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Willem M Lijfering, Joseph S Biedermann, Marieke J H A Kruip, Frank W G Leebeek, Frits R Rosendaal, Suzanne C Cannegieter
Statins may be causally associated with a decreased risk of venous thrombosis. If so, this could be a substantive breakthrough since statins do not increase the risk of bleeding and could therefore be used as a safer antithrombotic drug. However, scepticism exists on the observed reduction of venous thrombosis by statins, as it may have been confounded by healthy user effects or other biases. Areas covered: The main focus of this review will be the biases that may have arisen in clinical studies that investigated the relationship between statin use and risk of venous thrombosis...
October 19, 2016: Expert Review of Hematology
Kelsey E Smith, Jeffrey Schatz
Children with sickle cell disease (SCD) are at risk for working memory deficits due to multiple disease processes. We assessed working memory abilities and related functions in 32 school-age children with SCD and 85 matched comparison children using Baddeley's working memory model as a framework. Children with SCD performed worse than controls for working memory, central executive function, and processing/rehearsal speed. Central executive function was found to mediate the relationship between SCD status and working memory, but processing speed did not...
October 19, 2016: Developmental Neuropsychology
Ulrich Förstner, Henner Hollert, Markus Brinkmann, Kathrin Eichbaum, Roland Weber, Wim Salomons
A critical review of the last 25 years of dioxin policy in the Elbe river catchment is presented along seven main theses of the River Basin Community (RBC)-Elbe background document "Pollutants" for the Management Plan 2016-2021. In this period, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/-furans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) will play a major role: (i) as new priority substances for which environmental quality standards (EQSs) need to be derived (Directive 2013/39/EC); (ii) in the search for innovative solutions in sediment remediation (i...
2016: Environmental Sciences Europe
Deepak Passi, Geeta Singh, Shubharanjan Dutta, Sarang Sharma, Sonal Mishra, Chandan Gupta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Journal of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery
Seyed Hossein Hoseinifar, Fazel Zoheiri, Carlo C Lazado
Immunostimulation through the use of sustainable and eco-friendly dietary additives is one of the current prophylactic strategies in fish husbandry. Plant-based immunostimulants are highly considered for this intent, both for their scientific and practical advantages. Persian hogweed (Heracleum persicum) is a flower-bearing herb that possesses interesting pharmacological importance due to its bioactive compounds. It is commonly used as a spice, food additive, dietary supplement and traditional remedy. The present study evaluated the potential of H...
October 14, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
John F Obrycki, Kirk G Scheckel, Nicholas T Basta
Lead (Pb) contaminated soils are a potential exposure hazard to the public. Amending soils with phosphorus (P) may reduce Pb soil hazards. Soil from Cleveland, OH containing 726 ± 14 mg Pb kg(-1) was amended in a laboratory study with bone meal and triple super phosphate (TSP) at 5:1 P:Pb molar ratios. Soil was acidified, neturalized and re-acidified to encourage Pb phosphate formation. PRSTM-probes were used to evaluate changes in soil solution chemistry. Soil acidification did not decrease in vitro bioaccessible (IVBA) Pb using either a pH 1...
October 14, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Camila L Madeira, Samuel A Speet, Cristina A Nieto, Leif Abrell, Jon Chorover, Reyes Sierra-Alvarez, Jim A Field
Insensitive munitions, such as 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO), are being considered by the U.S. Army as replacements for conventional explosives. Environmental emissions of NTO are expected to increase as its use becomes widespread; but only a few studies have considered the remediation of NTO-contaminated sites. In this study, sequential anaerobic-aerobic biodegradation of NTO was investigated in bioreactors using soil as inoculum. Batch bioassays confirmed microbial reduction of NTO under anaerobic conditions to 3-amino-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (ATO) using pyruvate as electron-donating cosubstrate...
October 14, 2016: Chemosphere
Lídia Teixidor López, Cindy Frías-Torres, José Moreno-España, Lluisa Ortega, Pablo Barrio, Antoni Gual
Many alcohol-dependent patients suffer from cognitive impairment of variable severity, manifested by alterations in retrograde and anterograde memory, visuospatial processing, cognitive abilities and attention, some of which are reversible. In this context, cognitive remediation therapies could significantly improve patients' performance; therefore, these are considered a valuable alternative. The aim of this study was to implement cognitive remediation therapy in patients with alcohol dependence and cognitive impairment and evaluate its viability and effectiveness...
September 29, 2016: Adicciones
Mark A Healy, Jason C Pradarelli, Robert W Krell, Scott E Regenbogen, Pasithorn A Suwanabol
BACKGROUND: Despite substantially improved survival with metastatic site resection in colorectal cancers, uptake of aggressive surgical approaches remains low among certain patients. It is unknown whether financial determinants of care, such as insurance status, play a role in this treatment gap. OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate the effect of insurance status on metastasectomy in patients with advanced colorectal cancers. DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study...
November 2016: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
Felix Klickermann
Attempts through the US courts to hold the corporations responsible for the production of dioxin-contaminated herbicides used by the US military in the 1960s and early 1970s liable for their ongoing health consequences have failed. This article scrutinizes the most recent judgement - that of the United States District Court for the Eastern District of New York handed down in 2005 following a lawsuit brought by the Vietnam Association of Victims of Agent Orange/dioxin (VAVA). It is argued that despite this judgement there is the potential to bring a further legal case, with some prospect of success, on the basis of: (i) debatable legal judgements in the 2005 decision; (ii) new scientific evidence on the health effects of exposure to Agent Orange; and (iii) cases brought in other jurisdictions...
October 16, 2016: Medicine, Conflict, and Survival
Hui-Ying Gao, Li Mao, Bo Shao, Chun-Hua Huang, Ben-Zhan Zhu
We found recently that intrinsic chemiluminescence (CL) could be produced by all 19 chlorophenolic persistent organic pollutants during environmentally-friendly advanced oxidation processes. Interestingly and unexpectedly, the strongest CL was produced not by the most-highly chlorinated pentachlorophenol (PCP), but rather by the less chlorinated 2,3,5,6-tetrachlorophenol (2,3,5,6-TeCP), one of the three tetrachlorophenol (TeCPs) isomers. However, it remains unclear what is the underlying molecular mechanism...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
Mohammad M Zarshenas, Arman Zargaran, Michael Blaschke
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are of major causes of death worldwide. Complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) are considered as new sources to find preventive and treatment approaches with mostly a historical perspective. Chinese medicine (CM), Persian medicine (PM), Ayurveda and homeopathy are as most popular traditional systems of medicine among various CAM methods. In this survey, we aimed to review most relevant and approved treatment by current investigations on these CAM systems in the field of CVD to present best traditional remedies and treatment approaches...
October 10, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Tareq Abu-Izneid, Aneela Maalik, Saud Bawazeer, Ajmal Khan, Abdur Rauf, Taibi Ben Hadda, Haroon Khan, Mohamed Fawzy Ramadan, Imran Khan, Mohammad S Mubarak, Ghias Uddin, Alia Bahadar, Shujaat Ali Khan
BACKGROUND: Pistacia integerrima has many medicinal uses in therapeutic as well as folk medicine. P. integerrima has been used for the treatment of different ailments such as blood purifier, anti-inflammatory, and as remedy for gastrointestinal disorders such as vomiting and diarrhea, expectorant, cough, asthma and fever. OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this research work was to evaluate the effect of pistagremic acid (PA) isolated from the galls of Pistacia integerima in acute toxicity and gastrointestinal (GIT) motility tests...
October 7, 2016: Medicinal Chemistry
Ayda Hosseinkhani, Hashem Montaseri, Ammar Hosamo, Mohammad M Zarshenas
The use of earths and clays for medical purposes dates back to antiquity. In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in researches on traditional remedies in the hope of discovering new drug. Iran is an ancient country with a medical backbone acquired from the experiences of ancient Persian scholars, who had made a great contribution to the development of the medical sciences. Many medical and pharmaceutical books by early Persian scientists still exist and may have the potential of leading researchers to new drug discoveries...
October 7, 2016: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
Haipeng Wu, Cui Lai, Guangming Zeng, Jie Liang, Jin Chen, Jijun Xu, Juan Dai, Xiaodong Li, Junfeng Liu, Ming Chen, Lunhui Lu, Liang Hu, Jia Wan
Compost and biochar, used for the remediation of soil, are seen as attractive waste management options for the increasing volume of organic wastes being produced. This paper reviews the interaction of biochar and composting and its implication for soil amendment and pollution remediation. The interaction of biochar and composting affect each other's properties. Biochar could change the physico-chemical properties, microorganisms, degradation, humification and gas emission of composting, such as the increase of nutrients, cation exchange capacity (CEC), organic matter and microbial activities...
October 17, 2016: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Irene Sturm, Sebastian Lapuschkin, Wojciech Samek, Klaus-Robert Müller
BACKGROUND: In cognitive neuroscience the potential of Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) for solving complex classification tasks is yet to be fully exploited. The most limiting factor is that DNNs as notorious 'black boxes' do not provide insight into neurophysiological phenomena underlying a decision. Layer-wise Relevance Propagation (LRP) has been introduced as a novel method to explain individual network decisions. NEW METHOD: We propose the application of DNNs with LRP for the first time for EEG data analysis...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Ryan A Stevenson, Sohee Park, Channing Cochran, Lindsey G McIntosh, Jean-Paul Noel, Morgan D Barense, Susanne Ferber, Mark T Wallace
Recent neurobiological accounts of schizophrenia have included an emphasis on changes in sensory processing. These sensory and perceptual deficits can have a cascading effect onto higher-level cognitive processes and clinical symptoms. One form of sensory dysfunction that has been consistently observed in schizophrenia is altered temporal processing. In this study, we investigated temporal processing within and across the auditory and visual modalities in individuals with schizophrenia (SCZ) and age-matched healthy controls...
October 13, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
Qiang Wang, Liping Huang, Yuzhen Pan, Xie Quan, Gianluca Li Puma
The role of Fe(III) was investigated as an electron-shuttle mediator to enhance the reduction rate of the toxic heavy metal hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in wastewaters, using microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The direct reduction of chromate (CrO4(-)) and dichromate (Cr2O7(2-)) anions in MFCs was hampered by the electrical repulsion between the negatively charged cathode and Cr(VI) functional groups. In contrast, in the presence of Fe(III), the conversion of Cr(VI) and the cathodic coulombic efficiency in the MFCs were 65...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
K W Miskowiak, C V Ott, J Z Petersen, L V Kessing
Cognitive impairment is a core feature of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) but treatments targeting cognition are lacking. Numerous pre-clinical and clinical studies have investigated potential cognition treatments, but overall the evidence is conflicting. We conducted a systematic search following the PRISMA guidelines on PubMed and PsychInfo to evaluate the extant evidence and methodological challenges in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of biological, psychological and behavioural candidate treatments targeting cognition in MDD...
October 13, 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
L Brandejsky, J-A Micoulaud Franchi, R Lopez, S Bioulac, D Da Fonseca, C Daudet, L Boyer, R Richieri, C Lançon
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review is to summarize the available data in the literature about the therapeutic applications of transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHOD: The scientific literature search of international articles was performed in February 2016 using the PubMed electronic database. The following MeSH terms were employed: "attention-deficit disorder with hyperactivity" AND "transcranial magnetic stimulation", "attention-deficit disorder with hyperactivity" AND "transcranial direct current stimulation"...
October 10, 2016: L'Encéphale
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