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Sodium, potassium

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334437/a-randomized-clinical-trial-to-measure-the-erosion-protection-benefits-of-a-novel-stabilized-stannous-fluoride-dentifrice-versus-a-control-dentifrice
#1
Xinyi Zhao, Tao He, Yanyan He, Cathy Cheng, Haijing Chen
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this investigation was to assess the erosion protection ability of a novel stabilized stannous fluoride (SnF2) dentifrice and a control sodium fluoride dentifrice (NaF) using a well-credentialed human in situ model. METHODS: A novel smooth texture 0.454% stabilized SnF2 dentifrice (Crest® Pro-Health™ smooth formula) and a 0.23% NaF marketed control dentifrice with 5% potassium nitrate (Sensodyne® Pronamel®) were compared in a 10-day, single center, randomized, controlled, double-blind, two-treatment, three-period crossover in situ clinical trial...
December 2017: Journal of Clinical Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331840/post-mortem-vitreous-magnesium-in-adult-population
#2
R Tse, J Garland, K Kesha, P Morrow, L Lam, H Elstub, A D Cala, C Palmiere, S Stables
BACKGROUND: The study of post mortem vitreous magnesium (Mg) is less common than sodium (Na), chloride (Cl) and potassium (K) in the forensic literature. There is no accepted normal range for post mortem vitreous Mg and the relationship between post mortem vitreous Mg levels and post mortem interval (PMI), other electrolyte levels, disease conditions, age and sex have not been fully established. AIM: To investigate the relationship of post mortem vitreous Mg with age, sex, PMI, vitreous electrolyte levels and diabetic status...
December 30, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330622/association-of-soil-potassium-and-sodium-concentrations-with-spatial-disparities-of-prevalence-and-mortality-rates-of-hypertensive-diseases-in-the-usa
#3
Hongbing Sun
Crop available soil potassium is generally low and on the decline in the southeastern states of the USA because of the increasing crop and runoff removal and decreasing application of potassium fertilizer. Hypertension-related mortality rates are also high in the southeastern states and are on the rise. Among 41 elements analyzed from 4856 sites across all 48 states, potassium is identified as the only independent element whose soil concentration has significant association with spatial disparities of essential hypertension and hypertension-related mortality rates in the 48 states between 1999 and 2014...
January 12, 2018: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330582/nano-silicon-alters-antioxidant-activities-of-soybean-seedlings-under-salt-toxicity
#4
Salar Farhangi-Abriz, Shahram Torabian
Materials with a particle size less than 100 nm are classified as nano-materials. The physical and chemical properties of nano-materials can vary considerably from those of bulk materials of the same composition. Silicon (Si) still fails to get recognized as an essential nutrient for plant growth and development, however the beneficial effects in terms of growth, biotic and abiotic stress resistance have been indicated in a variety of plant species for their growth. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different nano-silicon rates on the growth and antioxidant activities of soybean (Glycine max L...
January 12, 2018: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329831/physicochemical-properties-nutritional-value-and-techno-functional-properties-of-goldenberry-physalis-peruviana-waste-powder-concise-title-composition-of-goldenberry-juice-waste
#5
Sayed M Mokhtar, Hesham M Swailam, Hassan El-Sayed Embaby
Goldenberry waste powder, contained 5.87% moisture, 15.89% protein, 13.72% fat, 3.52% ash, 16.74% dietary fiber and 61% carbohydrates. Potassium (560 mg/100 g) was the predominant element followed by sodium (170 mg/100 g) and phosphorus (130 mg/100 g). Amino acid analysis gave high levels of cystine/methionine, histidine and tyrosine/phenylalanine. Goldenberry waste powder had good levels of the techno-functional properties including water absorption index, swelling index, foaming capacity and stability (3...
May 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328941/production-of-mono-to-few-layer-mos2-nanosheets-in-isopropanol-by-a-salt-assisted-direct-liquid-phase-exfoliation-method
#6
Huaizhi Liu, Liao Xu, Weixu Liu, Bo Zhou, Yinyan Zhu, Lihua Zhu, Xiaoqing Jiang
Here, we report a facile salt-assisted direct liquid-phase exfoliation method for mass production of MoS2 nanosheets. We choose organic solvent isopropanol (IPA) as exfoliation media and potassium ferrocyanide, potassium sodium tartrate, or sodium tartrate as salt, the assistant. The selected salts show universal and efficient assistant effect for the exfoliation of MoS2 in IPA. Especially, potassium ferrocyanide (K4Fe(CN)6) can enhance the exfoliation efficiency up to 73 times and a dispersion of MoS2 nanosheets with concentration as high as 0...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327161/effects-of-channel-blocking-on-information-transmission-and-energy-efficiency-in-squid-giant-axons
#7
Yujiang Liu, Yuan Yue, Yuguo Yu, Liwei Liu, Lianchun Yu
Action potentials are the information carriers of neural systems. The generation of action potentials involves the cooperative opening and closing of sodium and potassium channels. This process is metabolically expensive because the ions flowing through open channels need to be restored to maintain concentration gradients of these ions. Toxins like tetraethylammonium can block working ion channels, thus affecting the function and energy cost of neurons. In this paper, by computer simulation of the Hodgkin-Huxley neuron model, we studied the effects of channel blocking with toxins on the information transmission and energy efficiency in squid giant axons...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326302/role-of-clc-k-and-barttin-in-low-potassium-induced-sodium-chloride-cotransporter-activation-and-hypertension-in-mouse-kidney
#8
Naohiro Nomura, Wakana Shoda, Yuanlong Wang, Shintaro Mandai, Taisuke Furusho, Daiei Takahashi, Moko Zeniya, Eisei Sohara, Tatemitsu Rai, Shinichi Uchida
The sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC) has been identified as a key molecule regulating potassium balance. The mechanisms of NCC regulation during low extracellular potassium concentrations have been studied in vitro. These studies have shown that hyperpolarization increased chloride efflux, leading to the activation of chloride-sensitive WNK kinases and their downstream molecules, including STE20/SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) and NCC. However, this mechanism was not studied in vivo Previously, we developed the barttin hypomorphic mouse ( Bsndneo/neo mice), expressing very low levels of barttin and ClC-K channels, because barttin is an essential ß-subunit of ClC-K...
January 11, 2018: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326277/%C3%A2-patiromer-for-the-management-of-hyperkalaemia
#9
(no author information available yet)
Hyperkalaemia is a potentially life-threatening condition, in which there is an abnormally high concentration of potassium ions in the blood.1,2 Cation-exchange resins (e.g. calcium or sodium polystyrene sulfonate) that bind potassium in the gastrointestinal tract to increase faecal elimination have been used as part of the management of hyperkalaemia but they have some serious adverse effects, including potentially fatal gastrointestinal necrosis.3,4 Patiromer (▼Veltassa - Vifor Fresenius) is a cation-exchange polymer that is licensed for the treatment of hyperkalaemia in adults and, unlike other exchange resins, its licence is not restricted to people with anuria, severe oliguria or those requiring or undergoing dialysis...
January 2018: Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324859/magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-detects-differential-lipid-composition-in-mammary-glands-on-low-fat-high-animal-fat-versus-high-fructose-diets
#10
Dianning He, Devkumar Mustafi, Xiaobing Fan, Sully Fernandez, Erica Markiewicz, Marta Zamora, Jeffrey Mueller, Joseph R Sachleben, Matthew J Brady, Suzanne D Conzen, Gregory S Karczmar
The effects of consumption of different diets on the fatty acid composition in the mammary glands of SV40 T-antigen (Tag) transgenic mice, a well-established model of human triple-negative breast cancer, were investigated with magnetic resonance spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging. Female C3(1) SV40 Tag transgenic mice (n = 12) were divided into three groups at 4 weeks of age: low fat diet (LFD), high animal fat diet (HAFD), and high fructose diet (HFruD). MRI scans of mammary glands were acquired with a 9...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324683/pentoxifylline-and-methylprednisolone-additively-alleviate-kidney-failure-and-prolong-survival-of-rats-after-renal-warm-ischemia-reperfusion
#11
Grzegorz Wystrychowski, Wojciech Wystrychowski, Władysław Grzeszczak, Andrzej Więcek, Robert Król, Antoni Wystrychowski
Renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) induces local inflammation leading to kidney damage. Since pentoxifylline (PTX) and steroids have distinct immunomodulatory properties, we aimed to evaluate for the first time their combined use in IRI-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in rats. In two experiments, PTX (100 mg/kg body weight subcutaneously) was administered 90 min prior to renal IRI or/and methylprednisolone (MP; 100 mg/kg body weight intramuscularly) was infused 60 min after reperfusion of a solitary kidney (AKI model: 45 min ischemia, 48 male Sprague-Dawley rats) or one kidney with excision of contralateral kidney 2 weeks later (CKD model: 90 min ischemia, 38 rats)...
January 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323906/the-theoretical-study-of-metal-controlled-dehydrogenation-mechanism-of-mn2h3bh3-m-li-na-k-a-new-family-of-hydrogen-storage-material
#12
Tong Li, Jian-Guo Zhang
Metal hydrazineboranes (MHBs), as a kind of new hydrogen storage materials, show the excellent hydrogen storage per-formance and the dehydrogenation property. Herein, we designed multiple dehydrogenation pathways to compare with each other and indicated the metal-controlled effect. Quantum chemistry theory is used to calculate the crystal structure for determining the molecular structure. With the increasing of the metal radius, the energy difference of the isomers also increases. The dehydrogenation pathways of Lithium hydrazineborane (PathA) and Sodium hydrazineborane (PathB) show the totally similar to each other in the dehydrogenation process despite the energy barrier, as well as the comparison Path of A' (for LiHB) and B' (for NaHB)...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321483/extracellular-total-electrolyte-concentration-imaging-for-electrical-brain-stimulation-ebs
#13
Saurav Z K Sajib, Mun Bae Lee, Hyung Joong Kim, Eung Je Woo, Oh In Kwon
Techniques for electrical brain stimulation (EBS), in which weak electrical stimulation is applied to the brain, have been extensively studied in various therapeutic brain functional applications. The extracellular fluid in the brain is a complex electrolyte that is composed of different types of ions, such as sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), and calcium (Ca+). Abnormal levels of electrolytes can cause a variety of pathological disorders. In this paper, we present a novel technique to visualize the total electrolyte concentration in the extracellular compartment of biological tissues...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320235/a-limited-survey-of-metal-content-in-blue-jack-mackerel-trachurus-picturatus-obtained-from-markets-in-the-canary-islands
#14
Carmen Rubio, Laura Acosta, Gara Luis-González, Dailos González-Weller, Consuelo Revert, Arturo Hardisson, Ángel Gutiérrez
The levels of 20 metals (aluminum, boron, barium, calcium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, potassium, lithium, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, sodium, nickel, lead, strontium, vanadium, and zinc) were analyzed in muscle and liver tissue of Trachurus picturatus marketed in the Canary Islands (Spain) by using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. In the liver samples, the mean concentrations in milligrams per kilogram wet weight (wt) of Al (14.7), B (0.99), Ba (1.64), Ca (314), Cd (2...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318759/associations-of-sodium-and-potassium-with-obesity-measures-among-diverse-us-hispanic-latino-adults-results-from-the-hispanic-community-health-study-study-of-latinos
#15
Tali Elfassy, Yasmin Mossavar-Rahmani, Linda Van Horn, Marc Gellman, Daniela Sotres-Alvarez, Neil Schneiderman, Martha Daviglus, Jeannette M Beasley, Maria M Llabre, Pamela A Shaw, Guillermo Prado, Hermes Florez, Adina Zeki Al Hazzouri
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate cross-sectional associations of sodium and potassium with BMI, waist circumference (WC), and body fat and to determine whether the nativity and/or duration of United States (US) residence modified these associations. METHODS: Sodium and potassium were derived from 24-hour diet recalls from 16,156 US participants of the 2008 to 2011 Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) and from 24-hour urine in 447 HCHS/SOL participants...
January 10, 2018: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317494/hydrogen-sulfide-inhibits-kir2-and-kir3-channels-by-decreasing-sensitivity-to-the-phospholipid-pip2
#16
Junghoon Ha, Yu Xu, Takeharu Kawano, Tyler Hendon, Lia Baki, Sumanta Garai, Andreas Papapetropoulos, Ganesh Thakur, Leigh D Plant, Diomedes E Logothetis
Inwardly rectifying potassium (Kir) channels establish and regulate the resting membrane potential of excitable cells in the heart, brain and other peripheral tissues. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) is a key direct activator of ion channels, including Kir channels. The gasotransmitter carbon monoxide has been shown to regulate Kir channel activity by altering channel-PIP2 interactions.  Here, we tested in two cellular models the effects and mechanism of action of another gasotransmitter, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), thought to play a key role in cellular responses under ischemic conditions...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311039/sodium-reduced-meat-and-poultry-products-contain-a-significant-amount-of-potassium-from-food-additives
#17
Arti Sharma Parpia, Marc B Goldstein, JoAnne Arcand, France Cho, Mary R L'Abbé, Pauline B Darling
BACKGROUND: Sodium-reduced packaged food products are increasingly available to consumers; however, it is not clear whether they are suitable for inclusion in a potassium-reduced diet. For individuals with impaired renal potassium excretion caused by chronic kidney disease and for those taking certain medications that interfere with the rennin-angiotensin aldosterone axis, the need to limit dietary potassium is important in view of the risk for development of hyperkalemia and fatal cardiac arrhythmias...
January 6, 2018: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310971/the-relationship-of-health-food-literacy-and-salt-awareness-to-daily-sodium-and-potassium-intake-among-a-workplace-population-in-switzerland
#18
X Luta, S Hayoz, C Gréa Krause, K Sommerhalder, E Roos, P Strazzullo, S Beer-Borst
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: High sodium (Na) and low potassium (K) intake are associated with hypertension and CVD risk. This study explored the associations of health literacy (HL), food literacy (FL), and salt awareness with salt intake, K intake, and Na/K ratio in a workplace intervention trial in Switzerland. METHODS AND RESULTS: The study acquired baseline data from 141 individuals, mean age 44.6 years. Na and K intake were estimated from a single 24-h urine collection...
November 13, 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310825/potassium-intake-modulates-the-thiazide-sensitive-sodium-chloride-cotransporter-ncc-activity-via-the-kir4-1-potassium-channel
#19
Ming-Xiao Wang, Catherina A Cuevas, Xiao-Tong Su, Peng Wu, Zhong-Xiuzi Gao, Dao-Hong Lin, James A McCormick, Chao-Ling Yang, Wen-Hui Wang, David H Ellison
Kir4.1 in the distal convoluted tubule plays a key role in sensing plasma potassium and in modulating the thiazide-sensitive sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC). Here we tested whether dietary potassium intake modulates Kir4.1 and whether this is essential for mediating the effect of potassium diet on NCC. High potassium intake inhibited the basolateral 40 pS potassium channel (a Kir4.1/5.1 heterotetramer) in the distal convoluted tubule, decreased basolateral potassium conductance, and depolarized the distal convoluted tubule membrane in Kcnj10flox/flox mice, herein referred to as control mice...
January 6, 2018: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310547/terahertz-vibration-modes-in-na-k-atpase
#20
Alberto Carpinteri, Gianfranco Piana, Andrea Bassani, Giuseppe Lacidogna
Mechanical vibration in the Terahertz range is believed to be connected with protein functions. In this paper, we present the results of a normal-mode analysis (modal analysis) of a Na/K-ATPase all-atom model, focusing the attention on low-frequency vibration modes. The numerical model helps in the interpretation of experimental results previously obtained by the authors via Raman spectroscopy of Na/K-ATPase samples, where several unassigned peaks were found in the sub-500 cm-1 range. In particular, vibration modes corresponding to peaks at 27, 190, and 300 cm-1, found experimentally, are confirmed here numerically, together with some other modes at lower frequencies (wavenumbers) that were not possible to observe in the experimental test...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
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