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Prebiotics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145201/dietary-fructo-oligosaccharides-attenuate-early-activation-of-cd4-t-cells-which-produce-both-th1-and-th2-cytokines-in-the-intestinal-lymphoid-tissues-of-a-murine-food-allergy-model
#1
Masato Tsuda, Haruka Arakawa, Narumi Ishii, Chihiro Ubukata, Mana Michimori, Masanari Noda, Kyoko Takahashi, Shuichi Kaminogawa, Akira Hosono
BACKGROUND: Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) are prebiotic agents with immunomodulatory effects involving improvement of the intestinal microbiota and metabolome. In this study, we investigated the cellular mechanisms through which FOS modulate intestinal antigen-specific CD4+ T cell responses in food allergy, using OVA23-3 mice. METHODS: OVA23-3 mice were fed an experimental diet containing either ovalbumin (OVA) or OVA and FOS for 1 week. Body weight and mucosal mast cell protease 1 in the serum were measured as the indicator of intestinal inflammation...
November 17, 2017: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140465/short-chain-arabinoxylans-prepared-from-enzymatically-treated-wheat-grain-exert-prebiotic-effects-during-the-broiler-starter-period
#2
N Yacoubi, L Saulnier, E Bonnin, E Devillard, V Eeckhaut, L Rhayat, R Ducatelle, F Van Immerseel
Carbohydrate-degrading multi-enzyme preparations (MEP) are used to improve broiler performances. Their mode of action is complex and not fully understood. In this study, we compared the effect of water-soluble fractions isolated at the pilot scale from wheat grain incubated with (WE) and without (WC) MEP. The fractions were incorporated in a wheat-based diet (0.1% w/w) to feed Ross PM3 broilers and compared with a non-supplemented control group (NC). The body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) until d 14 were determined...
November 10, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137150/in-vitro-fermentation-patterns-of-rice-bran-components-by-human-gut-microbiota
#3
Tung Pham, Keat Thomas Teoh, Brett J Savary, Ming-Hsuan Chen, Anna McClung, Sun-Ok Lee
Whole grain rice is a rich source of fiber, nutrients, and phytochemicals that may promote gastrointestinal health, but such beneficial components are typically removed with the bran during polishing. Soluble feruloylated arabinoxylan oligosaccharides (FAXO) and polyphenols (RBPP) isolated from rice bran are hypothesized to have positive impacts on human gut microbiota through a prebiotic function. Using an in vitro human fecal fermentation bioassay, FAXO and RBPP treatments were assessed for short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) production patterns and by evaluating their impacts on the phylogentic composition of human gut microbiota by 16S rRNA gene sequencing...
November 12, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135961/probiotic-prebiotic-and-brain-development
#4
REVIEW
Tomás Cerdó, Alicia Ruíz, Antonio Suárez, Cristina Campoy
Recently, a number of studies have demonstrated the existence of a link between the emotional and cognitive centres of the brain and peripheral functions through the bi-directional interaction between the central nervous system and the enteric nervous system. Therefore, the use of bacteria as therapeutics has attracted much interest. Recent research has found that there are a variety of mechanisms by which bacteria can signal to the brain and influence several processes in relation to neurotransmission, neurogenesis, and behaviour...
November 14, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134988/prebiotic-rna-polymerisation-energetics-of-nucleotide-adsorption-and-polymerisation-on-clay-mineral-surfaces
#5
S Jelavić, D J Tobler, T Hassenkam, J J De Yoreo, S L S Stipp, K K Sand
We measured the binding energy and bonding parameters between model nucleotide functional groups and model clay mineral surfaces in solutions of acidic pH. We demonstrate that basal surfaces of clay minerals interact most strongly with nucleobases and show that the adsorption of the phosphate group to clay edges could facilitate polymerisation. Our results suggest that Al- and Fe-rich edge sites behave similarly in nucleotide polymerisation through change of the phosphodiester bond strength. We present an internally consistent set of thermodynamic parameters that represent the nucleotide-clay mineral system...
November 14, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134293/medicinal-foods-for-functional-gi-disorders
#6
REVIEW
Brent W Acker, Brooks D Cash
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Over the past 10 years, there has been a dramatic increase in basic and clinical research involving functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs). New diagnostic and biomarker procedures are helping to identify physiologic disruptions associated with FGIDs on cellular and molecular levels. Simultaneously, clinicians are using new approaches to help manage patients with FGIDs. Among these, an important component of care has been the use of medical foods. These include probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, peppermint oil, caraway oil, curcumin, bovine immunoglobulin and many others...
November 13, 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133454/protoenzymes-the-case-of-hyperbranched-polyesters
#7
Irena Mamajanov, George D Cody
Enzymes are biopolymeric complexes that catalyse biochemical reactions and shape metabolic pathways. Enzymes usually work with small molecule cofactors that actively participate in reaction mechanisms and complex, usually globular, polymeric structures capable of specific substrate binding, encapsulation and orientation. Moreover, the globular structures of enzymes possess cavities with modulated microenvironments, facilitating the progression of reaction(s). The globular structure is ensured by long folded protein or RNA strands...
December 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133452/an-intermediate-level-of-abstraction-for-computational-systems-chemistry
#8
Jakob L Andersen, Christoph Flamm, Daniel Merkle, Peter F Stadler
Computational techniques are required for narrowing down the vast space of possibilities to plausible prebiotic scenarios, because precise information on the molecular composition, the dominant reaction chemistry and the conditions for that era are scarce. The exploration of large chemical reaction networks is a central aspect in this endeavour. While quantum chemical methods can accurately predict the structures and reactivities of small molecules, they are not efficient enough to cope with large-scale reaction systems...
December 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133447/subsumed-complexity-abiogenesis-as-a-by-product-of-complex-energy-transduction
#9
Z R Adam, D Zubarev, M Aono, H James Cleaves
The origins of life bring into stark relief the inadequacy of our current synthesis of thermodynamic, chemical, physical and information theory to predict the conditions under which complex, living states of organic matter can arise. Origins research has traditionally proceeded under an array of implicit or explicit guiding principles in lieu of a universal formalism for abiogenesis. Within the framework of a new guiding principle for prebiotic chemistry called subsumed complexity, organic compounds are viewed as by-products of energy transduction phenomena at different scales (subatomic, atomic, molecular and polymeric) that retain energy in the form of bonds that inhibit energy from reaching the ground state...
December 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133439/re-conceptualizing-the-origins-of-life
#10
Sara I Walker, N Packard, G D Cody
Over the last several hundred years of scientific progress, we have arrived at a deep understanding of the non-living world. We have not yet achieved an analogous, deep understanding of the living world. The origins of life is our best chance at discovering scientific laws governing life, because it marks the point of departure from the predictable physical and chemical world to the novel, history-dependent living world. This theme issue aims to explore ways to build a deeper understanding of the nature of biology, by modelling the origins of life on a sufficiently abstract level, starting from prebiotic conditions on Earth and possibly on other planets and bridging quantitative frameworks approaching universal aspects of life...
December 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131221/organocatalysis-using-aldehydes-the-development-and-improvement-of-catalytic-hydroaminations-hydrations-and-hydrolyses
#11
Bin-Jie Li, Claudia Ei-Nachef, André M Beauchemin
Organocatalysis has emerged as a powerful approach to facilitate and accelerate various difficult reactions. This Feature article presents recent developments and improvements using aldehydes as catalysts in difficult Cope-type intermolecular hydroamination, hydration and hydrolysis reactions. Most reactions exploit temporary intramolecularity. In catalytic Cope-type hydroaminations of allylic amines, aldehydes act as tethering catalysts, and allow room temperature reactions and high enantio- or diastereoselectivities if chiral aldehydes or reagents are used...
November 13, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127292/thermostability-improvement-of-a-talaromyces-leycettanus-xylanase-by-rational-protein-engineering
#12
Xiaoyu Wang, Rui Ma, Xiangming Xie, Weina Liu, Tao Tu, Fei Zheng, Shuai You, Jianzhong Ge, Huifang Xie, Bin Yao, Huiying Luo
Thermophilic xylanases with high catalytic efficiency are of great interest in the biofuel, food and feed industries. This study identified a GH11 xylanase gene, Tlxyn11B, in Talaromyces leycettanus JCM12802. Recombinant TlXyn11B produced in Pichia pastoris is distinguished by high specific activity (8259 ± 32 U/mg with beechwood xylan as substrate) and excellent pH stability (from 1.0 to 10.5). The beechwood xylan hydrolysates consisted mainly of xylobiose, xylotriose and xylotetraose, thus TlXyn11B could be used for the production of prebiotic xylooligosaccharide...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124056/microbial-therapeutics-designed-for-infant-health
#13
REVIEW
Claire Watkins, Catherine Stanton, C Anthony Ryan, R Paul Ross
Acknowledgment of the gut microbiome as a vital asset to health has led to multiple studies attempting to elucidate its mechanisms of action. During the first year of life, many factors can cause fluctuation in the developing gut microbiome. Host genetics, maternal health status, mode of delivery, gestational age, feeding regime, and perinatal antibiotic usage, are known factors which can influence the development of the infant gut microbiome. Thus, the microbiome of vaginally born, exclusively breastfed infants at term, with no previous exposure to antibiotics, either directly or indirectly from the mother, is to be considered the "gold standard...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122501/psychoneuroimmunological-approach-to-gastrointestinal-related-pain
#14
REVIEW
Karlo Toljan, Bruce Vrooman
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE (AIMS): Psychoneuroimmunology is both a theoretical and practical field of medicine in which human biology and psychology are considered an interconnected unity. Through such a framework it is possible to elucidate complex syndromes in gastrointestinal related pain, particularly chronic non-malignant. The aim is to provide insight into pathophysiological mechanisms and suggest treatment modalities according to a comprehensive paradigm. The article also presents novel findings that may guide clinicians to recognize new targets or scientists to find new research topics...
November 6, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122477/development-and-characterization-of-an-innovative-synbiotic-fermented-beverage-based-on-vegetable-soybean
#15
Carolina Battistini, Beatriz Gullón, Erica Sayuri Ichimura, Ana Maria Pereira Gomes, Eliana Paula Ribeiro, Leo Kunigk, José Ubirajara Vieira Moreira, Cynthia Jurkiewicz
Soymilk was produced from vegetable soybean and fermented by probiotics (Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5, Bifidobacterium animalis Bb-12) in co-culture with Streptococcus thermophilus. The composition of the fermented beverage and oligosaccharides content were determined. The effect of fructooligosaccharides and inulin on the fermentation time and viability of probiotic microorganisms throughout 28 days of storage at 5°C were evaluated. The soymilk from vegetable soybeans was fermented in just 3.2h, when pH reached 4...
October 18, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120775/preparation-and-prebiotic-potential-of-pectin-oligosaccharides-obtained-from-citrus-peel-pectin
#16
Shanshan Zhang, Haijuan Hu, Lufeng Wang, Fengxia Liu, Siyi Pan
Pectin oligosaccharide (POS) fractions were obtained by controlled chemical degradation of citrus peel pectin. By adjusting trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) concentration, three oligosaccharides were obtained, of molecular weight (Mw) range 3000-4000 Da, 2000-3000 Da and lower than 2000 Da. Varying hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration and reaction time produced oligosaccharides of 3000-4000 Da and 2000-3000 Da. The relative proportions of acidic monosaccharide increased from 68.58% to 89.93% (TFA) and from 63...
April 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119465/probiotic-and-synbiotic-sorbets-produced-with-jussara-euterpe-edulis-pulp-evaluation-throughout-the-storage-period-and-effect-of-the-matrix-on-probiotics-exposed-to-simulated-gastrointestinal-fluids
#17
Júlia Fernanda Urbano Marinho, Marluci Palazzolli da Silva, Marcella Chalella Mazzocato, Fabrício Luiz Tulini, Carmen Sílvia Favaro-Trindade
The aims of the present study were to develop and evaluate different formulations of probiotic and synbiotic sorbets produced with jussara (Euterpe edulis) pulp, polydextrose, Lactobacillus acidophilus LA3, and Lactobacillus paracasei BGP1. The pasteurized jussara pulp presented high content of phenolic compounds, especially anthocyanins, which were not inhibitory to the probiotics used in this study. The levels of polyphenols and anthocyanins present in the sorbets were also high and kept stable for 120 days, as well as the populations of both probiotics...
November 8, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116184/proton-irradiation-a-key-to-the-challenge-of-n-glycosidic-bond-formation-in-a-prebiotic-context
#18
Raffaele Saladino, Bruno M Bizzarri, Lorenzo Botta, Jiří Šponer, Judit E Šponer, Thomas Georgelin, Maguy Jaber, Baptiste Rigaud, Michail Kapralov, Gennady N Timoshenko, Alexei Rozanov, Eugene Krasavin, Anna Maria Timperio, Ernesto Di Mauro
The formation of nucleosides in abiotic conditions is a major hurdle in origin-of-life studies. We have determined the pathway of a general reaction leading to the one-pot synthesis of ribo- and 2'-deoxy-ribonucleosides from sugars and purine nucleobases under proton irradiation in the presence of a chondrite meteorite. These conditions simulate the presumptive conditions in space or on an early Earth fluxed by slow protons from the solar wind, potentially mimicking a plausible prebiotic scenario. The reaction (i) requires neither pre-activated precursors nor intermediate purification/concentration steps, (ii) is based on a defined radical mechanism, and (iii) is characterized by stereoselectivity, regioselectivity and (poly)glycosylation...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114047/prebiotic-phosphorylation-enabled-by-microdroplets
#19
Veronica Vaida
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112424/a-mechanistic-explanation-for-the-regioselectivity-of-nonenzymatic-rna-primer-extension
#20
Constantin Giurgiu, Li Li, Derek K O'Flaherty, Chun Pong Tam, Jack W Szostak
A working model of nonenzymatic RNA primer extension could illuminate how prebiotic chemistry transitioned to biology. All currently known experimental reconstructions of nonenzymatic RNA primer extension yield a mixture of 2'-5' and 3'-5' internucleotide linkages. Although long seen as a major problem, the causes of the poor regioselectivity of the reaction are unknown. We used a combination of different leaving groups, nucleobases, and templating sequences to uncover the factors that yield selective formation of 3'-5' internucleotide linkages...
November 7, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
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