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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636668/microbiota-in-anorexia-nervosa-the-triangle-between-bacterial-species-metabolites-and-psychological-tests
#1
Francesca Borgo, Alessandra Riva, Alberto Benetti, Maria Cristina Casiraghi, Sara Bertelli, Stefania Garbossa, Simona Anselmetti, Silvio Scarone, Antonio E Pontiroli, Giulia Morace, Elisa Borghi
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric disease with devastating physical consequences, with a pathophysiological mechanism still to be elucidated. Metagenomic studies on anorexia nervosa have revealed profound gut microbiome perturbations as a possible environmental factor involved in the disease. In this study we performed a comprehensive analysis integrating data on gut microbiota with clinical, anthropometric and psychological traits to gain new insight in the pathophysiology of AN. Fifteen AN women were compared with fifteen age-, sex- and ethnicity-matched healthy controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636003/in-vitro-modulation-of-gut-microbiota-by-whey-protein-to-preserve-intestinal-health
#2
T Sánchez-Moya, R López-Nicolás, D Planes, C A González-Bermúdez, G Ros-Berruezo, C Frontela-Saseta
The effect of several types of whey milk - cow, sheep, goat and a mixture of them (60 : 20 : 20, respectively) - was assessed in the human gut microbiota. The prebiotic potential of these substrates was evaluated through in vitro gastrointestinal digestion following faecal batch culture fermentations (mimicking colonic fermentation) for 48 hours, using faeces from normal-weight (NW) and obese (OB) donors. Throughout the fermentation process, pH, gas production, short chain and branched fatty acids (SCFA-BCFA) were measured, as well as the changes of microbiota using qPCR...
June 21, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632732/fructo-oligosaccharides-and-intestinal-barrier-function-in-a-methionine-choline-deficient-mouse-model-of-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#3
Kotaro Matsumoto, Mayuko Ichimura, Koichi Tsuneyama, Yuki Moritoki, Hiromichi Tsunashima, Katsuhisa Omagari, Masumi Hara, Ichiro Yasuda, Hiroshi Miyakawa, Kentaro Kikuchi
Impairments in intestinal barrier function, epithelial mucins, and tight junction proteins have been reported to be associated with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Prebiotic fructo-oligosaccharides restore balance in the gastrointestinal microbiome. This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary fructo-oligosaccharides on intestinal barrier function and steatohepatitis in methionine-choline-deficient mice. Three groups of 12-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were studied for 3 weeks; specifically, mice were fed a methionine-choline-deficient diet, a methionine-choline-deficient diet plus 5% fructo-oligosaccharides in water, or a normal control diet...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622455/intestinal-metabolites-are-profoundly-altered-in-the-context-of-hla-b27-expression-and-functionally-modulate-disease-in-a-rat-model-of-spondyloarthropathy
#4
Mark Asquith, Sean Davin, Patrick Stauffer, Claire Michell, Cathleen Janowitz, Phoebe Lin, Joe Ensign-Lewis, Jason M Kinchen, Dennis R Koop, Jim Rosenbaum
Objective HLA-B27 associated spondyloarthropathies are associated with an altered intestinal microbiota and bowel inflammation. Therefore, we sought to identify B27-dependent changes in both host and microbial metabolites in the HLA-B27/β2m rat and whether microbiota-derived metabolites could impact disease in this major model of spondyloarthropathy. Methods Cecal contents were collected from 6wk (pre-diseased) and 16wk (diseased) Fischer 344 HLA-B27/β2m transgenic rats and WT controls. Metabolomic profiling was performed by high-throughput gas- and liquid-chromatography-based mass spectrometry...
June 16, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621836/-dietary-advanced-glycation-end-products-modify-gut-microbial-composition-and-partially-increase-colon-permeability-in-rats
#5
Wanting Qu, Xiaojin Yuan, Jinsong Zhao, Yingxiao Zhang, Jing Hu, Jiawei Wang, Juxiu Li
SCOPE: The adverse impacts of dietary advanced glycation end products (AGEs) on health are currently of interest. These compounds are inevitably formed during thermal food processing and make foods less digestible because of protein cross-linking. This study examined not only whether dietary AGEs alter cecal microbiota and their metabolites but also their effects on colon permeability. METHODS AND RESULTS: Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to a high-AGEs diet (AGEs content was increased by heating food at 125°C/3 h) for 6, 12, or 18 weeks...
June 16, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616977/the-gastrointestinal-simulation-model-twin-shime%C3%A2-shows-differences-between-human-urolithin-metabotypes-in-gut-microbiota-composition-pomegranate-polyphenol-metabolism-and-transport-along-the-intestinal-tract
#6
Rocio Garcia-Villalba, Hanne Vissenaekens, Judit Pitart, Maria Romo-Vaquero, Juan Carlos Espín, Charlotte Grootaert, María V Selma, Katleen Raes, Guy Smagghe, Sam Possemiers, John Van Camp, Francisco A Tomas-Barberan
A TWIN-SHIME® system was used to compare the metabolism of pomegranate polyphenols by the gut microbiota from two individuals with different urolithin metabotypes. Gut microbiota, ellagitannin metabolism, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), transport of metabolites and phase II metabolism using Caco-2 cells were explored. The simulation reproduced the in vivo metabolic profiles for each metabotype. The study shows for the first time that microbial composition, metabolism of ellagitannins and SCFA differ between metabotypes and along the large intestine...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615636/autotransporter-domain-dependent-enzymatic-analysis-of-a-novel-extremely-thermostable-carboxylesterase-with-high-biodegradability-towards-pyrethroid-pesticides
#7
Xianghai Cai, Wei Wang, Lin Lin, Dannong He, Gang Huang, Yaling Shen, Wei Wei, Dongzhi Wei
The EstPS1 gene, which encodes a novel carboxylesterase of Pseudomonas synxantha PS1 isolated from oil well-produced water, was cloned and sequenced. EstPS1 has an open reading frame of 1923 bp and encodes the 640-amino acid carboxylesterase (EstPS1), which contains an autotransporter (AT) domain (357-640 amino acids). Homology analysis revealed that EstPS1 shared the highest identity (88%) with EstA from Pseudomonas fluorescens A506 (NCBI database) and belonged to the carboxylesterase family (EC 3.1.1.1). The optimum pH and temperature of recombinant EstPS1 were found to be 8...
June 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615134/synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-5-fatty-acylamido-1-3-4-thiadiazole-2-thioglycosides
#8
Srikanth Vudhgiri, Dhevendar Koude, Dileep Kumar Veeragoni, Sunil Misra, R B N Prasad, Ram Chandra Reddy Jala
In the present study, the synthesis of 1, 3, 4-thiadiazole-based thioglycosides were accomplished in good yields with employing a convergent synthetic route. The starting material 5-amino-1, 3, 4-thiadiazole-2-thiol and followed by a series of 5-fatty-acylamido-1, 3, 4-thiadiazole-2-thiols (4a-4j) were synthesized with different fatty acid chlorides. The glycosylation of compounds 4a-4j were achieved with trichloroacetimidate methodology. Antimicrobial and cytotoxicity activities of title compounds were evaluated...
June 3, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613252/are-the-gut-bacteria-telling-us-to-eat-or-not-to-eat-reviewing-the-role-of-gut-microbiota-in-the-etiology-disease-progression-and-treatment-of-eating-disorders
#9
REVIEW
Yan Y Lam, Sarah Maguire, Talia Palacios, Ian D Caterson
Traditionally recognized as mental illnesses, eating disorders are increasingly appreciated to be biologically-driven. There is a growing body of literature that implicates a role of the gut microbiota in the etiology and progression of these conditions. Gut bacteria may act on the gut-brain axis to alter appetite control and brain function as part of the genesis of eating disorders. As the illnesses progress, extreme feeding patterns and psychological stress potentially feed back to the gut ecosystem that can further compromise physiological, cognitive, and social functioning...
June 14, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610999/changes-in-faecal-bacteria-during-fattening-in-finishing-swine
#10
Tomomi Ban-Tokuda, Sakiko Maekawa, Takehiro Miwa, Sou Ohkawara, Hiroki Matsui
Body fat accumulation in mice and human is linked to the percentage of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, two bacterial phyla dominant in the large intestine. However, little is known about the relationship between the composition of the gut microbiota and fattening in pig. This study aimed to investigate the abundance of Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Bacteroides, which is the major genus within Bacteroidetes, in porcine faeces during fattening. Ten 4-month-old crossbred pigs were given free access to commercial feed for fattening and water for 14 weeks...
June 10, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608940/association-between-resistance-to-erythropoiesis-stimulating-agents-and-carnitine-profile-in-patients-on-maintenance-hemodialysis
#11
Daigo Kamei, Ken Tsuchiya, Kosaku Nitta, Michio Mineshima, Takashi Akiba
OBJECTIVE: Patients on dialysis are in a chronic carnitine-deficient state. This condition may be associated with abnormalities in fatty acid and organic acid metabolism; however, the details are unknown. We investigated the association between carnitine profiles before and after dialysis and the erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) resistance index (ERI), which is a significant prognostic factor in patients on maintenance hemodialysis. DESIGN AND METHODS: cross-sectional study...
June 13, 2017: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608583/effects-of-dissolved-carbon-dioxide-on-the-integrity-of-the-rumen-epithelium-an-agent-in-the-development-of-ruminal-acidosis
#12
R Rackwitz, G Gäbel
The carbon dioxide released and dissolved in rumen fluid may easily permeate across the epithelial cell membrane. Thus, we hypothesized that CO2 may act as proton carrier and induce epithelial damage under acidotic conditions. Ovine ruminal epithelia were mounted in Ussing chambers under short-circuit conditions. The serosal buffer solution had a constant pH of 7.4 and was gassed either with 100% oxygen or with carbogen (95% O2 /5% CO2 ). The mucosal solution was gassed with either 100% oxygen or 100% carbon dioxide...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608538/effects-of-dietary-red-yeast-sporidiobolus-pararoseus-on-production-performance-and-egg-quality-of-laying-hens
#13
W Tapingkae, K Panyachai, M Yachai, H V Doan
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary red yeast (Sporidiobolus pararoseus) on production performance and egg quality of laying hens. A total of 200 Esa Brown laying hens (23 weeks of age) were allocated equally to negative control group (no yeast supplement); positive control group (2 g/kg of Saccharomyces cerevisiae); 0.5, 1, 2 g/kg red yeast respectively. The experiment was lasted for 12 weeks. Feed intake, hen-day egg production and egg weight were not different between control and supplemented groups...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606228/-fat-emulsion-tolerance-in-preterm-infants-of-different-gestational-ages-in-the-early-stage-after-birth
#14
Hui Tang, Chuan-Zhong Yang, Huan Li, Wei Wen, Fang-Fang Huang, Zhi-Feng Huang, Yu-Ping Shi, Yan-Liang Yu, Li-Lian Chen, Rui-Qin Yuan, Xiao-Yu Zhu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the fat emulsion tolerance in preterm infants of different gestational ages in the early stage after birth. METHODS: A total of 98 preterm infants were enrolled and divided into extremely preterm infant group (n=17), early preterm infant group (n=48), and moderate-to-late preterm infant group (n=33). According to the dose of fat emulsion, they were further divided into low- and high-dose subgroups. The umbilical cord blood and dried blood filter papers within 3 days after birth were collected...
June 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603981/the-enigmatic-p450-decarboxylase-olet-is-capable-of-but-evolved-to-frustrate-oxygen-rebound-chemistry
#15
Chun H Hsieh, Xiongyi Huang, Jose A Amaya, Cooper D Rutland, Carson L Keys, John T Groves, Rachel Narehood Austin, Thomas M Makris
OleT is a cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the removal of carbon dioxide from variable chain-length fatty acids to form 1-alkenes. In this work, we examine the binding and metabolic profile of OleT with shorter chain-length (n ≤ 12) fatty acids that can form liquid transportation fuels. Transient kinetics and product analyses confirm that OleT capably activates hydrogen peroxide with shorter substrates to form the high-valent intermediate Compound I and largely performs C-C bond scission. However, the enzyme also produces fatty alcohol side-products using the high-valent iron oxo chemistry commonly associated with oxygen insertion into hydrocarbons...
June 12, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603560/histone-deacetylase-inhibitors-potentiate-photodynamic-therapy-in-colon-cancer-cells-marked-by-chromatin-mediated-epigenetic-regulation-of-cdkn1a
#16
Andrea Halaburková, Rastislav Jendželovský, Ján Kovaľ, Zdenko Herceg, Peter Fedoročko, Akram Ghantous
BACKGROUND: Hypericin-mediated photodynamic therapy (HY-PDT) has recently captured increased attention as an alternative minimally invasive anticancer treatment, although cancer cells may acquire resistance. Therefore, combination treatments may be necessary to enhance HY-PDT efficacy. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) are often used in combination treatments due to their non-genotoxic properties and epigenetic potential to sensitize cells to external stimuli. Therefore, this study attempts for the first time to investigate the therapeutic effects of HDACis in combination with visible light-mediated PDT against cancer...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602959/butyric-acid-regulates-progesterone-and-estradiol-secretion-via-camp-signaling-pathway-in-porcine-granulosa-cells
#17
Naisheng Lu, Mengjiao Li, Hulong Lei, Xueyuan Jiang, Weilong Tu, Yang Lu, Dong Xia
Butyric acid (BA), one of the short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), has positive actions on the metabolism, inflammation, etc. However, whether it influences the reproductive physiology and if so the detail mechanism involved has not yet been determined. In this study, the porcine granulosa cells (PGCs) were treated with gradient concentrations of BA. After 24h culture, 0.05mM BA significantly stimulated the progesterone (P4) secretion (P<0.05), 5mM and 10mM BA significantly inhibited the P4 secretion (P<0...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602308/magnetic-ionic-liquids-as-extraction-solvents-in-vacuum-headspace-single-drop-microextraction
#18
María J Trujillo-Rodríguez, Verónica Pino, Jared L Anderson
A vacuum headspace single-drop microextraction method based on the use of magnetic ionic liquids (vacuum MIL-HS-SDME) for the determination of short chain free fatty acids is described for the first time. The basis of the method involves the use of a rod magnet to aid in maintaining a small microdroplet of magnetic ionic liquid (MIL) during headspace single-drop microextraction (HS-SDME). The application favors reduced pressure conditions inside the sampling vial while maintaining the MIL droplet in the headspace...
September 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600122/oxidative-stress-plays-a-key-role-in-butyrate-mediated-autophagy-via-akt-mtor-pathway-in-hepatoma-cells
#19
Kishor Pant, Anoop Saraya, Senthil K Venugopal
Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most aggressive forms of cancer, responsible for a number of deaths in humans. Butyrate, one of the short chain fatty acids produced by the gut microbiota during anaerobic fermentation, was shown to be beneficial for inhibiting cancer growth. In this study, we showed that sodium butyrate induced autophagy via reactive oxygen species (ROS) in hepatoma cells. Butyrate (0-6 mM) incubation significantly increased intracellular ROS levels (45.2% compared to control), which in turn inhibited phosphorylation of akt and mTOR, leading to the upregulation of autophagic proteins, such as beclin 1, ATG 5, LC3-II, followed by the increased autophagosome formation (34...
June 11, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600026/metabolitepredict-a-de-novo-human-metabolomics-prediction-system-and-its-applications-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#20
QuanQiu Wang, Rong Xu
Human metabolomics has great potential in disease mechanism understanding, early diagnosis, and therapy. Existing metabolomics studies are often based on profiling patient biofluids and tissue samples and are difficult owing to the challenges of sample collection and data processing. Here, we report an alternative approach and developed a computation-based prediction system, MetabolitePredict, for disease metabolomics biomarker prediction. We applied MetabolitePredict to identify metabolite biomarkers and metabolite targeting therapies for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a last-lasting complex disease with multiple genetic and environmental factors involved...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
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