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Radiation bowel

Hui Zhao, Nainan Hei, Yiling Wu, Winston Chan, Xiudong Lei, Carrie Cameron, Shine Chang, Mariana Chavez-MacGregor, Sharon H Giordano
BACKGROUND: The National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project B35 and International Breast Cancer Intervention Studies II Ductal Carcinoma In Situ trials showed similar treatment effects of anastrozole and tamoxifen in reducing cancer recurrence risk among ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) patients. Studies have shown low levels of hormone therapy drug initiation for DCIS patients, but the current body of literature lacks information on the 5-year adherence rates for these drugs from population-based studies...
October 25, 2016: Cancer
Jeong-Eun Rah, Gwe-Ya Kim, Do Hoon Oh, Tae Hyun Kim, Jong Won Kim, Dae Yong Kim, Sung Yong Park, Dongho Shin
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the dosimetric benefits of a proton arc technique for treating tumors of the para-aortic lymph nodes (PALN). METHOD: In nine patients, a proton arc therapy (PAT) technique was compared with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and proton beam therapy (PBT) techniques with respect to the planning target volume (PTV) and organs at risk (OAR). PTV coverage, conformity index (CI), homogeneity index (HI) and OAR doses were compared...
October 21, 2016: Radiation Oncology
Eva Carlsson, Jeanette Fingren, Anne-Marie Hallén, Charlotta Petersén, Elisabet Lindholm
Despite advancements in the creation and care of stomas, ostomy and peristomal skin complications are common immediately following surgery as well as in the months and years thereafter. A prospective study to determine the prevalence of ostomy and peristomal skin complications and the influence of ostomy configuration on such complications was conducted 1 year after ostomy surgery among all patients at a university hospital in Sweden. All participants received regular (10 to 14 days post discharge, 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year post surgery) ostomy follow-up care by a wound ostomy continence (WOC) nurse...
October 2016: Ostomy/wound Management
Thomas B Brunner, Ursula Nestle, Sonja Adebahr, Eleni Gkika, Rolf Wiehle, Dimos Baltas, Anca-Ligia Grosu
OBJECTIVE: Stereotactic radiotherapy near serial organs at risk (OAR) requires special caution. A novel intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) prescription concept termed simultaneous integrated protection (SIP) for quantifiable and comparable dose prescription to targets very close to OAR is described. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An intersection volume of a planning risk volume (PRV) with the total planning target volume (PTV) defined the protection volume (PTVSIP)...
October 18, 2016: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
Jun-Feng Wang, Hui Li, Hua Xiong, He Huang, Yan-Mei Zou
The influence of the position and radiation technique on the organs at risk (OARs) in radiotherapy of rectal cancer was evaluated. The relationship between the volume of irradiated small bowel (VSB) and acute bowel toxicity was determined. A total of 97 cases of rectal cancer were retrospectively randomized to receive radiotherapy with the designated treatment positions and radiation plans. Among 64 patients in the supine position, 32 patients were given three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCR) and 32 patients were subjected to intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) respectively...
October 2016: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
C M van Leeuwen, J Crezee, A L Oei, N A P Franken, L J A Stalpers, A Bel, H P Kok
PURPOSE: Currently, clinical decisions regarding thermoradiotherapy treatments are based on clinical experience. Quantification of the radiosensitising effect of hyperthermia allows comparison of different treatment strategies, and can support clinical decision-making regarding the optimal treatment. The software presented here enables biological evaluation of thermoradiotherapy plans through calculation of equivalent 3D dose distributions. METHODS: Our in-house developed software (X-Term) uses an extended version of the linear-quadratic model to calculate equivalent radiation dose, i...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Hyperthermia
Jordan Axelrad, Anuja Kriplani, Umut Ozbek, Noam Harpaz, Jean-Frederic Colombel, Steven Itzkowitz, Randall F Holcombe, Celina Ang
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), comprising Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis, is a risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). Chemotherapy toxicity may exacerbate IBD symptoms and vice versa, but data are limited. We evaluated chemotherapy tolerance and oncologic outcomes in patients with CRC with and without IBD. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Medical records of patients with CRC with and without IBD treated between 2008 and 2013 were reviewed. Where possible, patients were matched by age, sex, stage, and diagnosis year...
September 20, 2016: Clinical Colorectal Cancer
Kevin P Murphy, Liam J Healy, Lee Crush, Maria Twomey, Fiachra Moloney, Sylvia Sexton, Owen J O'Connor, Michael M Maher
AIM: To assess the effect of neutral (NC) and positive (PC) oral contrast use on patient dose in low-dose abdominal computed tomography (CT). METHODS: Low-dose clinically indicated CTs were performed on 79 Crohn's patients (35 = PC, 1 L 2% gastrografin; 44 = NC, 1.5 L polyethylene glycol). Scanner settings for both acquisitions were identical apart from 25 s difference in intravenous contrast timing. Body mass index (BMI), scan-ranges, dose-length product and size-specific dose estimated were recorded...
September 28, 2016: World Journal of Radiology
Stephanie Bora, Margherita T Cantorna
Vitamin D deficiency is associated with the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In experimental IBD the targets of vitamin D that result in protection from IBD include gut epithelial cells, innate immune cells, T cells, and the microbiota. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) induces production of vitamin D in the skin and suppresses T cell responses in the host. There is limited data demonstrating an effect of UVR on experimental IBD but the mechanisms of UVR suppression in IBD have not been defined. There are several shared effects of vitamin D and UVR on T cells including inhibition of proliferation and suppression of IFN-γ and IL-17 producing T cells...
September 8, 2016: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
Jen-Yu Cheng, Eng-Yen Huang, Shun-Neng Hsu, Chong-Jong Wang
OBJECTIVE: To compare the dose distributions of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) using the simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) technique to that of the traditional midline-block (MB) technique for boosting the parametrium in patients with cervical cancer. METHODS: Treatment plans using VMAT or IMRT with the SIB technique (VMAT-SIB and IMRT-SIB) and IMRT followed by the MB technique (IMRT-MB) were generated for each of 10 cervical cancer patients...
October 6, 2016: British Journal of Radiology
Christine H Feng, Yasmin Hasan, Malgorzata Kopec, Hania A Al-Hallaq
We performed a dosimetric comparison of sequential IMRT (sIMRT) and simul-taneously integrated boost (SIB) IMRT to boost PET-avid lymph nodes while concurrently treating pelvic targets to determine the potential of SIB IMRT to reduce overall treatment duration in locally advanced cervical cancer. Ten patients receiving definitive radiation therapy were identified retrospectively. RTOG consensus guidelines were followed to delineate the clinical target volume and organs at risk (OAR), which were then expanded per IMRT consortium guidelines to yield the planning target volume (PTV)...
2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
K A Pearlstein, R Basak, S Saripalli, J K Sun, K Diao, E A Lobos, A Z Wang, R C Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Jae Y Lee, Stephanie Daignault-Newton, Gerard Heath, Sarah Scarlett, Martin G Sanda, Peter Chang, Meredith M Regan, Jeff M Michalski, Howard M Sandler, Felix Y Feng, Deborah A Kuban, Anthony L Zietman, Jay P Ciezki, Irving D Kaplan, Catrina Crociani, William P McLaughlin, Constantine A Mantz, Steven E Finkelstein, Simeng Suy, Sean P Collins, Olatz Garin, Montserrat Ferrer, Daniel A Hamstra, Daniel E Spratt
PURPOSE: The new short Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite for Clinical Practice (EPIC-CP) patient-reported health-related quality of life (HRQOL) tool has removed the rectal bleeding question from the previous much longer version, EPIC-26. Herein, we assess the impact of losing the dedicated rectal bleeding question in 2 independent prospective multicenter cohorts. METHODS AND MATERIALS: In a prospective multicenter test cohort (n=865), EPIC-26 patient-reported HRQOL data were collected for 2 years after treatment from patients treated with prostate radiation therapy from 2003 to 2011...
August 3, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Leah Cramp, Vanessa Connors, Maree Wood, Justin Westhuyzen, Michael McKay, Stuart Greenham
INTRODUCTION: Evidence of variations in bladder filling effecting prostate stability and therefore treatment and side-effects is well established with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). This study aimed to increase bladder volume reproducibility for prostate radiation therapy by implementing a bladder scanning (BS) protocol that could assist patients' bladder filling at computed tomography (CT) simulation and treatment. METHODS: Based on a retrospective review of 524 prostate cancer patients, a bladder volume of 250-350 mL was adopted as 'ideal' for achieving planning dose constraints...
September 2016: Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences
Joy Ardill, Brian T Johnston, David R McCance, Martin Eatock
A fifty two year old lady presented with a history of occasional, severe abdominal cramps, post-prandial diarrhoea and weight loss. After routine GI investigations she was diagnosed with IBS. Over six months she developed occasional facial flushing prompting assessment of neuroendocrine tumour markers. Urinary 5HIAA, 5HT, chromogranin A (CGA) and Neurokinin A (NKA) were significantly elevated. Scans showed extensive hepatic metastases but no location of a primary tumour.Somatostatin analogue therapy (SST) was commenced but despite increasing doses, symptoms increased and biomarkers rose dramatically...
September 16, 2016: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
Karen E Hoffman, Heath Skinner, Thomas J Pugh, Khinh R Voong, Lawrence B Levy, Seungtaek Choi, Steven J Frank, Andrew K Lee, Usama Mahmood, Sean E McGuire, Pamela J Schlembach, Weiliang Du, Jennifer Johnson, Rajat J Kudchadker, Deborah A Kuban
OBJECTIVES: Hypofractionated prostate radiotherapy may increase biologically effective dose delivered while shortening treatment duration, but information on patient-reported urinary, bowel, and sexual function after dose-escalated hypofractionated radiotherapy is limited. We report patient-reported outcomes (PROs) from a randomized trial comparing hypofractionated and conventional prostate radiotherapy. METHODS: Men with localized prostate cancer were enrolled in a trial that randomized men to either conventionally fractionated intensity-modulated radiation therapy (CIMRT, 75...
September 15, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Oncology
Neil C Estabrook, Gregory K Bartlett, Julia J Compton, Higinia R Cardenes, Indra J Das
Small bowel dose often represents a limiting factor for radiation treatment of pelvic malignancies. To reduce small bowel toxicity, a belly board device (BBD) with a prone position is often recommended. Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) could reduce dose to small bowel based on the desired dose-volume constraints. We investigated the efficacy of BBD in conjunction with IMRT. A total of 11 consecutive patients with the diagnosis of rectal cancer, who were candidates for definitive therapy, were selected...
September 12, 2016: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
Alexander Rodriguez-Palacios, Natalia Aladyshkina, Mauricio Retuerto, Christopher L Hager, Sanja Ilic, Mahmoud A Ghannoum, Fabio Cominelli
We report and investigated a case of inadvertent contamination of 125 mice (housed in two germ-free positive-pressurized isolators) with emerging human and coral pathogen Aspergillus sydowii. The infected mice correspond to genetic line SAMP1/YitFc, which have 100% immune predisposition to develop Crohn's disease-like spontaneous pathologies, namely, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Pathogen update based on a scoping review of the literature and our clinical observations and experimentation are discussed. The unwanted infection of germ-free mice (immunologically prone to suffer chronic inflammation) with human pathogen A...
2016: Journal of Pathogens
Harvey C Quon, Hima Bindu Musunuru, Patrick Cheung, Geordi Pang, Alexandre Mamedov, Laura D'Alimonte, Andrea Deabreu, Liying Zhang, Andrew Loblaw
INTRODUCTION: The optimal prostate stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) dose-fractionation scheme is controversial. This study compares long-term quality of life (QOL) from two prospective trials of prostate SBRT to investigate the effect of increasing dose (NCT01578902 and NCT01146340). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients with localized prostate cancer received SBRT 35 or 40 Gy delivered in five fractions, once per week. QOL was measured using the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite at baseline and every 6 months...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
Vasileios Rafailidis, Annamaria Deganello, Tom Watson, Paul S Sidhu, Maria E Sellars
Contrast-enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS) represents a complementary technique to grey-scale and colour Doppler ultrasonography (US) which allows for real-time visualization and characterization of tissue perfusion. Its inherent advantages in the child makes US an ideal imaging modality; repeatability and good tolerance along with the avoidance of computed tomography (CT), a source of ionizing radiation, renders US imaging desirable. Although currently paediatric CEUS is principally used in an "off-label" manner, US contrast agents have received regulatory approval for assessment of paediatric focal liver lesions in the United States of America...
September 9, 2016: British Journal of Radiology
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