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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812943/tear-osmolarity-is-sensitive-to-exercise-induced-fluid-loss-but-is-not-associated-with-common-hydration-measures-in-a-field-setting
#1
Justin J Holland, Michelle Ray, Christopher Irwin, Tina L Skinner, Michael Leveritt, Ben Desbrow
This investigation (i) examined changes in tear osmolarity in response to fluid loss that occurs with exercise in a field setting, and (ii) compared tear osmolarity with common field and laboratory hydration measures.  Sixty-three participants [age 27.8 ± 8.4 years, body mass 72.15 ± 10.61 kg] completed a self-paced 10 km run outside on a predetermined course. Body mass, tear fluid, venous blood and urine samples were collected immediately before and after exercise.  Significant (p < 0.001) reductions in body mass (1...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812137/myoglobinemia-markers-with-potential-applications-in-forensic-sample-analysis-lipid-markers-in-myoglobinemia-for-postmortem-blood
#2
Hiroko Abe, Daisuke Yajima, Yumi Hoshioka, Akina Nara, Sayaka Nagasawa, Hirotaro Iwase
The crush syndrome, in which rhabdomyolysis and trauma occur as a result of heat stroke and drug intoxication, can lead to myoglobinemia. This condition can be diagnosed by measuring myoglobin (Mb) levels in blood and urine. However, postmortem Mb levels are unreliable indicators, since blood Mb concentration drastically increases within a very short time after death and urine cannot always be obtained at dissection; this makes it difficult to diagnose myoglobinemia in a corpse. To address this issue, in this study, we used a lipidomics approach to identify markers that can be used to detect myoglobinemia in postmortem blood samples...
August 15, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811292/dapagliflozin-slows-the-progression-of-the-renal-and-liver-fibrosis-associated-with-type-2-diabetes
#3
Li Tang, Yuanyuan Wu, Mi Tian, C David Sjostrom, Ulrika Johansson, Xiao-Rong Peng, David M Smith, Yufeng Huang
Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a new class of antidiabetic oral agents indicating promising effects on cardiovascular and renal end points. However, the renoprotective effects of SGLT2 inhibitors are not fully understood. Also, metabolic effects of SGLT2 inhibition on other organ systems such as effects on hepatic steatosis are not fully understood. This study sought to address these questions by treating 18week-old uninephrectomized db/db mice with a selective SGLT2 inhibitor dapagliflozin...
August 15, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810899/chronic-pain-and-opioid-misuse-a-review-of-reviews
#4
REVIEW
Pauline Voon, Mohammad Karamouzian, Thomas Kerr
OBJECTIVE: The crisis of prescription opioid (PO) related harms has focused attention toward identifying and treating high-risk populations. This review aims to synthesize systematic reviews on the epidemiology and clinical management of comorbid chronic pain and PO or other substance misuse. METHODS: A systematic database search was conducted to identify systematic reviews published between 2000 and 2016. Eligible studies were systematic reviews related to chronic non-cancer pain and PO or other substance misuse...
August 15, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810844/effect-of-tolvaptan-on-renal-handling-of-water-and-sodium-gfr-and-central-hemodynamics-in-autosomal-dominant-polycystic-kidney-disease-during-inhibition-of-the-nitric-oxide-system-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-double-blind-crossover-study
#5
Safa Al Therwani, My Emma Sofie Malmberg, Jeppe Bakkestroem Rosenbaek, Jesper Noergaard Bech, Erling Bjerregaard Pedersen
BACKGROUND: Tolvaptan slows progression of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) by antagonizing the vasopressin-cAMP axis. Nitric oxide (NO) stimulates natriuresis and diuresis, but its role is unknown during tolvaptan treatment in ADPKD. METHODS: Eighteen patients with ADPKD received tolvaptan 60 mg or placebo in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind, crossover study. L-NMMA (L-NG-monomethyl-arginine) was given as a bolus followed by continuous infusion during 60 min...
August 15, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809621/cardiovascular-risk-factors-and-mortality-in-children-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#6
Abdullahi Mudi, Caroline Dickens, Cecil Levy, Daynia Ballot
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) begins early in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and its progression is determined by the presence of single or multiple cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs). OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of CVRFs in children with CKD and their association with mortality in children on chronic dialysis. METHODS: This comparative cross-sectional study recruited children aged 5 - 18 years with all stages of CKD...
July 28, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808818/first-in-human-study-of-the-epichaperome-inhibitor-pu-h71-clinical-results-and-metabolic-profile
#7
Giovanna Speranza, Larry Anderson, Alice P Chen, Khanh Do, Michelle Eugeni, Marcie Weil, Larry Rubinstein, Eva Majerova, Jerry Collins, Yvonne Horneffer, Lamin Juwara, Jennifer Zlott, Rachel Bishop, Barbara A Conley, Howard Streicher, Joseph Tomaszewski, James H Doroshow, Shivaani Kummar
Background Molecular chaperone targeting has shown promise as a therapeutic approach in human cancers of various histologies and genetic backgrounds. The purine-scaffold inhibitor PU-H71 (NSC 750424), selective for Hsp90 in epichaperome networks, has demonstrated antitumor activity in multiple preclinical cancer models. The present study was a first in-human trial of PU-H71 aimed at establishing its safety and tolerability and characterizing its pharmacokinetic (PK) profile on a weekly administration schedule in human subjects with solid tumors refractory to standard treatments...
August 12, 2017: Investigational New Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808723/plasma-metabolite-abundances-are-associated-with-urinary-enterolactone-excretion-in-healthy-participants-on-controlled-diets
#8
Fayth L Miles, Sandi L Navarro, Yvonne Schwarz, Haiwei Gu, Danijel Djukovic, Timothy W Randolph, Ali Shojaie, Mario Kratz, Meredith A J Hullar, Paul D Lampe, Marian L Neuhouser, Daniel Raftery, Johanna W Lampe
Enterolignans, products of gut bacterial metabolism of plant lignans, have been associated with reduced risk of chronic diseases, but their association with other plasma metabolites is unknown. We examined plasma metabolite profiles according to urinary enterolignan excretion in a cross-sectional analysis using data from a randomized crossover, controlled feeding study. Eighty healthy adult males and females completed two 28-day feeding periods differing by glycemic load, refined carbohydrate, and fiber content...
August 15, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808443/angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibition-and-parathyroid-hormone-secretion
#9
Sarah Zaheer, Jenifer M Brown, Molly Connors, Jonathan S Williams, Gail K Adler, Anand Vaidya
BACKGROUND: Prior studies suggest that renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors decrease parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) on serum PTH in participants with and without primary hyperparathyroidism (P-HPT). METHODS: An open-label, single-arm, pilot study whereby participants with and without P-HPT had PTH were evaluated before and after 1 week of maximally tolerated lisinopril therapy...
2017: International Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808364/the-effect-of-furosemide-on-the-level-of-neutrophil-gelatinase-associated-lipocalin-in-critically-hospitalized-patients-with-acute-kidney-injury
#10
Hadi Hamishehkar, Sarvin Sanaie, Vahid Fattahi, Mehran Mesgari, Ata Mahmoodpoor
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Oliguric acute kidney injury (AKI), commonly attributed to a more severe degree of renal injury, is associated with poorer prognosis than nonoliguric form. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of furosemide therapy on kidney function and on the level of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in critically hospitalized patients in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this randomized controlled trial, 106 ICU patients with AKI were assigned into furosemide and control groups...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806822/-multiple-myeloma-current-status-in-diagnostic-testing-and-therapy
#11
Michael Kehrer, Sebastian Koob, Andreas Strauss, Dieter Christian Wirtz, Jan Schmolders
Background Multiple myeloma is a haematological blood cancer of the bone marrow and is classified by the World Health Organisation (WHO) as a plasma cell neoplasm. In multiple myeloma, normal plasma cells transform into malignant myeloma cells and produce large quantities of an abnormal immunoglobulin called monoclonal protein or M protein. This ultimately causes multiple myeloma symptoms such as bone damage or kidney problems. The annual worldwide incidence of multiple myeloma is estimated to be 6 - 7/100,000 and accounts for 1% of all cancer...
August 14, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806667/hydrophobic-boron-compound-loaded-poly-l-lactide-co-glycolide-nanoparticles-for-boron-neutron-capture-therapy
#12
Issei Takeuchi, Kensuke Nomura, Kimiko Makino
Poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) has been widely used and studied because of its biocompatibility and biodegradability. Recently, the usefulness of nanoparticles using poly(L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLLGA) having a higher glass transition temperature than PLGA was suggested. In this study, we investigated the availability of boron compound-loaded PLGA and PLLGA nanoparticles for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) by conducting biodistribution study using tumor-bearing mice. o-Carborane, a hydrophobic boron compound, was used as a boron carrier, and o-carborane-albumin conjugate was used as a control...
August 4, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806208/systemic-hypotension-following-intravenous-administration-of-nonionic-contrast-medium-during-computed-tomography-iopromide-versus-iodixanol
#13
Gerlig Widmann, Reto Bale, Hanno Ulmer, Daniel Putzer, Peter Schullian, Franz-Josef Wiedermann, Wolfgang Lederer
BACKGROUND: In light of the increasing number of radiologic interventions performed under general anesthesia, the effects of contrast media (CM) on circulation and organ perfusion are of paramount importance. The objectives of this study were to systematically quantify effects on blood pressure, heart rate, and kidney function following intravenous administration of nonionic CM with normal and low osmolality. METHODS: In this controlled, double-blinded phase IV clinical trial, 40 consecutive patients were randomly assigned to receive repeated measures of either low-osmolar iopromide or iso-osmolar iodixanol...
August 10, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804725/meprin-metalloprotease-deficiency-associated-with-higher-mortality-rates-and-more-severe-diabetic-kidney-injury-in-mice-with-stz-induced-type-1-diabetes
#14
John E Bylander, Faihaa Ahmed, Sabena M Conley, Jean-Marie Mwiza, Elimelda Moige Ongeri
Meprins are membrane-bound and secreted metalloproteinases consisting of α and/or β subunits that are highly expressed in kidney epithelial cells and are differentially expressed in podocytes and leukocytes (macrophages and monocytes). Several studies have implicated meprins in the progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN) and fibrosis-associated kidney disease. However, the mechanisms by which meprins modulate DN are not understood. To delineate the role of meprins in DN, we subjected meprin αβ knockout (αβKO) mice and their wild-type (WT) counterparts to streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804662/fungal-bezoar-a-rare-cause-of-ureteral-obstruction
#15
Nabil Zeineddine, Wissam Mansour, Sandy El Bitar, Marco Campitelli, Neville Mobarakai
A 52-year-old male, with diabetes mellitus and alcoholic liver disease, presented to the Emergency Room for right flank pain of 3 days' duration, associated with dysuria. Physical examination revealed right flank tenderness with fever and hypotension; laboratory findings showed acute kidney injury and large blood and leucocytes in the urine. A CT abdomen and pelvis showed hydronephrosis of the right collecting system of a horseshoe kidney with air and hyperdense debris in the renal pelvis. Patient was treated for multisensitive Proteus mirabilis emphysematous pyelonephritis, and a right nephrostomy tube was inserted...
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804274/non-invasive-urinary-metabolomic-profiling-discriminates-prostate-cancer-from-benign-prostatic-hyperplasia
#16
Clara Pérez-Rambla, Leonor Puchades-Carrasco, María García-Flores, José Rubio-Briones, José Antonio López-Guerrero, Antonio Pineda-Lucena
INTRODUCTION: Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common malignancies in men worldwide. Serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) level has been extensively used as a biomarker to detect PCa. However, PSA is not cancer-specific and various non-malignant conditions, including benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), can cause a rise in PSA blood levels, thus leading to many false positive results. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we evaluated the potential of urinary metabolomic profiling for discriminating PCa from BPH...
2017: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803886/a-method-for-extracting-and-characterizing-rna-from-urine-for-downstream-pcr-and-rnaseq-analysis
#17
Kun Zhou, Monique A Spillman, Kian Behbakht, Julia M Komatsu, Juan E Abrahante, Douglas Hicks, Brent Schotl, Evan Odean, Kenneth L Jones, Michael W Graner, Lynne T Bemis
Readily accessible samples such as urine or blood are seemingly ideal for differentiating and stratifying patients; however, it has proven a daunting task to identify reliable biomarkers in such samples. Noncoding RNA holds great promise as a source of biomarkers distinguishing physiologic wellbeing or illness. Current methods to isolate and characterize RNA molecules in urine are limited. In this proof of concept study, we present a method to extract and identify small noncoding RNAs in urine. Initially, quantitative reverse transcription PCR was applied to confirm the presence of microRNAs in total RNA extracted from urine...
August 10, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803722/advantages-of-analyzing-postmortem-brain-samples-in-routine-forensic-drug-screening-case-series-of-three-non-natural-deaths-tested-positive-for-lysergic-acid-diethylamide-lsd
#18
Marie Mardal, Sys Stybe Johansen, Ragnar Thomsen, Kristian Linnet
Three case reports are presented, including autopsy findings and toxicological screening results, which were tested positive for the potent hallucinogenic drug lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). LSD and its main metabolites were quantified in brain tissue and femoral blood, and furthermore hematoma and urine when available. LSD, its main metabolite 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-LSD (oxo-HO-LSD), and iso-LSD were quantified in biological samples according to a previously published procedure involving liquid-liquid extraction and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS)...
July 30, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802857/spectrophotometric-methods-for-the-determination-of-urea-in-real-samples-using-silver-nanoparticles-by-standard-addition-and-2nd-order-derivative-methods
#19
Nauman Ali, Muhammad Ismail, Adnan Khan, Hamayun Khan, Sajjad Haider, Tahseen Kamal
In this work, we have developed simple, sensitive and inexpensive methods for the spectrophotometric determination of urea in urine samples using silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The standard addition and 2nd order derivative methods were adopted for this purpose. AgNPs were prepared by chemical reduction of AgNO3 with hydrazine using 1,3-di-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)-2-propanol (DIPO) as a stabilizing agent in aqueous medium. The proposed methods were based on the complexation of AgNPs with urea. Using this concept, urea in the urine samples was successfully determined spectrophotometric methods...
August 1, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802637/blood-pressure-responses-to-dietary-sodium-association-with-autonomic-cardiovascular-function-in-normotensive-adults
#20
Evan L Matthews, Michael S Brian, David G Edwards, Sean D Stocker, Megan M Wenner, William B Farquhar
Blood pressure responses to dietary sodium vary widely person-to-person. Salt sensitive rodent models display altered autonomic function, a trait thought to contribute to poor cardiovascular health. Thus, we hypothesized that increased salt sensitivity (SS) in normotensive humans would be associated with increased muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), decreased high frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV), and decreased baroreflex sensitivity. Healthy normotensive men and women completed 1week of high (300mmol·day(-1)) and 1week of low (20mmol·day(-1)) dietary sodium (random order) with 24h mean arterial pressure (MAP) assessed on the last day of each diet to assess SS...
August 6, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
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