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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429701/-microbiota-and-metabolic-syndrome
#1
Yüksel Altuntaş, Adnan Batman
The role of gut bacteria in the pathogenesis and treatment of various diseases has been a focus of attention in the last 10 years. Prevalence of diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular diseases continues to increase, in spite of technological developments and treatment alternatives. Microbial dysbiosis, described as the decrease of useful bacteria and the increase of harmful bacteria, has been associated with diabetes, obesity, atherosclerosis, and metabolic syndrome. In microbial dysbiosis, increase of harmful metabolites and changes to composition of bile acids occur via carbohydrate and protein fermentation...
April 2017: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneği Arşivi: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneğinin Yayın Organıdır
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421057/gut-microbiota-modulation-and-its-relationship-with-obesity-using-prebiotic-fibers-and-probiotics-a-review
#2
REVIEW
Dinesh K Dahiya, Renuka, Monica Puniya, Umesh K Shandilya, Tejpal Dhewa, Nikhil Kumar, Sanjeev Kumar, Anil K Puniya, Pratyoosh Shukla
In the present world scenario, obesity has almost attained the level of a pandemic and is progressing at a rapid rate. This disease is the mother of all other metabolic disorders, which apart from placing an added financial burden on the concerned patient also has a negative impact on his/her well-being and health in the society. Among the various plausible factors for the development of obesity, the role of gut microbiota is very crucial. In general, the gut of an individual is inhabited by trillions of microbes that play a significant role in host energy homeostasis by their symbiotic interactions...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418214/colonic-gas-homeostasis-mechanisms-of-adaptation-following-host-g904-galactooligosaccharide-use-in-humans
#3
M Mego, A Accarino, G Tzortzis, J Vulevic, G Gibson, F Guarner, F Azpiroz
BACKGROUND: We have shown that a galactooligosaccharide prebiotic administration (HOST-G904) initially increased intestinal gas production and this increase declined back to baseline after 2 week administration. Our aim was to determine the mechanism of microbiota adaptation; i.e., to determine whether the net reduction is due to decreased overall production or increased gas consumption. METHODS: In 10 healthy subjects, intestinal gas production and intraluminal disposal was measured before, at the beginning and after 2 week of HOST-G904 prebiotic administration...
April 18, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417455/an-efficient-process-for-obtaining-of-prebiotic-oligosaccharides-derived-from-lactulose-using-isomerised-and-purified-whey-permeate
#4
Carlos Sabater, Agustín Olano, Marin Prodanov, Antonia Montilla, Nieves Corzo
BACKGROUND: One of the most promising uses of whey permeate (WP) is the synthesis of prebiotic oligosaccharides. Herein, commercial WP was submitted to chemical isomerisation catalysed by sodium borate at an alkaline pH and subsequent purification using anion-exchange resins to remove boron. Afterwards, purified mixtures were used to synthesise prebiotic oligosaccharides using β-galactosidase from Bacillus circulans. RESULTS: Isomerisation of concentrated WP (200 g L(-1) lactose) gave rise to levels of lactulose up to 155...
April 18, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416884/determination-of-soluble-dietary-fibre-content-of-okara-treated-with-high-hydrostatic-pressure-and-enzymes-a-comparative-evaluation-of-two-methods-aoac-and-hplc-elsd
#5
E Pérez-López, I Mateos-Aparicio, P Rupérez
ABSTRACT: Okara is a promising by-product from soybean and a rich source of dietary fibre, chiefly insoluble (IDF). To increase its solubility and functionality, a treatment with high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) assisted by food grade enzymes -Ultraflo(®) L or Viscozyme(®) L- has been performed. To monitor the effectiveness, an analysis of dietary fibre, mainly the soluble fraction (SDF), was accomplished by the AOAC enzymatic-gravimetric method with dialysis followed by both, spectrophotometric methods and High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Evaporative Light Scattering Detector (HPLC-ELSD) analysis of the soluble fraction...
April 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415353/noise-induced-symmetry-breaking-far-from-equilibrium-and-the-emergence-of-biological-homochirality
#6
Farshid Jafarpour, Tommaso Biancalani, Nigel Goldenfeld
The origin of homochirality, the observed single-handedness of biological amino acids and sugars, has long been attributed to autocatalysis, a frequently assumed precursor for early life self-replication. However, the stability of homochiral states in deterministic autocatalytic systems relies on cross-inhibition of the two chiral states, an unlikely scenario for early life self-replicators. Here we present a theory for a stochastic individual-level model of autocatalytic prebiotic self-replicators that are maintained out of thermal equilibrium...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413905/pre-meal-inulin-consumption-does-not-affect-acute-energy-intake-in-overweight-and-obese-middle-aged-and-older-adults
#7
Katarina Smiljanec, Cassie M Mitchell, Olivia F Privitera, Andrew P Neilson, Kevin P Davy, Brenda M Davy
BACKGROUND: Three-fourths of adults older than 55 years in the United States are overweight or obese. Prebiotics including inulin-type fructans may benefit with weight management. AIM: We aimed to investigate the acute effects of pre-meal inulin consumption on energy intake (EI) and appetite in older adults. METHODS: Sedentary, overweight or obese middle-aged and older adults ( n = 7, 60.9 ± 4.4 years, BMI 32.9 ± 4.3 kg/m(2)) ingested inulin (10 g) or a water preload before each test period in a randomly assigned order...
January 1, 2017: Nutrition and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413079/mexican-consensus-on-dyspepsia
#8
R Carmona-Sánchez, O Gómez-Escudero, M Zavala-Solares, M V Bielsa-Fernández, E Coss-Adame, A I Hernández-Guerrero, F Huerta-Iga, M E Icaza-Chávez, M A Lira-Pedrín, J A Lizárraga-López, A López-Colombo, A Noble-Lugo, J Pérez-Manauta, R H Raña-Garibay, J M Remes-Troche, J L Tamayo, L F Uscanga, F Zamarripa-Dorsey, M A Valdovinos Díaz, J A Velarde-Ruiz Velasco
Since the publication of the 2007 dyspepsia guidelines of the Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología, there have been significant advances in the knowledge of this disease. A systematic search of the literature in PubMed (01/2007 to 06/2016) was carried out to review and update the 2007 guidelines and to provide new evidence-based recommendations. All high-quality articles in Spanish and English were included. Statements were formulated and voted upon using the Delphi method. The level of evidence and strength of recommendation of each statement were established according to the GRADE system...
April 13, 2017: Revista de Gastroenterología de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410921/a-randomized-trial-to-determine-the-impact-of-a-digestion-resistant-starch-composition-on-the-gut-microbiome-in-older-and-mid-age-adults
#9
Michelle J Alfa, David Strang, Paramjit S Tappia, Morag Graham, Gary Van Domselaar, Jessica D Forbes, Vanessa Laminman, Nancy Olson, Pat DeGagne, David Bray, Brenda-Lee Murray, Brenden Dufault, Lisa M Lix
BACKGROUND: The elderly often have a diet lacking resistant starch (RS) which is thought to lead to gut microbiome dysbiosis that may result in deterioration of gut colonocytes. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective was to assess if elderly (ELD; ≥ 70 years age) had microbiome dysbiosis compared to mid-age (MID; 30-50 years age) adults and then determine the impact of daily consumption of MSPrebiotic(®) (a RS) or placebo over 3 months on gut microbiome composition...
March 31, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408909/the-maternal-diet-gut-bacteria-and-bacterial-metabolites-during-pregnancy-influence-offspring-asthma
#10
REVIEW
Lawrence E K Gray, Martin O'Hely, Sarath Ranganathan, Peter David Sly, Peter Vuillermin
This review focuses on the current evidence that maternal dietary and gut bacterial exposures during pregnancy influence the developing fetal immune system and subsequent offspring asthma. Part 1 addresses exposure to a farm environment, antibiotics, and prebiotic and probiotic supplementation that together indicate the importance of bacterial experience in immune programming and offspring asthma. Part 2 outlines proposed mechanisms to explain these associations including bacterial exposure of the fetoplacental unit; immunoglobulin-related transplacental transport of gut bacterial components; cytokine signaling producing fetomaternal immune alignment; and immune programming via metabolites produced by gut bacteria...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403036/commercial-probiotic-products-a-call-for-improved-quality-control-a-position-paper-by-the-espghan-working-group-for-probiotics-and-prebiotics
#11
Sanja Kolaček, Iva Hojsak, Roberto Berni Canani, Alfredo Guarino, Flavia Indrio, Rok Orel, Bruno Pot, Raanan Shamir, Hania Szajewska, Yvan Vandenplas, Johannes van Goudoever, Zvi Weizman
: Probiotics have been proposed for a number of indications ranging from the hypothetical long term immunomodulatory effects to proven benefits in the management of different clinical conditions.An increasing number of commercial products containing probiotics are available. In those products, irrespective if it is food, food supplement, medical food or drug, the probiotic microorganisms have to be present in a sufficient number by the end of the shelf-life, to pass through the gastrointestinal tract resisting acid and bile, to colonize the gut, and to retain functional properties required to obtain the suggested beneficial effect...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402523/role-of-short-chain-fatty-acids-in-colonic-inflammation-carcinogenesis-and-mucosal-protection-and-healing
#12
Christina M van der Beek, Cornelis H C Dejong, Freddy J Troost, Ad A M Masclee, Kaatje Lenaerts
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), mainly acetate, propionate, and butyrate, produced by microbial fermentation of undigested food substances are believed to play a beneficial role in human gut health. Short-chain fatty acids influence colonic health through various mechanisms. In vitro and ex vivo studies show that SCFAs have anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic effects, play an important role in maintaining metabolic homeostasis in colonocytes, and protect colonocytes from external harm. Animal studies have found substantial positive effects of SCFAs or dietary fiber on colonic disease, but convincing evidence in humans is lacking...
April 10, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401215/prebiotic-synthesis-of-aminooxazoline-5-phosphates-in-water-by-oxidative-phosphorylation
#13
C Fernández-García, N M Grefenstette, M W Powner
RNA is essential to all life on Earth and is the leading candidate for the first biopolymer of life. Aminooxazolines have recently emerged as key prebiotic ribonucleotide precursors, and here we develop a novel strategy for aminooxazoline-5'-phosphate synthesis in water from prebiotic feedstocks. Oxidation of acrolein delivers glycidaldehyde (90%), which directs a regioselective phosphorylation in water and specifically affords 5'-phosphorylated nucleotide precursors in upto 36% yield. We also demonstrated a generational link between proteinogenic amino acids (Met, Glu, Gln) and nucleotide synthesis...
April 12, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400259/a-role-for-the-peripheral-immune-system-in-the-development-of-alcohol-use-disorders
#14
REVIEW
Philippe de Timary, Peter Stärkel, Nathalie M Delzenne, Sophie Leclercq
Preclinical studies have largely supported that alcohol-consumption induces the development of an important neuro-inflammation and this neuro-inflammation contributes to alcohol-drinking behaviors, notably through TLR4 and LPS related mechanisms. The neuro-inflammation originates from a direct interaction of ethanol with the neuronal and immune brain cells, but also from the generation of an inflammation at the periphery. Ethanol in particular interacts with the intestine to develop a gut dysbiosis and an increase in gut permeability, that allows the liberation of bacterial fragments to the systemic circulation and induces a pro-inflammatory response in the systemic circulation and peripheral organs, and in particular the liver...
April 8, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400091/metabolomic-changes-demonstrate-reduced-bioavailability-of-tyrosine-and-altered-metabolism-of-tryptophan-via-the-kynurenine-pathway-with-ingestion-of-medical-foods-in-phenylketonuria
#15
Denise M Ney, Sangita G Murali, Bridget M Stroup, Nivedita Nair, Emily A Sawin, Fran Rohr, Harvey L Levy
BACKGROUND: Deficiencies of the monoamine neurotransmitters, such as dopamine synthesized from Tyr and serotonin synthesized from Trp, are of concern in PKU. Our objective was to utilize metabolomics analysis to assess monoamine metabolites in subjects with PKU consuming amino acid medical foods (AA-MF) and glycomacropeptide medical foods (GMP-MF). METHODS: Subjects with PKU consumed a low-Phe diet combined with AA-MF or GMP-MF for 3weeks each in a randomized, controlled, crossover study...
April 6, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397774/small-and-random-peptides-an-unexplored-reservoir-of-potentially-functional-primitive-organocatalysts-the-case-of-seryl-histidine
#16
REVIEW
Rafal Wieczorek, Katarzyna Adamala, Tecla Gasperi, Fabio Polticelli, Pasquale Stano
Catalysis is an essential feature of living systems biochemistry, and probably, it played a key role in primordial times, helping to produce more complex molecules from simple ones. However, enzymes, the biocatalysts par excellence, were not available in such an ancient context, and so, instead, small molecule catalysis (organocatalysis) may have occurred. The best candidates for the role of primitive organocatalysts are amino acids and short random peptides, which are believed to have been available in an early period on Earth...
April 9, 2017: Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393631/prebiotic-evaluation-of-red-seaweed-kappaphycus-alvarezii-using-in-vitro-colon-model
#17
Dayang Marshitah Bajury, Muhamad Hanif Rawi, Iqbal Hakim Sazali, Aminah Abdullah, Shahrul Razid Sarbini
Red seaweed (Kappaphycus alvarezii) cultivated from Sabah (RSS) and Langkawi (RSL) were digested using in vitro mouth, gastric and duodenal model. The digested seaweed then fermented in a pH-controlled batch culture system inoculated with human faeces to mimic the distal colon. Bacterial enumeration were monitored using fluorescent in situ hybridisation, and the fermentation end products, the short chain fatty acids (SCFA), were analysed using HPLC. Both RSS and RSL showed significant increase of Bifidobacterium sp...
April 10, 2017: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390574/airway-microbial-dysbiosis-in-asthmatic-patients-a%C3%A2-target-for-prevention-and-treatment
#18
REVIEW
Kian Fan Chung
There has been long-standing interest in the role of bacterial communities in the complex and heterogeneous disease of asthma. With the advent of 16s rRNA sequencing replacing traditional culture methods, a strong association between the presence of bacterial communities with asthma has emerged. These microbiota can be modulated by various environmental factors, including diet, antibiotics, and early-life microbial exposures. Microbiota in the gut and lungs can influence both the inception and progress of asthma...
April 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389432/topological-and-thermodynamic-factors-that-influence-the-evolution-of-small-networks-of-catalytic-rna-species
#19
Jessica A M Yeates, Philippe Nghe, Niles Lehman
RNA-directed recombination reaction can result in a network of interacting RNA species. It is now becoming increasingly apparent that such networks would have been an important feature of the RNA world during the nascent evolution of life on the Earth. But the means by which such small RNA networks assimilate other available genotypes in the environment to grow and evolve into the more complex networks that are thought to have existed in the prebiotic milieu are not known. Here, we used the ability of fragments of the Azoarcus group I intron ribozyme to covalently self assemble via genotype-selfish and genotype-cooperative interactions into full-length ribozymes to investigate the dynamics of small (3- and 4-membered) networks...
April 7, 2017: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383486/prebiotic-factors-influencing-the-activity-of-a-ligase-ribozyme
#20
Fabrizio Anella, Christophe Danelon
An RNA-lipid origin of life scenario provides a plausible route for compartmentalized replication of an informational polymer and subsequent division of the container. However, a full narrative to form such RNA protocells implies that catalytic RNA molecules, called ribozymes, can operate in the presence of self-assembled vesicles composed of prebiotically relevant constituents, such as fatty acids. Hereby, we subjected a newly engineered truncated variant of the L1 ligase ribozyme, named tL1, to various environmental conditions that may have prevailed on the early Earth with the objective to find a set of control parameters enabling both tL1-catalyzed ligation and formation of stable myristoleic acid (MA) vesicles...
April 6, 2017: Life
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