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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339755/a-prebiotic-template-directed-peptide-synthesis-based-on-amyloids
#1
Saroj K Rout, Michael P Friedmann, Roland Riek, Jason Greenwald
The prebiotic replication of information-coding molecules is a central problem concerning life's origins. Here, we report that amyloids composed of short peptides can direct the sequence-selective, regioselective and stereoselective condensation of amino acids. The addition of activated DL-arginine and DL-phenylalanine to the peptide RFRFR-NH2 in the presence of the complementary template peptide Ac-FEFEFEFE-NH2 yields the isotactic product FRFRFRFR-NH2, 1 of 64 possible triple addition products, under conditions in which the absence of template yields only single and double additions of mixed stereochemistry...
January 16, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339290/biocatalytic-strategies-in-the-production-of-galacto-oligosaccharides-and-its-global-status
#2
REVIEW
Parmjit S Panesar, Rupinder Kaur, Ram S Singh, John F Kennedy
Galactooligosaccharides (GOSs) are the non-digestible carbohydrates that are composed of 3-10 or longer molecules of galactose and the terminal glucose molecule. These are considered as prebiotics owing to their various health benefits, and therefore is the major focus of research. These are generally synthesized by the catalytic activity of the glycoside hydrolases (GH) utilizing lactose as a substrate, which results in the mixture of GOSs differing in their degree of polymerization. Different microbial glycoside hydrolases have been used for the production...
January 12, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337072/valorization-of-brewer-s-spent-grain-to-prebiotic-oligosaccharide-production-xylanase-catalyzed-hydrolysis-in-vitro-evaluation-with-probiotic-strains-and-in-a-batch-human-fecal-fermentation-model
#3
Mursalin Sajib, Peter Falck, Roya R R Sardari, Sindhu Mathew, Carl Grey, Eva Nordberg Karlsson, Patrick Adlercreutz
Brewer's spent grain (BSG) accounts for around 85% of the solid by-products from beer production. BSG was first extracted to obtain water-soluble arabinoxylan (AX). Using subsequent alkali extraction (0.5 M KOH) it was possible to dissolve additional AX. In total, about 57% of the AX in BSG was extracted with the purity of 45-55%. After comparison of nine xylanases, Pentopan mono BG, a GH11 enzyme, was selected for hydrolysis of the extracts to oligosaccharides with minimal formation of monosaccharides. Growth of Bifidobacterium adolescentis (ATCC 15703) was promoted by the enzymatic hydrolysis to arabinoxylooligosaccharides, while Lactobacillus brevis (DSMZ 1264) utilized only unsubstituted xylooligosaccharides...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334803/in-vitro-fermentation-of-gum-acacia-impact-on-the-faecal-microbiota
#4
Sehad Alarifi, Alan Bell, Gemma Walton
Interest in the consumption of gum acacia (GA) has been associated with beneficial health effects, which may be mediated in part by prebiotic activity. Two doses of GA and fructooligosaccharide (FOS) (1 and 2%) were tested for their efficacy over 48 h in pH- and temperature-controlled anaerobic batch cultures inoculated with human faeces. Samples were taken after 0, 5, 10, 24 and 48 h of fermentation. The selective effects of GA (increases in Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp.) were similar to those of the known prebiotic FOS...
January 16, 2018: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334423/mechanochemical-activation-of-iron-cyano-complexes-a-prebiotic-impact-scenario-for-the-synthesis-of-%C3%AE-amino-acid-derivatives
#5
Carsten Bolm, Rita Mocci, Christian Schumacher, Mathias Turberg, Francesco Puccetti, José G Hernández
Mechanochemical activation of iron cyano complexes by ball milling results in the formation of HCN, which can be trapped and incorporated into α-aminonitriles. This prebiotic impact scenario can be extended by mechanochemically transforming the resulting α-aminonitriles into α-amino amides using a chemical route related to early Earth conditions.
January 15, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334083/solvated-electron-production-using-cyanocuprates-is-compatible-with-the-uv-environment-on-a-hadean-archaean-earth
#6
Zoe R Todd, Albert C Fahrenbach, Christopher J Magnani, Sukrit Ranjan, Anders Björkbom, Jack W Szostak, Dimitar D Sasselov
UV-driven photoredox processing of cyanocuprates can generate simple sugars necessary for prebiotic synthesis. We investigate the wavelength dependence of this process from 215 to 295 nm and generally observe faster rates at shorter wavelengths. The most efficient wavelengths are accessible to a range of potential prebiotic atmospheres, supporting the potential role of cyanocuprate photochemistry in prebiotic synthesis on the early Earth.
January 15, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333394/evaluation-of-anti-wrinkle-effects-of-duoligo-composed-of-lactulose-and-galactooligosaccharides
#7
Eun Young Jung, Jung Il Kwon, Yang Hee Hong, Hyung Joo Suh
Currently, alternatives to prebiotics for skin treatment are receiving much interest. However, little is known about the efficacy of topically applied prebiotics in skin anti-aging. This study was conducted to observe the anti-aging effects of DuOligo, which is composed of lactulose and galactooligosaccharides (GOS). We investigated wrinkle-related parameters by quantitative and qualitative skin evaluation in healthy women who consumed DuOligo for 8 weeks. The double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled study included subjects who were divided into two groups (Placebo: dextrin 4...
December 2017: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328633/size-induced-segregation-in-the-stepwise-microhydration-of-hydantoin-and-its-role-on-proton-induced-charge-transfer
#8
Florent Calvo, Marie-Christine Bacchus-Montabonel
Recent photochemistry experiments provided evidence for the formation of hydantoin by irradiation of interstellar ice analogues. The significance of these results and the importance of hydantoin in prebiotic chemistry and polypeptide synthesis motivate the present theoretical investigation, in which we analyzed the effects of stepwise hydration on the structures, electronic and thermodynamical properties of microhydrated hydantoin using a variety of computational approaches. We generally find microhydration to proceed around the hydantoin heterocycle until 5 water molecules are reached, at which stage hydration becomes segregated with a water cluster forming aside the heterocycle...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323180/low-amounts-of-dietary-fibre-increase-in-vitro-production-of-short-chain-fatty-acids-without-changing-human-colonic-microbiota-structure
#9
Daisuke Sasaki, Kengo Sasaki, Naoko Ikuta, Takahiro Yasuda, Itsuko Fukuda, Akihiko Kondo, Ro Osawa
This study investigated the effect of various prebiotics (indigestible dextrin, α-cyclodextrin, and dextran) on human colonic microbiota at a dosage corresponding to a daily intake of 6 g of prebiotics per person (0.2% of dietary intake). We used an in vitro human colonic microbiota model based on batch fermentation starting from a faecal inoculum. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that addition of 0.2% prebiotics did not change the diversity and composition of colonic microbiota. This finding coincided with results from a clinical study showing that the microbiota composition of human faecal samples remained unchanged following administration of 6 g of prebiotics over seven days...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321594/estimating-the-capacity-for-production-of-formamide-by-radioactive-minerals-on-the-prebiotic-earth
#10
Zachary R Adam, Yayoi Hongo, H James Cleaves, Ruiqin Yi, Albert C Fahrenbach, Isao Yoda, Masashi Aono
Water creates special problems for prebiotic chemistry, as it is thermodynamically favorable for amide and phosphodiester bonds to hydrolyze. The availability of alternative solvents with more favorable properties for the formation of prebiotic molecules on the early Earth may have helped bypass this so-called "water paradox". Formamide (FA) is one such solvent, and can serve as a nucleobase precursor, but it is difficult to envision how FA could have been generated in large quantities or accumulated in terrestrial surface environments...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319888/formation-of-cyanamide-glyoxal-oligomers-in-aqueous-environments-relevant-to-primeval-and-astrochemical-scenarios-a-spectroscopic-and-theoretical-study
#11
Nieves Lavado, Juan García de la Concepción, Reyes Babiano, Pedro Cintas
The condensation of cyanamide and glyoxal, two well-known prebiotic monomers, in aqueous phase has been investigated in great detail, demonstrating the formation of oligomeric species of varied structure, though consistent with generalizable patterns. This chemistry involving structurally simple substances also illustrates the ability of building molecular complexity under prebiotically plausible conditions, not only on Earth but also on extraterrestrial scenarios. We show that cyanamide-glyoxal reactions in water lead to mixtures comprising both acyclic and cyclic fragments, largely based on fused five- and six-membered rings, which can be predicted by computation...
January 10, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319093/nutriosomes-prebiotic-delivery-systems-combining-phospholipids-a-soluble-dextrin-and-curcumin-to-counteract-intestinal-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation
#12
Ana Catalán-Latorre, Maria Pleguezuelos-Villa, Ines Castangia, Maria Letizia Manca, Carla Caddeo, Amparo Nácher, Octavio Díez-Sales, José Esteban Peris, Ramon Pons, Elvira Escribano-Ferrer, Anna Maria Fadda, Maria Manconi
Nutriosomes, new phospholipid nanovesicles specifically designed for intestinal protection were developed by simultaneously loading a water-soluble dextrin (Nutriose® FM06) and a natural antioxidant (curcumin). Nutriosomes were easily fabricated in a one-step, organic solvent-free procedure. The stability and delivery performances of the vesicles were improved by adding hydroxypropyl methylcellulose. All the vesicles were small in size (mean diameter ∼168 nm), negatively charged (zeta potential ∼-38 mV, irrespective of their composition), and self-assembled predominantly in unilamellar vesicles stabilized by the presence of Nutriose®, which was located in both the inter-lamellar and inter-vesicle media, as confirmed by cryo-TEM and SAXS investigation...
January 10, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317495/structural-and-mechanistic-analysis-of-a-%C3%AE-glycoside-phosphorylase-identified-by-screening-a-metagenomic-library
#13
Spencer S Macdonald, Ankoor Patel, Veronica L C Larmour, Connor Morgan-Lang, Steven J Hallam, Brian L Mark, Stephen G Withers
Glycoside phosphorylases have considerable potential as catalysts for the assembly of useful glycans for products ranging from functional foods and prebiotics to novel materials. However, the substrate diversity of currently identified phosphorylases is relatively small, limiting their practical applications. To address this limitation, we developed a high-throughput screening approach using the activated substrate 2,4-dinitrophenyl β-D-glucoside (DNPGlc) and inorganic phosphate for identifying glycoside phosphorylase activity and used it to screen a large insert metagenomic library...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316965/decreased-microglial-activation-through-gut-brain-axis-by-prebiotics-probiotics-or-synbiotics-effectively-restored-cognitive-function-in-obese-insulin-resistant-rats
#14
Titikorn Chunchai, Wannipa Thunapong, Sakawdaurn Yasom, Keerati Wanchai, Sathima Eaimworawuthikul, Gabrielle Metzler, Anusorn Lungkaphin, Anchalee Pongchaidecha, Sasithorn Sirilun, Chaiyavat Chaiyasut, Wasana Pratchayasakul, Parameth Thiennimitr, Nipon Chattipakorn, Siriporn C Chattipakorn
BACKGROUND: Chronic high-fat diet (HFD) consumption caused not only obese-insulin resistance, but also cognitive decline and microglial hyperactivity. Modified gut microbiota by prebiotics and probiotics improved obese-insulin resistance. However, the effects of prebiotics, probiotics, and synbiotics on cognition and microglial activity in an obese-insulin resistant condition have not yet been investigated. We aimed to evaluate the effect of prebiotic (Xyloolidosaccharide), probiotic (Lactobacillus paracasei HII01), or synbiotics in male obese-insulin resistant rats induced by a HFD...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311556/linked-cycles-of-oxidative-decarboxylation-of-glyoxylate-as-protometabolic-analogs-of-the-citric-acid-cycle
#15
Greg Springsteen, Jayasudhan Reddy Yerabolu, Julia Nelson, Chandler Joel Rhea, Ramanarayanan Krishnamurthy
The development of metabolic approaches towards understanding the origins of life, which have focused mainly on the citric acid (TCA) cycle, have languished-primarily due to a lack of experimentally demonstrable and sustainable cycle(s) of reactions. We show here the existence of a protometabolic analog of the TCA involving two linked cycles, which convert glyoxylate into CO2 and produce aspartic acid in the presence of ammonia. The reactions proceed from either pyruvate, oxaloacetate or malonate in the presence of glyoxylate as the carbon source and hydrogen peroxide as the oxidant under neutral aqueous conditions and at mild temperatures...
January 8, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311119/the-role-of-the-gut-microbiome-in-systemic-inflammatory-disease
#16
REVIEW
Jose C Clemente, Julia Manasson, Jose U Scher
The role of the gut microbiome in models of inflammatory and autoimmune disease is now well characterized. Renewed interest in the human microbiome and its metabolites, as well as notable advances in host mucosal immunology, has opened multiple avenues of research to potentially modulate inflammatory responses. The complexity and interdependence of these diet-microbe-metabolite-host interactions are rapidly being unraveled. Importantly, most of the progress in the field comes from new knowledge about the functional properties of these microorganisms in physiology and their effect in mucosal immunity and distal inflammation...
January 8, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310853/immobilization-of-%C3%AE-1-3-1-4-glucanase-from-bacillus-sp-on-porous-silica-for-production-of-%C3%AE-glucooligosaccharides
#17
Hwa Jin Cho, Won Je Jang, Soo Young Moon, Jong Min Lee, Jang-Ho Kim, Hyon-Sob Han, Kang-Woong Kim, Bong-Joo Lee, In-Soo Kong
(1,3)(1,4)-β-d-glucan has been determined to have various beneficial effects due to its unique structure. β-glucooligosaccharides (β-GOS), which are hydrolysates of barley (1,3)(1,4)-β-d-glucan, provide a useful prebiotic material for selective growth of probiotic bacteria. In this study, recombinant β-1,3-1,4-glucanase (Bg1314) from Bacillus sp. SJ-10 (KCCM 90078) was immobilized on porous silica using glutaraldehyde as a crosslinking reagent to achieve efficient production of β-GOS. We investigated the effects of factors such as the amounts of enzyme and glutaraldehyde, reaction temperature, and pH on catalytic activity...
March 2018: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310610/pregnancy-outcomes-in-women-taking-probiotics-or-prebiotics-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
Alexander Jarde, Anne-Mary Lewis-Mikhael, Paul Moayyedi, Jennifer C Stearns, Stephen M Collins, Joseph Beyene, Sarah D McDonald
BACKGROUND: Probiotics are living microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit. It has been speculated that probiotics might help prevent preterm birth, but in two previous systematic reviews possible major increases in this risk have been suggested. Our objective was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the risk of preterm birth and other adverse pregnancy outcomes in pregnant women taking probiotics, prebiotics or synbiotics. METHODS: We searched six electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science's Core collection and BIOSIS Preview) up to September 2016 and contacted authors for additional data...
January 8, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308815/glycosylation-of-a-model-proto-rna-nucleobase-with-non-ribose-sugars-implications-for-the-prebiotic-synthesis-of-nucleosides
#19
David M Fialho, Kimberly C Clarke, Megan K Moore, Gary B Schuster, Ramanarayanan Krishnamurthy, Nicholas V Hud
The emergence of nucleosides is an important, but poorly understood, element of the origins of life. We show that 2,4,6-triaminopyrimidine (TAP), a possible ancestral nucleobase of RNA, is glycosylated in water by non-ribose sugars in yields comparable to those previously reported for its reaction with ribose. The various sugars surveyed include ketoses and aldoses; tetroses, pentoses, and hexoses and are neutral, anionic, or cationic. Though they vary greatly in structure and properties, the data show that all sugars tested form glycosides with TAP...
January 8, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307721/exploring-the-prebiotic-effect-of-cyclodextrins-on-probiotic-bacteria-entrapped-in-carboxymetyl-cellulose-chitosan-particles
#20
Poonam Singh, Bruno Medronho, Artur J M Valente, Maria G Miguel, Björn Lindman
In this work the prebiotic effect of different cyclodextrins, CDs, on the viability of model probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG) encapsulated in carboxymethyl cellulose-chitosan (CMC-Cht) hybrid particles was studied. All the CDs tested were observed to considerably improve the viability (quantitatively like common prebiotics, such as corn starch) and encapsulation efficiency when compared to the CD-free particles, as inferred by plate counting method and fluorescence microscopy. The SEM data suggests that the morphology of the particles, the roughness of the surface and porosity, are dependent on the type of CD and may reflect different interactions between the CDs and the matrix components...
December 11, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
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