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Spreading depression

Afrina Mustari, Naoki Nakamura, Satoko Kawauchi, Shunichi Sato, Manabu Sato, Izumi Nishidate
To evaluate cerebral hemodynamics and spontaneous low-frequency oscillations (SLFOs) of cerebral blood flow in rat brain, we investigated an imaging method using a digital RGB camera. In this method, the RGB values were converted into tristimulus values in the CIE (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage) XYZ color space, which is compatible with the common RGB working spaces. Monte Carlo simulation for light transport in tissue was then used to specify the relationship among the tristimulus XYZ values and the concentrations of oxygenated hemoglobin ( C HbO ), deoxygenated hemoglobin ( C HbR ), and total hemoglobin ( C HbT ) and cerebral tissue oxygen saturation ( StO 2 )...
March 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Krzysztof Kucharz, Martin Lauritzen
Cortical spreading depolarization waves, the cause underlying migraine aura, are also the markers and mechanism of pathology in the acutely injured human brain. Propagation of spreading depolarization wave uniquely depends on the interaction between presynaptic and postsynaptic glutamate N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). In the normally perfused brain, even a single wave causes a massive depolarization of neurons and glia, which results in transient loss of neuronal function and depression of the ongoing electrocorticographic activity...
March 12, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Giovanni Matera, Maria Teresa Loria, Cinzia Peronace, Tatiana Catanzariti, Pio Settembre, Aida Giancotti, Angelo G Lamberti, Giorgio S Barreca, Luisa Galati, Gessica Dodaro, Maria Mazzitelli, Alessio Strazzulla, Carlo Torti, Angela Quirino, Maria Carla Liberto, Alfredo Focà
We aim to investigate some of the pathogenetic mediators of the human echinococcosis and to obtain updated epidemiological findings on cases of echinococcosis in Calabria, Southern Italy. Echinococcosis diagnosis was based on imaging, serological investigations, and molecular assay. Indeed, real-time PCR indicated the presence of G2/G3 genotypes of Echinococcus granulosus complex. Regarding pathogenesis, a relevant novel tool of immune depression should be deemed the reduced level of serum MCP-1. Also, we found a previously unreported VEGF, possibly associated with neovascularization requested by the parasite cyst metabolism...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Cen Zhang, John A Detre, Scott E Kasner, Brett Cucchiara
Objective: The objective of this study is to determine whether structural features of the vertebrobasilar arterial system are related to migraine. Background: Alterations in cerebral vascular structure and function have been associated with migraine, possibly mediated by hypoperfusion and/or endothelial dysfunction triggering cortical spreading depression. Vessel tortuosity, in particular, has been associated with both altered hemodynamics and endothelial function...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Maria S Yusseppone, Iara Rocchetta, Sebastian E Sabatini, Carlos M Luquet, Maria Del Carmen Ríos de Molina, Christoph Held, Doris Abele
Hypoxia in freshwater ecosystems is spreading as a consequence of global change, including pollution and eutrophication. In the Patagonian Andes, a decline in precipitation causes reduced lake water volumes and stagnant conditions that limit oxygen transport and exacerbate hypoxia below the upper mixed layer. We analyzed the molecular and biochemical response of the North Patagonian bivalve Diplodon chilensis after 10 days of experimental anoxia (<0.2 mg O2 /L), hypoxia (2 mg O2 /L), and normoxia (9 mg O2 /L)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Elshin Mathias, Allanah Kenny, Michael J Plank, Tim David
A state-of-the-art integrated model of neurovascular coupling (NVC) [19, 18, 38] and the BOLD response [47, 48] is presented with the ability to simulate the fMRI BOLD responses due to continuous neuronal spiking, bursting and cortical spreading depression (CSD) along with the underlying complex vascular coupling. Simulated BOLD responses are compared to experimental BOLD signals observed in the rat barrel cortex and in the hippocampus under seizure conditions showing good agreement. Bursting phenomena provides relatively clear BOLD signals as long as the time between bursts is not too short...
March 8, 2018: NeuroImage
Dissanayake Mudiyanselage Priyantha Udaya Kumara Ralapanawa, Kulatunga Wijekoon Mudiyanselage Pramitha Prabhashini Kumarihamy, Miriyalini Sundararajah, Widana Arachchilage Thilak Ananda Jayalath
BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic myocarditis is one of the fatal complications of idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndromes. Given the rarity of this form of myocarditis, it is often under-recognized. We describe a young girl who presented with features of heart failure. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of eosinophilic myocarditis in a young Sri Lankan female. CASE PRESENTATION: A previously healthy 21 year old Sri Lankan female admitted with shortness of breath for 1 week duration with associated low grade fever and profuse sweating...
March 9, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Qin Huang, Rui Liu, Shen Gui, Jinling Lu, Pengcheng Li
Cortical spreading depression (CSD), a propagation wave of transient neuronal and glial deplorization followed by suppression of spontaneous brain activity, has been hypothesized to be the underlying mechanism of migraine aura and triggers the headache attack. Evidence from various animal models accumulates since its first discovery in 1944 and provides support for this hypothese. In this paper, alterations of bilateral cortical responses are investigated in a mice migrainous model of CSD using voltage-sensitive dye imaging under hindlimb and cortical stimulation...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Biophotonics
Jan Hoffmann, Andrew Charles
There is substantial evidence indicating a role for glutamate in migraine. Levels of glutamate are higher in the brain and possibly also in the peripheral circulation in migraine patients, particularly during attacks. Altered blood levels of kynurenines, endogenous modulators of glutamate receptors, have been reported in migraine patients. Population genetic studies implicate genes that are involved with glutamate signaling in migraine, and gene mutations responsible for familial hemiplegic migraine and other familial migraine syndromes may influence glutamate signaling...
March 5, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
Néstor Wainsztein, Federico Rodríguez Lucci
Spreading depolarization in cerebral cortex is associated with swelling of neurons, distortion of dendritic spines, massive ion translocation with a large change of the slow electrical potential, and silencing of brain electrical activity. The term spreading depression represents a wave of spontaneous activity of the electrocorticogram that propagates through contiguous cerebral gray matter at a characteristic velocity. Spreading depression is a consequence of cortical spreading depolarization. Therefore, spreading depolarization is not always accompanied by spreading depression and the terms are not synonymous...
April 2018: Neurosurgery Clinics of North America
Alexander Braczkowski, Matthew H Holden, Christopher O'Bryan, Chi-Yeung Choi, Xiaojing Gan, Nicholas Beesley, Yufang Gao, James Allan, Peter Tyrrell, Daniel Stiles, Peadar Brehony, Revocatus Meney, Henry Brink, Nao Takashina, Ming-Ching Lin, Hsien-Yung Lin, Niki Rust, Severino G Salmo, James Em Watson, Paula Kahumbu, Martine Maron, Hugh P Possingham, Duan Biggs
Recent increases in ivory poaching have depressed African elephant populations. Successful enforcement has led to ivory being stockpiled. Stockpile destruction is becoming increasingly popular, and most destruction has occurred in the last five years. Ivory destruction is intended to send a strong message against ivory consumption, both in promoting a taboo on ivory use and catalyzing policy change. However, there has been no effort to establish the distribution and extent of media reporting on ivory destruction events globally...
March 1, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Matthijs P van den Burg, Patrick G Meirmans, Tim van Wagensveld, Bart Kluskens, Hannah Madden, Mark E Welch, Johannes A J Breeuwer
The Lesser Antillean Iguana (Iguana delicatissima) is an endangered species threatened by habitat loss and hybridization with non-native Green Iguanas (Iguana iguana). Iguanadelicatissima has been extirpated on several islands, and the Green Iguana has invaded most islands with extant populations. Information is essential to protect this species from extinction. We collected data on 293 iguanas including 17 juveniles from St. Eustasius, one of the few remaining I. delicatissima strongholds. Genetic data was leveraged to test for hybridization presence with the Green Iguana using both mitochondrial and nuclear genes, including 16 microsatellite loci...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Heredity
Olga Cozzolino, Maria Marchese, Francesco Trovato, Enrico Pracucci, Gian Michele Ratto, Maria Gabriella Buzzi, Federico Sicca, Filippo M Santorelli
Spreading depression (SD) is a neurophysiological phenomenon characterized by abrupt changes in intracellular ion gradients and sustained depolarization of neurons. It leads to loss of electrical activity, changes in the synaptic architecture, and an altered vascular response. Although SD is often described as a unique phenomenon with homogeneous characteristics, it may be strongly affected by the particular triggering event and by genetic background. Furthermore, SD may contribute differently to the pathogenesis of widely heterogeneous clinical conditions...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Farzaneh Ghazi Sherbaf, Farzaneh Rahmani, Sommayeh Mohammadi Jooyandeh, Mohammad Hadi Aarabi
Search for Parkinson's disease (PD) progression biomarkers has led to the identification of both motor and non-motor symptoms relevant of prodromal PD that could be eye-opening to the spreading underlying Lewy body pathogenesis. One most robust predictor of PD is the REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), and one most common early non-motor symptom of PD is depression. With RBD, frequently coexisting with clinical depression and both predicting dopamine transmission dysfunction, we aimed to survey structural associates of depressive symptoms in early PD patients with comorbid RBD...
February 13, 2018: Acta Neurologica Belgica
Jun Zhao, Dan Levy
Introduction: Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is believed to promote migraine headache by enhancing the activity and mechanosensitivity of trigeminal intracranial meningeal afferents. One putative mechanism underlying this afferent response involves an acute excitation of meningeal afferents by cortical efflux of K + and the ensuing antidromic release of proinflammatory sensory neuropeptides, such as calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Objectives: We sought to investigate whether (1) a brief meningeal K + stimulus leads to CGRP-dependent enhancement of meningeal afferent responses and (2) CSD-induced meningeal afferent activation and sensitization involve CGRP receptor signaling...
January 2018: Pain Reports (Baltimore, Md.)
Jeannette Hofmeijer, C R van Kaam, Babette van de Werff, Sarah E Vermeer, Marleen C Tjepkema-Cloostermans, Michel J A M van Putten
Introduction: There is strong evidence suggesting detrimental effects of cortical spreading depolarization (CSD) in patients with acute ischemic stroke and severe traumatic brain injury. Previous studies implicated scalp electroencephalography (EEG) features to be correlates of CSD based on retrospective analysis of EEG epochs after having detected "CSD" in time aligned electrocorticography. We studied the feasibility of CSD detection in a prospective cohort study with continuous EEG in 18 patients with acute ischemic stroke and 18 with acute severe traumatic brain injury...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
S Barrault, F Durousseau, N Ballon, C Réveillère, P Brunault
INTRODUCTION: Since their first appearance in 1992 smartphones have improved constantly, and their use, combined with the rapid spread of the Internet, has increased dramatically. The recent emergence of this technology raises new issues, at both individual and societal levels. Several studies have investigated the physical and psychological harm that may be caused by smartphones. The issue of excessive smartphone use as an addictive disorder is frequently raised and debated, although it is not acknowledged in international classifications...
February 2, 2018: L'Encéphale
Aaron J Schain, Agustin Melo-Carrillo, David Borsook, Jaime Grutzendler, Andrew M Strassman, Rami Burstein
OBJECTIVE: Cortical spreading depression (CSD) has long been implicated in migraine attacks with aura. The process by which CSD, a cortical event that occurs within the blood brain barrier (BBB), results in nociceptor activation outside the BBB is likely mediated by multiple molecules and cells. The objective of this study was to determine whether CSD activates immune cells inside the BBB (pia), outside the BBB (dura), or in both, and if so, when. METHODS: Investigating cellular events in the meninges shortly after CSD, we used in-vivo 2-photon imaging to identify changes in macrophages and dendritic cells (DC) that reside in the pia, arachnoid, and dura, and their anatomical relationship to TRPV1 axons...
February 2, 2018: Annals of Neurology
Yu-Hsuan Wu, Yi-Huei Chen, Ming-Hong Chang, Ching-Heng Lin
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the association between Parkinson's disease (PD) prognosis and the patient's onset of depression. METHODS: A total of 353 patients with newly-diagnosed PD and a history of depression were enrolled. On the basis of the onset of depression before or after PD diagnosis, we divided participants into PD patients with pre- or post-diagnostic depression. Cox's regression analysis was used to detect risks between the onset of depression and outcomes (including death, accidental injury, dementia, and aspiration pneumonia)...
2018: PloS One
Maosen Wang, Yi He, Terrence J Sejnowski, Xin Yu
Astrocytic Ca2+-mediated gliovascular interactions regulate the neurovascular network in situ and in vivo. However, it is difficult to measure directly both the astrocytic activity and fMRI to relate the various forms of blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signaling to brain states under normal and pathological conditions. In this study, fMRI and GCaMP-mediated Ca2+ optical fiber recordings revealed distinct evoked astrocytic Ca2+ signals that were coupled with positive BOLD signals and intrinsic astrocytic Ca2+ signals that were coupled with negative BOLD signals...
January 30, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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