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GAPS diet

Hiroki Kitakata, Takashi Kohno, Shun Kohsaka, Junko Fujino, Naomi Nakano, Ryoma Fukuoka, Shinsuke Yuasa, Yuichiro Maekawa, Keiichi Fukuda
OBJECTIVE: To assess patient perspectives on secondary lifestyle modification and knowledge of 'heart attack' after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for coronary artery disease (CAD). DESIGN: Observational cross-sectional study. SETTING: A single university-based hospital centre in Japan. PARTICIPANTS: In total, 236 consecutive patients with CAD who underwent PCI completed a questionnaire (age, 67.4±10.1 years; women, 14...
March 16, 2018: BMJ Open
Lori Kogan, James A Oxley, Peter Hellyer, Regina Schoenfeld, Mark Rishniw
The internet has been found to be a popular source for human health information. However, there is a lack of information on pet owners' use of the internet to source pet health information and implications for the owner-veterinarian relationship. Therefore, the aim of this study was to address this gap in knowledge by focusing on UK pet owners' general use of the internet to find online pet health information and the impact of this behaviour on the owner-veterinarian relationship. An online survey targeting UK pet owners resulted in 571 respondents...
March 16, 2018: Veterinary Record
A G V Salvanes, M J Gibbons
The oceans of the world are slowly losing oxygen, in part because of climate change and in part because of anthropogenic eutrophication. This deoxygenation affects marine organisms in species-specific ways. This paper reviews what is known on how hypoxia tolerant species respond to low dissolved oxygen, using the bearded goby Sufflogobius bibarbatus as a model system. This species is endemic to the Benguela upwelling ecosystem, where, off Namibia, 9000 km2 of the shelf is hypoxic. Here, the species is now considered central to ecosystem functioning and in recent decades it has sustained commercial fisheries...
March 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
Simonetta Mattiucci, Paolo Cipriani, Arne Levsen, Michela Paoletti, Giuseppe Nascetti
This review addresses the biodiversity, biology, distribution, ecology, epidemiology, and consumer health significance of the so far known species of Anisakis, both in their natural hosts and in human accidental host populations, worldwide. These key aspects of the Anisakis species' biology are highlighted, since we consider them as main driving forces behind which most of the research in this field has been carried out over the past decade. From a public health perspective, the human disease caused by Anisakis species (anisakiasis) appears to be considerably underreported and underestimated in many countries or regions around the globe...
2018: Advances in Parasitology
Humeira Badsha
Background: Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) frequently ask their doctors about which diets to follow, and even in the absence of advice from their physicians, many patients are undertaking various dietary interventions. Discussion: However, the role of dietary modifications in RA is not well understood. Several studies have tried to address these gaps in our understanding. Intestinal microbial modifications are being studied for the prevention and management of RA...
2018: Open Rheumatology Journal
Sabine Daemen, Nynke van Polanen, Matthijs K C Hesselink
The majority of fat in the human body is stored as triacylglycerols in white adipose tissue. In the obese state, adipose tissue mass expands and excess lipids are stored in non-adipose tissues, such as skeletal muscle. Lipids are stored in skeletal muscle in the form of small lipid droplets. Although originally viewed as dull organelles that simply store lipids as a consequence of lipid overflow from adipose tissue, lipid droplets are now recognized as key components in the cell that exert a variety of relevant functions in multiple tissues (including muscle)...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Stefaniya Kamenova, Rebecca Mayer, Oskar R Rubbmark, Eric Coissac, Manuel Plantegenest, Michael Traugott
The rapidly growing field of molecular diet analysis is becoming increasingly popular among ecologists, especially when investigating methodologically challenging groups, such as invertebrate generalist predators. Prey DNA detection success is known to be affected by multiple factors, however, the type of dietary sample has rarely been considered. Here, we address this knowledge gap by comparing prey DNA detection success from three types of dietary samples. In a controlled feeding experiment, using the carabid beetle Pterostichus melanarius as a model predator, we collected regurgitates, feces and whole consumers (including their gut contents) at different time points post-feeding...
March 6, 2018: Molecular Ecology Resources
A C Reichelt, L E Stoeckel, L P Reagan, C A Winstanley, K A Page
Obesity is a world-wide crisis with profound healthcare and socio-economic implications and it is now clear that the central nervous system (CNS) is a target for the complications of metabolic disorders like obesity. In addition to decreases in physical activity and sedentary lifestyles, diet is proposed to be an important contributor to the etiology and progression of obesity. Unfortunately, there are gaps in our knowledge base related to how dietary choices impact the structural and functional integrity of the CNS...
March 1, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Antoneta Granic, Nuno Mendonça, Tom R Hill, Carol Jagger, Emma J Stevenson, John C Mathers, Avan A Sayer
The population of older adults aged 85 years and over (the very old) is growing rapidly in many societies because of increases in life expectancy and reduced mortality at older ages. In 2016, 27.3 million very old adults were living in the European Union, and in the UK, 2.4% of the population (1.6 million) were aged 85 and over. Very old age is associated with increased risks of malnutrition, multimorbidity, and disability. Diet (nutrition) is a modifiable risk factor for multiple age-related conditions, including sarcopenia and functional decline...
February 27, 2018: Nutrients
Margaret Armar-Klemesu, Sarah Osei-Menya, Sawudatu Zakariah-Akoto, Alison Tumilowicz, James Lee, Christine Hotz
BACKGROUND: Understanding the context of infant and young child feeding (IYCF) is recognized as essential for designing appropriate complementary feeding interventions. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to study household IYCF behaviors in 2 districts in southern and northern Ghana to identify opportunities to improve existing nutrition programs. METHODS: We interviewed 80 caregivers of children aged 6 to 23 months using ethnographic methods, including free listing, guided discussions and cognitive mapping techniques, and 24-hour dietary recall...
January 1, 2018: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
A L Gilmore-Bykovskyi, N Rogus-Pulia
OBJECTIVES: Dysphagia, or impaired swallowing, is common in nursing home (NH) residents with dementia and contributes to malnutrition and diminished quality of life. Dysphagia also commonly leads to aspiration or passage of food or fluids into the airway, which can result in aspiration pneumonia-a leading cause of death for people with dementia. Currently available interventions for dysphagia aim to modify the risk of aspiration events primarily by modifying diet and positioning to improve the safety of an individual's swallow...
2018: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
Mariya Vizireanu, Daniel Hruschka
OBJECTIVE: This study examined perceptions of healthy eating styles among US respondents to determine whether eating styles are defined as a distinct set of people's healthy eating beliefs and how different aspects of eating styles are perceived to affect health. DESIGN: In-person pile sort activities were used to identify key dimensions of healthy eating beliefs, and online surveys were used to confirm these dimensions and examine perceived health benefits of healthy eating styles...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
Renata Micha, Jennifer Coates, Catherine Leclercq, U Ruth Charrondiere, Dariush Mozaffarian
BACKGROUND: Detailed information on global individual-level consumption patterns is imperative for informed policy making. However, such data are dispersed and incomplete. OBJECTIVE: To review and discuss the methodologies, observed data availability, challenges, and opportunities pertaining to global dietary surveillance. METHODS: This investigation provides an extensive review of global dietary assessment methodologies and challenges, including at the survey level, the dietary collection and assessment level, and the dietary data processing and analysis level...
January 1, 2018: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Shlomit David, Carmit Shani Levi, Lulu Fahoum, Yael Ungar, Esther G Meyron-Holtz, Avi Shpigelman, Uri Lesmes
Carrageenan (CGN), a family of marine polysaccharides isolated from seaweeds, has been at the heart of considerable debate in recent years. To date, CGN is generally recognized as safe based on a history of safe use, various acute toxicology studies and some recent chronic toxicology tests. This review offers readers an overview of evidence on CGN characteristics and digestive fate that highlight various gaps in our understanding. Specifically, three unresolved gaps are identified. Firstly, little information can be found on the current levels of public exposure to CGN...
February 22, 2018: Food & Function
Audrée-Anne Dumas, Annie Lapointe, Sophie Desroches
BACKGROUND: Social media platforms are increasingly used by registered dietitians (RDs) to improve knowledge translation and exchange in nutrition. However, a thorough understanding of social media in dietetic practice is lacking. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to map and summarize the evidence about the users, uses, and effects of social media in dietetic practice to identify gaps in the literature and inform future research by using a scoping review methodology...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Taylor C Wallace
In 2030, one in five Americans will be older than 65 years, and with that an increase in the number of individuals who experience loss in cognitive capacity is to be expected. At the same time, nutrition within the first 1000 days postconception has been suggested to strongly influence cognitive outcomes across the life-span in humans. Eggs are a primary source of both choline and the xanthophyll carotenoid lutein in the western diet, and both have been suggested to influence cognitive function in humans. This comprehensive review critically examines the effects of eggs, choline, and lutein on cognition across the life-span...
February 16, 2018: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
Sarah S Casagrande, Daniela Sotres-Alvarez, Larissa Avilés-Santa, Matthew J O'Brien, Cristina Palacios, Cynthia M Pérez, Samantha A Reina, Xueyin Wang, Qibin Qi, Aida L Giachello, Rebeca A Espinoza Giacinto, Catherine C Cowie
Objective: A healthy diet is important for diabetes prevention and control; however, few studies have assessed dietary intake among US Hispanics/Latinos, a diverse population with a significant burden of diabetes. To address this gap in the literature, we determined intake of energy, macro/micronutrients, and vitamin supplements among Hispanics/Latinos by glycemic status and heritage. Research design and methods: Cross-sectional study of adults aged 18-74 years from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (2008-2011) with complete baseline data on glycemic status and two 24-hour dietary recalls (n=13 089)...
2018: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
Elina Puolakka, Katja Pahkala, Tomi T Laitinen, Costan G Magnussen, Nina Hutri-Kähönen, Satu Männistö, Kristiina S Pälve, Tuija Tammelin, Päivi Tossavainen, Eero Jokinen, Kylie J Smith, Tomi Laitinen, Marko Elovainio, Laura Pulkki-Råback, Jorma S A Viikari, Olli T Raitakari, Markus Juonala
BACKGROUND: Differences in health behaviors partly explain the socioeconomic gap in cardiovascular health. We prospectively examined the association between childhood socioeconomic status (SES) and lifestyle factors in adulthood, and the difference of lifestyle factors according to childhood SES in multiple time points from childhood to adulthood. METHODS AND RESULTS: The sample comprised 3453 participants aged 3-18 years at baseline (1980) from the longitudinal Young Finns Study...
February 7, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Ananta Paine, Collynn F Woeller, Hengwei Zhang, Maria de la Luz Garcia-Hernandez, Nelson Huertas, Lianping Xing, Richard P Phipps, Christopher T Ritchlin
Thy1 (CD90), a glycosylated, glycophosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane protein highly expressed by subsets of mesenchymal stem cells and fibroblasts, inhibits adipogenesis. The role of Thy1 on bone structure and function has been poorly studied and represents a major knowledge gap. Therefore, we analyzed the long bones of wild-type (WT) and Thy1 knockout (KO) mice with micro-computed tomography (CT) and histomorphometry to compare changes in bone architecture and overall bone structure. micro-CT analysis of long bones revealed Thy1 KO and WT mice fed a high-fat diet demonstrated bone structural parameters at 4 mo that differed significantly between WT and KO mice...
January 17, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Stefanie Vandevijvere, Sally Mackay, Boyd Swinburn
BACKGROUND: Monitoring the degree of implementation of widely recommended food environment policies by national governments is an important part of stimulating progress towards better population nutritional health. METHODS: The Healthy Food Environment Policy Index (Food-EPI) was applied for the second time in New Zealand in 2017 (initially applied in 2014) to measure progress on implementation of widely recommended food environment policies. A national panel of 71 independent (n = 48) and government (n = 23) public health experts rated the extent of implementation of 47 policy and infrastructure support good practice indicators by the Government against international best practice, using an extensive evidence document verified by government officials...
January 25, 2018: Health Research Policy and Systems
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