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Short chain fatty acids

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916564/modulation-of-the-gut-microbiome-a-systematic-review-of-the-effect-of-bariatric-surgery
#1
Yan Guo, Zhi-Ping Huang, Chao-Qian Liu, Lin Qi, Yuan Sheng, Da-Jin Zou
OBJECTIVE: Bariatric surgery is recommended for patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Recent evidence suggested a strong connection between gut microbiota and bariatric surgery. DESIGN: Systematic review. METHODS: The PubMed and OVID Embase were used and articles concerning bariatric surgery and gut microbiota were screened. The main outcome measures were alterations of gut microbiota after bariatric surgery and correlations between gut microbiota and host metabolism...
September 15, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915953/syntrophic-imbalance-and-the-etiology-of-bacterial-endoparasitism-diseases
#2
James F White
This article outlines the proposed 'syntrophic imbalance hypothesis' for etiology of bacterial endoparasitism diseases. This hypothesis involves microbes (archaea and bacteria) that exist in human body biofilms in syntrophic associations, where bacteria ferment nutrients to produce short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) that are used by methanogenic archaeons to produce methane. Overgrowth of archaea on human tissues (e.g., in association with intestines, teeth or lungs) results in excessive removal of SCFAs from the biofilms and this triggers bacteria in the free-living biofilm state to convert to the endoparasitic state and become intracellular in host cells where they incite inflammation and disease...
September 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915484/spontaneous-vesicle-formation-and-vesicle-to-micelle-transition-of-sodium-2-ketooctanate-in-water
#3
Huifang Xu, Na Du, Yawen Song, Shue Song, Wanguo Hou
Single-tailed short-chain alkyl keto-acids/salts, a class of fatty acid/salt derivatives, such as sodium 2-ketooctanate (KOCOONa), are a kind of weakly acid/salt type amphiphiles and plausible prebiotic molecules, and the current understanding of their aggregation behavior in aqueous solutions is still limited. Herein, the aggregation behavior of KOCOONa in aqueous solution was studied by changing its concentration (C), using equilibrium surface tension, conductivity, and fluorescence measurements. The aggregates formed were characterized using freeze-fracture and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, atomic force microscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915390/navy-and-black-bean-supplementation-primes-the-colonic-mucosal-microenvironment-to-improve-gut-health
#4
Jennifer M Monk, Dion Lepp, Wenqing Wu, K Peter Pauls, Lindsay E Robinson, Krista A Power
Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are enriched in non-digestible fermentable carbohydrates and phenolic compounds that can modulate the colonic microenvironment (microbiota and host epithelial barrier) to improve gut health. In a comprehensive assessment of the impact of two commonly consumed bean varieties (differing in levels and types of phenolic compounds) within the colonic microenvironment, C57Bl/6 mice were fed diets supplemented with 20% cooked navy bean (NB) or black bean (BB) flours or an isocaloric basal diet control (BD) for 3 weeks...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912861/phascolarctobacterium-faecium-abundant-colonization-in-human-gastrointestinal-tract
#5
Feifan Wu, Xianfeng Guo, Jiachun Zhang, Min Zhang, Zihao Ou, Yongzheng Peng
Phascolarctobacterium can produce short-chain fatty acids, including acetate and propionate, and can be associated with the metabolic state and mood of the host. The present study investigated the colonization characteristics of Phascolarctobacterium faecium in healthy individuals <1-80 years old in Southern China. A total of 150 fresh fecal samples were collected, and bacterial DNA was isolated from these samples for quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. Phascolarctobacterium faecium demonstrated a high colonization rate and abundant colonization in the human gastrointestinal tract...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904372/butyrate-producing-bacteria-supplemented-in-vitro-to-crohn-s-disease-patient-microbiota-increased-butyrate-production-and-enhanced-intestinal-epithelial-barrier-integrity
#6
Annelies Geirnaert, Marta Calatayud, Charlotte Grootaert, Debby Laukens, Sarah Devriese, Guy Smagghe, Martine De Vos, Nico Boon, Tom Van de Wiele
The management of the dysbiosed gut microbiota in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) is gaining more attention as a novel target to control this disease. Probiotic treatment with butyrate-producing bacteria has therapeutic potential since these bacteria are depleted in IBD patients and butyrate has beneficial effects on epithelial barrier function and overall gut health. However, studies assessing the effect of probiotic supplementation on microbe-microbe and host-microbe interactions are rare. In this study, butyrate-producing bacteria (three mono-species and one multispecies mix) were supplemented to the fecal microbial communities of ten Crohn's disease (CD) patients in an in vitro system simulating the mucus- and lumen-associated microbiota...
September 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904330/analysis-of-mucosa-associated-microbiota-in-colorectal-cancer
#7
Kehan Xu, Bo Jiang
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to compare the microbiota community structure, assess differences in intestinal bacterial types, and identify metagenomic biomarkers for disparate stages of colorectal cancer formation. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 160 individuals were recruited: 61 cases with non-tumor colon were regarded as the normal group, 47 cases with histology-substantiated colorectal adenomas were regarded as the adenoma group, and 52 cases with invasive adenocarcinomas were regarded as the cancer group...
September 14, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904265/changes-in-gut-microbial-ecology-and-immunological-responses-of-mice-fed-the-insoluble-fraction-of-brassica-rapa-l-that-was-fermented-or-not
#8
Sachi Tanaka, Kana Yamamoto, Chisato Hamajima, Fuka Takahashi, Kazuki Yamada, Kanon Furuya, Yutaka Uyeno
We aimed to investigate the effects of feeding fermented Brassica rapa L. on ecological and immunological changes in the mouse gut using in vitro cultivation tests and in vivo experiments in normal mice. In the preliminary in vitro study, two B. rapa L. products from different fermentation periods (one d [SF] or six months [LF]) were evaluated along with non-fermented vegetables (NF). Among the components of each product, the insoluble fraction resulted in the most prominent change such as a relative increase in butyrate production during a cultivation inoculated with mouse cecum contents...
September 12, 2017: Microbes and Environments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894447/the-microbial-metabolite-butyrate-induces-expression-of-th1-associated-factors-in-cd4-t-cells
#9
Meike Kespohl, Niyati Vachharajani, Maik Luu, Hani Harb, Sabine Pautz, Svenja Wolff, Nina Sillner, Alesia Walker, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin, Thomas Boettger, Harald Renz, Stefan Offermanns, Ulrich Steinhoff, Alexander Visekruna
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which are generated by the bacterial fermentation of dietary fibers, promote expansion of regulatory T cells (Tregs). Potential therapeutic value of SCFAs has been recently highlighted in the experimental models of T cell-mediated autoimmunity and allergic inflammation. These studies suggest that physiological intestinal concentrations of SCFAs within the millimolar range are crucial for dampening inflammation-mediated processes. Here, we describe opposing effects of SCFAs on T cell-mediated immune responses...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893958/microbial-derived-butyrate-promotes-epithelial-barrier-function-through-il-10-receptor-dependent-repression-of-claudin-2
#10
Leon Zheng, Caleb J Kelly, Kayla D Battista, Rachel Schaefer, Jordi M Lanis, Erica E Alexeev, Ruth X Wang, Joseph C Onyiah, Douglas J Kominsky, Sean P Colgan
Commensal interactions between the enteric microbiota and distal intestine play important roles in regulating human health. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as butyrate, produced through anaerobic microbial metabolism represent a major energy source for the host colonic epithelium and enhance epithelial barrier function through unclear mechanisms. Separate studies revealed that the epithelial anti-inflammatory IL-10 receptor α subunit (IL-10RA) is also important for barrier formation. Based on these findings, we examined if SCFAs promote epithelial barrier through IL-10RA-dependent mechanisms...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892274/biosynthesis-and-function-of-simple-amides-in-xenorhabdus-doucetiae
#11
Edna Bode, Yue He, Tien Duy Vo, Roland Schultz, Marcel Kaiser, Helge B Bode
Xenorhabdus doucetiae, the bacterial symbiont of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema diaprepesi produces several different fatty acid amides. Their biosynthesis has been studied using a combination of analysis of gene deletions and promoter exchanges in X. doucetiae and heterologous expression of candidate genes in E. coli. While a decarboxylase is required for the formation of all observed phenylethylamides and tryptamides, the acyltransferase XrdE encoded in the xenorhabdin biosynthesis gene cluster is responsible for the formation of short chain acyl amides...
September 11, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892251/genomes-of-rumen-bacteria-encode-atypical-pathways-for-fermenting-hexoses-to-short-chain-fatty-acids
#12
Timothy J Hackmann, David Kamanda Ngugi, Jeffrey L Firkins, Junyi Tao
Bacteria have been thought to follow only a few well-recognized biochemical pathways when fermenting glucose or other hexoses. These pathways have been chiseled in the stone of textbooks for decades, with most sources rendering them as they appear in the classic 1986 text by Gottschalk. Still, it is unclear how broadly these pathways apply, given that they were established and delineated biochemically with only a few model organisms. Here we show that well-recognized pathways often cannot explain fermentation products formed by bacteria...
September 11, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890714/gut-microbiota-analysis-in-rats-with-methamphetamine-induced-conditioned-place-preference
#13
Tingting Ning, Xiaokang Gong, Lingling Xie, Baomiao Ma
Methamphetamine abuse is a major public health crisis. Because accumulating evidence supports the hypothesis that the gut microbiota plays an important role in central nervous system (CNS) function, and research on the roles of the microbiome in CNS disorders holds conceivable promise for developing novel therapeutic avenues for treating CNS disorders, we sought to determine whether administration of methamphetamine leads to alterations in the intestinal microbiota. In this study, the gut microbiota profiles of rats with methamphetamine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) were analyzed through 16S rRNA gene sequencing...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890700/dietary-capsaicin-improves-glucose-homeostasis-and-alters-the-gut-microbiota-in-obese-diabetic-ob-ob-mice
#14
Jun-Xian Song, Hui Ren, Yuan-Feng Gao, Chong-You Lee, Su-Fang Li, Feng Zhang, Long Li, Hong Chen
Background: The effects of capsaicin on obesity and glucose homeostasis are still controversial and the mechanisms underlying these effects remain largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate the potential relationship between the regulation of obesity and glucose homeostasis by dietary capsaicin and the alterations of gut microbiota in obese diabetic ob/ob mice. Methods: The ob/ob mice were subjected to a normal, low-capsaicin (0.01%), or high-capsaicin (0.02%) diet for 6 weeks, respectively. Obesity phenotypes, glucose homeostasis, the gut microbiota structure and composition, short-chain fatty acids, gastrointestinal hormones, and pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886045/maternal-treatment-with-short-chain-fatty-acids-modulates-the-intestinal-microbiota-and-immunity-and-ameliorates-type-1-diabetes-in-the-offspring
#15
James C Needell, Diana Ir, Charles E Robertson, Miranda E Kroehl, Daniel N Frank, Danny Zipris
We recently hypothesized that the intestinal microbiota and the innate immune system play key roles in the mechanism of Kilham Rat Virus-induced type 1 diabetes in the LEW1.WR1 rat. We used this animal model to test the hypothesis that maternal therapy with short-chain fatty acids can modulate the intestinal microbiota and reverse virus-induced proinflammatory responses and type 1 diabetes in rat offspring. We observed that administration of short-chain fatty acids to rat breeders via drinking water prior to pregnancy and further treatment of the offspring with short-chain fatty acids after weaning led to disease amelioration...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885302/postinfection-irritable-bowel-syndrome-the-links-between-gastroenteritis-inflammation-the-microbiome-and-functional-disease
#16
Ian A Downs, Olga C Aroniadis, Libusha Kelly, Lawrence J Brandt
Postinfection irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) is a diarrheal disease that develops after infectious gastroenteritis (IGE). Profound alterations in the microbiota accompany IGE yet only 10% of IGE patients progress to PI-IBS. This review explores research linking IGE severity, psychological comorbidity, PI-IBS, and the microbiome in various patient populations. Selective pressures caused by inflammation and increased gastrointestinal motility during gastroenteritis can alter intestinal bacterial phyla including Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884952/soluble-dietary-fiber-reduces-trimethylamine-metabolism-via-gut-microbiota-and-co-regulates-host-ampk-pathways
#17
Qian Li, Tao Wu, Rui Liu, Min Zhang, Ruijun Wang
SCOPE: Evidence from animal experiments and clinical medicine suggest that high dietary fiber intake, followed by gut microbiota-mediated fermentation, decreases trimethylamine (TMA) metabolism, the mechanism of which, however, remains unclear. The objective of this analysis was to evaluate, using mice fed with red meat, the effects of soluble dietary fiber (SDF) intervention on TMA metabolism. METHODS AND RESULTS: Low- or high-dose soluble dietary fiber (SDF) from natural wheat bran (LN and HN, low- and high-dose natural SDF), fermented wheat bran (LF and HF, low- and high-dose fermented SDF), and steam-exploded wheat bran (LE and HE, low- and high-dose exploded SDF groups) were used to examine whether SDF interventions in mice fed with red meat can alter TMA and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) metabolism by gut microbial communities in a diet-specific manner...
September 8, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884754/bifidobacteria-exert-species-specific-effects-on-constipation-in-balb-c-mice
#18
Linlin Wang, Lujun Hu, Qi Xu, Tian Jiang, Shuguang Fang, Gang Wang, Jianxin Zhao, Hao Zhang, Wei Chen
Constipation is one of the most common gastrointestinal complaints worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine whether edible bifidobacteria (Bifidobacterium longum, B. infantis, B. animalis, B. bifidum, B. adolescentis or B. breve) exhibit interspecies differences in alleviating constipation induced by loperamide in BALB/c mice and to analyse the main reasons for the interspecies differences. BALB/c mice were given bifidobacteria by gavage once per day for 8 days. The primary outcome measures, which included related constipation indicators, and the secondary outcome measures, which included changes in the concentration of short-chain fatty acids in faeces and changes in the faecal flora, were used to evaluate the therapeutic effects of the edible bifidobacteria on constipation...
September 8, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884091/alterations-of-the-gut-microbiome-in-hypertension
#19
Qiulong Yan, Yifang Gu, Xiangchun Li, Wei Yang, Liqiu Jia, Changming Chen, Xiuyan Han, Yukun Huang, Lizhe Zhao, Peng Li, Zhiwei Fang, Junpeng Zhou, Xiuru Guan, Yanchun Ding, Shaopeng Wang, Muhammad Khan, Yi Xin, Shenghui Li, Yufang Ma
Introduction: Human gut microbiota is believed to be directly or indirectly involved in cardiovascular diseases and hypertension. However, the identification and functional status of the hypertension-related gut microbe(s) have not yet been surveyed in a comprehensive manner. Methods: Here we characterized the gut microbiome in hypertension status by comparing fecal samples of 60 patients with primary hypertension and 60 gender-, age-, and body weight-matched healthy controls based on whole-metagenome shotgun sequencing...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883813/a-structural-and-functional-elucidation-of-the-rumen-microbiome-influenced-by-various-diets-and-microenvironments
#20
Simon Deusch, Amélia Camarinha-Silva, Jürgen Conrad, Uwe Beifuss, Markus Rodehutscord, Jana Seifert
The structure and function of the microbiome inhabiting the rumen are, amongst other factors, mainly shaped by the animal's feed intake. Describing the influence of different diets on the inherent community arrangement and associated metabolic activities of the most active ruminal fractions (bacteria and archaea) is of great interest for animal nutrition, biotechnology, and climatology. Samples were obtained from three fistulated Jersey cows rotationally fed with corn silage, grass silage or grass hay, each supplemented with a concentrate mixture...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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