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Douglas Baird, Andrew Fairbairn, Emma Jenkins, Louise Martin, Caroline Middleton, Jessica Pearson, Eleni Asouti, Yvonne Edwards, Ceren Kabukcu, Gökhan Mustafaoğlu, Nerissa Russell, Ofer Bar-Yosef, Geraldine Jacobsen, Xiaohong Wu, Ambroise Baker, Sarah Elliott
This paper explores the explanations for, and consequences of, the early appearance of food production outside the Fertile Crescent of Southwest Asia, where it originated in the 10th/9th millennia cal BC. We present evidence that cultivation appeared in Central Anatolia through adoption by indigenous foragers in the mid ninth millennium cal BC, but also demonstrate that uptake was not uniform, and that some communities chose to actively disregard cultivation. Adoption of cultivation was accompanied by experimentation with sheep/goat herding in a system of low-level food production that was integrated into foraging practices rather than used to replace them...
March 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Adam Martin, Rupert Payne, Edward Cf Wilson
BACKGROUND: The National Health Service (NHS) in England spends over £9 billion on prescription medicines dispensed in primary care, of which over two-thirds is accounted for by repeat prescriptions. Recently, GPs in England have been urged to limit the duration of repeat prescriptions, where clinically appropriate, to 28 days to reduce wastage and hence contain costs. However, shorter prescriptions will increase transaction costs and thus may not be cost saving. Furthermore, there is evidence to suggest that shorter prescriptions are associated with lower adherence, which would be expected to lead to lower clinical benefit...
March 12, 2018: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
Laercio R Porto-Neto, Derek M Bickhart, Antonio J Landaeta-Hernandez, Yuri T Utsunomiya, Melvin Pagan, Esbal Jimenez, Peter J Hansen, Serdal Dikmen, Steven G Schroeder, Eui-Soo Kim, Jiajie Sun, Edward Crespo, Norman Amati, John B Cole, Daniel J Null, Jose F Garcia, Antonio Reverter, William Barendse, Tad S Sonstegard
Evolutionary adaptations are occasionally convergent solutions to the same problem. A mutation contributing to a heat tolerance adaptation in Senepol cattle, a New World breed of mostly European descent, results in the distinct phenotype known as slick, where an animal has shorter hair and lower follicle density across its coat than wild type animals. The causal variant, located in the 11th exon of prolactin receptor , produces a frameshift that results in a truncated protein. However, this mutation does not explain all cases of slick coats found in criollo breeds...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Alice L Williams, Marlene R Moster, Kamran Rahmatnejad, Arthur F Resende, Teresa Horan, Michael Reynolds, Edward Yung, Benjamin Abramowitz, Sarah Kuchar, Michael Waisbourd
PURPOSE: To investigate the clinical efficacy and safety profile of micropulse transscleral cyclophocoagulation (MP-CPC, IRIDEX Laser Systems, CA) in patients with refractory glaucoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective case series of 79 consecutive patients who underwent MP-CPC at the Wills Eye Hospital from 3/23/2014 to 6/23/2016 and who had at least 3 months of follow-up. Treatment success was defined as an IOP of 6-21▒mm Hg or a reduction of IOP by 20%. Failure was defined as an inability to meet the criteria for success, need for re-treatment >3 times, or need for incisional glaucoma surgery...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
Aud H Halbritter, Simone Fior, Irene Keller, Regula Billeter, Peter Edwards, Rolf Holderegger, Sophie Karrenberg, Andrea R Pluess, Alex Widmer, Jake M Alexander
Studies of genetic adaptation in plant populations along elevation gradients in mountains have a long history, but there has until now been neither a synthesis of how frequently plant populations exhibit adaptation to elevation nor an evaluation of how consistent underlying trait differences across species are. We reviewed studies of adaptation along elevation gradients (i) from a meta-analysis of phenotypic differentiation of three traits (height, biomass and phenology) from plants growing in 70 common garden experiments; (ii) by testing elevation adaptation using three fitness proxies (survival, reproductive output and biomass) from 14 reciprocal transplant experiments; (iii) by qualitatively assessing information at the molecular level, from ten genome-wide surveys and candidate gene approaches...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Edward J Ciaccio, Nicholas S Peters, Hasan Garan
BACKGROUND: The mechanisms involved in onset, maintenance, and termination of atrial fibrillation are not well understood. A biophysical model could be useful to determine how the events unfold. METHOD: A two-dimensional cellular automaton consisting of 576 × 576 grid nodes was implemented to demonstrate the types of electrical activity that may occur in compromised atrial substrate. Electrical activation between nodes was made anisotropic (2:1), and the refractory period (RP) was adjusted from 74 to 192 ms in the spatial domain...
February 24, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Brenna Cholerton, Catherine O Johnson, Brian Fish, Joseph F Quinn, Kathryn A Chung, Amie L Peterson-Hiller, Liana S Rosenthal, Ted M Dawson, Marilyn S Albert, Shu-Ching Hu, Ignacio F Mata, James B Leverenz, Kathleen L Poston, Thomas J Montine, Cyrus P Zabetian, Karen L Edwards
INTRODUCTION: Identification of factors associated with progression of cognitive symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) is important for treatment planning, clinical care, and design of future clinical trials. The current study sought to identify whether prediction of cognitive progression is aided by examining baseline cognitive features, and whether this differs according to stage of cognitive disease. METHODS: Participants with PD in the Pacific Udall Center Clinical Consortium who had longitudinal data available and were nondemented at baseline were included in the study (n = 418)...
February 9, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Katie A Walsh, Joseph Galvin, John Keaney, Edward Keelan, Gabor Szeplaki
AIMS: Zero- and near-zero-fluoroscopic ablation techniques reduce the harmful effects of ionizing radiation during invasive electrophysiology procedures. We aimed to test the feasibility and safety of a zero-fluoroscopic strategy using a novel integrated magnetic and impedance-based electroanatomical mapping system for radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of supraventricular tachycardias (SVTs). METHODS: We retrospectively studied 92 consecutive patients undergoing electrophysiology studies with/without RFA for supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) performed by a single operator at a single center...
February 23, 2018: Clinical Research in Cardiology: Official Journal of the German Cardiac Society
Kevin Meier, Daniel M Saenz, Glenda L Torres, Chunyan Cai, Mohammed H Rahbar, Mark McDonald, Stuart Fraser, Elena Espino, H Alex Choi, Nancy J Edwards, Kiwon Lee, James C Grotta, Tiffany R Chang
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to quantify coagulopathy using thrombelastography (TEG) in patients with renal dysfunction and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). METHODS: We reviewed patients admitted with spontaneous ICH between November 2009 and May 2015. TEG was performed at the time of admission. Creatinine clearance (CCr) was calculated using the Cockroft-Gault equation. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on normal (CCr ≥ 90) or reduced renal function (CCr < 90)...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Elena V Daoud, Veena Rajaram, Chunyu Cai, Robert J Oberle, Gregory R Martin, Jack M Raisanen, Charles L White, Chan Foong, Bruce E Mickey, Edward Pan, Kimmo J Hatanpaa
Adult brainstem gliomas are difficult to classify based on radiologic and histologic features. A K27M mutation in histone 3 has been described to identify high-grade midline gliomas associated with a particularly unfavorable prognosis. While initially considered a pediatric entity, it is now known that H3K27M-mutant brainstem gliomas occur in all age groups, but they are less well understood in adults. We studied clinical, radiologic, and pathologic features of 25 brainstem gliomas diagnosed at our institution between 1994 and 2017 in subjects at least 18 years old...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
Angela M Bengtson, Brian W Pence, Ellen F Eaton, Jessie K Edwards, Joseph J Eron, William C Mathews, Katie Mollan, Richard D Moore, Connall O'Cleirigh, Elvin Geng, Michael J Mugavero
BACKGROUND: Efavirenz has been a mainstay of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for over 15 years in the US. Its association with neuropsychiatric side effects may influence clinical prescribing and management. METHODS: We included HIV-infected adults enrolled in care at 7 sites across the US, who initiated combination ART between 1999 and 2015. We examined the proportion initiating and continuing on efavirenz, overall and by mental health status. Log binomial and Cox models were used to estimate associations between mental health, clinical, and sociodemographic characteristics and initiating or switching from efavirenz as first line ART...
February 9, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Elizabeth D Kantor, Christina C Newton, Edward L Giovannucci, Marjorie L McCullough, Peter T Campbell, Eric J Jacobs
PURPOSE: Use of glucosamine supplements has been associated with reduced risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) in previous studies; however, information on this association remains limited. METHODS: We examined the association between glucosamine use and CRC risk among 113,067 men and women in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort. Glucosamine use was first reported in 2001 and updated every 2 years thereafter. Participants were followed from 2001 through June of 2011, during which time 1440 cases of CRC occurred...
February 6, 2018: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Victoria Tumanova, Dahye Choi, Edward G Conture, Tedra A Walden
PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the Test of Childhood Stuttering observational rating scales (TOCS; Gillam et al., 2009) (1) differed between parents who did versus did not express concern (independent from the TOCS) about their child's speech fluency; (2) correlated with children's frequency of stuttering measured during a child-examiner conversation; and (3) correlated with the length and complexity of children's utterances, as indexed by mean length of utterance (MLU)...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Communication Disorders
Robert B Xu, Mohammad Rahnavardi, Mart Nadal, Fabiano Viana, Robert G Stuklis, Michael Worthington, James Edwards
Objective: Reoperative mitral valve surgery is increasingly required and can be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The beating heart minimally invasive mitral valve surgery has a proposed benefit in avoiding the risks of repeat sternotomy, with reducing the need for adhesiolysis and cardioplegia reperfusion injury. We describe our experience with such a technique in patients with previous sternotomy. Methods: A retrospective study was performed and all patients undergoing surgery of mitral valve through a right limited thoracotomy without application of an aortic cross-clamp (beating heart) as a redo cardiac surgery between January 2006 and January 2015 were included (n=25)...
2018: Open Heart
J M Sparrow, M T Grzeda, N A Frost, R L Johnston, C S C Liu, L Edwards, A Loose, D Elliott, J L Donovan
Background Cataract surgery is the most frequently undertaken NHS surgical procedure. Visual acuity (VA) provides a poor indication of visual difficulty in a complex visual world. In the absence of a suitable outcome metric, recent efforts have been directed towards the development of a cataract patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) of sufficient brevity, precision, and responsiveness to be implementable in routine high volume clinical services.Aim To compare and contrast the two most promising candidate PROMs for routine cataract surgery...
January 26, 2018: Eye
M Giannella, R Pascale, A Toschi, G Ferraro, E Graziano, F Furii, M Bartoletti, S Tedeschi, S Ambretti, R E Lewis, P Viale
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the impact of treatment duration on mortality and on relapse in patients with Escherichia coli bloodstream infection (BSI). METHODS: Retrospective single-centre study of patients diagnosed with E. coli BSI at our centre over a 4-year period. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: age <18 years, clinical data not available, polymicrobial BSI, failure to receive in vitro active therapy, and death while receiving antibiotic therapy...
January 31, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Marie-Hélène Lafeuille, Neeta Tandon, Sean Tiggelaar, Rhiannon Kamstra, Patrick Lefebvre, Edward Kim, Yong Yue, Kruti Joshi
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare persistence, costs, and healthcare resource utilization in patients with schizophrenia and cardiometabolic comorbidities treated with once-monthly paliperidone palmitate or an oral atypical antipsychotic. METHODS: Medicaid data from six states (07/2009-03/2015) were used to identify adults with schizophrenia and cardiometabolic comorbidities initiated on once-monthly paliperidone palmitate or an oral atypical antipsychotic (index date) on 01/2010 or after...
January 23, 2018: Drugs—Real World Outcomes
Joseph J Morley, Edward Traum
The effects of restricting dorso-lumbar spine mobility on electromyographic activity of the erector spinae, quadriceps femoris, hamstrings and gastrocnemius muscles in runners was investigated. Thermoplastic casting material was fashioned into a rigid orthosis and used to restrict spinal motion during running. Volunteers ran on a treadmill at 2.78 m/sec, under normal conditions and with spinal motion restricted. Surface electromyographic data was collected during both sets of trials. Normal electromyographic data was also compared with previous authors to determine similarity with their electromyographic data...
January 2018: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
Katie M Edwards, Kelly M Palmer, Kristin G Lindemann, Christine A Gidycz
Fifty-six college women completed surveys before and after terminating an abusive, heterosexual dating relationship. Whereas 64% of women had contact with their abusive partner post break-up, only 14% reported a moderate to high likelihood that they would return. Intentions to return were prospectively predicted by fewer perceived quality of alternatives, and cross-sectional correlates of intentions to return were being single, shorter time since relationship termination, having contact with one's abusive ex-partner, and social pressure to return...
February 2018: Violence Against Women
Marie Ooi, Edward John Young, Nam Q Nguyen
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The use of a transparent cap has been found to be effective in retrieval of esophageal foreign body. However, data on the use of a cap in food bolus obstruction (FBO) are limited. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of a cap-assisted technique compared with conventional techniques in removal of FBO. METHODS: All patients who underwent an endoscopy for boneless FBO between 2011-2016 were prospectively recruited. The measured outcomes were procedure time, success rate of food bolus (FB) extraction, rate of en bloc removal, procedure-related adverse events and length of hospital stay (LOS) between the 2 groups...
January 5, 2018: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
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