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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448909/changes-in-heavy-metal-mobility-and-availability-from-contaminated-wetland-soil-remediated-with-combined-biochar-compost
#1
Jie Liang, Zhaoxue Yang, Lin Tang, Guangming Zeng, Man Yu, Xiaodong Li, Haipeng Wu, Yingying Qian, Xuemei Li, Yuan Luo
The combination of biochar and compost has been proven to be effective in heavy metals contaminated wetland soil restoration. However, the influence of different proportions between biochar and compost on immobilization of heavy metals in soil has been less studied up to date. Therefore, we investigated the effect of different ratios of biochar-compost mixtures on availability and speciation distribution of heavy metals (Cd, Zn and Cu) in wetland soil. The results showed that applying all amendment combinations into wetland soil increased gradually the total organic carbon (TOC) and water-extract organic carbon (WEOC) as the compost percentage rose in biochar-composts...
April 24, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448878/rapid-extraction-of-uranium-from-sea-water-using-fe3o4-and-humic-acid-coated-fe3o4-nanoparticles
#2
Pallavi Singhal, Sanjay K Jha, Shailaja P Pandey, Suman Neogy
Uranium is one of the most toxic elements present in the environment and a number of methods have been developed for its extraction. Herein we have demonstrated a new method using magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) that can be used for uranium extraction from water and sea water matrix. Fe3O4 and humic acid (HA) coated Fe3O4 NPs with different amount of HA coating were synthesized and uranium sorption from water and sea water matrix was demonstrated. It was observed that sorption increases with increase in amount of HA coating...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448827/dopamine-cognitive-biases-and-assessment-of-certainty-a-neurocognitive-model-of-delusions
#3
REVIEW
Annabel Broyd, Ryan P Balzan, Todd S Woodward, Paul Allen
This paper examines the evidence that delusions can be explained within the framework of a neurocognitive model of how the brain assesses certainty. Here, 'certainty' refers to both low-level interpretations of one's environment and high-level (conscious) appraisals of one's beliefs and experiences. A model is proposed explaining how the brain systems responsible for assigning certainty might dysfunction, contributing to the cause and maintenance of delusional beliefs. It is suggested that delusions arise through a combination of perturbed striatal dopamine and aberrant salience as well as cognitive biases such as the tendency to jump to conclusions (JTC) and hypersalience of evidence-hypothesis matches...
April 18, 2017: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448818/pegylated-bilirubin-nanoparticle-as-an-anti-oxidative-and-anti-inflammatory-demulcent-in-pancreatic-islet-xenotransplantation
#4
Min Jun Kim, Yonghyun Lee, Sangyong Jon, Dong Yun Lee
Transplanted islets suffer hypoxic stress, which leads to nonspecific inflammation. This is the major cause of islet graft failure during the early stage of intrahepatic islet transplantation. Although bilirubin has shown potent anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory functions, its clinical applications have been limited due to its insolubility and short half-life. To overcome this problem, novel amphiphilic bilirubin nanoparticles are designed. Hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) is conjugated to the hydrophobic bilirubin molecule...
April 18, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448510/manure-and-tillage-use-in-remediation-of-eroded-land-and-impacts-on-soil-chemical-properties
#5
Maysoon M Mikha, Joseph G Benjamin, Merle F Vigil, David J Poss
Soil loss through wind and water erosion is an ongoing problem in semiarid regions. A thin layer of top soil loss over a hectare of cropland could be corresponding to tons of productive soil loss per hectare. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of beef feedlot manure, tillage and legume grass mixtures on changes in soil quality and nutrient components. The study was initiated in 2006 on an eroded site near Akron, Colorado, on a Norka-Colby very-fine sandy loam (fine-silty, mixed, mesic, Aridic, Argiustolls)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447972/wild-type-blocking-pcr-combined-with-direct-sequencing-as-a-highly-sensitive-method-for-detection-of-low-frequency-somatic-mutations
#6
Adam Z Albitar, Wanlong Ma, Maher Albitar
Accurate detection and identification of low frequency mutations can be problematic when assessing residual disease after therapy, screening for emerging resistance mutations during therapy, or when patients have few circulating tumor cells. Wild-type blocking PCR followed by sequencing analysis offers high sensitivity, flexibility, and simplicity as a methodology for detecting these low frequency mutations. By adding a custom designed locked nucleic acid oligonucleotide to a new or previously established conventional PCR based sequencing assay, sensitivities of approximately 1 mutant allele in a background of 1,000 WT alleles can be achieved (1:1,000)...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447234/remediation-of-soils-contaminated-with-heavy-metals-with-an-emphasis-on-immobilization-technology
#7
REVIEW
Zahra Derakhshan Nejad, Myung Chae Jung, Ki-Hyun Kim
The major frequent contaminants in soil are heavy metals which may be responsible for detrimental health effects. The remediation of heavy metals in contaminated soils is considered as one of the most complicated tasks. Among different technologies, in situ immobilization of metals has received a great deal of attention and turned out to be a promising solution for soil remediation. In this review, remediation methods for removal of heavy metals in soil are explored with an emphasis on the in situ immobilization technique of metal(loid)s...
April 26, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446748/discovering-charge-density-functionals-and-structure-property-relationships-with-prophet-a-general-framework-for-coupling-machine-learning-and-first-principles-methods
#8
Brian Kolb, Levi C Lentz, Alexie M Kolpak
Modern ab initio methods have rapidly increased our understanding of solid state materials properties, chemical reactions, and the quantum interactions between atoms. However, poor scaling often renders direct ab initio calculations intractable for large or complex systems. There are two obvious avenues through which to remedy this problem: (i) develop new, less expensive methods to calculate system properties, or (ii) make existing methods faster. This paper describes an open source framework designed to pursue both of these avenues...
April 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446718/baicalein-inhibits-pancreatic-cancer-cell-proliferation-and-invasion-via-suppression-of-nedd9-expression-and-its-downstream-akt-and-erk-signaling-pathways
#9
Rong-Tao Zhou, Mei He, Ze Yu, Yang Liang, Yuzhe Nie, Sheng Tai, Chun-Bo Teng
Baicalein, a flavone ingredient of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, is a promising anti-cancer agent. However, its potential anti-pancreatic cancer effects and the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. In this study, we showed that Baicalein not only induced apoptosis, but also suppressed proliferation, migration and invasion of two pancreatic cancer cell lines BxPC-3 and PANC-1 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Notably, Baicalein exhibited low toxicity to normal human liver or kidney cells. We further discovered that Baicalein suppressed BxPC-3 and PANC-1 cell proliferation and invasion through targeting the expression of NEDD9, a Cas scaffolding protein, to decrease Akt and ERK activities...
April 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446195/mature-leaf-concentrate-of-sri-lankan-wild-type-carica-papaya-linn-modulates-nonfunctional-and-functional-immune-responses-of-rats
#10
Chanika Dilumi Jayasinghe, Dinara S Gunasekera, Nuwan De Silva, Kithmini Kawya Mandakini Jayawardena, Preethi Vidya Udagama
BACKGROUND: The leaf concentrate of Carica papaya is a traditionally acclaimed immunomodulatory remedy against numerous diseases; nonetheless comprehensive scientific validation of this claim is limited. The present study thus investigated the immunomodulatory potential of Carica papaya mature leaf concentrate (MLCC) of the Sri Lankan wild type cultivar using nonfunctional and functional immunological assays. METHODS: Wistar rats (N = 6/ group) were orally gavaged with 3 doses (0...
April 26, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445412/assessing-the-efficacy-of-first-aid-measures-in-physalia-sp-envenomation-using-solution-and-blood-agarose-based-models
#11
Christie L Wilcox, Jasmine L Headlam, Thomas K Doyle, Angel A Yanagihara
Stings from the hydrozoan species in the genus Physalia cause intense, immediate skin pain and elicit serious systemic effects. There has been much scientific debate about the most appropriate first aid for these stings, particularly with regard to whether vinegar use is appropriate (most current recommendations recommend against vinegar). We found that only a small percentage (≤1.0%) of tentacle cnidae discharge during a sting event using an ex vivo tissue model which elicits spontaneous stinging from live cnidarian tentacles...
April 26, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444233/neighborhood-variation-in-the-price-of-cheap-tobacco-products-in-california-results-from-healthy-stores-for-a-healthy-community
#12
Lisa Henriksen, Elizabeth Andersen-Rodgers, Xueying Zhang, April Roeseler, Dennis L Sun, Trent O Johnson, Nina C Schleicher
Background.: Retail marketing surveillance research highlights concerns about lower-priced cigarettes in neighborhoods with a higher proportion of racial/ethnic minorities, but focuses almost exclusively on premium brands. To remedy this gap in the literature, the current study examines neighborhood variation in prices for the cheapest cigarettes and a popular brand of cigarillos in a large statewide sample of licensed tobacco retailers in a low-tax state. Methods.: All 61 local health departments in California trained data collectors to conduct observations in a census of eligible licensed tobacco retailers in randomly selected zip codes (n=7,393 stores, completion rate=91%)...
April 22, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444192/from-reproducibility-to-translation-in-neurodegenerative-disease
#13
Caroline J Zeiss
Despite tremendous investment and preclinical success in neurodegenerative disease, effective disease-altering treatments for patients have remained elusive. One highly cited reason for this discrepancy is flawed animal study design and reporting. If this can be broadly remedied, reproducibility of preclinical studies will improve. However, without concurrent efforts to improve generalizability, these improvements may not translate effectively from animal experiments to more complex human neurodegenerative diseases...
April 21, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442238/the-influence-of-small-scale-interlayer-heterogeneity-on-ddt-removal-efficiency-for-flushing-technology
#14
Xingwei Wang, Jiajun Chen
With an aim to investigate the influence of small-scale interlayer heterogeneity on DDT removal efficiency, batch test including surfactant-stabilized foam flushing and solution flushing were carried out. Two man-made heterogeneous patterns consisting of coarse and fine quartz sand were designed to reveal the influencing mechanism. Moreover, the removal mechanism and the corresponding contribution by foam flushing were quantitatively studied. Compared with surfactant solution flushing, the DDT removal efficiency by surfactant-stabilized foam flushing increased by 9...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442237/long-term-ert-monitoring-of-biogeochemical-changes-of-an-aged-hydrocarbon-contamination
#15
David Caterina, Adrian Flores Orozco, Frédéric Nguyen
Adequate management of contaminated sites requires information with improved spatio-temporal resolution, in particular to assess bio-geochemical processes, such as the transformation and degradation of contaminants, precipitation of minerals or changes in groundwater geochemistry occurring during and after remediation procedures. Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), a geophysical method sensitive to pore-fluid and pore-geometry properties, permits to gain quasi-continuous information about subsurface properties in real-time and has been consequently widely used for the characterization of hydrocarbon-impacted sediments...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442006/meta-modeling-based-groundwater-remediation-optimization-under-flexibility-in-environmental-standard
#16
Li He, Zongda Xu, Xing Fan, Jing Li, Hongwei Lu
  This study develops a meta-modeling based mathematical programming approach with flexibility in environmental standards. It integrates numerical simulation, meta-modeling analysis, and fuzzy programming within a general framework. A set of models between remediation strategies and remediation performance can well guarantee the mitigation in computational efforts in the simulation and optimization process. In order to prevent the occurrence of over-optimistic and pessimistic optimization strategies, a high satisfaction level resulting from the implementation of a flexible standard can indicate the degree to which the environmental standard is satisfied...
May 1, 2017: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441949/-it-s-so-hard-taking-pills-when-you-don-t-know-what-they-re-for-a-qualitative-study-of-patients-medicine-taking-behaviours-and-conceptualisation-of-medicines-in-the-context-of-rheumatoid-arthritis
#17
Boitshoko Kobue, Shirra Moch, Jennifer Watermeyer
BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic illnesses are often required to take lifelong medication to alleviate symptoms and prevent disease progression. Many patients find it difficult to adhere to prescribed medication for various reasons, some of which may link to the way they conceptualise medicines and understand their illness and treatment. This study explores the medicine taking behaviours of patients presenting with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease...
April 26, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441036/application-of-arthrospira-spirulina-platensis-biomass-for-silver-removal-from-aqueous-solutions
#18
Inga Zinicovscaia, Liliana Cepoi, Tatiana Chiriac, Tatiana Mitina, Dmitrii Grozdov, Nikita Yushin, Otilia Culicov
The cyanobacterium Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis was used to study the process of silver biosorption. Effects of various parameters such as contact time, dosage of biosorbent, initial pH, temperature, and initial concentration of Ag(I) were investigated for a batch adsorption system. The optimal biosorption conditions were determined as pH 5.0, biosorbent dosage of 0.4 g, and initial silver concentration of 30 mg/L. Equilibrium adsorption data were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich models - however, the Freundlich model provided a better fit with the experimental data...
April 25, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440926/sources-and-dispersive-modes-of-micro-fibers-in-the-environment
#19
Steve A Carr
Understanding the sources and distribution of microfibers (MFs) in the environment is critical if control and remediation measures are to be effective. Microfibers comprise an overwhelming fraction (>85%) of microplastic debris found on shorelines around the world. Although primary sources have not been fully vetted, until recently it was widely believed that domestic laundry discharges were the major source. It was also thought that synthetic fibers and particles having dimensions <5 mm easily bypassed filtration and other solid separation processes at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and entered oceans and surface waters...
May 2017: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440617/anchoring-tailored-low-index-faceted-biobr-nanoplates-onto-tio2-nanorods-to-enhance-the-stability-and-visible-light-driven-catalytic-activity
#20
Chao Xue, Tianxi Zhang, Shujiang Ding, Jinjia Wei, Guidong Yang
In this work, a fantastic one-dimensional (1D) BiOBr/TiO2 nanorods (NRs) heterojunction composite was rationally proposed and designed from the perspective of molecular and interface engineering. The fabricated intimately connected interfacial heterojunction between two-dimensional (2D) BiOBr nanoplates and 1D TiO2 NRs acts as the interfacial nano-channel to promote efficient interfacial charge migration and the separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. As a result, 1D BiOBr/TiO2 NRs heterojunctions exhibited outstanding visible-light photocatalytic activities and sustained cycling performance...
April 25, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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