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Sodium, potassium

Tetsuya Suzuki, Kyomu Matsumoto, Masamitsu Honma, Takehiko Nohmi
In regulatory genetic toxicology, it is an axiom that there is no threshold for genotoxicity of chemicals, such that genotoxic chemicals may impose carcinogenic risk on humans even at very low doses. This paradigm is counterintuitive, however, because humans possess a number of self-defense mechanisms that may suppress the genotoxicity at these low doses and therefore manifest a practical threshold. DNA polymerase zeta (Pol ζ) is a specialized Pol that plays an important role in DNA synthesis across DNA damage, thereby modulating cell survival and genotoxicity...
April 2018: Mutation Research
Lebogang P Mokotedi, Frederic S Michel, Angela J Woodiwiss, Gavin R Norton, Aletta Me Millen
Sodium (Na)-intake increases vascular reactivity. Whether low potassium (K)-intake affects vascular reactivity associated blood pressure (BP) changes is uncertain. This study aimed to determine whether Na-induced increases in BP and vascular reactivity are altered by low K-intake. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to three dietary groups for six weeks: a standard Na-K diet (Control, n=12), a high Na-normal K diet (HS-NormK, n=12) and a high Na-low K diet (HS-LowK, n=12). BP was measured at baseline and after the dietary intervention...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Ryoma Michishita, Masanori Ohta, Masaharu Ikeda, Ying Jiang, Hiroshi Yamato
AIM: This study was designed to examine the associations between an exaggerated systolic blood pressure (SBP) response to exercise and the nutrient intake in normotensive subjects. METHODS: The subjects consisted of 302 normotensive subjects (64 males and 238 females; age, 48.4 ± 11.3 years) without a history of cardiovascular disease or stroke who were not taking any medications. Each subject performed a multistage graded submaximal exercise stress test using an electric bicycle ergometer, and their blood pressure was measured at rest and during the last minute of each stage...
March 19, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
Bianca Medeiros Maran, Laína Vochikovski, Diego Rafael de Andrade Hortkoff, Rodrigo Stanislawczuk, Alessandro D Loguercio, Alessandra Reis
OBJECTIVES: Desensitizing agents are usually included in the composition of bleaching agents to reduce bleaching-induced tooth sensitivity (TS). This randomized clinical trial (RCT) evaluated the risk and intensity of TS and color change after at-home bleaching with a desensitizing-containing (3% potassium nitrate and 0.2% sodium fluoride) and desensitizing-free 10% carbamide peroxide (CP) gel (Whiteness Perfect, FGM). METHODS: A triple-blind, within-person RCT was conducted on 60 caries-free adult patients...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Dentistry
Nahid Rafie, Sahar Golpour Hamedani, Noushin Mohammadifard, Awat Feizi, Sayyed Morteza Safavi
PURPOSE: There are epidemiologic studies indicating a positive correlation between high sodium and low potassium intake and body mass index. Therefore, this study was conducted in a cross-sectional sample of Iranian children and adolescents to evaluate the link between 24-h urinary Na:K ratio and risk of obesity. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 374 participants aged 11-18 years were included. One 24-h urine sample was collected by each participant to estimate Na:K ratio...
March 16, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Satoshi Murao, Yasunori Takata, Mitsugi Yasuda, Haruhiko Osawa, Fumikazu Kohi
Background: Considering sex differences, salt sensitivity and insulin resistance (IR), the effect of sodium restriction and increased potassium intake on blood pressure remains unclear in normotensive Asian individuals, compared to that in hypertensive patients. Methods: To assess the influence of sodium and potassium intake in normotensive individuals, we evaluated the estimated 24-hour urinary sodium and potassium excretion rate in 3,392 drug-naïve normotensive Japanese individuals (average age: 48...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Hypertension
Jianjun Chang, Yan Ding, Zhiyu Zhou, Hong-Guang Nie, Hong-Long Ji
Transepithelial fluid and salt re-absorption in epithelial tissues play an important role in fluid and salt homeostasis. In absorptive epithelium, fluid and salt flux is controlled by machinery mainly composed of epithelial sodium channels (ENaC), cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), Na⁺/H⁺ exchanger (NHE), aquaporin, and sodium potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase). Dysregulation of fluid and salt transport across epithelium contributes to the pathogenesis of many diseases, such as pulmonary edema and cystic fibrosis...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Pedro Moreira, Ana S Sousa, Rita S Guerra, Alejandro Santos, Nuno Borges, Cláudia Afonso, Teresa F Amaral, Patrícia Padrão
Background: We aimed to describe urinary sodium and potassium excretion and their ratio in a representative sample of Portuguese elderly population, according to sociodemographic characteristics and weight status. Methods: A cluster sampling approach was used, representing older Portuguese adults (≥65 years) according to age, sex, education level, and regional area within the Nutrition UP 65 study. This cross-sectional evaluation was conducted in 2015 and 2016...
2018: Food & Nutrition Research
Mirza Sultan Ahmad, Danial Ahmad, Naila Medhat, Syed Aizaz Hussain Zaidi, Hadia Farooq, Sair Ahmad Tabraiz
OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the frequency of electrolyte abnormalities in patients of probable and culture-proven sepsis on admission and assess any association of electrolyte disorders with mortality. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: NICU, Fazle-Omar Hospital, Rabwah, from October 2015 to September 2016. METHODOLOGY: All neonates with the diagnosis of probable and culture-proven sepsis during the study period admitted in NICU, Fazle-Omar Hospital, were included in the study...
March 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Chao Yang, Yan Qi, Jiayi Zheng, X U Fan, Peixin Liang, Cunjiang Song
Uncontrolled bacterial growth and metabolic activities are responsible for the short shelf life of raw pork. Culture-independent analysis by 16S ribosome cDNA could reveal viable bacteria in raw pork. This study investigated microbial growth and volatile organic compounds of raw pork supplemented with various preservatives. Vacuum-packaged raw pork was stored at 4°C, after soaking in solutions of potassium sorbate, ε-poly-l-lysine, kojic acid (KA), or sodium diacetate, individually. Spoilage of raw pork was monitored by determining pH and total volatile basic nitrogen, whereas bacterial growth was determined by culture-dependent and culture-independent analyses...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Noushin Mohammadifard, Carolyn Gotay, Karin H Humphries, Andrew Ignaszewski, Ahmad Esmaillzadeh, Nizal Sarrafzadegan
Appropriate intake of micronutrient, such as electrolyte minerals is critical for the well-being of the cardiovascular health system. However, there are some debates regarding the impacts of dietary and/or supplemental intake of these minerals, on the risk of cardiovascular events and associated risk factors. High sodium intake is adversely associated with the risk of hypertension. Although many reports refered to the positive association of Na intake and cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality, however, other studies indicated that low Na intake is related to higher risk of all-cause mortality and HF-related events...
March 15, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Zhi Chen, Dangui Yin, Ming Zhang
Sandwich-like MoS2 @SnO2 @C nanosheeets are prepared by facile hydrothermal reactions. SnO2 nanosheets can attach to exfoliated MoS2 nanosheets to prevent restacking of adjacent MoS2 nanosheets, and carbon transformed from polyvinylpyrrolidone is coated on MoS2 @SnO2 , forming a sandwich structure to maintain cycling stability. As an anode for sodium-ion batteries, the electrode greatly deliverers a high initial discharge specific capacity of 530 mA h g-1 and maintains at 396 mA h g-1 after 150 cycles at 0...
March 15, 2018: Small
Xue Chen, Xiaohui Li, Sibo Yang, Xin Yu, Aichun Liu
Lymphoma is a significant cancer that affects the human lymphatic and hematopoietic systems. In this work, discrimination of lymphoma using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) conducted on whole blood samples is presented. The whole blood samples collected from lymphoma patients and healthy controls are deposited onto standard quantitative filter papers and ablated with a 1064 nm Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. 16 atomic and ionic emission lines of calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K) and sodium (Na) are selected to discriminate the cancer disease...
March 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Jing Li, Xiaoli Fan, Qin Wang
RATIONALE: Glycyrrhizin is the main active component of licorice. Licorice and glycyrrhizin induced hypertension has been widely reported, yet licorice and glycyrrhizin induced hypertensive crisis has been rarely known. PATIENT CONCERNS: The case of this report was a 47-year-old woman, who took 225 mg of glycyrrhizin daily for 3 years due to primary biliary cholangitis. She was found to have a dramatically elevated blood pressure of about 230/110 mmHg without a history of hypertension and was referred to the emergency department...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Sha Yan, Pengfei Huang, Ying Wang, Xiongzhi Zeng, Yiya Zhang
Spider venoms are known to contain various toxins that are used as an effective means to capture their prey or to defend themselves against predators. An investigation of the properties of Ornithoctonus huwena (O.huwena) crude venom found that the venom can block neuromuscular transmission of isolated mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm and sciatic nerve-sartorius preparations. However, little is known about its electrophysiological effects on cardiac myocytes. In this study, electrophysiological activities of ventricular myocytes were detected by 100 μg/mL venom of O...
March 13, 2018: Channels
Philip C Andrews, Dimuthu Senevirathna, Melissa Werrett, Victoria Blair, Michael Mehring
Solid-state metathesis (SSM) reactions between Bi(NO3)3*5H2O and potassium benzene-1,2-disulfonate (= 1,2-BDSK2), sodium benzene-1,3-disulfonate (= 1,3-BDSNa2) allows access to the first 2D; {[Bi6O4(OH)4(1-2BDS)2(NO3)2*4H2O]*11H2O}∞ and {[Bi22O24(OH)6(1,3-BDS)6*12DMSO]*3DMSO*4H2O}∞, and 3D, {[Bi6O4(OH)4(1,3-BDS)3*4H2O]*6H2O}∞, polymeric networks of sulfonato encapsulated polynuclear bismuth oxido/hydroxido clusters.
March 12, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Sebastian Polak, Barbara Wiśniowska, Aleksander Mendyk, Adam Pacławski, Jakub Szlęk
Human heart electrophysiology is complex biological phenomenon, which is indirectly assessed by the measured ECG signal. ECG trace is further analyzed to derive interpretable surrogates including QT interval, QRS complex, PR interval, and T wave morphology. QT interval and its modification are the most commonly used surrogates of the drug triggered arrhythmia, but it is known that the QT interval itself is determined by other nondrug related parameters, physiological and pathological. In the current study, we used the computational intelligence algorithms to analyze correlations between various simulated physiological parameters and QT interval...
2018: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Adelais Athanasatou, Aikaterini Kandyliari, Olga Malisova, Alex Pepa, Maria Kapsokefalou
Objective: The main objective of the present study was to evaluate sodium and potassium intake, employing 24 h and spot urine samples and food diaries for seven consecutive days. Methods: For seven consecutive days subjects recorded their food and drink intakes, and recorded and collected all urinations. Food sodium and potassium intake were analyzed in 24- and 6-h intervals from wake-up time. Urine indices were analyzed in first morning, 24- and 6-h intervals samples over the day from wake-up time...
2018: Frontiers in Nutrition
Emmanuel Ademola Anigilaje
The survival of a child with severe volume depletion at the emergency department depends on the competency of the first responder to recognize and promptly treat hypovolemic shock. Although the basic principles on fluid and electrolytes therapy have been investigated for decades, the topic remains a challenge, as consensus on clinical management protocol is difficult to reach, and more adverse events are reported from fluid administration than for any other drug. While the old principles proposed by Holliday and Segar, and Finberg have stood the test of time, recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses have highlighted the risk of hyponatraemia, and hyponatraemic encephalopathy in some children treated with hypotonic fluids...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Marcos Vinicius Antunes de Lemos, Elisa Peripolli, Mariana Piatto Berton, Fabiele Loise Braga Feitosa, Bianca Ferreira Olivieri, Nedenia Bonvino Stafuzza, Rafael Lara Tonussi, Sabrina Kluska, Hermenegildo Lucas Justino Chiaia, Lenise Mueller, Adrielli Mathias Ferrinho, Angelica Simone Cravo Prereira, Henrique Nunes de Oliveira, Lucia Galvão de Albuquerque, Fernando Baldi
The aim of this study was to analyze the association between the copy number variation regions (CNVRs) and fatty acid profile phenotypes for saturated (SFA), monosaturated (MUFA), polyunsaturated (PUFA), ω6 and ω3 fatty acids, PUFA/SFA and ω6/ω3 ratios, as well as for their sums, in Nellore cattle (Bos primigenius indicus). A total of 963 males were finished in feedlot and slaughtered with approximately 2 years of age. Animals were genotyped with the BovineHD BeadChip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA, USA)...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Applied Genetics
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