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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817093/quality-of-vegetables-based-on-total-phenolic-concentration-is-lower-in-more-rural-consumer-food-environments-in-a-rural-american-state
#1
Selena Ahmed, Carmen Byker Shanks
While daily consumption of fruits and vegetables (FVs) is widely recognized to be associated with supporting nutrition and health, disparities exist in consumer food environments regarding access to high-quality produce based on location. The purpose of this study was to evaluate FV quality using total phenolic (TP) scores (a phytochemical measure for health-promoting attributes, flavor, appearance, and shelf-life) in consumer food environments along a rural to urban continuum in the rural state of Montana, United States...
August 17, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814951/optimal-formulations-of-local-foods-to-achieve-nutritional-adequacy-for-6-23-month-old-rural-tanzanian-children
#2
Jofrey Raymond, Neema Kassim, Jerman W Rose, Morris Agaba
Background: Achieving nutritional goals of infants and young children while maintaining the intake of local and culture-specific foods can be a daunting task. Diet optimisation using linear goal programming (LP) can effectively generate optimal formulations incorporating local and culturally acceptable foods. Objective: The primary objective of this study was to determine whether a realistic and affordable diet that achieves dietary recommended intakes (DRIs) for 22 selected nutrients can be formulated for rural 6-23-month-old children in Tanzania...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811572/inhibition-of-connexin-hemichannels-alleviates-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-in-mice
#3
Joost Willebrords, Bruno Cogliati, Isabel Veloso Alves Pereira, Tereza Cristina da Silva, Sara Crespo Yanguas, Michaël Maes, Veronica Mollica Govoni, Andressa Lima, Daniele Aparecida Felisbino, Elke Decrock, Marina Sayuri Nogueira, Inar Alves de Castro, Isabelle Leclercq, Luc Leybaert, Robim Marcelino Rodrigues, Mathieu Vinken
While gap junctions mediate intercellular communication and support liver homeostasis, connexin hemichannels are preferentially opened by pathological stimuli, including inflammation and oxidative stress. The latter are essential features of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. In this study, it was investigated whether connexin32 and connexin43 hemichannels play a role in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Mice were fed a choline-deficient high-fat diet or normal diet for 8 weeks. Thereafter, TAT-Gap24 or TAT-Gap19, specific inhibitors of hemichannels composed of connexin32 and connexin43, respectively, were administered for 2 weeks...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807084/linseed-plus-nitrate-in-the-diet-for-fattening-bulls-effects-on-methane-emission-animal-health-and-residues-in-offal
#4
M Doreau, M Arbre, M Popova, Y Rochette, C Martin
The combination of linseed and nitrate is known to decrease enteric methane emission in dairy cows but few studies have been carried out in fattening cattle for animal liveweight gain, enteric methane emission, animal health and presence of residues in beef products. To address this gap, 16 young bulls received a control (C) diet between weaning at 9 months and 14 months, then were split into two groups of eight balanced on feed intake, BW gain and methane emission to receive either the C diet or a diet moderately supplemented with extruded linseed and calcium nitrate (LN) for 2 months before being slaughtered...
August 15, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805734/grain-foods-are-contributors-of-nutrient-density-for-american-adults-and-help-close-nutrient-recommendation-gaps-data-from-the-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-2009-2012
#5
Yanni Papanikolaou, Victor L Fulgoni
The 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (2015-2020 DGA) maintains recommendations for increased consumption of whole grains while limiting intake of enriched/refined grains. A variety of enriched grains are sources of several shortfall nutrients identified by 2015-2020 DGA, including dietary fiber, folate, iron, and magnesium. The purpose of this study was to determine food sources of energy and nutrients for free-living U.S. adults using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009-2012...
August 14, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803558/global-comparison-of-national-individual-food-consumption-surveys-as-a-basis-for-health-research-and-integration-in-national-health-surveillance-programmes
#6
Inge Huybrechts, Elom K Aglago, Amy Mullee, Willem De Keyzer, Catherine Leclercq, Pauline Allemand, Agnieszka Balcerzak, Francis B Zotor, Marc J Gunter
Individual food consumption surveys (IFCS) are performed to evaluate compliance with food/nutrient intake requirements or exposure to potential harmful dietary contaminants/components. In this review, we inventoried methods and designs used in national IFCS and discussed the methodologies applied across countries. Literature searches were performed using fixed sets of search terms in different online databases. We identified IFCS in thirty-nine countries from six world continents. National IFCS systems are available in most of the high-income countries, while such surveys are scarce in low- and middle-income countries (e...
August 14, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802834/vegetable-derived-bioactive-nitrate-and-cardiovascular-health
#7
REVIEW
Catherine P Bondonno, Lauren C Blekkenhorst, Alex H Liu, Nicola P Bondonno, Natalie C Ward, Kevin D Croft, Jonathan M Hodgson
Vegetable derived nitrate is now recognised as an important bioactive phytochemical with cardioprotective properties. Nitrate, through the recently described enterosalivary nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide (NO) pathway, increases NO, a molecule pivotal for cardiovascular health. Clinical trials have observed that dietary nitrate has similar effects to NO when supplied exogenously. These effects include reduced blood pressure and improvements in other markers of vascular health such as endothelial function, arterial stiffness, ischemia reperfusion injury, blood flow, and platelet aggregation...
August 9, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802306/ilsi-southeast-asia-region-conference-proceedings-the-gut-its-microbes-and-health-relevance-for-asia
#8
Yuan Kun Lee, Patricia Conway, Sven Pettersson, G Balakrish Nair, Ingrid Surono, Yusra Egayanti, Maria Sofia Amarra
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The human being is a complex entity, involving interaction between microbes and the human host. Evidence shows that the nutritional value of food is influenced in part by the structure and operations of an individual's gut microbial community, and food in turn shapes the individual's microbiome. A conference was held to promote understanding of the intestinal microbiome and its implications for health and disease, particularly among Asian populations. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Papers describing 1) the intestinal ecosystem in Asian populations, 2) changes in intestinal microbiota through life and its effects, 3) the Asian gut microbiota in disease conditions, 4) indigenous probiotics to maintain a healthy gut microbiota, 5) probiotic regulation in an Asian country, and 6) the results of a panel discussion are included in this report...
2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796176/bridging-the-gap-between-gut-microbial-dysbiosis-and-cardiovascular-diseases
#9
REVIEW
Kimberley Lau, Varun Srivatsav, Ayesha Rizwan, Andrew Nashed, Rui Liu, Rui Shen, Mahmood Akhtar
The human gut is heavily colonized by a community of microbiota, primarily bacteria, that exists in a symbiotic relationship with the host and plays a critical role in maintaining host homeostasis. The consumption of a high-fat (HF) diet has been shown to induce gut dysbiosis and reduce intestinal integrity. Recent studies have revealed that dysbiosis contributes to the progression of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) by promoting two major CVD risk factors-atherosclerosis and hypertension. Imbalances in host-microbial interaction impair homeostatic mechanisms that regulate health and can activate multiple pathways leading to CVD risk factor progression...
August 10, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774721/ontogenetic-and-functional-modularity-in-the-rodent-mandible
#10
Rachel A Menegaz, Matthew J Ravosa
The material properties of diets consumed by juvenile individuals are known to affect adult morphological outcomes. However, much of the current experimental knowledge regarding dietary effects on masticatory form is derived from studies in which individuals are fed a non-variable diet for the duration of their postweaning growth period. Thus, it remains unclear how intra-individual variation in diet, due to ontogenetic variation in feeding behaviors or seasonal resource fluctuations, affects the resulting adult morphology...
June 8, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748574/delayed-postoperative-diet-is-associated-with-a-greater-incidence-of-prolonged-postoperative-ileus-and-longer-stay-in-hospital-for-patients-undergoing-gastrointestinal-surgery
#11
Joanna Rees, Kelly Bobridge, Catherine Cash, Philippa Lyons-Wall, Rebecca Allan, Jacqui Coombes
AIM: Recent evidence favours a move away from delaying postoperative nutrition towards early feeding practices for better patient outcomes after gastrointestinal surgery. The aim of the present study was to investigate postoperative diet progression and patient outcomes in a secondary hospital with a view to inform future practice. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of gastrointestinal surgery patients (n = 69) at a Western Australian general hospital. Demographic data and outcomes were collected from patient records and included presence or absence of prolonged postoperative ileus, length of stay in hospital, days on minimal nutrition and days until first flatus or stool...
July 26, 2017: Nutrition & Dietetics: the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748073/consumer-orientated-development-of-hybrid-beef-burger-and-sausage-analogues
#12
Michelle Neville, Amparo Tarrega, Louise Hewson, Tim Foster
Hybrid meat analogues, whereby a proportion of meat has been partially replaced by more sustainable protein sources, have been proposed to provide a means for more sustainable diets in the future. Consumer testing was conducted to determine consumer acceptability of different formulations of Hybrid beef burgers and pork sausages in comparison with both meat and meat-free commercial products. Acceptability data were generated using the 9-point hedonic scale. Check-all-that-apply (CATA) questioning was used to determine the sensory attributes perceived in each product as well as information on the attributes of consumers' ideal products...
July 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747982/comparative-study-of-fatty-liver-induced-by-methionine-and-choline-deficiency-in-c57bl-6n-mice-originating-from-three-different-sources
#13
Sou Hyun Kim, Yong Lim, Ju Bin Park, Jae-Hwan Kwak, Keuk-Jun Kim, Joung-Hee Kim, HyunKeun Song, Joon Young Cho, Dae Youn Hwang, Kil Soo Kim, Young-Suk Jung
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is believed to be the most prevalent liver disease worldwide and a major cause of chronic liver injury. It is characterized by lipid accumulation in the absence of significant alcohol consumption and frequently progresses to steatohepatitis, liver fibrosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Although many studies have been conducted to better understand NAFLD since it was first recognized, there are still many gaps in knowledge of etiology, prognosis, prevention and treatment...
June 2017: Laboratory Animal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741906/a-research-agenda-to-guide-progress-on-childhood-obesity-prevention-in-latin-america
#14
L Kline, J Jones-Smith, J Jaime Miranda, M Pratt, R S Reis, J A Rivera, J F Sallis, B M Popkin
Childhood obesity rates in Latin America are among the highest in the world. This paper examines and evaluates the many efforts underway in the region to reduce and prevent further increases in obesity, identifies and discusses unique research challenges and opportunities in Latin America, and proposes a research agenda in Latin America for the prevention of childhood obesity and concomitant non-communicable diseases. Identified research gaps include biological challenges to healthy growth across the life cycle, diet and physical activity dynamics, community interventions promoting healthy child growth, and rigorous evaluation of national food and activity programs and regulatory actions...
July 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738909/quantifying-associations-of-the-dietary-share-of-ultra-processed-foods-with-overall-diet-quality-in-first-nations-peoples-in-the-canadian-provinces-of-british-columbia-alberta-manitoba-and-ontario
#15
Malek Batal, Louise Johnson-Down, Jean-Claude Moubarac, Amy Ing, Karen Fediuk, Tonio Sadik, Constantine Tikhonov, Laurie Chan, Noreen Willows
OBJECTIVE: To quantify associations of the dietary share of ultra-processed foods (UPF) with the overall diet quality of First Nations peoples. DESIGN: A cross-sectional analysis of data from the First Nations Food, Nutrition and Environment Study, designed to contribute to knowledge gaps regarding the diet of First Nations peoples living on-reserve, south of the 60th parallel. A multistage sampling of communities was conducted. All foods from 24 h dietary recalls were categorized into NOVA categories and analyses were performed to evaluate the impact of UPF on diet quality...
July 25, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734670/population-health-and-regional-variations-of-disease-burden-in-japan-1990-2015-a-systematic-subnational-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2015
#16
Shuhei Nomura, Haruka Sakamoto, Scott Glenn, Yusuke Tsugawa, Sarah K Abe, Md M Rahman, Jonathan C Brown, Satoshi Ezoe, Christina Fitzmaurice, Tsuyoshi Inokuchi, Nicholas J Kassebaum, Norito Kawakami, Yosuke Kita, Naoki Kondo, Stephen S Lim, Satoshi Maruyama, Hiroaki Miyata, Meghan D Mooney, Mohsen Naghavi, Tomoko Onoda, Erika Ota, Yuji Otake, Gregory A Roth, Eiko Saito, Takahiro Tabuchi, Yohsuke Takasaki, Tadayuki Tanimura, Manami Uechi, Theo Vos, Haidong Wang, Manami Inoue, Christopher J L Murray, Kenji Shibuya
BACKGROUND: Japan has entered the era of super-ageing and advanced health transition, which is increasingly putting pressure on the sustainability of its health system. The level and pace of this health transition might vary across regions within Japan and concern is growing about increasing regional variations in disease burden. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015) provides a comprehensive, comparable framework. We used data from GBD 2015 with the aim to quantify the burden of disease and injuries, and to attribute risk factors in Japan at a subnational, prefecture-level...
July 19, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733894/risk-and-maintenance-factors-for-young-women-s-dsm-5-eating-disorders
#17
Antonios Dakanalis, Massimo Clerici, Francesco Bartoli, Manuela Caslini, Cristina Crocamo, Giuseppe Riva, Giuseppe Carrà
Recent research with young women attending colleges, who are at the average age of eating disorder (ED) onset, established that the ED symptoms are not only prevalent but also relatively stable over the college period. Nonetheless, our knowledge regarding the course and modifiable factors associated with both the onset and maintenance of diagnosable (DSM-5) EDs in this population is limited. The objective of this report was to address these key research gaps. Data were examined from 2713 women who completed assessments of potential vulnerability factors and EDs in the autumn semester of the first (baseline) and fourth (follow-up) college years...
July 21, 2017: Archives of Women's Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731638/factors-influencing-hospital-foodservice-staff-s-capacity-to-deliver-a-nutrition-intervention
#18
Jorja Collins, Catherine E Huggins, Judi Porter, Claire Palermo
AIM: Implementation of an intervention can result in a discrepancy between what was planned and what is delivered, affecting outcomes for recipients. The aim was to explore, from the perspective of hospital foodservice staff, their experiences delivering a nutrition intervention and the barriers and enablers to its implementation. METHODS: A process evaluation of a pilot study was undertaken using qualitative description. A purposive sample (n = 15) of hospital foodservice supervisors and foodservice assistants responsible for delivering a higher energy menu to hospital patients participated in focus groups and semistructured interviews...
April 2017: Nutrition & Dietetics: the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720140/a-mixed-methods-protocol-for-developing-and-testing-implementation-strategies-for-evidence-based-obesity-prevention-in-childcare-a-cluster-randomized-hybrid-type-iii-trial
#19
Taren Swindle, Susan L Johnson, Leanne Whiteside-Mansell, Geoffrey M Curran
BACKGROUND: Despite the potential to reach at-risk children in childcare, there is a significant gap between current practices and evidence-based obesity prevention in this setting. There are few investigations of the impact of implementation strategies on the uptake of evidence-based practices (EBPs) for obesity prevention and nutrition promotion. This study protocol describes a three-phase approach to developing and testing implementation strategies to support uptake of EBPs for obesity prevention practices in childcare (i...
July 18, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715062/gestational-weight-gain-historical-evolution-of-a-contested-health-outcome
#20
Edmond D Shenassa, Celena Kinsey, Marian Moser Jones, Jenifer Fahey
The history of research on gestational weight gain (GWG) in the United States and United Kingdom provides a context for current clinical practice. We trace the evolution of research on GWG in scientific literature from the 19th century to the present and examine its implications for contemporary clinical and public health practice. Obstetricians, beginning in the late 1800s, recommended dieting during pregnancy in order to limit GWG to 20 lb or less, driven by a belief that excessive weight gain was a cause of toxemia...
July 2017: Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey
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