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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915035/hyperinsulinaemic-hypoglycaemia-in-children-and-adults
#1
REVIEW
Pratik Shah, Sofia A Rahman, Huseyin Demirbilek, Maria Güemes, Khalid Hussain
Pancreatic β cells are functionally programmed to release insulin in response to changes in plasma glucose concentration. Insulin secretion is precisely regulated so that, under normal physiological conditions, fasting plasma glucose concentrations are kept within a narrow range of 3·5-5·5 mmol/L. In hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia, insulin secretion becomes dysregulated (ie, uncoupled from glucose metabolism) so that insulin secretion persists in the presence of low plasma glucose concentrations. Hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia is the most common cause of severe and persistent hypoglycaemia in neonates and children...
November 30, 2016: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915018/design-and-surface-immobilization-of-short-anti-biofilm-peptides
#2
Biswajit Mishra, Tamara Lushnikova, Radha M Golla, Xiuqing Wang, Guangshun Wang
: Short antimicrobial peptides are essential to keep us healthy and their lasting potency can inspire the design of new types of antibiotics. This study reports the design of a family of eight-residue tryptophan-rich peptides (TetraF2W) obtained by converting the four phenylalanines in temporin-SHf to tryptophans. The temporin-SHf template was identified from the antimicrobial peptide database (http://aps.unmc.edu/AP). Remarkably, the double arginine variant (TetraF2W-RR) was more effective in killing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) USA300, but less cytotoxic to human skin HaCat and kidney HEK293 cells, than the lysine-containing dibasic combinations (KR, RK and KK)...
November 30, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914956/individual-refinement-of-attenuation-correction-maps-for-hybrid-pet-mr-based-on-multi-resolution-regional-learning
#3
Kuangyu Shi, Sebastian Fürst, Liang Sun, Mathias Lukas, Nassir Navab, Stefan Förster, Sibylle I Ziegler
PET/MR is an emerging hybrid imaging modality. However, attenuation correction (AC) remains challenging for hybrid PET/MR in generating accurate PET images. Segmentation-based methods on special MR sequences are most widely recommended by vendors. However, their accuracy is usually not high. Individual refinement of available certified attenuation maps may be helpful for further clinical applications. In this study, we proposed a multi-resolution regional learning (MRRL) scheme to utilize the internal consistency of the patient data...
November 19, 2016: Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics: the Official Journal of the Computerized Medical Imaging Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914899/reply-from-authors-re-alberto-bossi-nicolas-mottet-pierre-blanchard-choline-positron-emission-tomography-computed-tomography-for-selection-of-patients-for-salvage-strategies-after-primary-local-treatment-of-prostate-cancer-and-rising-prostate-specific-antigen
#4
EDITORIAL
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914524/the-phenylalanine-ammonia-lyase-gene-family-in-isatis-indigotica-fort-molecular-cloning-characterization-and-expression-analysis
#5
Rui-Fang Ma, Qian-Zi Liu, Ying Xiao, Lei Zhang, Qing Li, Jun Yin, Wan-Sheng Chen
Phenolic compounds, metabolites of the phenylpropanoid pathway, play an important role in the growth and environmental adaptation of many plants. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) is the first key enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway. The present study was designed to investigate whether there is a multi-gene family in I. Indigotic and, if so, to characterize their properties. We conducted a comprehensive survey on the transcription profiling database by using tBLASTn analysis. Several bioinformatics methods were employed to perform the prediction of composition and physicochemical characters...
November 2016: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914350/phosphorus-flows-in-a-peri-urban-region-with-intensive-food-production-a-case-study
#6
S Bittman, S C Sheppard, D Poon, D E Hunt
Excess phosphorus (P) in peri-urban regions is an emerging issue, whereas there is global depletion of quality mined supplies of P. The flow of P across the landscape leading to regional surpluses and deficits is not well understood. We computed a regional P budget with internal P flows in a fairly discreet peri-urban region (Lower Fraser Valley, BC) with closely juxtaposed agricultural and non-agricultural urban ecosystems, in order to clarify the relationship between food production, food consumption and other activities involving use of P (e...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914083/antibody-guided-molecular-imaging-of-infective-endocarditis
#7
Kenneth L Pinkston, Peng Gao, Kavindra V Singh, Ali Azhdarinia, Barbara E Murray, Eva M Sevick-Muraca, Barrett R Harvey
In this protocol, we describe the application of using a high affinity monoclonal antibody generated against the major pilin protein component of the pilin structure of Enterococcus faecalis as a PET imaging agent for enterococcal endocarditis detection. The anti-pilin -mAb 64Cu conjugate was able to specifically label enterococcal endocarditis vegetation in vivo in a rodent endocarditis model. By targeting pili, a covalently linked surface antigen extending from the bacterial surface, we provided evidence that gram-positive pilin represent a logical surface antigen to define or target an infectious agent for molecularly guided imaging...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914043/a-revisit-to-quantitative-pet-with-18-f-fdopa-of-high-specific-activity-using-a-high-resolution-condition-in-view-of-application-to-regenerative-therapy
#8
Go Akamatsu, Akihito Ohnishi, Kazuki Aita, Hiroyuki Nishida, Yasuhiko Ikari, Masahiro Sasaki, Nobuo Kohara, Michio Senda
OBJECTIVE: With the advent of regenerative/cell therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD), (18)F-FDOPA has drawn new attention as a biomarker of the therapeutic that cannot be evaluated with radiopharmaceuticals for dopamine transporter. Since most previous (18)F-FDOPA PET studies were carried out many years ago with a PET scanner of lower resolution and with (18)F-FDOPA of low specific activity synthesized from (18)F-F2, we used a newer PET/CT scanner with a high-resolution condition and (18)F-FDOPA synthesized from (18)F-F(-) to re-evaluate this technique on normal subjects and patients with PD, together with D2 receptor imaging with (11)C-raclopride (RAC)...
December 2, 2016: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914007/evaluation-of-68-ga-labeled-peptide-tracer-for-detection-of-gelatinase-expression-after-myocardial-infarction-in-rat
#9
Max Kiugel, Ville Kytö, Tiina Saanijoki, Heidi Liljenbäck, Olli Metsälä, Mia Ståhle, Johanna Tuomela, Xiang-Guo Li, Pekka Saukko, Juhani Knuuti, Anne Roivainen, Antti Saraste
BACKGROUND: Matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 (MMP-2/9) play a role in extracellular matrix remodeling after an ischemic myocardial injury. We evaluated (68)Ga-DOTA-peptide targeting MMP-2/9 for the detection of gelatinase expression after myocardial infarction (MI) in rat. METHODS: Rats were injected with 43 ± 7.7 MBq of (68)Ga-DOTA-peptide targeting MMP-2/9 at 7 days (n = 7) or 4 weeks (n = 8) after permanent coronary ligation or sham operation (n = 5 at both time points) followed by positron emission tomography (PET)...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913827/intra-lesional-spatial-correlation-of-static-and-dynamic-fet-pet-parameters-with-mri-based-cerebral-blood-volume-in-patients-with-untreated-glioma
#10
Jens Göttler, Mathias Lukas, Anne Kluge, Stephan Kaczmarz, Jens Gempt, Florian Ringel, Mona Mustafa, Bernhard Meyer, Claus Zimmer, Markus Schwaiger, Stefan Förster, Christine Preibisch, Thomas Pyka
PURPOSE: (18)F-fluorethyltyrosine-(FET)-PET and MRI-based relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) have both been used to characterize gliomas. Recently, inter-individual correlations between peak static FET-uptake and rCBV have been reported. Herein, we assess the local intra-lesional relation between FET-PET parameters and rCBV. METHODS: Thirty untreated glioma patients (27 high-grade) underwent simultaneous PET/MRI on a 3 T hybrid scanner obtaining structural and dynamic susceptibility contrast sequences...
December 2, 2016: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913818/-amyloid-positron-emission-tomography-with-18-%C3%A2-f-florbetaben-in-the-diagnostic-workup-of-dementia-patients
#11
S Schönecker, C Prix, T Raiser, N Ackl, E Wlasich, G Stenglein-Krapf, E Mille, M Brendel, O Sabri, M Patt, H Barthel, P Bartenstein, J Levin, A Rominger, A Danek
BACKGROUND: To this day the definite diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease still relies on post-mortem histopathological detection of neurofibrillary tangles and beta-amyloid deposits. Amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) is a new diagnostic tool that enables the in vivo quantification of pathological beta-amyloid deposits. The aim of the current study was to evaluate to what extent (18)F-florbetaben-PET (FBB-PET) influences the diagnosis of patients with dementia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Imaging with FBB-PET was performed on 33 patients from our outpatient department for cognitive neurology...
December 2, 2016: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913497/response-adapted-frontline-therapy-for-hodgkin-lymphoma-are-we-there-yet
#12
Peter W M Johnson
Treating Hodgkin lymphoma by using chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy is highly successful, with substantially fewer deaths from lymphoma than from other causes in recent studies of both early-stage and advanced-stage disease. Long-term toxicity is a major consideration in this context, and recent trials have used functional imaging with [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography early in the course of treatment (interim PET) to assess response and modulate subsequent therapy. In early-stage disease, this has allowed omission of consolidation radiotherapy after a good response to doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (ABVD) chemotherapy, and trials have shown that this can be done without detriment to overall survival, despite a small increase in rates of recurrence of ∼5%...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913215/influence-of-surveillance-pet-ct-on-detection-of-early-recurrence-after-definitive-radiation-in-stage-iii-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#13
Jay P Reddy, Chad Tang, Tina Shih, Bumyang Kim, Charissa Kim, Quynh-Nhu Nguyen, James Welsh, Marcelo Benveniste, Jianjun Zhang, Zhongxing Liao, Daniel R Gomez
BACKGROUND: There are few data to support the use of varying imaging modalities in evaluating recurrence in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We compared the efficacy of surveillance positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) versus CT scans of the chest in detecting recurrences after definitive radiation for NSCLC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 200 patients treated between 2000 and 2011 who met the inclusion criteria of stage III NSCLC, completion of definitive radiation treatment, and absence of recurrence within the initial 6 months...
November 10, 2016: Clinical Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912930/prognostic-significance-of-venous-invasion-and-maximum-standardized-uptake-value-of-18-f-fdg-pet-ct-in-surgically-resected-t1n0-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#14
J H Jeon, J M Lee, D H Moon, H C Yang, M S Kim, G-K Lee, J I Zo
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to analyze the risk factors of recurrence in patients with early stage esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 190 patients with confirmed T1N0M0 ESCC after curative esophagectomy. The following potential prognostic factors for recurrence were investigated: age, sex, pathologic T category, tumor location, differentiation grade, tumor size, venous invasion, angiolymphatic invasion, perineural invasion and the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of the primary tumor...
November 22, 2016: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912910/molecular-imaging-for-prostate-cancer-performance-analysis-of-68-ga-psma-pet-ct-versus-choline-pet-ct
#15
L Michaud, K A Touijer
INTRODUCTION: There is a need for a precise and reliable imaging to improve the management of prostate cancer. In recent years the PET/CT with choline has changed the handling of prostate cancer in Europe, and it is commonly used for initial stratification or for the diagnosis of a biochemical recurrence, although it does not lack limitations. Other markers are being tested, including the ligand of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), that seems to offer encouraging prospects. The goal of this piece of work was to critically review the role of choline and PSMA PET/CT in prostate cancer...
November 29, 2016: Actas Urologicas Españolas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912764/sbrt-for-centrally-localized-nsclc-what-is-too-central
#16
J Roesch, C Panje, F Sterzing, F Mantel, U Nestle, N Andratschke, M Guckenberger
PURPOSE: Current guidelines recommend stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for stage I non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in medically inoperable patients. There are excellent outcome and toxicity data for SBRT of peripheral lung tumors. However, the discussion on SBRT for centrally located tumors is controversial. This study evaluated current clinical practice regarding SBRT of centrally located lung tumors, to identify common fractionation schedules and commonly accepted contraindications for SBRT...
December 3, 2016: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912111/can-ictal-meg-obviate-the-need-for-phase-ii-monitoring-in-people-with-drug-refractory-epilepsy-a-prospective-observational-study
#17
Bhargavi Ramanujam, Kamal Bharti, Vibhin Viswanathan, Ajay Garg, Madhavi Tripathi, Chandrashekhar Bal, P Sarat Chandra, Manjari Tripathi
PURPOSE: To determine if ictal-magnetoencephalography (ictal-MEG) source localization (SL) added information towards delineating the ictal-onset zone (IOZ), whether and how it helped final decision-making in epilepsy-surgery. METHODS: Definite focal clusters on ictal-MEG were available for 32 DRE-patients, data was analyzed (single equivalent current dipole (ECD) model), SL done. Clinical history, long-term video-EEG (VEEG) monitoring, epilepsy-protocol MRI, FDG-PET, ictal-SPECT and interictal-MEG were discussed at the multispeciality Epilepsy Surgery Case-conference (ESC)...
October 31, 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912007/global-patterns-and-determinants-of-forest-canopy-height
#18
Shengli Tao, Qinghua Guo, Chao Li, Zhiheng Wang, Jingyun Fang
Forest canopy height is an important indicator of forest biomass, species diversity, and other ecosystem functions; however, the climatic determinants that underlie its global patterns have not been fully explored. Using satellite LiDAR-derived forest canopy heights and field measurements of the world's giant trees, combined with climate indices, we evaluated the global patterns and determinants of forest canopy height. The mean canopy height was highest in tropical regions, but tall forests (>50 m) occur at various latitudes...
December 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911758/multimodal-imaging-for-dreadd-expressing-neurons-in-living-brain-and-their-application-to-implantation-of-ipsc-derived-neural-progenitors
#19
Bin Ji, Hiroyuki Kaneko, Takafumi Minamimoto, Haruhisa Inoue, Hiroki Takeuchi, Katsushi Kumata, Ming-Rong Zhang, Ichio Aoki, Chie Seki, Maiko Ono, Masaki Tokunaga, Satoshi Tsukamoto, Koji Tanabe, Ryong-Moon Shin, Takeharu Minamihisamatsu, Seiji Kito, Barry J Richmond, Tetsuya Suhara, Makoto Higuchi
: Chemogenetic manipulation of neuronal activities has been enabled by a designer receptor (designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drugs, DREADD) that is activated exclusively by clozapine-N-oxide (CNO). Here, we applied CNO as a functional reporter probe to positron emission tomography (PET) of DREADD in living brains. Mutant human M4 DREADD (hM4Di) expressed in transgenic (Tg) mouse neurons was visualized by PET with microdose [(11)C]CNO. Deactivation of DREADD-expressing neurons in these mice by nonradioactive CNO at a pharmacological dose could also be captured by arterial spin labeling MRI (ASL-MRI)...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911459/evaluation-of-bone-metastases-by-18f-choline-pet-ct-in-a-patient-with-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-treated-with-radium-223
#20
Piera Scalzi, Cinzia Baiocco, Sabrina Genovese, Antonella Trevisan, Zuzana Sirotova, Carlo Poti
BACKGROUND: To date, bone metastases remain the main cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Therefore, the combination of accurate early detection of bony disease and effective treatment of these lesions is crucial in the management of mCRPC patients, but clinical trials specifically designed to test novel approaches are currently lacking. CASE DESCRIPTION: This report describes the case of a 74-year-old male with bone mCRPC and symptomatic and biochemical progression, who underwent radium-223 therapy, following previous treatment failure...
December 2, 2016: Urologia
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