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Sodium, potassium

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937579/pyrethroids-inhibit-k2p-channels-and-activate-sensory-neurons-basis-of-insecticide-induced-paraesthesias
#1
Aida Castellanos, Alba Andres, Laura Bernal, Gerard Callejo, Nuria Comes, Arcadi Gual, Jonathan P Giblin, Carolina Roza, Xavier Gasull
Pyrethroid insecticides are widely used for pest control, in agriculture or in human public health commonly as a topical treatment for scabies and head lice. Exposure to pyrethroids such as permethrin or tetramethrin (TM) causes sensory alterations such as transient pain, burning, stinging sensations and paraesthesias. Despite the well-known effects of pyrethroids on sodium channels, actions on other channels that control sensory neuron excitability are less studied. Given the role of two-pore domain potassium (K2P) channels in modulating sensory neuron excitability and firing, both in physiological and pathological conditions, we examined the effect of pyrethroids on K2P channels mainly expressed in sensory neurons...
September 19, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934190/people-with-the-major-alleles-of-atp2b1-rs17249754-increases-the-risk-of-hypertension-in-high-ratio-of-sodium-and-potassium-and-low-calcium-intakes
#2
J W Daily, B C Kim, M Liu, S Park
It is important to understand what genetic risk factors lead to hypertension and how genotype-specific dietary and lifestyle modification can mitigate the risk of developing hypertension. The ATP2B1 rs17249754 gene, which encodes a calcium pump expressed in vascular smooth muscle was identified as having variants that conferred higher or lower risk of hypertension-with the major allele carriers being increased at risk. However, the effects of dietary intakes on risk of hypertension among carriers of the different alleles have not been fully elucidated...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Human Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932147/assessment-of-the-oral-health-status-of-asthmatic-children
#3
Abla Arafa, Salwa Aldahlawi, Adel Fathi
OBJECTIVES: To assess the oral health status and salivary composition in a group of children suffering from bronchial asthma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sample consisted of sixty asthmatic children, sixty healthy negative controls, and sixty healthy positive controls of both sexes with age ranging from 4 to 12 years old. The asthmatics were grouped according to disease severity into mild, moderate, or severe asthmatic. All the children were clinically examined to assess their dental caries experience (decayed, indicated for extraction, and filled primary tooth [def] and decayed-missing-filled permanent tooth [DMF]), dental erosion condition (tooth wear index), and gingival health condition (gingival index [GI])...
July 2017: European Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928909/transplanting-embryonic-stem-cells-onto-damaged-human-corneal-endothelium
#4
Charles Hanson, Arsaell Arnarsson, Thorir Hardarson, Ann Lindgård, Mandana Daneshvarnaeini, Catarina Ellerström, Anita Bruun, Ulf Stenevi
AIM: To investigate whether human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) could be made to attach, grow and differentiate on a human Descemet's membrane (DM). METHODS: Spontaneously differentiated hESCs were transferred onto a human corneal button with the endothelial layer removed using ocular sticks. The cells were cultured on a DM for up to 15 d. The genetically engineered hESC line expressed green fluorescent protein, which facilitated identification during the culture experiments, tissue preparation, and analysis...
August 26, 2017: World Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928119/8-aminoguanosine-exerts-diuretic-natriuretic-and-glucosuric-activity-via-conversion-to-8-aminoguanine-yet-has-direct-antikaliuretic-effects
#5
Edwin K Jackson, Zaichuan Mi
8-Aminoguanosine induces diuresis, natriuresis, glucosuria, and antikaliuresis. These effects could be mediated via 8-aminoguanosine's metabolism to 8-aminoguanine. Here we tested this hypothesis in anesthetized rats. First, we demonstrated that at 85-115 min post intravenous administration, 8-aminoguanosine and 8-aminoguanine (33.5 µmol/kg) significantly increased urine volume [ml/30min: 8-aminoguanosine from 0.3±0.1 to 0.9±0.1 (mean±SEM; n=7); 8-aminoguanine from 0.3±0.1 to 1.5±0.2 (n=8)], sodium excretion (µmol/30min: 8-aminoguanosine from 12±5 to 109±21; 8-aminoguanine from 18±8 to 216±31), and glucose excretion (µg/30min: 8-aminoguanosine from 18±3 to 159±41; 8-aminoguanine from 17±3 to 298±65)...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927409/biological-and-physicochemical-properties-of-biosurfactants-produced-by-lactobacillus-jensenii-p6a-and-lactobacillus-gasseri-p65
#6
I M C Morais, A L Cordeiro, G S Teixeira, V S Domingues, R M D Nardi, A S Monteiro, R J Alves, E P Siqueira, V L Santos
BACKGROUND: Lactobacillus species produce biosurfactants that can contribute to the bacteria's ability to prevent microbial infections associated with urogenital and gastrointestinal tracts and the skin. Here, we described the biological and physicochemical properties of biosurfactants produced by Lactobacillus jensenii P6A and Lactobacillus gasseri P65. RESULTS: The biosurfactants produced by L. jensenii P6A and L. gasseri P65 reduced the water surface tension from 72 to 43...
September 19, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926266/metal-free-synthesis-of-unsymmetrical-organoselenides-and-selenoglycosides
#7
Yong Guan, Steven D Townsend
A one-pot, metal-free procedure has been developed to synthesize unsymmetrical organoselenides. In the first step of the reaction, arylation of potassium selenocyanate (KSeCN) with an iodonium reagent proceeds in the absence of a metal catalyst to produce an arylselenocyanate. In the second step, treatment with sodium borohydride unmasks a second selenium nucleophile that engages an aliphatic electrophile, iodonium reagent, or glycosyl halide. The procedure represents an umpolung approach to the synthesis of aryl-selenides...
September 19, 2017: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925857/comparison-of-stored-red-blood-cell-washing-techniques-for-priming-extracorporeal-circuits
#8
Jun Sasaki, Christopher Tirotta, Hyunsoo Lim, Kathleen Kubes, Jane Salvaggio, Robert Hannan, Redmond Burke, Jorge Ojito
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to compare three different blood washing techniques and describe the differences for the composition of the washed red blood cells (RBC). METHODS: Stored RBCs less than 5 days old were washed using three different techniques. 1) Washing with normal saline with the COBE Model 2991 blood processor in the blood bank (BB-S). 2) Washing with normal saline with the Continuous AutoTransfusion System (C.A.T.S) in the operating room (OR-S)...
September 1, 2017: Perfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924618/optical-studies-of-the-solution-phase-reduction-and-stabilization-of-indigo-tetrasulfonate-in-polyelectrolyte-complexes
#9
Becca Hoene, Dion Rivera
Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) and fluorescence spectroscopy have been used to characterize the polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) formed when potassium indigo tetrasulfonate (ITS) interacts with poly diallydimethylammonium chloride (PDADMAC) through columbic attraction in the presence of the reducing agent sodium bisulfite, NaHSO3. The PDADMAC facilitates both the reduction of the ITS and the stabilization of the reduced state of the ITS in an atmospheric oxygen environment. Dilutions of the dye solution show that the PEC is stable to dilutions of at least 1 to 1000...
September 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924617/dynamics-of-sodium-current-mediated-early-afterdepolarizations
#10
Daisuke Sato, Colleen E Clancy, Donald M Bers
Early afterdepolarizations (EADs) have been attributed to two primary mechanisms: 1) recovery from inactivation of the L-type calcium (Ca) channel and/or 2) spontaneous Ca release, which depolarizes the membrane potential through the electrogenic sodium-calcium exchanger (NCX). The sodium (Na) current (INa), especially the late component of the Na current, has been recognized as an important player to set up the conditions for EADs by reducing repolarization reserve and increasing intracellular Na concentration, which leads to Ca overload...
September 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924482/atypical-presentation-of-central-pontine-myelinolysis-in-hyperglycemia
#11
Swapna Talluri, Raghu Charumathi, Muhammad Khan, Kerri Kissell
Central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) usually occurs with rapid correction of severe chronic hyponatremia. Despite the pronounced fluctuations in serum osmolality, CPM is rarely seen in diabetics. This is a case report of CPM associated with hyperglycemia. A 45-year-old non-smoking and non-alcoholic African American male with past medical history of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, stage V chronic kidney disease and hypothyroidism presented with a two-week history of intermittent episodes of gait imbalance, slurred speech and inappropriate laughter...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924220/towards-addressing-the-body-electrolyte-environment-via-sweat-analysis-pilocarpine-iontophoresis-supports-assessment-of-plasma-potassium-concentration
#12
Donato Vairo, Laurie Bruzzese, Marion Marlinge, Lea Fuster, Nabil Adjriou, Nathalie Kipson, Philippe Brunet, Jennifer Cautela, Yves Jammes, Giovanna Mottola, Stephane Burtey, Jean Ruf, Regis Guieu, Emmanuel Fenouillet
Electrolyte concentration in sweat depends on environmental context and physical condition but also on the pathophysiological status. Sweat analyzers may be therefore the future way for biological survey although how sweat electrolyte composition can reflect plasma composition remains unclear. We recruited 10 healthy subjects and 6 patients to have a broad range of plasma electrolyte concentrations (chloride, potassium and sodium) and pH. These variables were compared to those found in sweat produced following cycling exercise or pilocarpine iontophoresis, a condition compatible with operating a wearable device...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922715/pm2-5-components-and-outpatient-visits-for-asthma-a-time-stratified-case-crossover-study-in-a-suburban-area
#13
Chau-Ren Jung, Li-Hao Young, Hui-Tsung Hsu, Ming-Yeng Lin, Yu-Cheng Chen, Bing-Fang Hwang, Perng-Jy Tsai
The effects of fine particles (PM2.5) on asthma have been widely confirmed by epidemiological research studies. However, a limited number of studies have investigated the relationship between exposure to different PM2.5 components and asthma. We characterized the PM2.5 components in a suburban site of central Taiwan and conducted a time-stratified case-crossover study to elaborate the effects of daily concentration of each PM2.5 component on asthma outpatient visits. We retrieved asthma outpatient claims for individuals less than 20 years old with a residential address in the Shalu district, Taiwan, from the National Health Insurance Research Database during 2000-2010...
September 12, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922372/reduction-of-organelle-motility-by-removal-of-potassium-and-other-solutes
#14
John W Murray, David Yin, Allan W Wolkoff
There are surprisingly few studies that describe how the composition of cell culture medium may affect the trafficking of organelles. Here we utilize time lapse multi-channel fluorescent imaging to show that short term exposure of Huh-7 cells to medium lacking potassium, sodium, or chloride strongly reduces but does not eliminate the characteristic back and forth and cell-traversing movement of fluorescent EGF (FL-EGF) containing organelles. We focused on potassium because of its relatively low abundance in media and serum and its energy requiring accumulation into cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921626/relationship-between-urinary-sodium-to-potassium-ratio-and-ambulatory-blood-pressure-in-patients-with-diabetes-mellitus
#15
Renata Libianto, John Moran, Christopher O'Callaghan, Sara Baqar, Angela X Chen, Scott T Baker, Michelle Clarke, Richard J Macisaac, George Jerums, Elif I Ekinci
Previous studies investigating the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure have mostly relied on dietary recall and clinic blood pressure measurement. In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between 24h urinary sodium and potassium excretion, and their ratio, with 24h ambulatory blood pressure parameters including nocturnal blood pressure dipping in patients with type 1 and 2 diabetes. We report that in 116 patients with diabetes, systolic blood pressure was significantly predicted by the time of day, age, the interaction between dipping status with time, and 24h urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio (R(2) =0...
September 16, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920818/biochemistry-panel-reference-intervals-for-juvenile-goldfish-carassius-auratus
#16
Laura A Adamovicz, Macy R Trosclair, Gregory A Lewbart
Reference intervals for diagnostic tests are vitally important for clinical decision making. Despite the popularity of pet goldfish (Carassius auratus), reference intervals have not been generated for routine biochemistry panel analytes in this species. This study establishes de novo reference intervals for packed cell volume and total solids, using 47 apparently healthy immature goldfish, and for 11 common chemistry panel analytes (albumin, aspartate aminotransferase, calcium, creatine kinase, globulin, blood glucose, sodium, potassium, phosphorous, total protein, and uric acid) using 39 immature goldfish...
September 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919716/palatability-and-physical-properties-of-potassium-binding-resin-rdx7675-comparison-with-sodium-polystyrene-sulfonate
#17
Vanessa Zann, John McDermott, Jeffrey W Jacobs, James P Davidson, Fangling Lin, Paul Korner, Robert C Blanks, David P Rosenbaum
BACKGROUND: Hyperkalemia is a potentially life-threatening condition that patients with heart failure or chronic kidney disease, especially those taking renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors, are at high risk of developing. Sodium polystyrene sulfonate (SPS), a current treatment, binds potassium within the gastrointestinal tract to reduce potassium absorption. However, poor palatability limits its long-term use. RDX7675, a novel potassium binder in development for the treatment of hyperkalemia, is a calcium salt of a reengineered polystyrene sulfonate-based resin designed to have enhanced palatability...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918592/internal-phosphorus-load-in-a-mexican-reservoir-through-sediment-speciation-analysis
#18
Henri Márquez-Pacheco, Anne Margrethe Hansen
Since the sequential extraction of phosphorus (P) in sediment makes it possible to determine the P potentially available for release, in this paper, we evaluate the fractions of P in sediment profiles from Valle de Bravo reservoir, a eutrophic lake in central Mexico to determine the contributions of each fraction to the internal P load (IPL). The P fractionation scheme employs sequential extractions of sediment with O2-free water (MilliQ), bicarbonate-dithionite (BD), sodium hydroxide (NaOH), hydrochloric acid (HCl), and potassium persulfate (K2S2O8-) to obtain five P fractions...
September 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915857/validity-and-reproducibility-of-a-short-food-frequency-questionnaire-among-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#19
Aurélie Affret, Sandra Wagner, Douae El Fatouhi, Courtney Dow, Emmanuelle Correia, Maryvonne Niravong, Françoise Clavel-Chapelon, Julie De Chefdebien, Denis Fouque, Bénédicte Stengel, Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault, Guy Fagherazzi
BACKGROUND: A balanced diet is essential to slowing the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and managing the symptoms. Currently, no tool is available to easily and quickly assess energy and macronutrient intake in patients with non end-stage CKD. We aimed to develop and evaluate the validity and reproducibility of a new short 49-item food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) adapted to patients with CKD. METHODS: The CKD-REIN study is a prospective cohort that enrolled 3033 patients with moderate or advanced CKD from a national sample of nephrology clinics...
September 15, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914872/-the-efficacy-of-desmopressin-in-the-treatment-of-central-diabetes-insipidus-after-resection-of-chiasmo-sellar-region-tumors
#20
L I Astaf'eva
Central diabetes insipidus (CDI) is a neuroendocrine disease, the pathogenesis of which is associated with abnormal secretion of the antidiuretic hormone. One of the specific causes of CDI is neurosurgical resection of chiasmatic-sellar region tumors. AIM: to study the efficacy and safety of desmopressin in CDI patients after resection of chiasmatic-sellar region (CSR) tumors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Examination and treatment of patients were performed at a hospital for 7-14 days after surgery and then were continued after discharge...
2017: Zhurnal Voprosy Neĭrokhirurgii Imeni N. N. Burdenko
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