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Spreading depression

Matthew J Burke, Michael J Lamb, Marika Hohol, Christine Lay
BACKGROUND: The etiology of HaNDL is not known. Recent neuroimaging studies have suggested that there may be altered cerebrovascular blood flow during acute episodes. However, what exactly these vascular changes represent and how they may relate to the overall pathogenesis of HaNDL is uncertain. CASE: A 42-year-old, right-handed male, presented with acute aphasia and right arm weakness. Urgent CT/CT-angiogram were normal except for an incidental hypoplastic right anterior cerebral artery (ACA) A1 segment...
October 24, 2016: Headache
E Saralidze, L Khuchua, I Kobaidze
The interaction between different brain structures could be crucial to predicting seizure occurrence, threshold and spread. Moreover, the sleep-wake cycle and electrical activity of brain structures in different phases of sleep could significantly affect the pattern and extent of seizure spread, and therefore the characteristics of epileptic activity. In this animal model using 15 Wistar rats, we show that the duration of hippocampal seizures, induced by electrical stimulation of the hippocampus, is significantly increased during slow sleep...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
Jennifer M Hensel, Jay Shaw, Lianne Jeffs, Noah M Ivers, Laura Desveaux, Ashley Cohen, Payal Agarwal, Walter P Wodchis, Joshua Tepper, Darren Larsen, Anita McGahan, Peter Cram, Geetha Mukerji, Muhammad Mamdani, Rebecca Yang, Ivy Wong, Nike Onabajo, Trevor Jamieson, R Sacha Bhatia
BACKGROUND: Mental illness is a substantial and rising contributor to the global burden of disease. Access to and utilization of mental health care, however, is limited by structural barriers such as specialist availability, time, out-of-pocket costs, and attitudinal barriers including stigma. Innovative solutions like virtual care are rapidly entering the health care domain. The advancement and adoption of virtual care for mental health, however, often occurs in the absence of rigorous evaluation and adequate planning for sustainability and spread...
October 18, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
Daniel San-Juan, Andres Jaramillo-Gonzalez, Roberto Diaz-Peregrino, Arturo Olivares Rivera, Edgar Santos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 14, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
Rosemary O'Connell, Yoichiro Mori
Cortical spreading depression (SD) is a spreading disruption in brain ionic homeostasis during which neurons experience complete and prolonged depolarizations. SD is generally believed to be the physiological substrate of migraine aura and is associated with many other brain pathologies. Here, we perform simulations with a model of SD treating brain tissue as a triphasic continuum of neurons, glia and the extracellular space. A thermodynamically consistent incorporation of the major biophysical effects, including ionic electrodiffusion and osmotic water flow, allows for the computation of important physiological variables including the extracellular voltage (DC) shift...
October 2016: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Norio Sugawara, Manabu Saito, Kazuhiko Nakamura
Since December 1, 2015, the Japanese government has required employers to conduct the Stress Check Program. The Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare announced that this program should focus on the primary prevention of mental health problems. Although employers are obliged to perform screening for mental health problems and a physician's interview, employees are not mandated to participate in this program. Classical occupational health studies have accumulated evidence indicating that quantitative or qualitative workload is associated with mental health problems...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Occupational Health
H Virgin, E Oddby, J G Jakobsson
INTRODUCTION: Epidural analgesia is commonly used for management of pain during childbirth. Need for emergent Caesarean section e.g. because of signs of foetal distress or lack of progress is however not an uncommon event. In females having an established epidural; general anaesthesia, top-up of the epidural or putting a spinal are all possible options. Dosing of the spinal anaesthesia in females having epidural is a matter of discussion. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We describe a healthy 32 years, 0 para mother in gestation week 36 having labour epidural analgesia but due to foetal distress scheduled for an emergent Caesarean section category 2 that developed upper extremity weakness and respiratory depression after administration of standard dose high density bupivacaine/morphine/fentanyl intrathecal anaesthesia...
October 3, 2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Christoph J Schankin, Michele Viana, Peter J Goadsby
Visual disturbances in migraineurs, such as visual aura, are typically episodic, that is, associated with the headache attack, and overlaid by head pain and other symptoms that impact the patient. In some patients, however, visual symptoms are dominant due to frequency (migraine aura status), duration (persistent migraine aura and other persistent positive visual phenomena), or complexity (visual snow syndrome). These syndromes are more rare and challenging to classify in clinical practice resulting in a lack of systematic studies on pathophysiology and treatment...
October 7, 2016: Headache
Monika R Asnani, Kim R Quimby, Nadia R Bennett, Damian K Francis
BACKGROUND: Sickle cell disease is a group of genetic diseases which is especially prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions; however, forced migration and ongoing population movement have spread it throughout the world, with estimated birth rates reaching 0.49 per 1000 in the Americas, 0.07 per 1000 in Europe, 0.68 per 1000 in South and Southeast Asia, and 10.68 per 1000 in Africa. Life for individuals with sickle cell disease can be affected by repeated acute complications and compounded by progressive organ damage...
October 6, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Sean D Rundell, Karen J Sherman, Patrick J Heagerty, Charles N Mock, Nathan J Dettori, Bryan A Comstock, Andrew L Avins, Srdjan S Nedeljkovic, David R Nerenz, Jeffrey G Jarvik
OBJECTIVE:  To identify predictors of persistent disability and back pain in older adults. DESIGN:  Prospective cohort study. SETTING:  Back pain outcomes using longitudinal data registry. SUBJECTS:  Five thousand two hundred twenty adults age 65 years and older with a new primary care visit for back pain. METHODS:  Baseline measurements included: demographics, health, and back pain characteristics...
September 28, 2016: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
Larissa de Brito Medeiros, Suênia Marcele Vitor-de-Lima, Regina de Deus Lira Benevides, Rita de Cássia Ramos do Egypto Queiroga, Rubem Carlos Araújo Guedes
OBJECTIVES: Goat whey, a usually discarded byproduct from goat cheese manufacturing, is a good source of sialic acid (SA), an oligosaccharide that is involved in processes such as memory and brain excitability. Here, we investigated in rats the effect of dried goat whey (DGW) on memory and the brain excitability-dependent phenomenon known as cortical spreading depression (CSD). We also provide evidence for the involvement of SA in this effect. In addition, we tested animals under unfavorable suckling conditions to evaluate whether nutritional deficiency would modulate DGW action...
September 20, 2016: Nutritional Neuroscience
M Schneider, H Carnarius, T Schlegl
OBJECTIVE: The treatment of systemic autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an enormous challenge for all involved due to the complexity. This study investigated whether shared decision making (SDM) can advantageously be implemented in such a situation. METHOD: To answer this question qualitative group surveys were carried out with rheumatologists according to the standardized method of K&P Psychodrama®. A total of 41 German rheumatologists who had been invited by GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) Germany participated in 2 meetings over a complete day in 2012 and 2013 as well as 2 half-day meetings in 2013, which were carried out by K&A BrandResearch...
September 19, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Rheumatologie
David Berger, Ivain Martinossi-Allibert, Karl Grieshop, Martin I Lind, Alexei A Maklakov, Göran Arnqvist
The evolution of male traits that inflict direct harm on females during mating interactions can result in a so-called tragedy of the commons, where selfish male strategies depress population viability. This tragedy of the commons can be magnified by intralocus sexual conflict (IaSC) whenever alleles that reduce fecundity when expressed in females spread in the population because of their benefits in males. We evaluated this prediction by detailed phenotyping of 73 isofemale lines of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus...
October 2016: American Naturalist
David Haig
Haploid gametophytes of bryophytes spread by clonal growth but mate locally, within an area defined by the range of sperm movement. Rarity of establishment from spores or vegetative competition can result in unisexual populations unable to reproduce sexually. Females typically outcompete males, probably because females expend fewer resources than males on the production of gametes. Extreme sexual dimorphism-tiny males growing as epiphytes on much larger females-has evolved many times. Haploid selfing is common in bryophytes with bisexual gametophytes, and results in completely homozygous sporophytes...
October 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Peter Toth, Nikolett Szarka, Eszter Farkas, Erzsebet Ezer, Endre Czeiter, Krisztina Amrein, Zoltan I Ungvari, Jed A Hartings, Andras Buki, Akos Koller
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major health problem worldwide. In addition to its high mortality (35-40%) survivors are left with cognitive, behavioral and communicative disabilities. While little can be done to reverse initial, primary brain damage caused by trauma, the secondary injury of cerebral tissue due to cerebromicrovascular alterations and dysregulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) is potentially preventable. This review focuses on functional, cellular and molecular changes of autoregulatory function of CBF (with special focus on cerebrovascular myogenic response) that occur in cerebral circulation after TBI and explores the links between autoregulatory dysfunction, impaired myogenic response, microvascular impairment and the development of secondary brain damage...
September 9, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Sangram Kishor Patel, Deepika Ganju, Parimi Prabhakar, Rajatashuvra Adhikary
BACKGROUND: The relationship between mobility, violence and mental health has largely been unexplored in developing countries. This study screens for signs of major depression, and assesses its association with mobility and violence among female sex workers (FSWs) in southern India. METHODS: Data (N=2400) for this study were used from a cross-sectional Behavioral Tracking Survey (BTS-2014) conducted among FSWs from a southern state of India as part of the Avahan programme...
2016: BMJ Open
Patrick Micheels, Stéphanie Besse, Didier Sarrazin
BACKGROUND: Hyaluronic acid (HA) fillers are commonly used for enhancement of lips, and for softening fine lines and correcting skin depressions. OBJECTIVE: This study sought to investigate whether the Vycross<sup>™</sup> technology used for Volbella<sup>™</sup> gel resulted in a cohesive gel, as documented in our previous studies with three other HA fillers (Restylane<sup>®</sup> NASHA<sup>™</sup> [Q-MED, Uppsala, Sweden], Esthélis<sup>®</sup> Basic CPM™ [Anteis SA, Geneva, Switzerland], and Juvéderm<sup>®</sup> Ultra 3 using Hylacross technology [Allergan, Irvine, CA, USA])...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
Elysse M Craddock
BACKGROUND: Species-rich adaptive radiations arising from rare plant and animal colonizers are common on remote volcanic archipelagoes. However, they present a paradox. The severe genetic bottleneck of founder events and effects of inbreeding depression, coupled with the inherently stressful volcanic environment, would seem to predict reduced evolutionary potential and increased risk of extinction, rather than rapid adaptive divergence and speciation. Significantly, eukaryotic genomes harbor many families of transposable elements (TEs) that are mobilized by genome shock; these elements may be the primary drivers of genetic reorganization and speciation on volcanic islands...
2016: Biology Direct
Jun Noguchi, Tatsuya Hayama, Satoshi Watanabe, Hasan Ucar, Sho Yagishita, Noriko Takahashi, Haruo Kasai
Dendritic spines are the postsynaptic sites of most excitatory synapses in the brain, and spine enlargement and shrinkage give rise to long-term potentiation and depression of synapses, respectively. Because spine structural plasticity is accompanied by remodeling of actin scaffolds, we hypothesized that the filamentous actin regulatory protein cofilin plays a crucial role in this process. Here we investigated the diffusional properties of cofilin, the actin-severing and depolymerizing actions of which are activated by dephosphorylation...
2016: Scientific Reports
Yuichi Mori, Shin-Ei Kudo, Shungo Endo, Chiyo Maeda, Shumpei Mukai, Yasuharu Maeda, Shinichi Kataoka, Kenichi Takeda, Katsuro Ichimasa, Hideyuki Miyachi, Naruhiko Sawada, Eiji Hidaka, Fumio Ishida
Currently, depressed type T1 colorectal cancer is often detected and its malignant potential is being revealed. However, few reports have focused on the morphology of T2 colorectal cancer types. The aim of the present retrospective study was to clarify the characteristics of colorectal T2 cancer types derived from depressed type T1 cancer. The present study included 195 patients with colorectal T2 cancer surgically resected at a referral hospital between April 2001 and April 2009. A total of 48 lesions (25%) with lymph node metastasis and 4 (2%) with distant metastasis were found...
September 2016: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
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