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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917743/context-specific-complementary-feeding-recommendations-developed-using-optifood-could-improve-the-diets-of-breast-fed-infants-and-young-children-from-diverse-livelihood-groups-in-northern-kenya
#1
Marieke Vossenaar, Frances A Knight, Alison Tumilowicz, Christine Hotz, Peter Chege, Elaine L Ferguson
OBJECTIVE: To formulate age- and context-specific complementary feeding recommendations (CFR) for infants and young children (IYC) and to compare the potential of filling population-level nutrient gaps using common sets of CFR across age groups. DESIGN: Linear programming was used to develop CFR using locally available and acceptable foods based on livelihood- and age-group-specific dietary patterns observed through 24 h dietary recalls. Within each livelihood group, the nutrient potential of age-group-specific v...
December 5, 2016: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914647/human-exposure-to-dietary-inorganic-arsenic-and-other-arsenic-species-state-of-knowledge-gaps-and-uncertainties
#2
Francesco Cubadda, Brian P Jackson, Kathryn L Cottingham, Yoshira Ornelas Van Horne, Margaret Kurzius-Spencer
Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is ubiquitous in the environment as arsenite (AsIII) and arsenate (AsV) compounds and biotransformation of these toxic chemicals leads to the extraordinary variety of organoarsenic species found in nature. Despite classification as a human carcinogen based on data from populations exposed through contaminated drinking water, only recently has a need for regulatory limits on iAs in food been recognized. The delay was due to the difficulty in risk assessment of dietary iAs, which critically relies on speciation analysis providing occurrence data for iAs in food - and not simply for total arsenic...
November 30, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913012/hyperglycemic-high-anion-gap-metabolic-acidosis-in-patients-receiving-sglt-2-inhibitors-for-diabetes-management
#3
Juliette Sandifer Kum-Nji, Aidar R Gosmanov, Helmut Steinberg, Samuel Dagogo-Jack
Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2i) are a class of antidiabetic medications that improve glycemic control via inhibiting the reabsorption of filtered glucose and are approved for use in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). These drugs have recently been associated with euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). An increasing number of cases of SGLT-2i-associated DKA have occurred in patients with T2DM. Herein, we describe five episodes of hyperglycemic DKA in four type 2 diabetes patients receiving SGLT-2i therapy...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911065/-gastric-tube-esophagoplasty-using-the-retroesternal-route-in-children
#4
L García Martínez, J A Molino Gahete, S Redecillas Ferreiro, E Bordón Cabrera, J Bueno Recio, G Guillén Burrieza, C Giné Prades, A Lara Valtueña, J Lloret Roca
INTRODUCTION: Esophageal replacement is a surgical alternative once native esophagus can't be preserved. Different organs and routes for the replacement have been described, being the retroesternal route the least used. The aim is to present our results using gastric tube esophagoplasty with a retroesternal approach. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective and descriptive study of 11 patients operated from 2000 to 2015. Median age at surgery was 2.2 years (5 months-9 years) and median weight was 11...
January 25, 2016: Cirugía Pediátrica: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Cirugía Pediátrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884721/comparison-of-xenobiotic-metabolising-human-porcine-rodent-and-piscine-cytochrome-p450
#5
REVIEW
Viktoriia Burkina, Martin Krøyer Rasmussen, Nadezhda Pilipenko, Galia Zamaratskaia
Cytochrome P450 proteins (CYP450s) are present in most domains of life and play a critical role in the metabolism of endogenous compounds and xenobiotics. The effects of exposure to xenobiotics depend heavily on the expression and activity of drug-metabolizing CYP450s, which is determined by species, genetic background, age, gender, diet, and exposure to environmental pollutants. Numerous reports have investigated the role of different vertebrate CYP450s in xenobiotic metabolism. Model organisms provide powerful experimental tools to investigate Phase I metabolism...
November 22, 2016: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881403/irritable-bowel-syndrome-a-gut-microbiota-related-disorder
#6
Yogesh Bhattarai, David A Muniz Pedrogo, Purna C Kashyap
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. Despite its prevalence, the pathophysiology of IBS is not well understood though multiple peripheral and central factors are implicated. Recent studies suggest a role for alterations in gut microbiota in IBS. Significant advances in next-generation sequencing technology and bioinformatics, and the declining cost has now allowed us to better investigate the role of gut microbiota in IBS. In the following review, we propose gut microbiota as a unifying factor in the pathophysiology of IBS...
November 23, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870450/the-immune-system-as-a-novel-regulator-of-sex-differences-in-brain-and-behavioral-development
#7
REVIEW
Lars H Nelson, Kathryn M Lenz
Sexual differentiation of the brain occurs early in life as a result of sex-typical hormone action and sex chromosome effects. Immunocompetent cells are being recognized as underappreciated regulators of sex differences in brain and behavioral development, including microglia, astrocytes, and possibly other less well studied cell types, including T cells and mast cells. Immunocompetent cells in the brain are responsive to steroid hormones, but their role in sex-specific brain development is an emerging field of interest...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870021/temperature-dependence-of-predation-stress-and-the-nutritional-ecology-of-a-generalist-herbivore
#8
Oswald J Schmitz, Adam E Rosenblatt, Meredith Smylie
Prey at risk of predation may experience stress and respond physiologically by altering their metabolic rates. Theory predicts that such physiological changes should alter prey nutrient demands from N-rich to C-rich macronutrients and shift the balance between maintenance and growth/reproduction. Theory further suggests that for ectotherms, temperature stands to exacerbate this stress. Yet, the interactive effects of predation stress and temperature stress on diet, metabolism, and survival of ectotherms are not well known...
November 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859493/connexin32-deficiency-is-associated-with-liver-injury-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress-in-experimental-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis
#9
Taynã Cristina Tiburcio, Joost Willebrords, Tereza Cristina da Silva, Isabel Veloso Alves Pereira, Marina Sayuri Nogueira, Sara Crespo Yanguas, Michaël Maes, Elisangela Dos Anjos Silva, Maria Lucia Zaidan Dagli, Inar Alves de Castro, Cláudia Pinto Oliveira, Mathieu Vinken, Bruno Cogliati
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis is a highly prevalent liver pathology featured by hepatocellular fat deposition and inflammation. Connexin32, which is the major building block of hepatocellular gap junctions, has a protective role in hepatocarcinogenesis and is downregulated in chronic liver diseases. However, the role of connexin32 in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis remains unclear. Connexin32(-/-) mice and their wild-type littermates were fed a choline-deficient high-fat diet. The manifestation of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis was evaluated based on a battery of clinically relevant read-outs, including histopathological examination, diverse indicators of inflammation and liver damage, in-depth lipid analysis, assessment of oxidative stress, insulin and glucose tolerance, liver regeneration and lipid-related biomarkers...
November 17, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848731/results-from-scotland-s-2016-report-card-on-physical-activity-for-children-and-youth
#10
John J Reilly, Avril Johnstone, Geraldine McNeill, Adrienne R Hughes
BACKGROUND: The 2016 Active Healthy Kids Scotland Report Card aims to improve surveillance of physical activity (PA), facilitate international comparisons, and encourage evidence-informed PA and health policy. METHODS: Active Healthy Kids Canada Report Card methodology was used: a search for data on child and adolescent PA and health published after the 2013 Scottish Report Card was carried out. Data sources were considered for grading if based on representative samples with prevalence estimates made using methods with low bias...
November 2016: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836530/the-effect-of-state-competitive-food-and-beverage-regulations-on-childhood-overweight-and-obesity
#11
Ashlesha Datar, Nancy Nicosia
PURPOSE: Policy efforts for combating childhood obesity have sought stronger state policies for regulating competitive foods and beverages (CF&Bs) available in schools. However, the evidence linking state policies to children's overall diet and body weight outcomes is limited and mixed, and experts have called for more rigorous studies that are able to address concerns about selection bias. The present study leverages a rare natural experiment where children in military families are "assigned" to different state policies, due to their military parent's periodic relocation, to examine whether state CF&B policies were associated with children's body mass index (BMI) and overweight or obesity...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825943/perceptions-of-food-intake-and-weight-status-among-parents-of-picky-eating-infants-and-toddlers-in-china-a-cross-sectional-study
#12
Ziyi Li, Klazine van der Horst, Lisa R Edelson-Fries, Kai Yu, Lili You, Yumei Zhang, Gerard Vinyes-Pares, Peiyu Wang, Defu Ma, Xiaoguang Yang, Liqiang Qin, Jiaji Wang
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that children that are picky eaters may have a different and less varied diet than non-picky children, but the literature on picky eating in Chinese children is limited. OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of picky eating in 6-35 month-old Chinese children, and to explore how parents' perceptions of picky eating relate to children's intake and body composition. METHODS: 1414 6-35 month-old infants and toddlers from 8 Chinese cities were included in this study...
November 4, 2016: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814034/dining-in-the-deep-the-feeding-ecology-of-deep-sea-fishes
#13
Jeffrey C Drazen, Tracey T Sutton
Deep-sea fishes inhabit ∼75% of the biosphere and are a critical part of deep-sea food webs. Diet analysis and more recent trophic biomarker approaches, such as stable isotopes and fatty-acid profiles, have enabled the description of feeding guilds and an increased recognition of the vertical connectivity in food webs in a whole-water-column sense, including benthic-pelagic coupling. Ecosystem modeling requires data on feeding rates; the available estimates indicate that deep-sea fishes have lower per-individual feeding rates than coastal and epipelagic fishes, but the overall predation impact may be high...
October 13, 2016: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806526/role-of-omega-3-unsaturated-fatty-acids-in-the-postpartum-depression-systematic-review-and-narrative-synthesis
#14
Fatima Mougharbel, Raywat Deonandan
BACKGROUND: Postpartum depression (PPD) is a complex mental health disorder that affects women during their childbearing years. It is a serious medical condition that occurs in approximately 15% of women after birth and has an adverse effect on both the mother and the infant. Hypotheses exist relating dietary deficiencies in a pregnant or postnatal woman's diet may cause postnatal depression. It is unclear whether Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) are effective for treating or preventing PPD...
August 1, 2016: Global Journal of Health Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800479/complementary-feeding-review-of-recommendations-feeding-practices-and-adequacy-of-homemade-complementary-food-preparations-in-developing-countries-lessons-from-ethiopia
#15
REVIEW
Motuma Adimasu Abeshu, Azeb Lelisa, Bekesho Geleta
Breastfeeding provides the ideal food during the first 6 months of life. Complementary feeding starts when breast milk is no longer sufficient by itself, where the target age is for 6-23 months. The gap between nutritional requirement and amount obtained from breast milk increases with age. For energy, 200, 300, and 550 kcal per day is expected to be covered by complementary foods at 6-8, 9-11, and 12-23 months, respectively. In addition, the complementary foods must provide relatively large proportions of micronutrients such as iron, zinc, phosphorus, magnesium, calcium, and vitamin B6...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800447/bisphenol-a-in-edible-part-of-seafood
#16
REVIEW
Adele Repossi, Federica Farabegoli, Teresa Gazzotti, Elisa Zironi, Giampiero Pagliuca
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a man-made compound, mainly used as a monomer to produce polycarbonate (PC), epoxy resins, non-polymer additives to other plastics, which have many food related applications, such as food storage containers, tableware and internal coating of cans, as well as non-food applications such as electronic equipment, construction materials and medical devices. BPA exposure can occur when the residual monomer migrates into packaged food and beverages. Moreover, due to the ubiquitous presence of this compound, the general population can be exposed to environmental sources such as water, air and soil...
April 19, 2016: Italian Journal of Food Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781295/3d-cohort-study-the-integrated-research-network-in-perinatology-of-quebec-and-eastern-ontario
#17
William D Fraser, Gabriel D Shapiro, François Audibert, Lise Dubois, Jean-Charles Pasquier, Pierre Julien, Anick Bérard, Gina Muckle, Jacquetta Trasler, Richard E Tremblay, Haim Abenhaim, Michel Welt, Marie-Josée Bédard, François Bissonnette, Emmanuel Bujold, Robert Gagnon, Jacques L Michaud, Isabelle Girard, Jean-Marie Moutquin, Isabelle Marc, Patricia Monnier, Jean R Séguin, Zhong-Cheng Luo
BACKGROUND: The 3D Cohort Study (Design, Develop, Discover) was established to help bridge knowledge gaps about the links between various adverse exposures during pregnancy with birth outcomes and later health outcomes in children. METHODS: Pregnant women and their partners were recruited during the first trimester from nine sites in Quebec and followed along with their children through to 2 years of age. Questionnaires were administered during pregnancy and post-delivery to collect information on demographics, mental health and life style, medical history, psychosocial measures, diet, infant growth, and neurodevelopment...
November 2016: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779388/look-insight-health-risks-and-benefits-of-chickpea-cicer-arietinum-consumption
#18
Rinkesh Kumar Gupta, Kriti Gupta, Akanksha Sharma, Mukul Das, Irfan Ahmad Ansari, Premendra D Dwivedi
Chickpeas (CPs) are one of the most commonly consumed legumes especially in the Mediterranean area as well as in the western world. Being one of the most nutritional elements of the human diet, CP toxicity and allergy have raised health concern. CP may contain various anti-nutritional compounds, including protease inhibitors, phytic acid, lectins, oligosaccharides and some phenolic compounds that may impair the utilization of the nutrients by people. Also, high consumption rate of CPs have enhanced the allergic problems in sensitive individuals as it contains many allergens...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778049/geographic-location-is-an-important-determinant-of-risk-factors-for-stone-disease
#19
Ethan B Fram, Matthew D Sorensen, Vincent G Bird, Joshua M Stern
Some regions are known to have an increased burden of urolithiasis. Urolithiasis is known to be affected by weather patterns, particularly high ambient temperatures. To identify geographic differences in risk factors, we compared metabolic information for 1254 patients in two geographically distinct regions, New York and Florida, with per sample adjustment for ambient weather. We observed that patients in New York were more likely to have low urine volume, but also lower total urinary calcium (168 vs 216 mg, p = 0...
October 24, 2016: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777128/learning-about-activity-and-understanding-nutrition-for-child-health-launch-rationale-design-and-implementation-of-a-randomized-clinical-trial-of-a-family-based-pediatric-weight-management-program-for-preschoolers
#20
Lori J Stark, Stephanie Spear Filigno, Christopher Bolling, Megan B Ratcliff, Jessica C Kichler, Shannon L Robson, Stacey L Simon, Mary Beth McCullough, Lisa M Clifford, Cathleen O Stough, Cynthia Zion, Richard F Ittenbach
Obesity affects nearly 2 million preschool age children in the United States and is not abating. However, research on interventions for already obese preschoolers is limited. To address this significant gap in the literature, we developed an intervention targeting obesity reduction in 2 to 5year olds, Learning about Activity and Understanding Nutrition for Child Health (LAUNCH). This paper describes the rationale, design, participant enrollment, and implementation of a 3-arm randomized, parallel-group clinical trial comparing LAUNCH to a motivational-interviewing intervention (MI) and standard care (STC), respectively...
October 21, 2016: Contemporary Clinical Trials
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