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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921009/radiation-overexposure-from-repeated-ct-scans-in-young-adults-with-acute-abdominal-pain
#1
Massimo Tonolini, Elena Valconi, Angelo Vanzulli, Roberto Bianco
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to assess the dose of ionizing radiation caused by repeated CT scans performed to investigate non-traumatic acute abdominal conditions in young adults. METHODS: Over 26 months, we collected a cohort of patients aged 18 to 45 years who were subject to at least one urgent contrast-enhanced abdomen/pelvis CT. Patients affected with urolithiasis, HIV infection, tumors, and vascular and chronic inflammatory bowel diseases were excluded...
September 18, 2017: Emergency Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910997/paediatric-nuclear-medicine-imaging
#2
Lorenzo Biassoni, Marina Easty
Background: Nuclear medicine imaging explores tissue viability and function by using radiotracers that are taken up at cellular level with different mechanism. This imaging technique can also be used to assess blood flow and transit through tubular organs. Nuclear medicine imaging has been used in paediatrics for decades and this field is continuously evolving. Sources of data: The data presented comes from clinical experience and some milestone papers on the subject...
September 1, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889899/pulmonary-nodules-in-an-adolescent-female-presented-with-abdominal-pain-fatigue-and-weight-loss
#3
Britta K Sundquist, Paul G Comber, Scott H Beegle
A 14-year-old girl initially presented to a pediatric gastroenterology office with a 1-month history of right upper quadrant abdominal pain, which radiated to the right shoulder and back. Her pain was worse after heavy meals and with deep breaths. She reported anorexia, fatigue, dyspnea while playing soccer, and a 5-pound weight loss. She denied any fevers, cough, or changes in her bowel habits.
September 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884454/prevalence-of-patient-reported-gastrointestinal-symptoms-and-agreement-with-clinician-toxicity-assessments-in-radiation-therapy-for-anal-cancer
#4
Ashlyn Tom, Antonia V Bennett, Diana Rothenstein, Ethel Law, Karyn A Goodman
PURPOSE: Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms pose a significant burden to patients receiving chemoradiation therapy (CRT) for anal cancer; however, the impact of symptoms from the patient perspective has not been quantified. This retrospective study examined and compared patient and clinician reports of acute GI toxicity during CRT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients treated with definitive RT using intensity-modulated radiation therapy for anal cancer between 9/09 and 11/12 were reviewed...
September 7, 2017: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871986/quality-of-life-after-radiation-therapy-for-prostate-cancer-with-a-hydrogel-spacer-5-year-results
#5
Michael Pinkawa, Vanessa Berneking, Marsha Schlenter, Barbara Krenkel, Michael J Eble
PURPOSE: To evaluate quality of life changes up to 5 years after prostate cancer radiation therapy (RT) with a hydrogel spacer. METHODS AND MATERIALS: In the years 2010 to 2011, 114 patients received external beam radiation therapy to the prostate; 54 patients were selected for a hydrogel injection before the beginning of RT. Treatment was performed applying fractions of 2 Gy up to a total dose of 76 Gy (n=96) or 78 Gy (n=18, all with hydrogel). Patients were surveyed before RT; at the last day of RT; and a median time of 2 months, 17 months, and 63 months after RT using a validated questionnaire (Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite)...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868185/t2-vertebrectomy-with-combined-anterior-and-posterior-arthrodesis-for-treatment-of-a-solitary-plasmacytoma
#6
Gordon Preston, Toomas Anton
BACKGROUND: Plasma cell neoplasmas are a heterogenous group of neoplastic tumor lesions occurring secondary to disordered proliferation of cells from a monocyte lineage. Plasmacytoma is a rare lesion that accounts for 5% of all plasma cell neoplasms. The current recommended treatment for solitary plasmacytoma is moderate dose radiation therapy. For patients who are suffering from axial back pain, spinal instability, radiculopathy, or bowel/bladder dysfunction secondary to spinal cord compression, surgical intervention with spinal decompression and stabilization can be used as an adjuvant to radiation therapy...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862220/the-impact-of-patient-positioning-and-use-of-belly-board-on-small-bowel-toxicity-in-patients-receiving-pelvic-radiotherapy-for-gynecological-malignancies
#7
Milan Anjanappa, Rajeev Kavalakara Raghavan, Francis V James, Aswin Kumar, Susan Mathews, Sarin Bhaskaran, Shaiju Vasudevannair Sreedevi, Puthuveetil Govindan Jayaprakash
AIM: To determine the efficacy of belly board device in patients receiving postoperative radiation for gynecological malignancies in terms of setup error and acute small bowel toxicity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients requiring postoperative radiation for gynecological malignancies were prospectively randomized to either treatment with supine position (supine arm) or prone position using belly board (prone arm). Each patient underwent computed tomography simulation in the assigned treatment position, and a three-dimensional conformal radiation was planned...
July 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859892/fistulous-complications-following-radical-cystectomy-for-bladder-cancer-analysis-of-a-large-modern-cohort
#8
Zachary L Smith, Scott C Johnson, Shay Golan, J Riley McGinnis, Gary D Steinberg, Norm D Smith
PURPOSE: Fistula formation is a rare and poorly described complication following radical cystectomy with urinary diversion. We sought to identify patients who experienced any type of fistulous complication and analyze the risk factors for formation as well as management outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of patients who underwent radical cystectomy for bladder cancer at our institution. Patients who experienced any fistula were identified...
August 28, 2017: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851582/long-term-psychological-and-quality-of-life-effects-of-active-surveillance-and-watchful-waiting-after-diagnosis-of-low-risk-localised-prostate-cancer
#9
Sam J Egger, Ross J Calopedos, Dianne L O'Connell, Suzanne K Chambers, Henry H Woo, David P Smith
BACKGROUND: Long-term psychological well-being and quality-of-life are important considerations when deciding whether to undergo active treatment for low-risk localised prostate cancer. OBJECTIVE: To assess the long-term effects of active surveillance (AS) and/or watchful waiting (WW) on psychological and quality-of-life outcomes for low-risk localised prostate cancer patients. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The Prostate Cancer Care and Outcome Study is a population-based prospective cohort study in New South Wales, Australia...
August 26, 2017: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839000/radiosensitisation-in-vivo-by-histone-deacetylase-inhibition-with-no-increase-in-early-normal-tissue-radiation-toxicity
#10
Blaz Groselj, Jia-Ling Ruan, Helen Scott, Jessica Gorrill, Judith Nicholson, Jacqueline Kelly, Selvakumar Anbalagan, James Thompson, Michael Rl Stratford, Sarah J Jevons, Ester M Hammond, Cheryl L Scudamore, Martin Kerr, Anne E Kiltie
As the population ages, more elderly patients require radiotherapy-based treatment for their pelvic malignancies, including muscle-invasive bladder cancer, as they are unfit for major surgery. Therefore, there is an urgent need to find radiosensitising agents minimally toxic to normal tissues, including bowel and bladder, for such patients. We developed methods to determine normal tissue toxicity severity in intestine and bladder in vivo, using novel radiotherapy techniques on a small animal radiation research platform (SARRP)...
August 24, 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830646/dynamics-of-patient-reported-quality-of-life-and-symptoms-in-the-acute-phase-of-online-adaptive-external-beam-radiation-therapy-for-locally-advanced-cervical-cancer
#11
S T Heijkoop, R A Nout, S Quint, J W M Mens, B J M Heijmen, M S Hoogeman
OBJECTIVE: For locally advanced cervical cancer patients, treated with External Beam Radiotherapy (EBRT), Quality of Life (QoL) questionnaires arefrequently used to evaluate treatment-related symptoms and functioning scales. Currently, it is unknown how those evolve during the radiation treatment course. In this prospective study we report on weekly-captured patient-reported QoL and symptoms during image-guided adaptive radiotherapy (IGART) of cervical cancer patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between January 2012 and September 2016, all locally advanced cervical cancer patients treated with IGART and brachytherapy with or without chemotherapy or hyperthermia, were eligible...
August 19, 2017: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826742/a-comprehensive-review-and-update-on-crohn-s-disease
#12
Mahesh Gajendran, Priyadarshini Loganathan, Anthony P Catinella, Jana G Hashash
The term inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) refers principally to two major categories of chronic relapsing inflammatory intestinal disorders: Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). In the United States, it is currently estimated that about 1.5 million people suffer from IBD, causing considerable suffering, mortality and economic loss every year. Yet the cause of IBD is unknown, and until we understand more, prevention or cure will not be possible. There is a lot of variation in the incidence and prevalence of CD based on geographic region, environment, immigrant population, and ethnic groups...
August 18, 2017: Disease-a-month: DM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817406/idiopathic-myointimal-hyperplasia-of-mesenteric-veins-an-uncommon-cause-of-ischemic-colitis-with-distinct-mucosal-features
#13
Rhonda K Yantiss, Isabelle Cui, Nicole C Panarelli, Jose Jessurun
Idiopathic myointimal hyperplasia of mesenteric veins causes chronic ischemic mucosal injury with segmental strictures that mimic inflammatory bowel disease and nonocclusive ischemic colitis. It is characterized by myointimal proliferative changes that narrow the lumina of veins combined with ischemic injury and ulcers. Most cases reported to date have been diagnosed following surgical resection. The aim of this study was to determine whether mucosal changes of idiopathic myointimal hyperplasia of mesenteric veins are sufficiently sensitive and specific to allow its recognition in biopsy material...
August 15, 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807748/dosimetric-analysis-and-preliminary-clinical-result-of-image-guided-brachytherapy-with-or-without-hybrid-technique-for-cervical-cancer-using-varisource-titanium-ring-applicator-with-siriraj-ring-cap
#14
Pittaya Dankulchai, Suphalerk Lohasammakul, Janjira Petsuksiri, Pitchayut Nakkrasae, Lalida Tuntipumiamorn, Chumpot Kakanaporn, Yaowalak Chansilpa
PURPOSE: Titanium ring cap applicator (VariSource) was applied in treating cervical cancer patients by using image-guided brachytherapy (IGBT). However, its sizes appeared to be relatively large for most of our patients. Thus, we have developed a specific applicator "Siriraj Ring Cap," which is slightly smaller and more suitable for our patients. This study was to evaluate effectiveness of this equipment. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Locally advanced cervical cancer patients were treated with external beam radiation therapy with or without concomitant chemotherapy...
August 11, 2017: Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797559/utilization-of-ultrasound-for-the-evaluation-of-small-bowel-obstruction-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
Michael Gottlieb, Gary D Peksa, Ananda Vishnu Pandurangadu, Damali Nakitende, Sukhjit Takhar, Raghu R Seethala
INTRODUCTION: Small bowel obstruction (SBO) is a common presentation to the Emergency Department (ED). While computed tomography (CT) is frequently utilized to confirm the diagnosis, this modality is expensive, exposes patients to radiation, may lead to time delays, and is not universally available. This study aimed to determine the test characteristics of ultrasound for the diagnosis of SBO. METHODS: PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were assessed for prospective trials evaluating the accuracy of ultrasound for the detection of SBO...
July 29, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777480/serous-lined-stapled-pouch-wall-plication-initial-results-of-a-simple-and-quick-novel-continence-mechanism-in-troubleshooting-secondary-to-continent-cutaneous-urinary-diversion
#16
Hubertus Riedmiller, Arkadius Kocot, Charis Kalogirou
OBJECTIVES: To report a novel and straightforward technique of a secondary continent outlet for continent cutaneous urinary diversion (CCUD) reservoirs without the need for further bowel resection, reducing operation time and hospitalization. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From 2015 to 2017, 6 patients with unreconstructable, incontinent outlets (out of a total pool of n=595 CCUD patients) have undergone the technique described here at our department. It relies on the Mitrofanoff principle, using a stapled full-thickness pouch wall plication, which creates a flap-valve continence mechanism...
August 4, 2017: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760506/a-comparison-of-treatment-plan-quality-between-tri-co-60-intensity-modulated-radiation-therapy-and-volumetric-modulated-arc-therapy-for-cervical-cancer
#17
Jong Min Park, So-Yeon Park, Jung-In Kim, Hyun-Cheol Kang, Chang Heon Choi
PURPOSE: To investigate the plan quality of tri-Co-60 intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for cervical cancer. METHODS: A total of 20 patients who received postoperative radiotherapy for cervical cancer were selected. For each patient, a tri-Co-60 IMRT plan for which the target volume was the planning target volume (PTV) generated by adding 1mm isotropic margins from the clinical target volume (CTV) and a VMAT plan for which the target volume was the PTV generated by adding 7mm and 10mm margins from the CTV were generated...
July 28, 2017: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758177/the-5-year-outcomes-of-moderately-hypofractionated-radiotherapy-66%C3%A2-gy-in-22-fractions-3-fractions-per-week-for-localized-prostate-cancer-a-retrospective-study
#18
Yaichiro Hashimoto, Atsushi Motegi, Tetsuo Akimoto, Norio Mitsuhashi, Junpei Iizuka, Kazunari Tanabe, Yuka Ishii, Sawa Kono, Sachiko Izumi, Kumiko Karasawa
BACKGROUND: Hypofractionated radiotherapy using fewer and larger fractional doses may be more beneficial than conventional external-beam radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer. We evaluated the 5-year outcomes of moderately hypofractionated radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 195 patients with localized prostate cancer (T1-3N0M0) who underwent intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) (66 Gy delivered in fractions of 3 Gy every other weekday) between May 2005 and December 2011...
July 31, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756376/obturator-hernia-a-rare-cause-of-bowel-obstruction
#19
Cã Tia Carreira Rito, Josà Travassos, Joana Patrà Cio, Ana Luisa Duarte
An obturator hernia is a rare condition and an unusual cause of intestinal obstruction. With a challenging diagnosis, it has one of the highest mortality rates of all abdominal wall hernias. The authors present a case of an elderly woman with bowel obstruction secondary to an incarcerated obturator hernia. An 80-year-old woman presented at the emergency room with complaints for the last 2 days of nausea, vomiting, constipation and lower right abdominal pain that radiated down to the right medial thigh. Abdominal tenderness to deep palpation of the right iliac fossa and mildly distention were noted...
July 28, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740937/impact-of-prone-versus-supine-positioning-on-small-bowel-dose-with-pelvic-intensity-modulated-radiation-therapy
#20
Victor J Gonzalez, Craig R Hullett, Lindsay Burt, Prema Rassiah-Szegedi, Vikren Sarkar, Jonathan D Tward, Lisa J Hazard, Y Jessica Huang, Bill J Salter, David K Gaffney
PURPOSE: To report the results of a prospective study that compares small bowel doses during prone and supine pelvic intensity modulated radiation therapy. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Ten patients receiving pelvic radiation therapy each had 2 intensity modulated radiation therapy plans generated: supine and prone on a belly board (PBB). Computed tomography on rails was performed weekly throughout treatment in both positions (10 scans per patient). After image fusion, doses to small bowel (SB) loops and clinical target volume were calculated for each scan...
April 2017: Advances in Radiation Oncology
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