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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551934/-parathyroid-autotransplantation-in-adults-and-children
#1
REVIEW
Michael M Krausz, Itamar Ashkenazi, Ricardo Alfici
The indications and methods of parathyroid autotransplantation in children and adults are reviewed, with special emphasis on the methods of immediate transplantation and delayed autotransplantation after cryopreservation. Parathyroid autotransplantation is performed during surgery when all four parathyroid glands have been intentionally resected in parathyroid hyperplasia, or when all four glands were inadvertently damaged during total thyroidectomy, or recurrent neck surgery. When parathyroid damage is suspected during thyroid or extensive neck surgery, cryopreservation of a parathyroid gland is performed...
March 2017: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551921/-management-of-anticoagulant-and-antiplatelet-therapy-in-patients-undergoing-planned-endoscopic-procedures
#2
REVIEW
Orly Sneh Arbib, Yaron Niv, Dorit Blickstein
Antithrombotic and antiplatelet therapy is widely used for primary and secondary prevention of venous and arterial diseases. Hemorrhage is a frequent complication in patients taking these drugs, especially during and post invasive procedures. There are several oral anticoagulants and antiplatelet drugs that differ from each other in the mechanism of action and metabolism, the need for drug monitoring, antidote, and the peri-procedural management of the drug. The risk of bleeding in gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures can be high (≥ 1...
April 2017: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551893/-the-rationale-of-minimally-invasive-sinus-technique-mist
#3
REVIEW
Meir Warman, Doron Halperin
Chronic rhinosinusitis is one of the most common diseases in the world. Mucosal contact in narrow draining pathways of the sinuses (called transition spaces) may lead to chronic sinusitis by disruption of mucociliary clearance, stasis and blockage of mucous flow. Minimal invasive sinus technique (MIST) is a targeted procedure designed to address the transition spaces surrounding the natural sinus ostia. Surgical clearing disease in a transition space, allows the dependent sinus to recover function. Compared to other conventional endoscopic procedures, MIST can accomplish good and reproducible results in treating patients for chronic rhinosinusitis over long term follow-up...
February 2017: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551825/necroptosis-and-ferroptosis-are-alternative-cell-death-pathways-that-operate-in-acute-kidney-failure
#4
Tammo Müller, Christin Dewitz, Jessica Schmitz, Anna Sophia Schröder, Jan Hinrich Bräsen, Brent R Stockwell, James M Murphy, Ulrich Kunzendorf, Stefan Krautwald
Ferroptosis is a recently recognized caspase-independent form of regulated cell death that is characterized by the accumulation of lethal lipid ROS produced through iron-dependent lipid peroxidation. Considering that regulation of fatty acid metabolism is responsible for the membrane-resident pool of oxidizable fatty acids that undergo lipid peroxidation in ferroptotic processes, we examined the contribution of the key fatty acid metabolism enzyme, acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 4 (ACSL4), in regulating ferroptosis...
May 27, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551817/discovery-of-novel-inhibitors-for-leishmania-nucleoside-diphosphatase-kinase-ndk-based-on-its-structural-and-functional-characterization
#5
Arjun K Mishra, Nidhi Singh, Pragati Agnihotri, Shikha Mishra, Saurabh P Singh, Bala K Kolli, Kwang Poo Chang, Amogh A Sahasrabuddhe, M I Siddiqi, J Venkatesh Pratap
Nucleoside diphosphate kinases (NDKs) are ubiquitous enzymes that catalyze the transfer of the γ-phosphate moiety from an NTP donor to an NDP acceptor, crucial for maintaining the cellular level of nucleoside triphosphates (NTPs). The inability of trypanosomatids to synthesize purines de novo and their dependence on the salvage pathway makes NDK an attractive target to develop drugs for the diseases they cause. Here we report the discovery of novel inhibitors for Leishmania NDK based on the structural and functional characterization of purified recombinant NDK from Leishmania amazonensis...
May 27, 2017: Journal of Computer-aided Molecular Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551814/macrophage-derived-interleukin-1beta-promotes-human-breast-cancer-cell-migration-and-lymphatic-adhesion-in-vitro
#6
Sarah J Storr, Sabreena Safuan, Narmeen Ahmad, Mohammed El-Refaee, Andrew M Jackson, Stewart G Martin
Lymphovascular invasion (LVI), encompassing blood and lymphatic vessel invasion, is an important event in tumourigenesis. Macrophages within the tumour microenvironment are linked to the presence of LVI and angiogenesis. This study investigates the role of macrophage-derived, caspase-1-dependent interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) in an in vitro model of LVI. IL-1β significantly augmented the adhesion and transmigration of breast cancer cell lines MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 across endothelial cell barriers. MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 showed a higher percentage of adhesion to lymphatic endothelial cells than blood endothelial cells following endothelial cell IL-1β stimulation (P < 0...
May 27, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551794/functional-role-of-nox4-in-autophagy
#7
Maurizio Forte, Silvia Palmerio, Derek Yee, Giacomo Frati, Sebastiano Sciarretta
Accumulating lines of evidence suggest that reactive oxygen species (ROS) may act as intracellular signaling molecules under cellular stress conditions, activating several molecular pathways. Autophagy, the intracellular mechanism by which cells digest and recycle unfolded proteins and dysfunctional organelles, is emerging as a major target of ROS and NADPH oxidase (Nox) enzymes, the major generators of ROS. While autophagy represents an important self-defense mechanism in promoting cell survival, it may be maladaptive in some conditions...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551792/mechanistic-role-of-thioredoxin-2-in-heart-failure
#8
Chaofei Chen, Haixuan Chen, Huanjiao Jenny Zhou, Weidong Ji, Wang Min
Thioredoxin 2 (Trx2) is a pivotal mitochondrial protein that regulates redox signaling. The mitochondrial Trx2 is expressed ubiquitously, but it is found at the highest levels in metabolically active tissues like the heart. Global gene knockout of Trx2 results in embryonic lethality, likely due to the increased cellular oxidative stress. Moreover, mice with cardiac-specific Trx2 deletion develop spontaneous dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), correlating with increased apoptosis stress kinase-1 (ASK1) signaling and increased cardiomyocyte apoptosis...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551786/mitochondrial-bioenergetics-during-ischemia-and-reperfusion
#9
Alicia E Consolini, María I Ragone, Patricia Bonazzola, Germán A Colareda
During ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) mitochondria suffer a deficiency to supply the cardiomyocyte with chemical energy, but also contribute to the cytosolic ionic alterations especially of Ca(2+). Their free calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]m) mainly depends on mitochondrial entrance through the uniporter (UCam) and extrusion in exchange with Na(+) (mNCX) driven by the electrochemical gradient (ΔΨm). Cardiac energetic is frequently estimated by the oxygen consumption, which determines metabolism coupled to ATP production and to the maintaining of ΔΨm...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551737/recurrent-meningitis
#10
REVIEW
Jon Rosenberg, Benjamin T Galen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recurrent meningitis is a rare clinical scenario that can be self-limiting or life threatening depending on the underlying etiology. This review describes the causes, risk factors, treatment, and prognosis for recurrent meningitis. As a general overview of a broad topic, the aim of this review is to provide clinicians with a comprehensive differential diagnosis to aide in the evaluation and management of a patient with recurrent meningitis. RECENT FINDINGS: New developments related to understanding the pathophysiology of recurrent meningitis are as scarce as studies evaluating the treatment and prevention of this rare disorder...
July 2017: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551736/back-pain-with-leg-pain
#11
REVIEW
Simon Vulfsons, Negev Bar, Elon Eisenberg
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The clinical diagnostic dilemma of low back pain that is associated with lower limb pain is very common. In relation to back pain that radiates to the leg, the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) states: "Pain in the lower limb should be described specifically as either referred pain or radicular pain. In cases of doubt no implication should be made and the pain should be described as pain in the lower limb." RECENT FINDINGS: Bogduks' editorial in the journal PAIN (2009) helps us to differentiate and define the terms somatic referred pain, radicular pain, and radiculopathy...
July 2017: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551713/atomoxetine-effects-on-attentional-bias-to-drug-related-cues-in-cocaine-dependent-individuals
#12
Luca Passamonti, M Luijten, H Ziauddeen, I T S Coyle-Gilchrist, T Rittman, S A E Brain, R Regenthal, I H A Franken, B J Sahakian, E T Bullmore, T W Robbins, K D Ersche
RATIONALE: Biased attention towards drug-related cues and reduced inhibitory control over the regulation of drug-intake characterize drug addiction. The noradrenaline system has been critically implicated in both attentional and response inhibitory processes and is directly affected by drugs such as cocaine. OBJECTIVES: We examined the potentially beneficial effects of the noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine in improving cognitive control during two tasks that used cocaine- and non-cocaine-related stimuli...
May 27, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551699/the-role-of-somatostatin-in-glp-1-induced-inhibition-of-glucagon-secretion-in-mice
#13
Anne Ørgaard, Jens J Holst
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are currently used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Their main mechanism of action is enhancement of glucose-induced insulin secretion (from increased beta cell glucose sensitivity) and inhibition of glucagon secretion. The latter has been demonstrated to account for about half of their blood glucose-lowering activity. Whereas the effect of GLP-1 on insulin secretion is clearly dependent on ambient glucose concentrations and has been described in detail, the mechanism responsible for the inhibitory effect of GLP-1 on glucagon secretion is heavily debated...
May 27, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551641/diversified-%C3%AE-2-adrenergic-receptor-expression-and-action-in-melanoma-cells
#14
Marcelina Elżbieta Janik, Dominika Szlęzak, Magdalena Surman, Aniela Gołas, Anna Lityńska, Małgorzata Przybyło
BACKGROUND/AIM: Growing evidence links stress hormones with development and progression of various cancer types. The aim of this study was to assess susceptibility of cutaneous and uveal melanoma cells to adrenaline (AD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression of β-2-adrenergic receptor in primary cutaneous (FM-55-P), primary uveal (92-1, Mel202) and metastatic cutaneous (A375) melanoma cells was estimated at mRNA, protein and cell surface levels. The impact of AD on cell proliferation and migration was also studied...
June 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551637/17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin-induced-changes-in-18-f-fluorothymidine-uptake
#15
Hang Jung Lee, DO Hyung Kim, Seung Jin Lee
The proliferation status of tumor cells can be imaged using [(18)F]fluorothymidine ([(18)F]FLT), which is trapped by cell cycle-dependent thymidine kinase 1 (TK1). Targeting of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) disrupts multiple client proteins, leading to heterogeneous cell-cycle phenotypes. To investigate whether [(18)F]FLT uptake reflects the growth arrest caused by various mechanisms of HSP90 inhibition, we used HCT116 cells that were arrested at G0/G1 phase, and Hep3B cells at G2/M phase, by the HSP90 inhibitor 17-AAG...
June 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551635/enhanced-susceptibility-to-5-fluorouracil-in-human-colon-cancer-cells-by-silencing-of-grp78
#16
Seungpil Yun, Yong-Seok Han, Jun Hee Lee, Sangmin Kim, Sang Hun Lee
BACKGROUND: Glucose-regulated protein (GRP78), also known as immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein and as heat shock 70 kDa protein 5, is present in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. GRP78 is generally expressed at low concentrations, but is increased by physiological stress. GRP78 is thought to protect against tissue or organ damage under pathological conditions, such as neurotoxic stress, myocardial infarction, or arteriosclerosis. In addition, in tumors, GRP78 expression is much higher than in normal tissues...
June 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551591/evidence-that-anhedonia-is-a-symptom-of-opioid-dependence-associated-with-recent-use
#17
Joshua B B Garfield, Sue M Cotton, Nicholas B Allen, Ali Cheetham, Marni Kras, Murat Yücel, Dan I Lubman
BACKGROUND: Anhedonia is prevalent among substance-dependent populations. The hedonic allostasis model suggests this is due to the effects of addictive substances on neural substrates of reward processing. However, previous research may have been confounded by other factors likely to influence anhedonia, including tobacco use, psychopathology, and history of trauma and other stressors. Thus it remains unclear whether elevated anhedonia in substance-dependent populations is caused by substance use itself, or is due to other correlates of substance dependence...
May 17, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551590/higher-pretreatment-blood-pressure-is-associated-with-greater-alcohol-drinking-reduction-in-alcohol-dependent-individuals-treated-with-doxazosin
#18
Carolina L Haass-Koffler, Kimberly Goodyear, William H Zywiak, Molly Magill, Sarah E Eltinge, Paul M Wallace, Victoria M Long, Nitya Jayaram-Lindström, Robert M Swift, George A Kenna, Lorenzo Leggio
BACKGROUND: Preclinical and clinical research suggest that the α1 receptor antagonist prazosin reduces alcohol consumption. Furthermore, clinical studies indicate a role for prazosin in treating Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms and a recent trial suggested that pre-treatment blood pressure (BP) predicts therapeutic response for prazosin in PTSD patients. Whether pre-treatment BP may predict response to α1 blockers in alcohol-dependent (AD) patients is unknown. We previously reported a randomized controlled trial (RCT) where doxazosin, an α1 receptor antagonist with a more favorable pharmacokinetic profile than prazosin, reduced drinks per week (DPW) and heavy drinking days (HDD) in AD patients with a high family history density of alcoholism...
May 16, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551570/the-wettability-and-swelling-of-selected-mucoadhesive-polymers-in-simulated-saliva-and-vaginal-fluids
#19
M Rojewska, M Olejniczak-Rabinek, A Bartkowiak, A Snela, K Prochaska, J Lulek
The surface properties play a particularly important role in the mucoadhesive drug delivery systems. In these formulations, the adsorption of polymer matrix to mucous membrane is limited by the wetting and swelling process of the polymer structure. Hence, the performance of mucoadhesive drug delivery systems made of polymeric materials depends on multiple factors, such as contact angle, surface free energy and water absorption rate. The aim of our study was to analyze the effect of model saliva and vaginal fluids on the wetting properties of selected mucoadhesive (Carbopol 974P NF, Noveon AA-1, HEC) and film-forming (Kollidon VA 64) polymers as well as their blends at the weight ratio 1:1 and 1:1:1, prepared in the form of discs...
May 15, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551569/investigation-of-interfacial-properties-of-pure-and-mixed-poloxamers-for-surfactant-mediated-shear-protection-of-mammalian-cells
#20
David Chang, Ryan Fox, Ethan Hicks, Rachel Ferguson, Kevin Chang, Douglas Osborne, Weiwei Hu, Orlin D Velev
The Poloxamer family of surfactants are commonly used in the biopharmaceutical industry as cell culture media additives to protect cells from the turbulent environment of sparged bioreactors. Despite the widespread use of poloxamers in cell culture, their performance as cell protectants varies depending on their physical structure, molecular weight, and batch-to-batch composition. In this study, the interfacial properties of Poloxamer 188 (P188), Poloxamer 407 (P407), and a mixture of P188 and P407 were characterized to investigate the mechanism of surfactant-mediated shear protection of mammalian cells...
May 16, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
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