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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154969/adults-with-cystic-fibrosis-have-deficits-in-bone-structure-and-strength-at-the-distal-tibia-despite-similar-size-and-measuring-standard-and-relative-sites
#1
Kyle K Nishiyama, Sanchita Agarwal, Anna Kepley, Fernando Rosete, Yizhong Hu, X Edward Guo, Claire L Keating, Emily A DiMango, Elizabeth Shane
Individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF) have lower bone mineral density (BMD) by DXA and are at higher risk of fracture than healthy controls. However, the 2-dimensional measurement of areal BMD (aBMD) provided by DXA is influenced by bone size and the true extent of the bone deficit is unclear. Our objective was to use high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) and individual trabecula segmentation (ITS) analysis to compare volumetric BMD (vBMD), microarchitecture and estimated strength at the distal radius and tibia in 26 young adults with CF and 26 controls matched for age, gender, and race...
November 14, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143852/exposure-to-sublethal-ammonia-concentrations-alters-the-duration-and-intensity-of-agonistic-interactions-in-the-crayfish-orconectes-rusticus
#2
David D Edwards, Katie L Klotz, Paul A Moore
Crayfish extract information from chemical stimuli during social interactions. Commercial fertilizers increase background ammonia concentrations which may interfere with chemical communication. Background pollution can disrupt perception of chemical stimuli in three ways: masking, sensory impairment, physiological impairment or in combination. We investigated whether exposure to ammonia alters agonistic behavior. Crayfish pairs exposed to 0.9 mg/L ammonia fought for a longer duration, while crayfish exposed to 9...
November 16, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134599/phage-genome-annotation-using-the-rast-pipeline
#3
Katelyn McNair, Ramy Karam Aziz, Gordon D Pusch, Ross Overbeek, Bas E Dutilh, Robert Edwards
Phages are complex biomolecular machineries that have to survive in a bacterial world. Phage genomes show many adaptations to their lifestyle such as shorter genes, reduced capacity for redundant DNA sequences, and the inclusion of tRNAs in their genomes. In addition, phages are not free-living, they require a host for replication and survival. These unique adaptations provide challenges for the bioinformatics analysis of phage genomes. In particular, ORF calling, genome annotation, noncoding RNA (ncRNA) identification, and the identification of transposons and insertions are all complicated in phage genome analysis...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123205/1000-year-quasi-periodicity-of-weak-monsoon-events-in-temperate-northeast-asia-since-the-mid-holocene
#4
Kyoung-Nam Jo, Sangheon Yi, Jin-Yong Lee, Kyung Sik Woo, Hai Cheng, Lawrence R Edwards, Sang-Tae Kim
The Holocene variability in the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) based on speleothem δ(18)O records has inconsistencies in timing, duration, and expression of millennial-scale events among nearby regions, and even within the same cave. Here, we present another stalagmite δ(18)O record with multi-decadal time resolution from the temperate Korean Peninsula (KP) for the last 5500 years in order to compare with Holocene millennial-scale EASM events from Southeast Asia. Based on our new stalagmite δ(18)O record, millennial-scale events since the mid-Holocene were successfully identified in the KP, representing a noticeable cyclic pattern with a periodicity of around 1000 years...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116209/preoperative-n-terminal-pro-b-type-natriuretic-peptide-concertation-and-prognosis-of-brain-tumor-patients-a-5-year-follow-up-study
#5
Adomas Bunevicius, Vytenis Deltuva, Edward R Laws, Giorgio Iervasi, Arimantas Tamsauskas, Robertas Bunevicius
Increased N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) concentration predicts poor prognosis of non-CNS cancer patients. We evaluated the association of NT-proBNP concentration with disease severity, discharge outcomes and prognosis of patients undergoing craniotomy for brain tumor. From January, 2010 until September, 2011 two-hundred and forty-five patients (age 55.05 ± 14.62 years) admitted for brain tumor surgery were evaluated for NT-proBNP serum concentration. Outcome at hospital discharge was evaluated with the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS)...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114606/estimating-prognosis-at-the-time-of-repeat-whole-brain-radiation-therapy-for-multiple-brain-metastases-the-reirradiation-score
#6
Natalie Logie, Rachel B Jimenez, Natalie Pulenzas, Kelly Linden, Denise Ciafone, Sunita Ghosh, Yuhui Xu, Shilo Lefresne, Erin Wong, Christina H Son, Helen A Shih, William W Wong, Scott Tyldesley, Kristopher Dennis, Edward Chow, Alysa M Fairchild
Purpose: Whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) remains the standard of care for patients with multiple brain metastases, but more than half of treated patients will develop intracranial progression. Because there is no clear consensus on the optimal therapeutic approach, a prognostic index would be helpful to guide treatment options at progression. We explored whether the recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) score prior to repeat WBRT is predictive of survival. Methods and materials: This multi-institutional pooled analysis included patients with 2 or more brain metastases from any solid primary tumor that was treated with 2 courses of WBRT...
July 2017: Advances in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095482/antipsychotics-and-the-risk-of-aspiration-pneumonia-in-individuals-hospitalized-for-nonpsychiatric-conditions-a-cohort-study
#7
Shoshana J Herzig, Mary T LaSalvia, Elliot Naidus, Michael B Rothberg, Wenxiao Zhou, Jerry H Gurwitz, Edward R Marcantonio
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Off-label use of antipsychotics is common in hospitals, most often for delirium management. Antipsychotics have been associated with aspiration pneumonia in community and nursing home settings, but the association in hospitalized individuals is unexplored. We aimed to investigate the association between antipsychotic exposure and aspiration pneumonia during hospitalization. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Large academic medical center...
November 2, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090363/calcium-axonemal-microtubuli-interactions-underlie-mechanism-s-of-primary-cilia-morphological-changes
#8
Vlado A Buljan, Manuel B Graeber, R M Damian Holsinger, Daniel Brown, Brett D Hambly, Edward J Delikatny, Vladimira R Vuletic, Xavier N Krebs, Ilijan B Tomas, John J Bohorquez-Florez, Guo Jun Liu, Richard B Banati
We have used cell culture of astrocytes aligned within microchannels to investigate calcium effects on primary cilia morphology. In the absence of calcium and in the presence of flow of media (10 μL.s(-1)) the majority (90%) of primary cilia showed reversible bending with an average curvature of 2.1 ± 0.9 × 10(-4) nm(-1). When 1.0 mM calcium was present, 90% of cilia underwent bending. Forty percent of these cilia demonstrated strong irreversible bending, resulting in a final average curvature of 3...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Biological Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080082/impact-of-interhospital-transfer-on-outcomes-in-non-emergency-colorectal-surgery
#9
Stephen P Sharp, Daniel J Schuster, Ashar Ata, Brian T Valerian, Jonathan J Canete, A David Chismark, Edward C Lee
BACKGROUND: A paucity of data exists on the impact of transfer status on outcomes for patients undergoing non-emergency (urgent) colorectal surgery. This study characterized transferred patients undergoing urgent colorectal surgery and determined which patient comorbidities significantly contributed to poor outcomes. METHODS: The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database from 2012 to 2013 was used. Urgent direct admissions undergoing colon, rectum, or small bowel operations were compared to urgent transfers using bivariate and multivariable analysis models...
October 27, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036199/the-acute-physiological-stress-response-to-driving-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
Michael Antoun, Kate M Edwards, Joanna Sweeting, Ding Ding
BACKGROUND: The experience of driving has been suggested to be detrimental to health. One hypothesis is that each exposure elicits an acute stress response, and that repeated exposures may act as a chronic stressor. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review is to evaluate and synthesise the evidence on whether driving elicits an acute physiological stress response. METHODS: Electronic databases, including CINAHL, PsycINFO and Medline, were searched for original articles written in English from database inception until March 2016...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031706/early-outcomes-with-rapid-deployment-vs-stented-biological-valves-a-propensity-match-analysis
#11
Anthony Nguyen, Louis-Mathieu Stevens, Denis Bouchard, Philippe Demers, Louis P Perrault, Michel Carrier
Rapid-deployment valves could potentially reduce cross-clamping time and cardiopulmonary bypass time in complex combined procedures and facilitate minimally invasive surgery. This propensity-matched study compared clinical and echographic outcomes between patients undergoing rapid-deployment aortic valve replacement (RDAVR) compared with stented biological aortic valve replacement (SAVR), with or without concomitant procedures. Between 2012 and 2015, 61 consecutive patients (age 70 ± 7 years, European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation [EuroSCORE] II 2...
September 8, 2017: Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030013/outcomes-of-patients-at-estimated-low-surgical-risk-undergoing-transcatheter-aortic-valve-implantation-with-balloon-expandable-prostheses
#12
Leire Unzué, Eulogio García, Rodrigo Teijeiro, Belén Díaz Antón, Miguel Rodríguez Del Río, Jorge Solís, Belen Rubio Alonso, Juan Medina, Francisco José Rodríguez Rodrigo, Francisco Javier Parra
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Transcatheter aortic-valve implantation (TAVI) is an accepted treatment for patients with severe aortic stenosis and high surgical risk. However, there is lack in data about TAVI in low-risk patients that are already being treated with this therapy in some clinical contexts. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of patients treated with transfemoral TAVI using Edwards Sapien prosthesis in one center was performed, classifying the patients into three groups according to the surgical risk (high/intermediate/low risk for STS score>8/4-8/<4)...
August 30, 2017: Cardiovascular Revascularization Medicine: Including Molecular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024382/comparison-of-outcomes-with-surgical-cut-down-versus-percutaneous-transfemoral-transcatheter-aortic-valve-replacement-tavr-transfemoral-access-comparisons-between-surgical-cut-down-and-percutaneous-approach
#13
Brandon C Drafts, Charles H Choi, Kunal Sangal, Michael W Cammarata, Robert J Applegate, Sanjay K Gandhi, Edward H Kincaid, Neal Kon, David X Zhao
OBJECTIVES: The objective is to compare the short-term (30 days) and late (12 months) vascular adverse events in patients undergoing transfemoral (TF)-transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) by surgical cut-down (SC) vs. percutaneous (PC) approaches. BACKGROUND: Programs continue to utilize both approaches in TF-TAVR. There are limited data comparing outcomes by SC vs. PC approaches and long-term effects of endovascular intervention facilitated hemostasis on late vascular adverse events...
October 10, 2017: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017461/feasibility-and-safety-of-early-discharge-after-transfemoral-transcatheter-aortic-valve-implantation-rationale-and-design-of-the-fast-tavi-registry
#14
Marco Barbanti, Jan Baan, Mark S Spence, Fortunato Iacovelli, Gian Luca Martinelli, Francesco Saia, Alessandro Santo Bortone, Frank van der Kley, Douglas F Muir, Cameron G Densem, Marije Vis, Martijn S van Mourik, Lenka Seilerova, Claudia M Lüske, Peter Bramlage, Corrado Tamburino
BACKGROUND: There is an increasing trend towards shorter hospital stays after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), in particular for patients undergoing the procedure via transfemoral (TF) access. Preliminary data suggest that there exists a population of patients that can be discharged safely very early after TF-TAVI. However, current evidence is limited to few retrospective studies, encompassing relatively small sample sizes. METHODS: The Feasibility And Safety of early discharge after Transfemoral TAVI (FAST-TAVI) registry is a prospective observational registry that will be conducted at 10 sites across Italy, the Netherlands and the UK...
October 10, 2017: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950593/x-ray-amplification-by-stimulated-brillouin-scattering
#15
Matthew R Edwards, Julia M Mikhailova, Nathaniel J Fisch
Plasma-based parametric amplification using stimulated Brillouin scattering offers a route to coherent x-ray pulses orders of magnitude more intense than those of the brightest available sources. Brillouin amplification permits amplification of shorter wavelengths with lower pump intensities than Raman amplification, which Landau and collisional damping limit in the x-ray regime. Analytic predictions, numerical solutions of the three-wave-coupling equations, and particle-in-cell simulations suggest that Brillouin amplification in solid-density plasmas will allow compression of current x-ray free-electron laser pulses to subfemtosecond durations and unprecedented intensities...
August 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930472/light-absorption-of-secondary-organic-aerosol-composition-and-contribution-of-nitroaromatic-compounds
#16
Mingjie Xie, Xi Chen, Michael D Hays, Michael Lewandowski, John Offenberg, Tadeusz E Kleindienst, Amara L Holder
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) can affect the atmospheric radiation balance through absorbing light at shorter visible and UV wavelengths. However, the composition and optical properties of light-absorbing SOA is poorly understood. In this work, SOA filter samples were collected during individual chamber experiments conducted with three biogenic and eight aromatic volatile organic compound (VOC) precursors in the presence of NOX and H2O2. Compared with the SOA generated using the aromatic precursors, biogenic SOA generally exhibits negligible light absorption above 350 nm; the aromatic SOA generated in the presence of NOX shows stronger light absorption than that generated with H2O2...
October 17, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883495/spatially-resolved-optical-and-structural-properties-of-semi-polar-formula-see-text-al-x-ga1-x-n-with-x-up-to-0-56
#17
Jochen Bruckbauer, Zhi Li, G Naresh-Kumar, Monika Warzecha, Paul R Edwards, Ling Jiu, Yipin Gong, Jie Bai, Tao Wang, Carol Trager-Cowan, Robert W Martin
Pushing the emission wavelength of efficient ultraviolet (UV) emitters further into the deep-UV requires material with high crystal quality, while also reducing the detrimental effects of built-in electric fields. Crack-free semi-polar [Formula: see text] Al x Ga1-x N epilayers with AlN contents up to x = 0.56 and high crystal quality were achieved using an overgrowth method employing GaN microrods on m-sapphire. Two dominant emission peaks were identified using cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863804/investigation-of-a-gene-signature-to-predict-response-to-immunomodulatory-derivatives-for-patients-with-multiple-myeloma-an-exploratory-retrospective-study-using-microarray-datasets-from-prospective-clinical-trials
#18
Manisha Bhutani, Qing Zhang, Reed Friend, Peter M Voorhees, Lawrence J Druhan, Bart Barlogie, Pieter Sonneveld, Gareth J Morgan, James T Symanowski, Belinda R Avalos, Edward A Copelan, Saad Z Usmani
BACKGROUND: Immunomodulatory derivatives (IMiDs), along with proteasome inhibitors, are key components of treatment regimens for multiple myeloma. Nonetheless, outcomes vary among treated individuals. Drug-specific gene-expression profile (GEP) signatures that aid the prediction of favourable and unfavourable outcomes can provide patients with the most effective therapy for their individual disease. We aimed to develop and validate a gene expression signature to suggest which patients would benefit most from IMiD-based therapies...
September 2017: Lancet Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836195/transplanting-human-skin-grafts-onto-nude-mice-to-model-skin-scars
#19
Jie Ding, Edward E Tredget
Hypertrophic scar (HTS) is a common outcome of deep dermal wound healing mainly followed mechanical, chemical, and thermal injuries in the skin. Because of the lack of the most effective prevention and treatment, it is particularly important to establish an ideal dermal animal model for improving the understanding of the pathogenesis and exploring therapeutic approaches of HTS. Compared to other dermal fibrotic animal models in rabbits, red Duroc pigs, guinea pigs, rats, and mice, the approach that uses normal human split-thickness skin grafted onto nude or other immunodeficient mice which develop scars that resemble human HTS offers the advantages of lower cost, easier manipulation, and shorter research period...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833938/efficacy-and-safety-results-of-patients-with-hcv-genotype-2-or-3-infection-treated-with-ombitasvir-paritaprevir-ritonavir-and-sofosbuvir-with-or-without-ribavirin-quartz-ii-iii
#20
Stephen D Shafran, David Shaw, Mariem Charafeddine, Kosh Agarwal, Graham R Foster, Manal Abunimeh, Tami Pilot-Matias, Rajvineeth K Pothacamury, Bo Fu, Eric Cohen, Daniel E Cohen, Edward Gane
The efficacy and safety of an investigational combination of ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir (OBV/PTV/r) plus sofosbuvir (SOF) ± ribavirin (RBV) in patients with HCV genotype 2 or 3 infection with or without cirrhosis was evaluated. Patients with HCV genotype 3 infection without cirrhosis were randomized to receive OBV/PTV/r + SOF ± RBV for 12 weeks; OBV/PTV/r + SOF + RBV was administered to genotype 3-infected patients with cirrhosis for 12 weeks and to genotype 2-infected patients without cirrhosis for either 6 or 8 weeks...
August 20, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
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