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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212109/sustainable-exposure-prevention-through-innovative-detection-and-remediation-technologies-from-the-niehs-superfund-research-program
#1
Heather F Henry, William A Suk
Innovative devices and tools for exposure assessment and remediation play an integral role in preventing exposure to hazardous substances. New solutions for detecting and remediating organic, inorganic, and mixtures of contaminants can improve public health as a means of primary prevention. Using a public health prevention model, detection and remediation technologies contribute to primary prevention as tools to identify areas of high risk (e.g. contamination hotspots), to recognize hazards (bioassay tests), and to prevent exposure through contaminant cleanups...
February 17, 2017: Reviews on Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211608/preclinical-characterisation-of-55p0251-a-novel-compound-that-amplifies-glucose-stimulated-insulin-secretion-and-counteracts-hyperglycaemia-in-rodents
#2
Karin Stadlbauer, Barbara Brunmair, Zsuzsanna Lehner, Immanuel Adorjan, Thomas Scherer, Anton Luger, Leonhardt Bauer, Clemens Fürnsinn
AIMS: 55P0251 is a novel compound with blood glucose lowering activity in mice, which has been developed from a molecular backbone structure found in herbal remedies. We here report its basic pharmacological attributes and initial progress in unmasking the mode of action. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pharmacokinetic properties of 55P0251 were portrayed in several species. First efforts to elucidate the glucose lowering mechanism in rodents included numerous experimental protocols dealing with glucose tolerance, insulin secretion from isolated pancreatic islets, and comparison to established drugs...
February 17, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211339/phytoextraction-of-contaminated-urban-soils-by-panicum-virgatum-l-enhanced-with-application-of-a-plant-growth-regulator-bap-and-citric-acid
#3
Matthew Aderholt, Dale L Vogelien, Marina Koether, Sigurdur Greipsson
Lead (Pb) contamination in soil represents a threat to human health. Phytoextraction has gained attention as a potential alternative to traditional remediation methods because of lower cost and minimal soil disruption. The North American native switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) was targeted due to its ability to produce high biomass and grow across a variety of ecozones. In this study switchgrass was chemically enhanced with applications of the soil-fungicide benomyl, chelates (EDTA and citric acid), and PGR to optimize phytoextraction of Pb and zinc (Zn) from contaminated urban soils in Atlanta, GA...
February 4, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211330/biosorption-and-biomineralization-of-uranium-vi-by-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-crystal-formation-of-chernikovite
#4
Xin-Yan Zheng, Xiao-Yu Wang, Yang-Hao Shen, Xia Lu, Tie-Shan Wang
Biosorption of heavy metal elements including radionuclides by microorganisms is a promising and effective method for the remediation of the contaminated places. The responses of live Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the toxic uranium solutions during the biosorption process and the mechanism of uranium biomineralization by cells were investigated in the present study. A novel experimental phenomenon that uranium concentrations have negative correlation with pH values and positive correlation with phosphate concentrations in the supernatant was observed, indicating that hydrogen ions, phosphate ions and uranyl ions were involved in the chernikovite precipitation actively...
February 7, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211313/detection-and-elimination-of-corynebacterium-bovis-from-barrier-rooms-by-using-an-environmental-sampling-surveillance-program
#5
Christopher A Manuel Umarani Pugazhenthi Shannon P Spiegel And Jori K Leszczynski
Rodent health-monitoring programs based on sampling an IVC system's exhaust air dust (EAD) has enhanced and evenreplaced traditional sentinels for some rodent pathogens. EAD testing by qPCR assay is an optimal surveillance methodfor the rapid detection of Corynebacterium bovis-infected immunodeficient mice. Here we demonstrate that an active EADsurveillance program for C. bovis can be used to maintain nude mice C. bovis-free after the transition from historically enzootically infected colonies. During 3 events over 3 y, rapid detection of infection, elimination of infected mice, aggressivequarantine measures, and local decontamination prevented the spread of C...
February 16, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211267/efficient-and-selective-uptake-of-tco4-by-a-cationic-metal-organic-framework-material-with-open-ag-sites
#6
Daopeng Sheng, Lin Zhu, Chao Xu, Chengliang Xiao, Yanlong Wang, Yaxing Wang, Lanhua Chen, Juan Diwu, Jing Chen, Zhifang Chai, Thomas E Albrecht-Schmitt, Shuao Wang
99Tc is one of the most problematic radioisotopes in used nuclear fuel owing to its combined features of high fission yield, long half-life, and high environmental mobility. There are only a handful of functional materials that can remove TcO4- anion from aqueous solution and identifying for new, stable materials with high anion-exchange capacities, fast kinetics, and good selectivity remains a challenge. We report here an 8-fold interpenetrated three-dimensional cationic metal-organic framework material, SCU-100, which is assembled from a tetradentate neutral nitrogen-donor ligand and two-coordinate Ag+ cations as potential open metal sites...
February 17, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210952/two-dechlorinated-chlordecone-derivatives-formed-by-in-situ-chemical-reduction-are-devoid-of-genotoxicity-and-mutagenicity-and-have-lower-proangiogenic-properties-compared-to-the-parent-compound
#7
Samuel Legeay, Pierre-André Billat, Nicolas Clere, Fabrice Nesslany, Sébastien Bristeau, Sébastien Faure, Christophe Mouvet
Chlordecone (CLD) is a chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticide, now classified as a persistent organic pollutant. Several studies have previously reported that chronic exposure to CLD leads to hepatotoxicity, neurotoxicity, raises early child development and pregnancy complications, and increases the risk of liver and prostate cancer. In situ chemical reduction (ISCR) has been identified as a possible way for the remediation of soils contaminated by CLD. In the present study, the objectives were (i) to evaluate the genotoxicity and the mutagenicity of two CLD metabolites formed by ISCR, CLD-5a-hydro, or CLD-5-hydro (5a- or 5- according to CAS nomenclature; CLD-1Cl) and tri-hydroCLD (CLD-3Cl), and (ii) to explore the angiogenic properties of these molecules...
February 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210818/open-circuit-respirometry-a-brief-historical-review-of-the-use-of-douglas-bags-and-chemical-analyzers
#8
REVIEW
Roy J Shephard
The Douglas bag technique is reviewed as one in a series of articles looking at historical insights into measurement of whole body metabolic rate. Consideration of all articles looking at Douglas bag technique and chemical gas analysis has here focused on the growing appreciation of errors in measuring expired volumes and gas composition, and subjective reactions to airflow resistance and dead space. Multiple small sources of error have been identified and appropriate remedies proposed over a century of use of the methodology...
February 16, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209280/community-level-inequalities-in-concussion-education-of-youth-football-coaches
#9
Emily Kroshus, Zachary Y Kerr, Joseph G L Lee
INTRODUCTION: USA Football has made the Heads Up Football (HUF) concussion education program available for coaches of youth football players. Existing evidence about the effectiveness of the HUF coach education program is equivocal. For HUF and other programs, there is growing concern that even effective interventions can increase inequalities if there is different uptake or impact by SES or other demographic factors. Understanding how adoption is patterned along these lines is important for understanding equity issues in youth football...
February 10, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208820/optimal-resonant-band-demodulation-based-on-an-improved-correlated-kurtosis-and-its-application-in-bearing-fault-diagnosis
#10
Xianglong Chen, Bingzhi Zhang, Fuzhou Feng, Pengcheng Jiang
The kurtosis-based indexes are usually used to identify the optimal resonant frequency band. However, kurtosis can only describe the strength of transient impulses, which cannot differentiate impulse noises and repetitive transient impulses cyclically generated in bearing vibration signals. As a result, it may lead to inaccurate results in identifying resonant frequency bands, in demodulating fault features and hence in fault diagnosis. In view of those drawbacks, this manuscript redefines the correlated kurtosis based on kurtosis and auto-correlative function, puts forward an improved correlated kurtosis based on squared envelope spectrum of bearing vibration signals...
February 13, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208628/variable%C3%A2-cyanobacterial%C3%A2-toxin%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-metabolite%C3%A2-profiles%C3%A2-across%C3%A2-six%C3%A2-eutrophic%C3%A2-lakes%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-differing%C3%A2-physiochemical%C3%A2-characteristics
#11
Lucas J Beversdorf, Chelsea A Weirich, Sarah L Bartlett, Todd R Miller
Future sustainability of freshwater resources is seriously threatened due to the presence  of  harmful  cyanobacterial  blooms,  and  yet,  the  number,  extent,  and  distribution  of  most  cyanobacterial toxins-including "emerging" toxins and other bioactive compounds-are poorly  understood.  We  measured  15  cyanobacterial  compounds-including  four  microcystins  (MC),  saxitoxin (SXT), cylindrospermopsin (CYL), anatoxin-a (ATX) and homo-anatoxin-a (hATX), two  anabaenopeptins (Apt), three cyanopeptolins (Cpt), microginin (Mgn), and nodularin (NOD)-in  six freshwater lakes that regularly experience noxious cHABs...
February 10, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208327/issues-associated-with-galilean-invariance-on-a-moving-solid-boundary-in-the-lattice-boltzmann-method
#12
Cheng Peng, Nicholas Geneva, Zhaoli Guo, Lian-Ping Wang
In lattice Boltzmann simulations involving moving solid boundaries, the momentum exchange between the solid and fluid phases was recently found to be not fully consistent with the principle of local Galilean invariance (GI) when the bounce-back schemes (BBS) and the momentum exchange method (MEM) are used. In the past, this inconsistency was resolved by introducing modified MEM schemes so that the overall moving-boundary algorithm could be more consistent with GI. However, in this paper we argue that the true origin of this violation of Galilean invariance (VGI) in the presence of a moving solid-fluid interface is due to the BBS itself, as the VGI error not only exists in the hydrodynamic force acting on the solid phase, but also in the boundary force exerted on the fluid phase, according to Newton's Third Law...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208114/efficient-degradation-of-chlorimuron-ethyl-by-a-bacterial-consortium-and-shifts-in-the-aboriginal-microorganism-community-during-the-bioremediation-of-contaminated-soil
#13
Chunyan Li, Tongyang Lv, Wanjun Liu, Hailian Zang, Yi Cheng, Dapeng Li
Excessive application of chlorimuron-ethyl has led to soil contamination and limited crop rotation; therefore, tactics to decrease and eliminate residual chlorimuron-ethyl in the environment have attracted increasing attention. In this study, two chlorimuron-ethyl-degrading bacterial strains (Rhodococcus sp. D310-1; Enterobacter sp. D310-5) were used to ferment and prepare a chlorimuron-ethyl-degrading bacterial consortium. To improve the degradation efficiency of the bacterial consortium, the cultivation conditions were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM)...
February 13, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208088/mechanisms-of-cd-and-cr-removal-and-tolerance-by-macrofungus-pleurotus-ostreatus-hau-2
#14
Xuanzhen Li, Youjing Wang, Yanshuo Pan, Hao Yu, Xiaolin Zhang, Yanping Shen, Shuai Jiao, Kun Wu, Guixiao La, Yuan Yuan, Shimin Zhang
Fungi bioaccumulation is a novel and highly promising approach to remediate polluted soil. The present study revealed a high ability to tolerate Cd and Cr in the fungus Pleurotus ostreatus HAU-2. However, high concentrations of Cd and Cr can suppress fungal growth and result in a variation of hypha micromorphology. Batch experiments were performed to investigate Cd and Cr stress effects on the amount of active oxygen in fungi, activity of antioxidant enzyme, as well as the removal efficiency of Cd and Cr. The results revealed that Cd and Cr caused increasing active oxygen and malonaldehyde (MDA) concentrations...
January 26, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207863/identification-of-age-dependent-motor-and-neuropsychological-behavioural-abnormalities-in-a-mouse-model-of-mucopolysaccharidosis-type-ii
#15
Hélène F E Gleitz, Claire O'Leary, Rebecca J Holley, Brian W Bigger
Severe mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II) is a progressive lysosomal storage disease caused by mutations in the IDS gene, leading to a deficiency in the iduronate-2-sulfatase enzyme that is involved in heparan sulphate and dermatan sulphate catabolism. In constitutive form, MPS II is a multi-system disease characterised by progressive neurocognitive decline, severe skeletal abnormalities and hepatosplenomegaly. Although enzyme replacement therapy has been approved for treatment of peripheral organs, no therapy effectively treats the cognitive symptoms of the disease and novel therapies are in development to remediate this...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207604/memory-rehabilitation-strategies-in-nonsurgical-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-a-review
#16
Alessandra Del Felice, Marzia Alderighi, Matteo Martinato, Davide Grisafi, Anna Bosco, Pamela J Thompson, Josemir W Sander, Stefano Masiero
People with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) who have not undergone epilepsy surgery often complain of memory deficits. Cognitive rehabilitation is employed as a remedial intervention in clinical settings, but research is limited and findings concerning efficacy and the criteria for choosing different approaches have been inconsistent. We aimed to appraise existing evidence on memory rehabilitation in nonsurgical individuals with temporal lobe epilepsy and to ascertain the effectiveness of specific strategies. A scoping review was preferred given the heterogeneous nature of the interventions...
February 15, 2017: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205596/3d-printed-self-driven-thumb-sized-motors-for-in-situ-underwater-pollutant-remediation
#17
Fen Yu, Qipeng Hu, Lina Dong, Xiao Cui, Tingtao Chen, Hongbo Xin, Miaoxing Liu, Chaowen Xue, Xiangwei Song, Fanrong Ai, Ting Li, Xiaolei Wang
Green fuel-driven thumb sized motors (TSM) were designed and optimized by 3D printing to explore their in-situ remediation applications in rare studied underwater area. Combined with areogel processing and specialized bacteria domestication, each tiny TSM could realize large area pollutant treatment precisely in an impressive half-automatically manner.
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205433/a-battery-operated-atomic-emission-analyzer-for-waterborne-arsenic-based-on-atmospheric-pressure-glow-discharge-excitation-source
#18
Chun Yang, Dong He, Zhenli Zhu, Huan Peng, Zhifu Liu, Guojun Wen, Jianghao Bai, Hongtao Zheng, Shenghong Hu, Yanxin Wang
In this paper, a sensitive atomic emission spectrometer (AES) based on a new low power and low argon consumption (< 8 W, 100 mL min(-1)) miniature direct current (DC) atmospheric pressure glow discharge (APGD) plasma (3 mm×5 mm) excitation source was developed for the determination of arsenic in water samples. In this method, arsenic in water was reduced to AsH3 by hydride generation (HG), which was then transported to the APGD source for excitation and detected by a compact CCD (charge-coupled device) microspectrometer...
February 16, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199893/decreased-cingulate-cortex-activation-during-cognitive-control-processing-in-bipolar-disorder
#19
Staci A Gruber, M Kathryn Dahlgren, Kelly A Sagar, Atilla Gonenc, Lesley Norris, Bruce M Cohen, Dost Ongur, Kathryn E Lewandowski
BACKGROUND: Cognitive deficits are well-documented in patients with bipolar disorder (BPD) and may impact the efficacy of psychotherapy. Cognitive control, a form of executive functioning, is often used therapeutically to shift patients' thoughts and behaviors from automatic, maladaptive responses to adaptive coping strategies. This study examined cognitive control processing in patients with BPD using the Multi-Source Interference Task (MSIT). METHOD: Twenty-nine patients diagnosed with BPD and 21 healthy control (HC) subjects completed the MSIT with concurrent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199876/the-effect-of-sewage-sludge-application-on-soil-properties-and-willow-salix-sp-cultivation
#20
Magdalena Urbaniak, Anna Wyrwicka, Wojciech Tołoczko, Liliana Serwecińska, Marek Zieliński
The aim of the study was to determine the impact of sewage sludge from three wastewater treatment plants of different sizes (small, medium and large) applied in two doses (3 and 9 tons per hectare) on soil properties, determined as the content of organic carbon and humus fractions, bacterial abundance, phytotoxicity and PCDD/PCDF TEQ concentrations. The study also evaluated the impact of this sewage sludge on the biometric and physiological parameters and detoxification reaction of willow (Salix sp.) as a typical crop used for the remediation of soil following sludge application...
February 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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