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Community medicine

Mads Gilbert
BACKGROUND: The atrocities in Syria have been covered in the four general medical weekly journals in the USA and the UK. Medical journal articles addressing political determinants of public health have rightly described and criticised the international community's failure to enforce humanitarian law while urging global bodies of power to ensure protection of civilians and civilian infrastructure and medical services. Discussions of the political influences on health of people in the occupied Palestinian territory (West Bank and Gaza Strip) seem to be considered politically out-of-bounds by some medical journals...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Bo J A Haglund, Per Tillgren
Based on the storytelling tradition and analyses of conference material, this article provides an overview of the evolving Nordic Health Promotion Research Network (NHPRN) and its conferences over the last 20 years. The story goes from the planning of the first conference in Bergen, Norway, back in 1996 to the eighth conference in Jyväskylä, Finland, in 2016. There have been three phases of development. During the first phase, 1996-2007, the five first conferences were initiated and implemented by departments of public health in the Nordic countries...
February 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
Camillo Lamanna
Narrative medicine explores the stories that patients tell; this paper, conversely, looks at some of the stories that patients are told. The paper starts by examining the 'story' told by the Shambaa people of Tanzania to explain the bubonic plague and contrasts this with the stories told by Ghanaian communities to explain lymphatic filariasis. By harnessing insights from memory studies, these stories' memorability is claimed to be due to their use mnemonic devices woven into stories. The paper suggests that stories can be unpatronising, informative, and appropriate vehicles for communicating medical information to all age groups across all cultures...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Humanities
Marc J Weigensberg, Cheryl Vigen, Paola Sequeira, Donna Spruijt-Metz, Magaly Juarez, Daniella Florindez, Joseph Provisor, Anne Peters, Elizabeth A Pyatak
Background: The transition of young adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D) from pediatric to adult care is challenging and frequently accompanied by worsening of diabetes-related health. To date, there are no reports which prospectively assess the effects of theory-based psycho-behavioral interventions during the transition period neither on glycemic control nor on psychosocial factors that contribute to poor glycemic control. Therefore, the overall aim of this study was to develop and pilot test an integrative group intervention based on the underlying principles of self-determination theory (SDT), in young adults with T1D...
2018: Global Advances in Health and Medicine: Improving Healthcare Outcomes Worldwide
Yibeltal Assefa, Peter S Hill, Owain D Williams
At September's 2017 United Nations General Assembly, a state-of-the-art HIV medicine was announced to be made available at just $75 per person per year. There have been a number of strategies that the global AIDS community and countries have utilized to reduce prices and make antiretrovirals (ARVs) accessible for people living with HIV/AIDS. There appears to be an opportunity for the treatment of hepatitis C virus infection using direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) to benefit from the often painful and laboured history of driving down the prices of ARVs...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Jeroen M van de Pol, Jurjen G Geljon, Svetlana V Belitser, Geert W J Frederix, Anke M Hövels, Marcel L Bouvy
INTRODUCTION: The nature of community pharmacy is changing, shifting from the preparation and distribution of medicines to the provision of cognitive pharmaceutical services (CPS); however, often the provision of traditional services leaves little time for innovative services. This study investigated the time community pharmacists spend on the tasks and activities of daily practice and to what extent they are able to implement CPS-related services in daily practice. METHODS: Self-reporting work sampling was used to register the activities of community pharmacists...
March 9, 2018: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
Ali K Yetisen
Biohacking is a do-it-yourself citizen science merging body modification with technology. The motivations of biohackers include cybernetic exploration, personal data acquisition, and advocating for privacy rights and open-source medicine. The emergence of a biohacking community has influenced discussions of cultural values, medical ethics, safety, and consent in transhumanist technology.
March 14, 2018: Trends in Biotechnology
Mohamed Djamel Miara, Hamdi Bendif, Mohammed Ait Hammou, Irene Teixidor-Toneu
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: This study is the first ethnobotanical survey focusing on the herbal medicines traditionally used by the nomadic community of the Algerian steppe, identifying new medicinal plants and uses from one of the most characteristic indigenous populations in Algeria. Moreover, the study contributes to the understanding of transmission of medicinal plant knowledge in the Mediterranean basin. AIM OF THE STUDY: This work aims to document the phytotherapeutical knowledge and practice of the nomadic community of the Algerian steppe, and compare it with neighbouring sedentary populations and Mediterranean historical texts...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Muhammad Atif, Muhammad Azeem, Muhammad Rehan Sarwar, Iram Malik, Wajiha Ahmad, Fariha Hassan, Ayesha Rehman, Mahjabeen Rana
BACKGROUND: Appropriate use of medicines is important to provide quality health. The aim of this study was to assess the prescribing practices and prescription errors in the private clinic practices of Bahawalpur, Pakistan. METHODS: A cross-sectional observational study was performed in March 2015 to assess the prescribing practices and prescription errors in the private clinical practices of Bahawalpur, Pakistan. We used the standard World Health Organization (WHO) methodology to achieve the study objectives...
March 13, 2018: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
James Rourke, Shabnam Asghari, Oliver Hurley, Mohamed Ravalia, Michael Jong, Wanda Parsons, Norah Duggan, Katherine Stringer, Danielle O'Keefe, Scott Moffatt, Wendy Graham, Carolyn Sturge Sparkes, Janelle Hippe, Kristin Harris Walsh, Donald McKay, Asoka Samarasena
CONTEXT: This report describes the community context, concept and mission of The Faculty of Medicine at Memorial University of Newfoundland (Memorial), Canada, and its 'pathways to rural practice' approach, which includes influences at the pre-medical school, medical school experience, postgraduate residency training, and physician practice levels. Memorial's pathways to practice helped Memorial to fulfill its social accountability mandate to populate the province with highly skilled rural generalist practitioners...
March 2018: Rural and Remote Health
Ganbold Lundeg, Amanda Baric, David C Pescod, Keith Pescod
Anesthesia in Mongolia has undergone a period of major development over the past 17 years, thanks to the work of the Mongolian Society of Anesthesiologists (MSA) and the support of the World Federation of Societies of Anaesthesiologists and the Australian Society of Anaesthetists. The specialty has made major advances in training and in its standing among medical specialties in Mongolia. The MSA has produced members who are leaders in the development of anesthesia as well as emergency medicine and critical care...
April 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
David H Molyneux, Laura Dean, Oluwatosin Adekeye, J Russell Stothard, Sally Theobald
The drive to control neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) has had many successes but to reach defined targets new approaches are required. Over the last decade, NTD control programmes have benefitted from increased resources, and from effective partnerships and long-term pharmaceutical donations. Although the NTD agenda is broader than those diseases of parasitic aetiology there has been a massive up-scaling of the delivery of medicines to some billion people annually. Recipients are often the poorest, with the aspiration that NTD programmes are key to universal health coverage as reflected within the 2030 United Nations sustainable development goals (SDGs)...
March 16, 2018: Parasitology
Brenda Si Elias, Ana Hanlon-Dearman, Betty Head, Geoffrey G Hicks
Translating to the Community (T2C) is a social bio-repository designed to advance new diagnostic tools and realign community-clinical processes, with the aim to mitigate the short-and-long term impacts of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD), prenatal alcohol exposure, and its co-morbidities and behaviors. In this paper, we describe the evolution of this repository as a new translational partnership to advance a precision medicine approach to FASD. Key to its evolution was a partnership between academic researchers, Indigenous communities, families and a regional diagnostic clinic...
March 15, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
Boon Phiaw Kho, Mohamed Azmi Hassali, Ching Jou Lim, Fahad Saleem
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this research were to determine extra-organisational challenges (e.g. market competition, governing policies) faced by community pharmacies in Sarawak, the coping strategies employed to deal with these challenges and explore potential legislative changes that can attenuate the intensity of these challenges. METHODS: Survey questionnaires (n = 184) were posted to all eligible community pharmacies in Sarawak, Malaysia. The questionnaire included sections on participants' demographic data, extra-organisational challenges faced, coping strategies employed and proposals to improve community pharmacy legislations...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Pharmacy Practice
Telma Moreira, Daphne C Hernandez, Claudia W Scott, Rosenda Murillo, Elizabeth M Vaughan, Craig A Johnston
Hispanics are disparately affected by diabetes. Treating socioeconomically disadvantaged Hispanics is challenging due to economic and cultural barriers. Health care providers must understand that cultural beliefs about medicine and disease may have an impact on how diabetes treatment is viewed. Concepts such as susto (fright), coraje (anger), and fatalismo (fatalism) are common cultural beliefs. If these beliefs are not well understood by the health care provider, recommendations for treatment are likely to be discarded...
January 2018: American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine
Rashmi Agarwalla, Rambha Pathak, Mitasha Singh, Farzana Islam, Mamta Parashar
Background: Ragpickers are informal workers who collect recyclable materials to earn a small wage on daily basis. They work in vulnerable conditions and awareness regarding occupational and environmental hazard is essential for them. Objective: To study the effectiveness of awareness program on various occupational health hazards among the ragpickers. Materials and Methods: This interventional study was conducted from May through October 2016 among the ragpickers living near field practice area of Department of Community Medicine and those living in slum areas around HAHC Hospital, New Delhi, India...
May 2017: Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
James Rourke, Danielle O'Keefe, Mohamed Ravalia, Scott Moffatt, Wanda Parsons, Norah Duggan, Katherine Stringer, Michael Jong, Kristin Harris Walsh, Janelle Hippe
OBJECTIVE: To assess Memorial University of Newfoundland's (MUN's) commitment to a comprehensive pathways approach to rural family practice, and to determine the national and provincial effects of applying this approach. DESIGN: Analysis of anonymized secondary data. SETTING: Canada. PARTICIPANTS: Memorial's medical degree (MD) graduates practising family medicine in Newfoundland and Labrador as of January 2015 (N = 305), MUN's 2011 and 2012 MD graduates (N = 120), and physicians who completed family medicine training programs in Canada between 2004 and 2013 and who were practising in Canada 2 years after completion of their postgraduate training (N = 8091)...
March 2018: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
Paul I Musey, John A Lee, Cassandra A Hall, Jeffrey A Kline
BACKGROUND: Approximately 80% of patients presenting to emergency departments (ED) with chest pain do not have any true cardiopulmonary emergency such as acute coronary syndrome (ACS). However, psychological contributors such as anxiety are thought to be present in up to 58%, but often remain undiagnosed leading to chronic chest pain and ED recidivism. METHODS: To evaluate ED provider beliefs and their usual practices regarding the approach and disposition of patients with low risk chest pain associated with anxiety, we constructed a 22-item survey using a modified Delphi technique...
March 14, 2018: BMC Emergency Medicine
Daeho Kim, Sanghyun Hong, Hongjun Na, Jihwan Chun, Robin B Guevarra, You-Tae Kim, Sangryeol Ryu, Hyeun Bum Kim, Ju-Hoon Lee
Bellflower root ( Platycodon grandiflorum ), which belongs to the Campanulaceae family, is a perennial grass that grows naturally in Korea, northeastern China, and Japan. Bellflower is widely consumed as both food and medicine due to its high nutritional value and potential therapeutic effects. Since foodborne disease outbreaks often come from vegetables, understanding the public health risk of microorganisms on fresh vegetables is pivotal to predict and prevent foodborne disease outbreaks.We investigated the microbial communities on the bellflower root (n=10)...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Paul Dillon, L Alison Phillips, Paul Gallagher, Susan M Smith, Derek Stewart, Gráinne Cousins
Background: The Necessity-Concerns Framework (NCF) is a multidimensional theory describing the relationship between patients' positive and negative evaluations of their medication which interplay to influence adherence. Most studies evaluating the NCF have failed to account for the multidimensional nature of the theory, placing the separate dimensions of medication "necessity beliefs" and "concerns" onto a single dimension (e.g., the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire-difference score model)...
February 5, 2018: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
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