, Vasilis Kola, Viktor Horst, Uldus Khojasteh, Ana I Oliveira-Ferreira, Sebastian Major, Maren K L Winkler, Eun-Jeung Kang, Karl Schoknecht, Peter Martus, Jed A Hartings, Johannes Woitzik, Jens P Dreier
Spreading depolarizations are characterized by abrupt, near-complete breakdown of the transmembrane ion gradients, neuronal oedema, mitochondrial depolarization, glutamate excitotoxicity and activity loss (depression). Spreading depolarization induces either transient hyperperfusion in normal tissue; or hypoperfusion (inverse coupling = spreading ischaemia) in tissue at risk for progressive injury. The concept of the spreading depolarization continuum is critical since many spreading depolarizations have intermediate characteristics, as opposed to the two extremes of spreading depolarization in either severely ischaemic or normal tissue...
April 16, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648498/timing-matters-the-interval-between-acute-stressors-within-chronic-mild-stress-modifies-behavioral-and-physiologic-stress-responses-in-male-rats
#14
Sonia A Cavigelli, Alexander D Bao, Rebecca A Bourne, Michael J Caruso, Jasmine I Caulfield, Mary Chen, Joshua M Smyth
Chronic mild stress can lead to negative health outcomes. Frequency, duration, and intensity of acute stressors can affect health-related processes. We tested whether the temporal pattern of daily acute stressors (clustered or dispersed across the day) affects depression-related physiology. We used a rodent model to keep stressor frequency, duration, and intensity constant, and experimentally manipulated the temporal pattern of acute stressors delivered during the active phase of the day. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to one of three chronic mild stress groups: Clustered: stressors that occurred within 1 hour of each other (n = 21), Dispersed: stressors that were spread out across the active phase (n = 21), and Control: no stressors presented (n = 21)...
April 12, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614831/medical-surveillance-continuous-health-promotion-and-a-participatory-intervention-in-a-small-company
#15
Nicola Magnavita
The workplace is an ideal setting for health promotion. The regular medical examination of workers enables us to screen for numerous diseases, spread good practices and correct lifestyles, and obtain a favourable risk/benefit ratio. The continuous monitoring of the level of workers' wellbeing using a holistic approach during medical surveillance enables us to promptly identify problems in work organisation and the company climate. Problems of this kind can be adequately managed by using a participatory approach...
April 2, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595109/levosimendan-reduces-prostaglandin-f2a-dependent-vasoconstriction-in-physiological-vessels-and-after-experimentally-induced-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#16
Stefan Wanderer, Jan Mrosek, Florian Gessler, Volker Seifert, Juergen Konczalla
Background Delayed cerebral vasospasm (dCVS) following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is (next to possible aneurysm rebleeding, cortical spreading depression and early brain injury) one of the main factors contributing to poor overall patient outcome. Since decades intensive research has been ongoing with the goal of improving our understanding of the pathophysiological principles underlying dCVS. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) and prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2a) seem to play a major role during dCVS. The synthesis of ET-1 is enhanced after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) to mediate a long-lasting vasoconstriction, and PGF2a contributes to cerebral inflammation and vasoconstriction...
March 28, 2018: Current Neurovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594486/perceptions-of-care-and-patient-reported-outcomes-in-people-living-with-neuroendocrine-tumours
#17
Vanessa L Beesley, Matthew Burge, Monica Dumbrava, Jack Callum, Rachel E Neale, David K Wyld
BACKGROUND: Neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) are rare, and when metastatic NETs are incurable, the tumours are frequently slowly growing. Patients may be confronted with disease-specific problems and distinct issues when accessing health-care. We aimed to assess perceptions of care coordination, identify unmet needs, and examine if these varied by whether patients received specialist oncology care in a single hospital or shared between that and another hospital. We also quantified anxiety, depression, and NET-related physical symptoms...
March 29, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568973/neurogenic-inflammation-and-its-role-in-migraine
#18
REVIEW
Roshni Ramachandran
The etiology of migraine pain involves sensitized meningeal afferents that densely innervate the dural vasculature. These afferents, with their cell bodies located in the trigeminal ganglion, project to the nucleus caudalis, which in turn transmits signals to higher brain centers. Factors such as chronic stress, diet, hormonal fluctuations, or events like cortical spreading depression can generate a state of "sterile inflammation" in the intracranial meninges resulting in the sensitization and activation of trigeminal meningeal nociceptors...
March 22, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560909/subgenual-anterior-cingulate-medial-orbitofrontal-functional-connectivity-in-medication-resistant-major-depression-a-neurobiological-marker-for-accelerated-intermittent-theta-burst-stimulation-treatment
#19
Chris Baeken, Romain Duprat, Guo-Rong Wu, Rudi De Raedt, Kees van Heeringen
BACKGROUND: Accelerated repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation paradigms have been shown to result in fast decreases in depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation. Although the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) region has been put forward as a possible biological marker, so far, no studies evaluated the clinical effects of accelerated intermittent theta burst stimulation (aiTBS) on sgACC functional connectivity (FC). METHODS: Fifty patients with treatment-resistant depression were enrolled in this registered randomized double-blind sham-controlled crossover aiTBS treatment study...
October 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557064/the-role-of-endothelin-in-the-pathophysiology-of-migraine-a-systematic-review
#20
REVIEW
Afrim Iljazi, Cenk Ayata, Messoud Ashina, Anders Hougaard
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Vasoactive peptides play a key role in the attack-initiating cascade of migraine. Recent studies have highlighted a potentially important role for endothelin-1, a potent vasoconstrictor peptide, in migraine pathophysiology. Here, we review the current data on endothelin's involvement in migraine. RECENT FINDINGS: We identified 23 articles. Nine studies reported on endothelin-1 plasma concentrations in patients with migraine, eight studies investigated relevant genetic associations, five studies investigated endothelin-1 and spreading depression in animals, and one randomized controlled clinical trial tested the efficacy of an endothelin antagonist in the acute treatment of migraine in patients both with and without aura...
March 19, 2018: Current Pain and Headache Reports
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