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Leukomalacia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353260/wide-variation-in-severe-neonatal-morbidity-among-very-preterm-infants-in-european-regions
#1
Anna Karin Edstedt Bonamy, Jennifer Zeitlin, Aurélie Piedvache, Rolf F Maier, Arno van Heijst, Heili Varendi, Bradley N Manktelow, Alan Fenton, Jan Mazela, Marina Cuttini, Mikael Norman, Stavros Petrou, Patrick Van Reempts, Henrique Barros, Elizabeth S Draper
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the variation in severe neonatal morbidity among very preterm (VPT) infants across European regions and whether morbidity rates are higher in regions with low compared with high mortality rates. DESIGN: Area-based cohort study of all births before 32 weeks of gestational age. SETTING: 16 regions in 11 European countries in 2011/2012. PATIENTS: Survivors to discharge from neonatal care (n=6422)...
January 20, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337004/quantitative-sensory-testing-profiles-in-children-adolescents-and-young-adults-6-20-years-with-cerebral-palsy-hints-for-a-neuropathic-genesis-of-pain-syndromes
#2
M Blankenburg, J Junker, G Hirschfeld, E Michel, F Aksu, J Wager, B Zernikow
INTRODUCTION: Many patients with cerebral palsy (CP) suffer chronic pain as one of the most limiting factors in their quality of life. In CP patients, pain mechanisms are not well understood, and pain therapy remains a challenge. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) might provide unique information about the functional status of the somatosensory system and therefore better guide pain treatment. OBJECTIVES: To understand better the underlying pain mechanisms in pediatric CP patients, we aimed to assess clinical and pain parameters, as well as QST profiles, which were matched to the patients' cerebral imaging pathology...
December 30, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335358/sox2-is-essential-for-oligodendroglial-proliferation-and-differentiation-during-postnatal-brain-myelination-and-cns-remyelination
#3
Sheng Zhang, Xiaoqing Zhu, Xuehong Gui, Christopher Croteau, Lanying Song, Jie Xu, Aijun Wang, Peter Bannerman, Fuzheng Guo
In the central nervous system (CNS), myelination and remyelination depend on the successful progression and maturation of oligodendroglial lineage cells including proliferation and differentiation of oligodendroglial progenitor cells (OPCs). Previous studies have reported that Sox2 transiently regulates oligodendrocyte (OL) differentiation in the embryonic and perinatal spinal cord and appears dispensable for myelination in the postnatal spinal cord. However, the role of Sox2 in OL development in the brain has yet to be defined...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311628/vascular-placental-pathology-and-the-relationship-between-hypertensive-disorders-of-pregnancy-and-neonatal-outcomes-in-very-low-birth-weight-infants
#4
Lisa Strouss, Neal D Goldstein, Robert Locke, David A Paul
OBJECTIVE: To investigate vascular placental pathology's effect on known associations between hypertensive disorders and four adverse neonatal outcomes-bronchopulmonary dysplasia, intraventricular hemorrhage or periventricular leukomalacia, necrotizing enterocolitis, and death. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort of very low birth weight neonates born at a single center (n = 911). Statistical analysis included χ2, t test, modified Poisson regression with robust error variance to measure risk, and Wald test...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288532/impaired-cognitive-ability-at-2-5-years-predicts-later-visual-and-ophthalmological-problems-in-children-born-very-preterm
#5
Jonina Hreinsdottir, Ylva Fredriksson Kaul, Lena Hellström-Westas, Kerstin Rosander, Claes von Hofsten, Gerd Holmström
AIM: To identify possible predictive factors for visual problems at 6.5 years in children born very preterm. METHODS: During 2004 to 2007, all very preterm infants (gestational age < 32 weeks) in Uppsala County, Sweden, were screened for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) neonatally; at four months visual tracking was tested; at 2.5 years, visuospatial and cognitive tests were carried out. At 6.5 years, 84 preterm children and a reference group of 64 full-term children underwent ophthalmological testing...
December 29, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279020/short-term-outcomes-comparison-between-preterm-infants-with-and-without-acute-hypoxic-respiratory-failure-attributable-to-presumed-pulmonary-hypoplasia-after-prolonged-preterm-premature-rupture-of-membranes-before-25-gestational-weeks
#6
Ga Young Park, Won Soon Park, Hye Soo Yoo, So Yoon Ahn, Se In Sung, Sung Shin Kim, Yun Sil Chang
OBJECTIVE: To determine the updated outcomes of preterm infants with acute hypoxic respiratory failure attributable to presumed pulmonary hypoplasia (PH) following maternal midtrimester prolonged preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). STUDY DESIGN: Among preterm infants with birthweight < 1500 g and 23-34 weeks gestational age in a single center, infants exposed to maternal prolonged (≥ 7 days) PPROM before 25 gestational weeks (PPPROM25, n = 76) were retrospectively reviewed...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274431/trajectory-of-inflammatory-and-microglial-activation-markers-in-the-postnatal-rabbit-brain-following-intrauterine-endotoxin-exposure
#7
Zhi Zhang, Amar Jyoti, Bindu Balakrishnan, Monica Williams, Sarabdeep Singh, Diane C Chugani, Sujatha Kannan
BACKGROUND: Maternal infection is a risk factor for periventricular leukomalacia and cerebral palsy (CP) in neonates. We have previously demonstrated hypomyelination and motor deficits in newborn rabbits, as seen in patients with cerebral palsy, following maternal intrauterine endotoxin administration. This was associated with increased microglial activation, primarily involving the periventricular region (PVR). In this study we hypothesized that maternal intrauterine inflammation leads to a pro-inflammatory environment in the PVR that is associated with microglial activation in the first 2 postnatal weeks...
December 20, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259700/neuroprotective-effects-of-human-umbilical-cord-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-periventricular-leukomalacia-like-brain-injury-in-neonatal-rats
#8
Chikako Morioka, Motohiro Komaki, Atsuko Taki, Izumi Honda, Naoki Yokoyama, Kengo Iwasaki, Sachiko Iseki, Tomohiro Morio, Ikuo Morita
Background: Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) is a type of multifactorial brain injury that causes cerebral palsy in premature infants. To date, effective therapies for PVL have not been available. In this study, we examined whether mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess neuroprotective property in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neonatal rat PVL-like brain injury. Methods: Human umbilical cord-derived MSCs (UCMSCs) were used in this study. Four-day-old rats were intraperitoneally injected with LPS (15 mg/kg) to cause the PVL-like brain injury and were treated immediately after the LPS-injection with UCMSCs, conditioned medium prepared from MSCs (UCMSC-CM) or interferon-gamma (IFN-γ)-pretreated MSC (IFN-γ-UCMSC-CM)...
2017: Inflammation and Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248460/%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-contribute-to-injury-in-the-developing-brain
#9
Anna-Maj Albertsson, Xiaoli Zhang, Regina Vontell, Dan Bi, Roderick T Bronson, Veena Supramaniam, Ana A Baburamani, Sha Hua, Arshed Nazmi, Susanna Cardell, Changlian Zhu, Harvey Cantor, Carina Mallard, Henrik Hagberg, Jianmei W Leavenworth, Xiaoyang Wang
Brain injury in premature infants, especially periventricular leukomalacia, is an important cause of neurological disabilities. Inflammation contributes to the development of perinatal brain injury, but the essential mediators leading to brain injury in early life remain largely unknown. Neonates have reduced capacity for mounting conventional αβT-cell responses. However γδT-cells are already functionally competent during early development and are important in early life immunity. We investigated the potential contribution of γδT-cells to preterm brain injury by using postmortem brains from human preterm infants with periventricular leukomalacia and two animal models of preterm brain injury-the hypoxic-ischemic mouse model and a fetal sheep asphyxia model...
December 14, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239318/pathophysiology-of-periventricular-leukomalacia-what-we-learned-from-animal-models
#10
Nahla Zaghloul, Mohamed Ahmed
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217314/congenital-cytomegalovirus-infection-and-the-occurrence-of-cystic-periventricular-leukomalacia
#11
Philip N D Elders, Josine In 't Veld, Jacqueline Termote, Linda S de Vries, Marieke A C Hemels, Henrica L M van Straaten, Jacqueline van der Sluijs, René F Kornelisse, Katja C Wolthers, Moniek van de Loo, Dasja Pajkrt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208662/antenatal-corticosteroids-in-impending-preterm-deliveries-before-25-weeks-gestation
#12
Mangesh Deshmukh, Sanjay Patole
Antenatal corticosteroid (ANC) use before 25 weeks' gestation is controversial. Our previous systematic review (eight observational studies, n=10 109) showed that ANC exposure was associated with significantly reduced mortality and severe intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH)/periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) in neonates born <25 weeks. We update our review by adding data (n=3334) from a recent study. We used Cochrane methodology and summarised the results using GRADE (The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) guidelines...
December 5, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198532/impact-of-prolonged-mechanical-ventilation-in-very-low-birth-weight-infants-results-from-a-national-cohort-study
#13
Young-Bin Choi, Juyoung Lee, Jisun Park, Yong Hoon Jun
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the in-hospital consequences of prolonged respiratory support with invasive mechanical ventilation in very low birth weight infants. STUDY DESIGN: A cohort study was performed using prospectively collected data from 69 neonatal intensive care units participating in the Korean national registry. In total, 3508 very low birth weight infants born between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2014 were reviewed. RESULTS: The adjusted hazard ratio for death increased significantly for infants who received mechanical ventilation for more than 2 weeks compared with those were mechanically ventilated for 7 days or less...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187166/what-is-the-safest-mode-of-delivery-for-extremely-preterm-cephalic-non-cephalic-twin-pairs-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analyses
#14
Catherine Dagenais, Anne-Mary Lewis-Mikhael, Marinela Grabovac, Amit Mukerji, Sarah D McDonald
BACKGROUND: Given the controversy around mode of delivery, our objective was to assess the evidence regarding the safest mode of delivery for actively resuscitated extremely preterm cephalic/non-cephalic twin pairs before 28 weeks of gestation. METHODS: We searched Cochrane CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and  http://clinicaltrials.gov from January 1994 to January 2017. Two reviewers independently screened titles, abstracts and full text articles, extracted data and assessed risk of bias...
November 29, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181530/neurodevelopmental-and-behavioral-outcomes-in-extremely-premature-neonates-with-ventriculomegaly-in-the-absence-of-periventricular-intraventricular-hemorrhage
#15
Athina Pappas, Ira Adams-Chapman, Seetha Shankaran, Scott A McDonald, Barbara J Stoll, Abbot R Laptook, Waldemar A Carlo, Krisa P Van Meurs, Susan R Hintz, Martha D Carlson, Jane E Brumbaugh, Michele C Walsh, Myra H Wyckoff, Abhik Das, Rosemary D Higgins
Importance: Studies of cranial ultrasonography and early childhood outcomes among cohorts of extremely preterm neonates have linked periventricular-intraventricular hemorrhage and cystic periventricular leukomalacia with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. However, the association between nonhemorrhagic ventriculomegaly and neurodevelopmental and behavioral outcomes is not fully understood. Objective: To characterize the outcomes of extremely preterm neonates younger than 27 weeks' gestational age who experienced nonhemorrhagic ventriculomegaly that was detected prior to 36 weeks' postmenstrual age...
November 27, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145693/early-erythropoiesis-stimulating-agents-in-preterm-or-low-birth-weight-infants
#16
REVIEW
Arne Ohlsson, Sanjay M Aher
BACKGROUND: Preterm infants have low plasma levels of erythropoietin (EPO), providing a rationale for the use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) to prevent or treat anaemia and to provide neuro protection and protection against necrotising enterocolitis (NEC). Darbepoetin (Darbe) and EPO are currently available ESAs. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of ESAs (erythropoietin (EPO) and/or Darbe) initiated early (before eight days after birth) compared with placebo or no intervention in reducing red blood cell (RBC) transfusions, adverse neurological outcomes, and feeding intolerance including necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm and/or low birth weight infants...
November 16, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141932/umbilical-artery-perforation-a-potentially-life-threatening-complication-of-umbilical-artery-catheterisation
#17
Daniel Molanus, Machteld van Scherpenzeel, Joep Derikx, Frank van den Dungen
Umbilical artery catheterisation is frequently performed in preterm or critically ill newborn infants for invasive monitoring of blood pressure and blood sampling for laboratory tests. It is associated with well-known complications like catheter-related infections, thromboembolic events and aneurysmal formation of the aorta. In this report, we present another major complication of umbilical artery catheterisation: umbilical artery perforation. This complication occurred in a prematurely born infant and resulted in severe haemorrhagic shock, subsequent renal failure and severe periventricular leukomalacia...
November 14, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119673/efficacy-of-antenatal-corticosteroids-in-preterm-twins-the-epipage2-cohort-study
#18
Déborah Palas, Virginie Ehlinger, Corinne I Alberge, Patrick Truffert, Gilles Kayem, François Goffinet, Pierre-Yves Ancel, Catherine Arnaud, Christophe Vayssiere
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the efficacy of ACS therapy on short-term neonatal outcomes in preterm twins and further document the influence of the ACS-to-delivery interval. DESIGN: EPIPAGE2 is a nationwide observational multicentre prospective cohort study of neonates born between 22 and 34 completed weeks of gestation. SETTING: All French maternity units, except in a single administrative regions, between March and December 2011. POPULATION: 750 twin neonates born between 24 and 31 weeks of gestation...
November 8, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118507/periventricular-leukomalacia-with-16-ds-high-myopia-in-a-2%C3%A2-months-old-infant-a-rare-case-presentation
#19
Praveen Jeyaseelan, Tulika Kar, P Vijayalakshmi
Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) is coagulation necrosis of white matter seen in preterm, low birth weight (LBW) infants and associated with a range of ocular manifestations. We report a case of 2½ months old (47 weeks gestational age) female infant with PVL associated with bilateral high myopia (-16 DS). On examination, child had difficulty in tracking objects and inferior field defect with preference for superior gaze. She was prescribed spectacles and visual stimulation exercises to preserve existing vision and prevent amblyopia...
September 2017: Oman Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077984/neurally-adjusted-ventilatory-assist-compared-to-other-forms-of-triggered-ventilation-for-neonatal-respiratory-support
#20
REVIEW
Thomas E Rossor, Katie A Hunt, Sandeep Shetty, Anne Greenough
BACKGROUND: Effective synchronisation of infant respiratory effort with mechanical ventilation may allow adequate gas exchange to occur at lower peak airway pressures, potentially reducing barotrauma and volutrauma and development of air leaks and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. During neurally adjusted ventilatory assist ventilation (NAVA), respiratory support is initiated upon detection of an electrical signal from the diaphragm muscle, and pressure is provided in proportion to and synchronous with electrical activity of the diaphragm (EADi)...
October 27, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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