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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930472/light-absorption-of-secondary-organic-aerosol-composition-and-contribution-of-nitro-aromatic-compounds
#1
Mingjie Xie, Xi Chen, Michael D Hays, Michael Lewandowski, John H Offenberg, Tadeusz Edward Kleindienst, Amara Holder
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) might affect the atmospheric radiation balance through absorbing light at shorter visible and UV wavelengths. However, the composition and optical properties of light-absorbing SOA is poorly understood. In this work, SOA filter samples were collected during individual chamber experiments with three biogenic and eight aromatic volatile organic compound (VOC) precursors in the presence of NOX and H2O2. Compared with the SOA generated using the aromatic precursors, biogenic SOA in general exhibits negligible light absorption above 350 nm; the aromatic SOA generated in the presence of NOX showed stronger light absorption than that generated with H2O2...
September 20, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883495/spatially-resolved-optical-and-structural-properties-of-semi-polar-formula-see-text-al-x-ga1-x-n-with-x-up-to-0-56
#2
Jochen Bruckbauer, Zhi Li, G Naresh-Kumar, Monika Warzecha, Paul R Edwards, Ling Jiu, Yipin Gong, Jie Bai, Tao Wang, Carol Trager-Cowan, Robert W Martin
Pushing the emission wavelength of efficient ultraviolet (UV) emitters further into the deep-UV requires material with high crystal quality, while also reducing the detrimental effects of built-in electric fields. Crack-free semi-polar [Formula: see text] Al x Ga1-x N epilayers with AlN contents up to x = 0.56 and high crystal quality were achieved using an overgrowth method employing GaN microrods on m-sapphire. Two dominant emission peaks were identified using cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863804/investigation-of-a-gene-signature-to-predict-response-to-immunomodulatory-derivatives-for-patients-with-multiple-myeloma-an-exploratory-retrospective-study-using-microarray-datasets-from-prospective-clinical-trials
#3
Manisha Bhutani, Qing Zhang, Reed Friend, Peter M Voorhees, Lawrence J Druhan, Bart Barlogie, Pieter Sonneveld, Gareth J Morgan, James T Symanowski, Belinda R Avalos, Edward A Copelan, Saad Z Usmani
BACKGROUND: Immunomodulatory derivatives (IMiDs), along with proteasome inhibitors, are key components of treatment regimens for multiple myeloma. Nonetheless, outcomes vary among treated individuals. Drug-specific gene-expression profile (GEP) signatures that aid the prediction of favourable and unfavourable outcomes can provide patients with the most effective therapy for their individual disease. We aimed to develop and validate a gene expression signature to suggest which patients would benefit most from IMiD-based therapies...
September 2017: Lancet Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836195/transplanting-human-skin-grafts-onto-nude-mice-to-model-skin-scars
#4
Jie Ding, Edward E Tredget
Hypertrophic scar (HTS) is a common outcome of deep dermal wound healing mainly followed mechanical, chemical, and thermal injuries in the skin. Because of the lack of the most effective prevention and treatment, it is particularly important to establish an ideal dermal animal model for improving the understanding of the pathogenesis and exploring therapeutic approaches of HTS. Compared to other dermal fibrotic animal models in rabbits, red Duroc pigs, guinea pigs, rats, and mice, the approach that uses normal human split-thickness skin grafted onto nude or other immunodeficient mice which develop scars that resemble human HTS offers the advantages of lower cost, easier manipulation, and shorter research period...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833938/efficacy-and-safety-results-of-patients-with-hcv-genotype-2-or-3-infection-treated-with-ombitasvir-paritaprevir-ritonavir-and-sofosbuvir-with-or-without-ribavirin-quartz-ii-iii
#5
Stephen D Shafran, David Shaw, Mariem Charafeddine, Kosh Agarwal, Graham R Foster, Manal Abunimeh, Tami Pilot-Matias, Rajvineeth K Pothacamury, Bo Fu, Eric Cohen, Daniel E Cohen, Edward Gane
The efficacy and safety of an investigational combination of ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir (OBV/PTV/r) plus sofosbuvir (SOF) ± ribavirin (RBV) in patients with HCV genotype 2 or 3 infection with or without cirrhosis was evaluated. Patients with HCV genotype 3 infection without cirrhosis were randomized to receive OBV/PTV/r + SOF ± RBV for 12 weeks; OBV/PTV/r + SOF + RBV was administered to genotype 3-infected patients with cirrhosis for 12 weeks and to genotype 2-infected patients without cirrhosis for either 6 or 8 weeks...
August 20, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821447/time-perception-pacing-and-exercise-intensity-maximal-exercise-distorts-the-perception-of-time
#6
A M Edwards, A McCormick
INTRODUCTION: Currently there are no data examining the impact of exercise on the perception of time, which is surprising as optimal competitive performance is dependent on accurate pacing using knowledge of time elapsed. METHODS: With institutional ethics approval, 12 recreationally active adult participants (f=7, m=5) undertook both 30s Wingate cycles and 20min (1200s) rowing ergometer bouts as short and long duration self-paced exercise trials, in each of three conditions on separate occasions: 1) light exertion: RPE 11, 2) heavy exertion: RPE 15, 3) maximal exertion: RPE 20...
August 15, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814837/simulating-clinical-trial-visits-yields-patient-insights-into-study-design-and-recruitment
#7
S Sam Lim, Alan J Kivitz, Doug McKinnell, M Edward Pierson, Faye S O'Brien
PURPOSE: We elicited patient experiences from clinical trial simulations to aid in future trial development and to improve patient recruitment and retention. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Two simulations of draft Phase II and Phase III anifrolumab studies for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)/lupus nephritis (LN) were performed involving African-American patients from Grady Hospital, an indigent care hospital in Atlanta, GA, USA, and white patients from Altoona Arthritis and Osteoporosis Center in Altoona, PA, USA...
2017: Patient Preference and Adherence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796731/quality-of-local-excision-for-rectal-neoplasms-using-transanal-endoscopic-microsurgery-versus-transanal-minimally-invasive-surgery-a-multi-institutional-matched-analysis
#8
MULTICENTER STUDY
Lawrence Lee, Kimberly Edwards, Iain A Hunter, John E Hartley, Sam B Atallah, Matthew R Albert, James Hill, John R Monson
BACKGROUND: There are no data comparing the quality of local excision of rectal neoplasms using transanal endoscopic microsurgery and transanal minimally invasive surgery. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of tumor fragmentation and positive margins for patients undergoing local excision of benign and malignant rectal neoplasms using transanal endoscopic microsurgery versus transanal minimally invasive surgery. DESIGN: This was a multi-institutional cohort study using coarsened exact matching...
September 2017: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781929/size-limits-for-rounding-of-volcanic-ash-particles-heated-by-lightning
#9
Fabian B Wadsworth, Jérémie Vasseur, Edward W Llewellin, Kimberly Genareau, Corrado Cimarelli, Donald B Dingwell
Volcanic ash particles can be remelted by the high temperatures induced in volcanic lightning discharges. The molten particles can round under surface tension then quench to produce glass spheres. Melting and rounding timescales for volcanic materials are strongly dependent on heating duration and peak temperature and are shorter for small particles than for large particles. Therefore, the size distribution of glass spheres recovered from ash deposits potentially record the short duration, high-temperature conditions of volcanic lightning discharges, which are hard to measure directly...
March 2017: Journal of Geophysical Research. Solid Earth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777464/preliminary-experience-using-eye-tracking-technology-to-differentiate-novice-and-expert-image-interpretation-for-ultrasound-guided-regional-anesthesia
#10
Lindsay K Borg, T Kyle Harrison, Alex Kou, Edward R Mariano, Ankeet D Udani, T Edward Kim, Cynthia Shum, Steven K Howard
OBJECTIVES: Objective measures are needed to guide the novice's pathway to expertise. Within and outside medicine, eye tracking has been used for both training and assessment. We designed this study to test the hypothesis that eye tracking may differentiate novices from experts in static image interpretation for ultrasound (US)-guided regional anesthesia. METHODS: We recruited novice anesthesiology residents and regional anesthesiology experts. Participants wore eye-tracking glasses, were shown 5 sonograms of US-guided regional anesthesia, and were asked a series of anatomy-based questions related to each image while their eye movements were recorded...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775099/alternative-pre-mrna-splicing-of-toll-like-receptor-signaling-components-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-from-ards-patients
#11
Rachel Z Blumhagen, Brenna R Hedin, Kenneth C Malcolm, Ellen L Burnham, Marc Moss, Edward Abraham, Tristan J Huie, Jerry A Nick, Tasha E Fingerlin, Scott Alper
A key physiological feature of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) is inflammation. Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling is required to combat the infection that underlies many ARDS cases but also contributes to pathological inflammation. Several TLR signaling pathway genes encoding positive effectors of inflammation also produce alternatively spliced mRNAs encoding negative regulators of inflammation. An imbalance between these isoforms could contribute to pathological inflammation and disease severity...
August 3, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742427/a-comparison-of-multimodal-analgesic-approaches-in-institutional-enhanced-recovery-after-surgery-protocols-for-colorectal-surgery-pharmacological-agents
#12
Erik M Helander, Michael P Webb, Meghan Bias, Edward E Whang, Alan D Kaye, Richard D Urman
INTRODUCTION: Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS(®)) protocols are the cornerstone of improved recovery after colorectal surgery. Their implementation leads to reduced morbidity and shorter hospital stays while attenuating the surgical stress response. Multimodal analgesia is an important part of ERAS protocols. We compared and contrasted protocols from 15 institutions to test our hypothesis that there is a fundamental consensus among them. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ERAS protocols for open and laparoscopic colorectal surgery were compared from 15 different healthcare facilities...
September 2017: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730712/slow-conduction-through-an-arc-of-block-a-basis-for-arrhythmia-formation-postmyocardial-infarction
#13
Eugene Patterson, Benjamin J Scherlag, Edward J Berbari, Ralph Lazzara
INTRODUCTION: The electrophysiologic basis for characteristic rate-dependent, constant-late-coupled (390 + 54 milliseconds) premature ventricular beats (PVBs) present 4-5 days following coronary artery occlusion were examined in 108 anesthetized dogs. METHODS AND RESULTS: Fractionated/double potentials were observed in injured zone bipolar and composite electrograms at prolonged sinus cycle lengths (1,296 ± 396 milliseconds). At shorter cycle lengths, conduction of the delayed potential decremented, separating from the initial electrogram by a progressively prolonged isoelectric interval...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725595/a-prospective-evaluation-of-penile-measures-and-glans-penis-sensory-changes-after-penile-prosthetic-surgery
#14
Donghua Xie, Marilin Nicholas, Victor Gheiler, Dylan Perito, Luanda Siano, Igor Kislinger, Guy M Nehrenz, Boris Klopukh, Fernando J Bianco, Paul Perito, Edward Gheiler
BACKGROUND: With better designed devices and lower infection rates, satisfaction with inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) placement is increasingly high. However, dissatisfaction is still present and there is disagreement regarding length and sensation changes after the IPP placement. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in penile length, girth and sensitivity after IPP placement. METHODS: From August 2012 to January 2013 all patients undergoing "de novo" IPP surgery were invited to participate in this study...
June 2017: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713211/early-extubation-in-pediatric-heart-surgery-across-a-spectrum-of-case-complexity-impact-on-hospital-length-of-stay-and-chest-tube-days
#15
Staci Beamer, Sunita Ferns, Lloyd Edwards, Greer Gunther, Jennifer Nelson
Early extubation is increasingly common in congenital heart surgery, but there are limited outcomes data across the spectrum of case complexity. We performed a retrospective review of 201 pediatric operations using cardiopulmonary bypass between 2012 and 2014. Patients extubated in the operating room or immediately on arrival to the ICU were compared to those extubated by traditional protocols. In-hospital mortality, major complications, need for re-intubation, hospital length of stay, and chest-tube days were compared between groups and by Society of Thoracic Surgeons-European Association for Cardiothoracic Surgery Congenital Heart Surgery (STAT) mortality category...
June 2017: Progress in Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700086/antiseptics-for-burns
#16
REVIEW
Gill Norman, Janice Christie, Zhenmi Liu, Maggie J Westby, Jayne M Jefferies, Thomas Hudson, Jacky Edwards, Devi Prasad Mohapatra, Ibrahim A Hassan, Jo C Dumville
BACKGROUND: Burn wounds cause high levels of morbidity and mortality worldwide. People with burns are particularly vulnerable to infections; over 75% of all burn deaths (after initial resuscitation) result from infection. Antiseptics are topical agents that act to prevent growth of micro-organisms. A wide range are used with the intention of preventing infection and promoting healing of burn wounds. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects and safety of antiseptics for the treatment of burns in any care setting...
July 12, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699845/development-and-implementation-of-an-alcohol-withdrawal-protocol-using-a-5-item-scale-the-brief-alcohol-withdrawal-scale-baws
#17
Darius A Rastegar, Dinah Applewhite, Anika A H Alvanzo, Christopher Welsh, Timothy Niessen, Edward S Chen
BACKGROUND: The standard of care for management of alcohol withdrawal is symptom-triggered treatment using the Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol (CIWA-Ar). Many items of this 10-question scale rely on subjective assessments of withdrawal symptoms, making it time-consuming and cumbersome to use. Therefore, there is interest in shorter and more objective methods to assess alcohol withdrawal symptoms. METHODS: A 6-item withdrawal scale developed at another institution was piloted...
July 12, 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676198/treatment-of-gabapentin-toxicity-with-peritoneal-dialysis-assessment-of-gabapentin-clearance
#18
Hisham Ibrahim, Zachary Oman, Matthew Schuelke, John C Edwards
Gabapentin is almost exclusively cleared by the kidney and thus presents challenges in patients with kidney failure. Gabapentin is known to be effectively cleared by hemodialysis, but the efficiency of clearance by peritoneal dialysis (PD) has not been previously described. We report a case of gabapentin toxicity in a patient on long-term PD who was treated with continuous automated cycling PD. We find that continuous PD provides significant clearance of gabapentin. With 2-L exchanges every 2 hours, we document an apparent elimination half-life of 41...
July 1, 2017: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675539/the-association-between-patient-activation-and-self-care-practices-a-cross-sectional-study-of-an-australian-population-with-comorbid-diabetes-and-chronic-kidney-disease
#19
Edward Zimbudzi, Clement Lo, Sanjeeva Ranasinha, Peter G Kerr, Kevan R Polkinghorne, Helena Teede, Timothy Usherwood, Rowan G Walker, Greg Johnson, Greg Fulcher, Sophia Zoungas
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the association between performance of self-care activities and patient or disease factors as well as patient activation levels in patients with diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Australia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among adults with diabetes and CKD (eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73m(2) ) who were recruited from renal and diabetes clinics of four tertiary hospitals in Australia. Demographic and clinical data were collected, as well as responses to the Patient Activation Measure (PAM) and the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities (SDSCA) scale...
July 4, 2017: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672140/evaluation-of-oral-and-maxillofacial-surgery-residents-operative-skills-feasibility-and-engagement-study-using-simpl-software-for-a-mobile-phone
#20
Leonard B Kaban, Alyssa Cappetta, Brian C George, Edward T Lahey, Jordan D Bohnen, Maria J Troulis
PURPOSE: There are no universally accepted tools to evaluate operative skills of surgical residents in a timely fashion. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of using a smartphone application, SIMPL (System for Improving and Measuring Procedural Learning), developed by a multi-institutional research collaborative, to achieve a high rate of timely operative evaluations and resident communication and to collect performance data. The authors hypothesized that these goals would be achieved because the process is convenient and efficient...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
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