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Optic neuropathy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731838/neuroprotection-in-glaucoma-animal-models-and-clinical-trials
#1
Mohammadali Almasieh, Leonard A Levin
Glaucoma is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that frequently results in irreversible blindness. Glaucoma causes death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and their axons in the optic nerve, resulting in visual field deficits and eventual loss of visual acuity. Glaucoma is a complex optic neuropathy, and a successful strategy for its treatment requires not only better management of known risk factors such as elevated intraocular pressure and the development of improved tools for detecting RGC injury but also treatments that address this injury (i...
July 21, 2017: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729947/associations-between-optic-nerve-head-related-anatomical-parameters-and-refractive-error-over-the-full-range-of-glaucoma-severity
#2
Neda Baniasadi, Mengyu Wang, Hui Wang, Mufeed Mahd, Tobias Elze
PURPOSE: To evaluate the associations between optic disc (OD)-related anatomical parameters (interartery angle [IAA] between superior and inferior temporal retinal arteries, OD tilt [TL], rotation [ROT], and torsion [TO], OD surface curvature [CUR], and central retinal vessel trunk entry point location [CRVTL] on OD) and the spherical equivalent of refractive error (SE), and to assess the impact of glaucoma severity on these relationships. METHODS: Cirrus optical coherence tomography (OCT) fundus images and 24-2 visual fields of 438 patients were included...
July 2017: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729193/the-pattern-of-retinal-ganglion-cell-dysfunction-in-leber-hereditary-optic-neuropathy
#3
A Majander, A G Robson, C João, G E Holder, P F Chinnery, A T Moore, M Votruba, A Stockman, P Yu-Wai-Man
Leber inherited optic neuropathy (LHON) is characterized by subacute bilateral loss of central vision due to dysfunction and loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Comprehensive visual electrophysiological investigations (including pattern reversal visual evoked potentials, pattern electroretinography and the photopic negative response) performed on 13 patients with acute and chronic LHON indicate early impairment of RGC cell body function and severe axonal dysfunction. Temporal, spatial and chromatic psychophysical tests performed on 7 patients with acute LHON and 4 patients with chronic LHON suggest severe involvement or loss of the midget, parasol and bistratified RGCs associated with all three principal visual pathways...
July 17, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726788/neuroprotection-by-eif2%C3%AE-chop-inhibition-and-xbp-1-activation-in-eae-optic-neuritiss
#4
Haoliang Huang, Linqing Miao, Feisi Liang, Xiaodong Liu, Lin Xu, Xiuyin Teng, Qizhao Wang, William H Ridder, Kenneth S Shindler, Yang Sun, Yang Hu
No therapies exist to prevent neuronal deficits in multiple sclerosis (MS), because the molecular mechanism responsible for the progressive neurodegeneration is unknown. We previously showed that axon injury-induced neuronal endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays an important role in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death and optic nerve degeneration in traumatic and glaucomatous optic neuropathies. Optic neuritis, one of the most common clinical manifestations of MS, is readily modeled by experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mouse...
July 20, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725291/relationship-between-normal-tension-glaucoma-and-flammer-syndrome
#5
Katarzyna Konieczka, Hyuk Jin Choi, Simone Koch, Franz Fankhauser, Andreas Schoetzau, Dong Myung Kim
BACKGROUND: Besides intraocular pressure, vascular factors play a role in the pathogenesis of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. One of these potential vascular factors is Flammer syndrome. The purpose of the present study was to determine in a Korean population whether signs and symptoms of Flammer syndrome occur more often in normal tension glaucoma patients than in control subjects. METHODS: Two hundred forty-six normal tension glaucoma patients and 1116 control subjects responded to a multiple-choice questionnaire asking about 15 signs and symptoms of Flammer syndrome...
June 2017: EPMA Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725290/the-discovery-of-the-flammer-syndrome-a-historical-and-personal-perspective
#6
REVIEW
Josef Flammer, Katarzyna Konieczka
This review describes the clinical and basic research that led to the description of Flammer syndrome. It is narrated from a personal perspective. This research was initiated by the observation of an increased long-term fluctuation of visual fields in a subgroup of glaucoma patients. As these patients had strikingly cold hands, peripheral blood flow was tested with a capillary microscopy, and vasospastic syndrome (VS) was diagnosed. Further studies on these patients revealed frequently weakened autoregulation of ocular blood flow and increased flow resistivity in retroocular vessels...
June 2017: EPMA Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724826/bilateral-normal-tension-glaucoma-can-this-be-nutritional
#7
Sirisha Senthil, Kiranmaye Turaga
Normal tension glaucoma (NTG) also known as low tension glaucoma, presents with optic nerve head and visual field damage in the absence of high intraocular pressure (<21 mmHg). There are several patients of NTG seen in our clinics who have repeatable visual field defects, which may or may not correlate with the disc appearance, but are labeled as glaucoma. Ruling out ischemic, nutritional, and other causes of one-time damage are important before diagnosing an NTG. We report 3 such cases that were misdiagnosed and referred as NTG...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720802/a-novel-adoa-associated-opa1-mutation-alters-the-mitochondrial-function-membrane-potential-ros-production-and-apoptosis
#8
Juanjuan Zhang, Xiaoling Liu, Xiaoyang Liang, Yuanyuan Lu, Ling Zhu, Runing Fu, Yanchun Ji, Wenlu Fan, Jie Chen, Bing Lin, Yimin Yuan, Pingping Jiang, Xiangtian Zhou, Min-Xin Guan
Autosomal dominant optic atrophy (ADOA) is a dominantly inherited optic neuropathy, affecting the specific loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). The majority of affected cases of ADOA are associated with mutations in OPA1 gene. Our previous investigation identified the c.1198C > G (p.P400A) mutation in the OPA1 in a large Han Chinese family with ADOA. In this report, we performed a functional characterization using lymphoblostoid cell lines derived from affected members of this family and control subjects...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720412/vascular-compression-of-the-anterior-optic-pathway-a-rare-occurrence
#9
Satoshi Tsutsumi, Hideo Ono, Yukimasa Yasumoto
BACKGROUND: Vascular compression of the anterior optic pathway has been documented as an infrequent cause of visual impairments. Here we characterize such vascular compression using magnetic resonance imaging. METHODS: A total of 183 patients without pathologies affecting the optic pathways underwent T2-weighted or constructive interference steady-state sequence magnetic resonance imaging. Imaging data from coronal sections were analyzed. RESULTS: A vascular compression of the anterior optic pathway was identified in 20 patients (11%)...
July 15, 2017: Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal, Journal L'Association Canadienne des Radiologistes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716668/incomplete-penetrance-in-mitochondrial-optic-neuropathies
#10
Leonardo Caporali, Alessandra Maresca, Mariantonietta Capristo, Valentina Del Dotto, Francesca Tagliavini, Maria Lucia Valentino, Chiara La Morgia, Valerio Carelli
Incomplete penetrance characterizes the two most frequent inherited optic neuropathies, Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON) and dominant optic atrophy (DOA), due to genetic errors in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and the nuclear DNA (nDNA), respectively. For LHON, compelling evidence has accumulated on the complex interplay of mtDNA haplogroups and environmental interacting factors, whereas the nDNA remains essentially non informative. However, a compensatory mechanism of activated mitochondrial biogenesis and increased mtDNA copy number, possibly driven by a permissive nDNA background, is documented in LHON; when successful it maintains unaffected the mutation carriers, but in some individuals it might be hampered by tobacco smoking or other environmental factors, resulting in disease onset...
July 14, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716667/pupillometric-evaluation-of-the-melanopsin-containing-retinal-ganglion-cells-in-mitochondrial-and-non-mitochondrial-optic-neuropathies
#11
Shakoor Ba-Ali, Henrik Lund-Andersen
In recent years, chromatic pupillometry is used in humans to evaluate the activity of melanopsin expressing intrinsic photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs). Blue light is used to stimulate the ipRGCs and red light activates the rod/cone photoreceptors. The late re-dilation phase of pupillary light reflex is primarily driven by the ipRGCs. Optic neuropathies i.e. Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON), autosomal dominant optic atrophy (ADOA), nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION), glaucoma, optic neuritis and idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) are among the diseases, which have been subject to pupillometric studies...
July 14, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709761/central-nervous-system-involvement-in-eosinophilic-granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis-churg-strauss-report-of-26-patients-and-review-of-the-literature
#12
REVIEW
Raphaël André, Vincent Cottin, Jean-Luc Saraux, Gilles Blaison, Boris Bienvenu, Pascal Cathebras, Romain Dhote, Aurélie Foucher, Helder Gil, Joëlle Lapoirie, David Launay, Valentine Loustau, François Maurier, Edouard Pertuiset, Thierry Zénone, Jörg Seebach, Nathalie Costedoat-Chalumeau, Xavier Puéchal, Luc Mouthon, Loïc Guillevin, Benjamin Terrier
BACKGROUND: Although peripheral nervous system involvement is common in eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), central nervous system (CNS) manifestations are poorly described. This study aimed to describe CNS involvement in EGPA. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective, observational, multicenter study included patients with EGPA and CNS involvement affecting cranial nerves, brain and/or spinal cord. We also undertook a systematic literature review...
July 11, 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704158/factors-associated-with-occurrence-of-radiation-induced-optic-neuropathy-at-safe-radiation-dosage
#13
Pavle Doroslovački, Madhura A Tamhankar, Grant T Liu, Kenneth S Shindler, Gui-Shuang Ying, Michelle Alonso-Basanta
BACKGROUND: Radiation-induced optic neuropathy (RION) is a rare, and often visually devastating, complication of radiation therapy (RT) near the anterior visual pathways. METHODS: A retrospective case series of patients who developed RION at a tertiary medical center, followed by a case-control study comparing RION cases with matched controls who received RT. RESULTS: Thirteen patients (18 eyes) with RION were identified. Radiation modalities included external beam photon radiation, whole brain radiation, stereotactic radiosurgery, proton beam, and unknown...
July 13, 2017: Seminars in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700902/a-novel-algorithm-to-detect-glaucoma-risk-using-texton-and-local-configuration-pattern-features-extracted-from-fundus-images
#14
U Rajendra Acharya, Shreya Bhat, Joel E W Koh, Sulatha V Bhandary, Hojjat Adeli
Glaucoma is an optic neuropathy defined by characteristic damage to the optic nerve and accompanying visual field deficits. Early diagnosis and treatment are critical to prevent irreversible vision loss and ultimate blindness. Current techniques for computer-aided analysis of the optic nerve and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) are expensive and require keen interpretation by trained specialists. Hence, an automated system is highly desirable for a cost-effective and accurate screening for the diagnosis of glaucoma...
June 29, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700390/bartonella-henselae-neuroretinitis-associated-with-central-retinal-vein-occlusion-choroidal-ischemia-and-ischemic-optic-neuropathy
#15
Quraish Ghadiali, Larissa K Ghadiali, Lawrence A Yannuzzi
PURPOSE: We describe a healthy 37-year-old man with Bartonella henselae (B. henselae) neuroretinitis with concurrent central retinal vein occlusion and ischemic optic neuropathy resulting in optic atrophy and choroidal ischemia. METHODS: Case report. RESULTS: A 37-year-old man presented with unilateral decreased vision and a fundus examination consistent with neuroretinitis. Further imaging review supported a concurrent diagnosis of central retinal vein occlusion...
July 11, 2017: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694135/characteristics-of-pediatric-multiple-sclerosis-the-turkish-pediatric-multiple-sclerosis-database
#16
Ünsal Yılmaz, Banu Anlar, Kıvılcım Gücüyener
OBJECTIVE: To document the clinical and paraclinical features of pediatric multiple sclerosis (MS) in Turkey. METHODS: Data of MS patients with onset before age 18 years (n = 193) were collected from 27 pediatric neurology centers throughout Turkey. Earlier-onset (<12 years) and later-onset (≥12 years) groups were compared. RESULTS: There were 123 (63.7%) girls and 70 (36.3%) boys aged 4-17 years, median 14 years at disease onset. Family history of MS was 6...
June 29, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688625/bilateral-retrobulbar-optic-neuropathy-as-the-only-sign-of-zoledronic-acid-toxicity
#17
Félix Manco Lavado, Marta Para Prieto, María Rosalba Ramoa Osorio, María Isabel López Gálvez, Lucía Manzanas Leal
INTRODUCTION: Bisphosphonates may rarely cause ocular adverse effects and retrobulbar optic neuropathy (RON) secondary to zoledronic acid is very rare. CASE REPORT: A 67-year-old man was referred because of progressive and painless decrease vision in the left eye. He had been treated with 7 cycles of zoledronic acid infusions because of metastatic prostate cancer. On examination, VA was 20/20 in the right eye (OD) and 20/50 in the left eye (OS). The optic nerve was unremarkable OU...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687846/comparison-of-the-retinal-microvascular-density-between-open-angle-glaucoma-and-nonarteritic-anterior-ischemic-optic-neuropathy
#18
Chun-Hsiu Liu, Wei-Chi Wu, Ming-Hui Sun, Ling-Yuh Kao, Yung-Sung Lee, Henry Shen-Lih Chen
Purpose: To compare optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) retinal vasculature measurements between nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) and open angle glaucoma (OAG) with altitudinal hemifield visual field defects. Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study included 10 NAION eyes and 16 OAG eyes, both demonstrating hemifield visual field defects, and 27 normal eyes serving as controls. The peripapillary and macular OCT-A scans were acquired...
July 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681279/risk-factors-affecting-the-visual-outcome-in-patients-with-indirect-traumatic-optic-neuropathy
#19
Nazife Sefi-Yurdakul, Feray Koç
PURPOSE: To evaluate the etiology and possible prognostic factors affecting the visual outcome in patients with indirect traumatic optic neuropathy (TON). METHODS: The records of patients with indirect TON were reviewed and compared the results of treatment with high doses of corticosteroids (Group 1) and simple observation without treatment (Group 2). RESULTS: The mean age at the time of injury was 34.7 ± 11.4 (18-58) years in Group 1 and 37...
July 5, 2017: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680531/mitochondrial-uncoupler-prodrug-of-2-4-dinitrophenol-mp201-prevents-neuronal-damage-and-preserves-vision-in-experimental-optic-neuritis
#20
Reas S Khan, Kimberly Dine, John G Geisler, Kenneth S Shindler
The ability of novel mitochondrial uncoupler prodrug of 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), MP201, to prevent neuronal damage and preserve visual function in an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of optic neuritis was evaluated. Optic nerve inflammation, demyelination, and axonal loss are prominent features of optic neuritis, an inflammatory optic neuropathy often associated with the central nervous system demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis. Currently, optic neuritis is frequently treated with high-dose corticosteroids, but treatment fails to prevent permanent neuronal damage and associated vision changes that occur as optic neuritis resolves, thus suggesting that additional therapies are required...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
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