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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351568/habits-and-beliefs-related-to-food-supplements-results-of-a-survey-among-italian-students-of-different-education-fields-and-levels
#1
Felice Sirico, Salvatore Miressi, Clotilde Castaldo, Rocco Spera, Stefania Montagnani, Franca Di Meglio, Daria Nurzynska
The increasing availability of food supplements, aggressive media advertising, and common beliefs that these substances have only positive effects on health and sport performance indicate a need for continuous monitoring of this phenomenon. The aim of this study was to investigate the habits and beliefs related to diet supplementation among medical, health professional, and other university/high school students by means of a cross-sectional anonymous survey online. Among the respondents aware of supplements, 37...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340150/xylose-absorption-fermentation-and-post-absorptive-metabolism-in-the-pig
#2
REVIEW
Nichole F Huntley, John F Patience
Xylose, as β-1,4-linked xylan, makes up much of the hemicellulose in cell walls of cereal carbohydrates fed to pigs. As inclusion of fibrous ingredients in swine diets continues to increase, supplementation of carbohydrases, such as xylanase, is of interest. However, much progress is warranted to achieve consistent enzyme efficacy, including an improved understanding of the utilization and energetic contribution of xylanase hydrolysis product (i.e. xylooligosaccharides or monomeric xylose). This review examines reports on xylose absorption and metabolism in the pig and identifies gaps in this knowledge that are essential to understanding the value of carbohydrase hydrolysis products in the nutrition of the pig...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330950/comparative-anatomy-of-bat-jaw-musculature-via-diffusible-iodine-based-contrast-enhanced-computed-tomography
#3
Sharlene E Santana
Noctilionoid bats exhibit an extraordinary array of cranial specializations that match diverse diets, including variation in jaw musculature physiological cross-sectional areas (PCSA), lever arms, and relative contribution to bite force. Although previous research in this group has linked variation in skull shape and muscle mechanics to biting performance, there are still important gaps about the anatomical underpinnings of noctilionoid dietary adaptations, including the degree of compartmentalization of the jaw musculature, and whether and how muscle attachment sites have evolved across noctilionoid species that specialize on derived diets...
February 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328039/influence-of-metabolic-syndrome-on-condition-of-microcirculatory-bed-of-oral-cavity
#4
O Denga, T Pyndus, V Gargin, S Schneider
Metabolic syndrome (MS) can be characterized as the clustering of combination of impaired glucose regulation, metabolic disorders accompanied by abdominal obesity, hyperglycemia, high blood pressure and dyslipidemia. Detection of changes in microcirculatory bed (MCB) of oral cavity in metabolic syndrome could be important for completion of gap for developing of adequate therapeutical measure for prevention of pathological periodontal disorder that was the purpose of our study. We performed experimental investigation with modulation of MS (on white male rats 1...
December 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316905/app-technology-to-increase-physical-activity-among-patients-with-diabetes-type-2-the-diacert-study-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Stephanie E Bonn, Christina Alexandrou, Kristin Hjörleifsdottir Steiner, Klara Wiklander, Claes-Göran Östenson, Marie Löf, Ylva Trolle Lagerros
BACKGROUND: Physical activity can decrease the risk of complications related to diabetes type 2. Feasible and scalable strategies to implement support for a healthy lifestyle for patients in primary care are needed. The aim of the DiaCert-study is to evaluate a digital healthcare platform and the effect of a 12-week long smartphone-app physical activity intervention aiming at increasing physical activity (primary outcome) and improve levels of HbA1c (glycated hemoglobin), blood lipids, blood pressure, body composition, as well as other lifestyle factors and overall health in patients with diabetes type 2...
January 10, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316699/arizona-registered-dietitians-show-gaps-in-knowledge-of-bean-health-benefits
#6
Donna M Winham, Andrea M Hutchins, Sharon V Thompson, Mariah K Dougherty
Registered Dietitians (RDs) promote nutrition practices and policies and can influence food consumption patterns to include nutrient dense foods such as beans. Although many evidence-based health benefits of bean consumption (e.g., cholesterol reduction, glycemic control) have been demonstrated, there is limited research on the knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of RDs regarding the inclusion of beans in a healthy diet. To fill this existing research gap, this cross-sectional survey explored the perceptions, knowledge, and attitudes of 296 RDs in Arizona, USA, toward beans...
January 8, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307323/quality-of-eggs-from-lohmann-brown-classic-laying-hens-fed-black-soldier-fly-meal-as-substitute-for-soya-bean
#7
G Secci, F Bovera, S Nizza, N Baronti, L Gasco, G Conte, A Serra, A Bonelli, G Parisi
Soya bean is the main protein source in poultry feed but rising prices make an alternative protein source necessary. Insects, such as the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens), may be an attractive solution for hens, although little information is available on their effect on egg quality. The present study aims to fill this gap by testing the effect of 100% replacement of soya bean with H. illucens larva meal in the diet of Lohmann Brown Classic laying hens for 21 weeks. At the end of the trial, the eggs were characterized for parameters such as weight, colour, proximate composition of albumen and yolk, and content of carotenoids, tocopherols and cholesterol...
January 8, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304720/the-effect-of-cholesterol-overload-on-mouse-kidney-and-kidney-derived-cells
#8
Shoko Honzumi, Miho Takeuchi, Mizuki Kurihara, Masachika Fujiyoshi, Masashi Uchida, Kenta Watanabe, Takaaki Suzuki, Itsuko Ishii
INTRODUCTION: Dyslipidemia is one of the onset and risk factors of chronic kidney disease and renal function drop is seen in lipoprotein abnormal animal models. However, the detailed molecular mechanism of renal lipotoxicity has not been clarified. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the influence of cholesterol overload using mouse kidney tissue and kidney-derived cultured cells. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were fed normal diet (ND) or 1.25% cholesterol-containing high-cholesterol diet (HCD) for 11 weeks, and we used megalin as a proximal tubule marker for immunohistology...
November 2018: Renal Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302712/exposure-assessment-of-process-related-contaminants-in-food-by-biomarker-monitoring
#9
REVIEW
Ivonne M C M Rietjens, P Dussort, Helmut Günther, Paul Hanlon, Hiroshi Honda, Angela Mally, Sue O'Hagan, Gabriele Scholz, Albrecht Seidel, James Swenberg, Justin Teeguarden, Gerhard Eisenbrand
Exposure assessment is a fundamental part of the risk assessment paradigm, but can often present a number of challenges and uncertainties. This is especially the case for process contaminants formed during the processing, e.g. heating of food, since they are in part highly reactive and/or volatile, thus making exposure assessment by analysing contents in food unreliable. New approaches are therefore required to accurately assess consumer exposure and thus better inform the risk assessment. Such novel approaches may include the use of biomarkers, physiologically based kinetic (PBK) modelling-facilitated reverse dosimetry, and/or duplicate diet studies...
January 4, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286648/substituted-diphenylamine-antioxidants-and-benzotriazole-uv-stabilizers-in-aquatic-organisms-in-the-great-lakes-of-north-america-terrestrial-exposure-and-biodilution
#10
Zhe Lu, Amila O De Silva, Daryl McGoldrick, Wenjia Zhou, Thomas E Peart, Cyril J Cook, Gerald Tetreault, Pamela A Martin, Shane Raymond de Solla
Substituted diphenylamine antioxidants (SDPAs) and benzotriazole UV stabilizers (BZT-UVs) are industrial additives of emerging environmental concern. However, the bioaccumulation, biomagnification and spatial distribution of these contaminants in the Great Lakes of North America are unknown. The present study addresses these knowledge gaps by reporting SDPAs and BZT-UVs in herring gull (Larus argentatus) eggs, lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and their food web in the Great Lakes for the first time. Herring gull eggs showed much higher detection frequency and concentrations of target SDPAs and 2-(2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)-4,6-di-tert-pentylphenol(UV328) than that of the whole body fish homogenate...
December 29, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285399/fighting-against-a-protean-enemy-immunosenescence-vaccines-and-healthy-aging
#11
Giuseppe Del Giudice, Jörg J Goronzy, Beatrix Grubeck-Loebenstein, Paul-Henri Lambert, Tomas Mrkvan, Jeffrey J Stoddard, T Mark Doherty
The progressive increase of the aged population worldwide mandates new strategies to ensure sustained health and well-being with age. The development of better and/or new vaccines against pathogens that affect older adults is one pivotal intervention in approaching this goal. However, the functional decline of various physiological systems, including the immune system, requires novel approaches to counteract immunosenescence. Although important progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms underlying the age-related decline of the immune response to infections and vaccinations, knowledge gaps remain, both in the areas of basic and translational research...
2018: NPJ Aging and Mechanisms of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261673/we-are-what-we-eat-regulatory-gaps-in-the-united-states-that-put-our-health-at-risk
#12
Maricel V Maffini, Thomas G Neltner, Sarah Vogel
The American diet has changed dramatically since 1958, when Congress gave the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) the authority to ensure the safety of chemicals in food. Since then, thousands of chemicals have entered the food system. Yet their long-term, chronic effects have been woefully understudied, their health risks inadequately assessed. The FDA has been sluggish in considering scientific knowledge about the impact of exposures-particularly at low levels and during susceptible developmental stages...
December 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247185/increasing-gap-in-human-height-between-rich-and-poor-countries-associated-to-their-different-intakes-of-n-and-p
#13
Josep Peñuelas, Ivan A Janssens, Philippe Ciais, Michael Obersteiner, Tamás Krisztin, Shilong Piao, Jordi Sardans
We analyzed mean height of men born in the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s in 80 countries. Both height and the change in height during the last decades were correlated with N and P intake, as well as the N:P intake ratio. Rich countries had higher per capita N and P intake than poor countries (on average 19.5 ± 0.3 versus 9.66 ± 0.18 kg N y-1 and 2.17 ± 0.04 versus 1.35 ± 0.02 kg P y-1), and also larger increases in per capita N intake (12.1 ± 2.0% vs. 7.0 ± 2.1%) and P intake (7...
December 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243503/women-s-beliefs-about-what-causes-obesity-variation-by-race-ethnicity-and-acculturation-in-a-washington-state-sample
#14
Sarah Knerr, Rachel M Ceballos, Kwun Chuen Gary Chan, Shirley A A Beresford, Deborah J Bowen
OBJECTIVE: Individuals' beliefs about the causes of multifactorial health conditions (causal attributions) shape how they conceptualize and respond to health threats and are therefore important for health promotion. Studies of racial/ethnic and cultural variation in obesity causal beliefs, however, are scarce. To address this gap, this study described beliefs about the underlying causes of obesity (genetic inheritance, diet, and physical activity) in Hispanic and non-Hispanic White women participating in a longitudinal cohort study in South King County, Washington State (n = 1,002)...
December 15, 2017: Ethnicity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237437/the-impact-of-a-community-led-program-promoting-weight-loss-and-healthy-living-in-aboriginal-communities-the-new-south-wales-knockout-health-challenge
#15
Erin Passmore, Brooke Shepherd, Andrew Milat, Louise Maher, Kiel Hennessey, Rachael Havrlant, Michelle Maxwell, Wendy Hodge, Fiona Christian, Justin Richards, Jo Mitchell
BACKGROUND: Aboriginal people in Australia experience significant health burden from chronic disease. There has been limited research to identify effective healthy lifestyle programs to address risk factors for chronic disease among Aboriginal people. METHODS: The Knockout Health Challenge is a community-led healthy lifestyle program for Aboriginal communities across New South Wales, Australia. An evaluation of the 2013 Knockout Health Challenge was undertaken. Participants' self-reported physical activity and diet were measured at four time points - at the start and end of the Challenge (via paper form), and 5 and 9 months after the Challenge (via telephone survey)...
December 13, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225484/the-prevalence-of-iron-deficiency-anemia-and-its-associated-risk-factors-among-a-sample-of-female-university-students-in-tabuk-saudi-arabia
#16
Riyadh A Alzaheb, Osama Al-Amer
Background: Prior data on iron deficiency anemia's (IDA) prevalence and associated risk factors among female university students are scarce in the Saudi Arabian context. This study therefore recruited a sample of female students at the University of Tabuk, Saudi Arabia, to investigate IDA prevalence and risk factors and fill the identified research gap. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 200 apparently healthy female students aged between 19 and 25 years was performed between February and June 2016...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209497/long-chain-n-3-pufa-in-vegetarian-women-a-metabolic-perspective
#17
REVIEW
Graham C Burdge, Sze-Yen Tan, Christiani Jeyakumar Henry
Vegetarian diets have been associated with health benefits, but paradoxically are low in EPA and DHA which are important for development, particularly of the central nervous system, and for health. Humans have limited capacity for synthesis of EPA and DHA from α-linolenic acid, although this is greater in women than men. Oily fish and, to a lesser extent, dairy foods and meat are the primary sources of EPA and DHA in the diet. Exclusion of these foods from the diet by vegetarians is associated consistently with lower EPA and DHA status in vegetarian women compared with omnivores...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208040/a-systematic-review-of-school-based-ehealth-interventions-targeting-alcohol-use-smoking-physical-inactivity-diet-sedentary-behaviour-and-sleep-among-adolescents-a-review-protocol
#18
Katrina E Champion, Nicola C Newton, Bonnie Spring, Q Eileen Wafford, Belinda J Parmenter, Maree Teesson
BACKGROUND: Six key behavioural risk factors (risky alcohol use, smoking, poor diet, physical inactivity, sedentary behaviour and unhealthy sleep patterns) have been identified as strong determinants of chronic disease, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancers. School-based interventions targeting these multiple health risk behaviours among adolescents have the potential to halt the trajectory towards later disease, whilst online and mobile technology interventions offer advantages in terms of student engagement, reach and scalability...
December 6, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201365/development-of-guidelines-for-giving-community-presentations-about-eating-disorders-a-delphi-study
#19
Joanna Rachel Doley, Laura Merilyn Hart, Arthur Anthony Stukas, Amy Joanna Morgan, Danielle Lisa Rowlands, Susan Jessica Paxton
Background: Concerns exist around how to talk about eating disorders (EDs) due to evidence that suggests discussing ED symptoms and behaviours may cause or worsen symptoms in vulnerable people. Using expert consensus, we developed a set of guidelines for giving safe community presentations about EDs. Methods: Participants with professional ED expertise, and people with lived experience of an ED, were recruited for a Delphi study. N = 26 panel members rated 367 statements for both a) inclusion in guidelines, and b) their potential to be helpful (increase knowledge, reduce stigma) or harmful (increase stigma, cause/worsen ED symptoms)...
2017: Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190114/the-scientific-basis-for-healthful-carbohydrate-profile
#20
Lisa M Lamothe, Kim-Anne Lê, Rania Abou Samra, Olivier Roger, Hilary Green, Katherine Macé
Dietary guidelines indicate that complex carbohydrates should provide around half of the calories in a balanced diet, while sugars (i.e., simple carbohydrates) should be limited to no more than 5-10% of total energy intake. To achieve this public health goal a collective effort from different entities including governments, food & beverage industries and consumers is required. Some food companies have committed to continually reduce sugars in their products. Different solutions can be used to replace sugars in food products but it is important to ensure that these solutions are more healthful than the sugars they replace...
November 30, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
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