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Prebiotics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646828/spent-yeast-as-natural-source-of-functional-food-additives
#1
Rita Rakowska, Anna Sadowska, Ewa Dybkowska, Franciszek Świderski
Spent yeasts are by-products arising from beer and wine production which over many years have been chiefly used as feed additives for livestock. They contain many valuable and bioactive substances which has thereby generated much interest in their exploitation. Up till now, the main products obtained from beer-brewing yeasts are β-glucans and yeast extracts. Other like foodstuffs include dried brewer’s yeast, where this is dried and the bitterness removed to be fit for human consumption as well as mannan-oligosaccharides hitherto used in the feed industry...
2017: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646814/nutritional-management-of-metabolic-endotoxemia-a-clinical-review
#2
Benjamin I Brown
Context • Diet-induced, metabolic endotoxemia is emerging as an important contributory factor to the development of a wide range of chronic diseases, including cardiometabolic, autoimmune, psychiatric, and neurodegenerative illnesses. Emerging human clinical studies have demonstrated that diet and dietary components are potent modifiers of circulating endotoxins and can be used to reduce plasma levels significantly and improve metabolic health. Objective • The aim of the current study was to explore briefly the concept of metabolic endotoxemia and its relationship to disease development, to examine the influence of diet and dietary components on circulating endotoxins, and, finally, discuss the clinical relevance of nutritional interventions for management of metabolic endotoxemia...
July 2017: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646668/%C3%AE-galactosidase-from-aspergillus-lacticoffeatus-a-promising-biocatalyst-for-the-synthesis-of-novel-prebiotics
#3
Beatriz B Cardoso, Sara C Silvério, Luís Abrunhosa, José A Teixeira, Lígia R Rodrigues
β-galactosidase (EC 3.2.1.23) are interesting enzymes able to catalyze lactose hydrolysis and transfer reactions to produce lactose-based prebiotics with potential application in the pharmaceutical and food industry. In this work, Aspergillus lacticoffeatus is described, for the first time, as an effective β-galactosidase producer. The extracellular enzyme production was evaluated in synthetic and alternative media containing cheese whey and corn steep liquor. Although β-galactosidase production occurred in all media (expect for the one composed solely by cheese whey), the highest enzymatic activity values (460U/mL) were obtained for the synthetic medium...
June 16, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644359/commercial-probiotic-products-a-call-for-improved-quality-control-a-position-paper-by-the-espghan-working-group-for-probiotics-and-prebiotics
#4
Sanja Kolaček, Iva Hojsak, Roberto Berni Canani, Alfredo Guarino, Flavia Indrio, Rok Orel, Bruno Pot, Raanan Shamir, Hania Szajewska, Yvan Vandenplas, Johannes van Goudoever, Zvi Weizman
Probiotics have been proposed for a number of indications ranging from the hypothetical long-term immunomodulatory effects to proven benefits in the management of different clinical conditions.An increasing number of commercial products containing probiotics are available. In those products, irrespective if it is food, food supplement, medical food, or drug, the probiotic microorganisms have to be present in a sufficient number by the end of the shelf-life, to pass through the gastrointestinal tract resisting acid and bile, to colonize the gut, and to retain functional properties required to obtain the suggested beneficial effect...
July 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644357/effect-of-synbiotic-on-the-gut-microbiota-of-cesarean-delivered-infants-a-randomized-double-blind-multicenter-study
#5
Mei Chin Chua, Kaouther Ben-Amor, Christophe Lay, Anne G E Neo, Wei Chin Chiang, Rajeshwar Rao, Charmaine Chew, Surasith Chaithongwongwatthana, Nipon Khemapech, Jan Knol, Voranush Chongsrisawat
We determined the effect of short-chain galacto-oligosaccharides (scGOS), long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (lcFOS) and Bifidobacterium breve M-16V on the gut microbiota of cesarean-born infants. Infants were randomized to receive a standard formula (control), the same with scGOS/lcFOS and B. breve M-16V (synbiotic), or with scGOS/lcFOS (prebiotic) from birth until week 16, 30 subjects born vaginally were included as a reference group. Synbiotic supplementation resulted in a higher bifidobacteria proportion from day 3/5 (P < 0...
July 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640999/common-and-potentially-prebiotic-origin-for-precursors-of-nucleotide-synthesis-and-activation
#6
Albert C Fahrenbach, Constantin Giurgiu, Chun Pong Tam, Li Li, Yayoi Hongo, Masashi Aono, Jack W Szostak
We have recently shown that 2-aminoimidazole is a superior nucleotide activating group for nonenzymatic RNA copying. Here we describe a prebiotic synthesis of 2-aminoimidazole that shares a common mechanistic pathway with that of 2-aminooxazole, a previously described key intermediate in prebiotic nucleotide synthesis. In the presence of glycolaldehyde, cyanamide, phosphate and ammonium ion, both 2-aminoimidazole and 2-aminooxazole are produced, with higher concentrations of ammonium ion and acidic pH favoring the former...
June 22, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640293/collision-cross-section-predictions-using-2-dimensional-molecular-descriptors
#7
M T Soper-Hopper, A S Petrov, J N Howard, S-S Yu, J G Forsythe, M A Grover, F M Fernández
Traditional methods for deriving computationally-generated collision cross sections for comparisons with ion mobility-mass spectrometry data require 3-dimensional energy-minimized structures and are often time consuming, preventing high throughput implementation. Here, we introduce a method to predict ion mobility collision cross sections of lipids and peptide analogs important in prebiotic chemistry and other fields. Using less than 100 2-D molecular descriptors this approach resulted in prediction errors of less than 2%...
June 22, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639650/mechanisms-of-h-and-co-loss-from-the-uracil-nucleobase-following-low-energy-electron-irradiation
#8
Mark A Fennimore, Tolga N V Karsili, Spiridoula Matsika
Ionising radiation in cells generates secondary low energy electrons (LEEs) which can induce biomolecular damage when incident upon a particular biomolecule. Notable biomolecules include those contained within double-stranded DNA and RNA helices, which upon exposure to LEEs, may form reactive intermediate products that show detriment to their specific structures and functions. Such damaging processes are understood to proceed via dissociative electron attachment (DEA). Using anion resonance stabilisation methods, coupled to state-of-the-art electronic structure methods, and reaction path mapping, the work presented herein highlights the detailed mechanisms associated with molecular elimination of CO and H from the uracil nucleobase following LEE irradiation - providing a rationale for earlier experiments...
June 22, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638490/obesity-and-microbiota-an-example-of-an-intricate-relationship
#9
REVIEW
Sabrina Duranti, Chiara Ferrario, Douwe van Sinderen, Marco Ventura, Francesca Turroni
It is widely accepted that metabolic disorders, such as obesity, are closely linked to lifestyle and diet. Recently, the central role played by the intestinal microbiota in human metabolism and in progression of metabolic disorders has become evident. In this context, animal studies and human trials have demonstrated that alterations of the intestinal microbiota towards enhanced energy harvest is a characteristic of the obese phenotype. Many publications, involving both animal studies and clinical trials, have reported on the successful exploitation of probiotics and prebiotics to treat obesity...
2017: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636003/in-vitro-modulation-of-gut-microbiota-by-whey-protein-to-preserve-intestinal-health
#10
T Sánchez-Moya, R López-Nicolás, D Planes, C A González-Bermúdez, G Ros-Berruezo, C Frontela-Saseta
The effect of several types of whey milk - cow, sheep, goat and a mixture of them (60 : 20 : 20, respectively) - was assessed in the human gut microbiota. The prebiotic potential of these substrates was evaluated through in vitro gastrointestinal digestion following faecal batch culture fermentations (mimicking colonic fermentation) for 48 hours, using faeces from normal-weight (NW) and obese (OB) donors. Throughout the fermentation process, pH, gas production, short chain and branched fatty acids (SCFA-BCFA) were measured, as well as the changes of microbiota using qPCR...
June 21, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634691/modulation-of-rotavirus-severe-gastroenteritis-by-the-combination-of-probiotics-and-prebiotics
#11
REVIEW
Guadalupe Gonzalez-Ochoa, Lilian K Flores-Mendoza, Ramona Icedo-Garcia, Ricardo Gomez-Flores, Patricia Tamez-Guerra
Annual mortality rates due to infectious diarrhea are about 2.2 million; children are the most vulnerable age group to severe gastroenteritis, representing group A rotaviruses as the main cause of disease. One of the main factors of rotavirus pathogenesis is the NSP4 protein, which has been characterized as a viral toxin involved in triggering several cellular responses leading to diarrhea. Furthermore, the rotavirus protein NSP1 has been associated with interferon production inhibition by inducing the degradation of interferon regulatory factors IRF3, IRF5, and IRF7...
June 20, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632732/fructo-oligosaccharides-and-intestinal-barrier-function-in-a-methionine-choline-deficient-mouse-model-of-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#12
Kotaro Matsumoto, Mayuko Ichimura, Koichi Tsuneyama, Yuki Moritoki, Hiromichi Tsunashima, Katsuhisa Omagari, Masumi Hara, Ichiro Yasuda, Hiroshi Miyakawa, Kentaro Kikuchi
Impairments in intestinal barrier function, epithelial mucins, and tight junction proteins have been reported to be associated with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Prebiotic fructo-oligosaccharides restore balance in the gastrointestinal microbiome. This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary fructo-oligosaccharides on intestinal barrier function and steatohepatitis in methionine-choline-deficient mice. Three groups of 12-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were studied for 3 weeks; specifically, mice were fed a methionine-choline-deficient diet, a methionine-choline-deficient diet plus 5% fructo-oligosaccharides in water, or a normal control diet...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631091/the-role-of-microbiota-and-probiotics-and-prebiotics-in-skin-health
#13
Mia Maguire, Greg Maguire
During the past decade, scientists have made great strides in understanding the microbiome's role in human health. Today, the microbiome has become key in scientific research, therapeutic development, medical treatment, and as a news feature in the media. Most studies have focused on the microbiome of our gut, but recently researchers have turned their attention to other microbiomes, including that of the skin. These studies of gut and skin microbiomes are yielding very informative results, new treatment strategies, and the development of new prebiotic and probiotic products for the treatment of many skin conditions...
June 19, 2017: Archives of Dermatological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614379/microbiome-restoration-diet-improves-digestion-cognition-and-physical-and-emotional-wellbeing
#14
Kate Lawrence, Jeannette Hyde
Manipulating gut bacteria in the microbiome, through the use of probiotics and prebiotics, has been found to have an influence on both physical and emotional wellbeing. This study uses a dietary manipulation 'The Gut Makeover' designed to elicit positive changes to the gut bacteria within the microbiome. 21 healthy participants undertook 'The Gut Makeover' for a four week period. Weight and various aspects of health were assessed pre and post intervention using the Functional Medicine Medical Symptoms Questionnaire (MSQ)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614348/organic-compounds-in-fluid-inclusions-of-archean-quartz-analogues-of-prebiotic-chemistry-on-early-earth
#15
Ulrich Schreiber, Christian Mayer, Oliver J Schmitz, Pia Rosendahl, Amela Bronja, Markus Greule, Frank Keppler, Ines Mulder, Tobias Sattler, Heinz F Schöler
The origin of life is still an unsolved mystery in science. Hypothetically, prebiotic chemistry and the formation of protocells may have evolved in the hydrothermal environment of tectonic fault zones in the upper continental crust, an environment where sensitive molecules are protected against degradation induced e.g. by UV radiation. The composition of fluid inclusions in minerals such as quartz crystals which have grown in this environment during the Archean period might provide important information about the first organic molecules formed by hydrothermal synthesis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611480/expert-consensus-document-the-international-scientific-association-for-probiotics-and-prebiotics-isapp-consensus-statement-on-the-definition-and-scope-of-prebiotics
#16
REVIEW
Glenn R Gibson, Robert Hutkins, Mary Ellen Sanders, Susan L Prescott, Raylene A Reimer, Seppo J Salminen, Karen Scott, Catherine Stanton, Kelly S Swanson, Patrice D Cani, Kristin Verbeke, Gregor Reid
In December 2016, a panel of experts in microbiology, nutrition and clinical research was convened by the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics to review the definition and scope of prebiotics. Consistent with the original embodiment of prebiotics, but aware of the latest scientific and clinical developments, the panel updated the definition of a prebiotic: a substrate that is selectively utilized by host microorganisms conferring a health benefit. This definition expands the concept of prebiotics to possibly include non-carbohydrate substances, applications to body sites other than the gastrointestinal tract, and diverse categories other than food...
June 14, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608320/chronic-treatment-with-prebiotics-probiotics-and-synbiotics-attenuated-cardiac-dysfunction-by-improving-cardiac-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-male-obese-insulin-resistant-rats
#17
Wannipa Tunapong, Nattayaporn Apaijai, Sakawdaurn Yasom, Pongpan Tanajak, Keerati Wanchai, Titikorn Chunchai, Sasiwan Kerdphoo, Sathima Eaimworawuthikul, Parameth Thiennimitr, Anchalee Pongchaidecha, Anusorn Lungkaphin, Wasana Pratchayasakul, Siriporn C Chattipakorn, Nipon Chattipakorn
PURPOSE: In metabolic syndrome, the composition of gut microbiota has been disrupted, and is associated with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. Several types of prebiotics, probiotics, and synbiotics have been shown to exert cardioprotection by restoring gut microbiota from dysbiosis and reducing systemic inflammation. However, the effects of prebiotics such as xylooligosaccharides (XOS); probiotics such as Lactobacillus paracasei STII01 HP4, and synbiotics on metabolic and LV function in obese insulin-resistant rats have not been investigated...
June 12, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606462/growing-literature-but-limited-evidence-a-systematic-review-regarding-prebiotic-and-probiotic-interventions-for-those-with-traumatic-brain-injury-and-or-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#18
Lisa A Brenner, Kelly A Stearns-Yoder, Adam S Hoffberg, Molly E Penzenik, Amy J Starosta, Theresa D Hernández, Daniel A Hadidi, Christopher A Lowry
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is highly prevalent among a wide-range of populations, including civilians, military personnel, and Veterans. TBI sequelae may be further exacerbated by symptoms associated with frequently occurring co-morbid psychiatric conditions including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This is particularly true among the population of military personnel from recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan with a history of mild TBI (mTBI) and PTSD. The need for efficacious treatments for TBI and co-morbid PTSD is significant, and evidence-based interventions for these frequently co-occurring conditions are limited...
June 9, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602989/brachybacterium-sp-ch-kov3-isolated-from-an-oil-polluted-environment-a-new-producer-of-levan
#19
Aleksandra Djurić, Gordana Gojgić-Cvijović, Dragica Jakovljević, Branka Kekez, Jovana Stefanović Kojić, Maija-Liisa Mattinen, Inka Elina Harju, Miroslav M Vrvić, Vladimir P Beškoski
Various microorganisms isolated from polluted environments, such as Pseudomonas sp. and Micrococcus sp. can synthesize exopolysaccharides (EPSs) which are natural, non-toxic and biodegradable polymers. EPSs play a key role in protection of microbial cells under various external influences. For humans, these substances have potential use in many industries. EPSs can be applied as a flavor or a fragrance carrier, an emulsifier, a stabilizer, a prebiotic, an antioxidant or an antitumor agent. In this study, we characterized an environmental microorganism that produces EPS, optimized EPS production by this strain and characterized the EPS produced...
June 8, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602521/gut-microbiota-dysbiosis-in-postweaning-piglets-understanding-the-keys-to-health
#20
REVIEW
Raphaële Gresse, Frédérique Chaucheyras-Durand, Mickaël Alain Fleury, Tom Van de Wiele, Evelyne Forano, Stéphanie Blanquet-Diot
Weaning is a critical event in the pig's life cycle, frequently associated with severe enteric infections and overuse of antibiotics; this raises serious economic and public health concerns. In this review, we explain why gut microbiota dysbiosis, induced by abrupt changes in the diet and environment of piglets, emerges as a leading cause of post-weaning diarrhea, even if the exact underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Then, we focus on nonantimicrobial alternatives, such as zinc oxide, essential oils, and prebiotics or probiotics, which are currently evaluated to restore intestinal balance and allow a better management of the crucial weaning transition...
June 8, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
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