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High Glucose in urine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101123/regulatory-landscape-of-age-rage-oxidative-stress-axis-and-its-modulation-by-ppar%C3%AE-activation-in-high-fructose-diet-induced-metabolic-syndrome
#1
Luca Cannizzaro, Giuseppe Rossoni, Federica Savi, Alessandra Altomare, Cristina Marinello, Thammakorn Saethang, Marina Carini, D Michael Payne, Trairak Pisitkun, Giancarlo Aldini, Asada Leelahavanichkul
BACKGROUND: The AGE-RAGE-oxidative stress (AROS) axis is involved in the onset and progression of metabolic syndrome induced by a high-fructose diet (HFD). PPARγ activation is known to modulate metabolic syndrome; however a systems-level investigation looking at the protective effects of PPARγ activation as related to the AROS axis has not been performed. The aim of this work is to simultaneously characterize multiple molecular parameters within the AROS axis, using samples taken from different body fluids and tissues of a rat model of HFD-induced metabolic syndrome, in the presence or absence of a PPARγ agonist, Rosiglitazone (RGZ)...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095303/gd-dtpa-induced-dynamic-metabonomic-changes-in-rat-biofluids
#2
Chuanling Wan, Youyang Zhan, Rong Xue, Yijie Wu, Xiaojing Li, Fengkui Pei
OBJECTIVES: The purposes of this study were (1) to detect the dynamic metabonomic changes induced by gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA) and (2) to investigate the potential metabolic disturbances associated with the pathogenesis of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) at the early stage. METHODS: A nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics approach was used to investigate the urinary and serum metabolic changes induced by a single tail vein injection of Gd-DTPA (dosed at 2 and 5mmol/kg body weight) in rats...
January 14, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074323/changes-in-cerebral-metabolism-during-ketogenic-diet-in-patients-with-primary-brain-tumors-1-h-mrs-study
#3
Moran Artzi, Gilad Liberman, Nachum Vaisman, Felix Bokstein, Faina Vitinshtein, Orna Aizenstein, Dafna Ben Bashat
Normal brain cells depend on glucose metabolism, yet they have the flexibility to switch to the usage of ketone bodies during caloric restriction. In contrast, tumor cells lack genomic and metabolic flexibility and are largely dependent on glucose. Ketogenic-diet (KD) was suggested as a therapeutic option for malignant brain cancer. This study aimed to detect metabolic brain changes in patients with malignant brain gliomas on KD using proton magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS). Fifty MR scans were performed longitudinally in nine patients: four patients with recurrent glioblastoma (GB) treated with KD in addition to bevacizumab; one patient with gliomatosis-cerebri treated with KD only; and four patients with recurrent GB who did not receive KD...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058588/the-hypoglycemic-hypolipidemic-and-anti-diabetic-nephritic-activities-of-zeaxanthin-in-diet-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-sprague-dawley-rats
#4
Ling Kou, Mingzhao Du, Chaopu Zhang, Zhiyin Dai, Xuan Li, Baohai Zhang
Zeaxanthin (ZA), an important compound found in Lycium barbarum, shows various pharmacodynamic effects. In our present study, a high-fat, high-sucrose diet and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rat model was used to investigate the antidiabetic activities of ZA. After a 4-week administration of 200 and 400 mg/kg of ZA and 100 mg/kg of metformin hydrochloride, various blood biochemical indexes were detected. ZA strongly normalized the reduced bodyweight and enhanced fasting blood glucose in diabetic rats...
January 5, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046181/increases-in-duodenal-glutamic-acid-supply-linearly-increase-small-intestinal-starch-digestion-but-not-nitrogen-balance-in-cattle
#5
E J Blom, D E Anderson, D W Brake
Small intestinal starch digestion (SISD) in cattle is often limited; however, greater postruminal flow of high-quality protein (e.g., casein) can increase SISD, and Glu can mimic responses to casein for SISD. We evaluated effects of increasing Glu flows to the duodenum on SISD and N retention in cattle. Cattle received (DM basis) continuous duodenal infusion of raw cornstarch (1.5 ± 0.08 kg/d) and 0, 30.9 ± 0.6, 62.4 ± 1.2, or 120.4 ± 3.4 g/d Glu or 387.9 ± 17.5 g/d casein. As expected, the positive control (i...
December 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012599/blood-oxidative-stress-blos-is-a-secondary-host-defense-system-responding-normally-to-anaerobic-wound-infection-and-inadvertently-to-dietary-ultra-exogenous-sulfide-formation-usf
#6
Peter G Stroot
Blood oxidative stress (BLOS) is the presence of white blood cells and platelets that are generating high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). A mathematical model links the level of BLOS or BLOS# and plasma sulfide concentration. An increase in the BLOS# reduces the plasma sulfide concentration. The reported maximum plasma sulfide concentration for defined health conditions were used to calculate the minimum BLOS#. Elevated BLOS generates high plasma concentration of ROS, which triggers multiple responses in the body that protect the host...
January 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000719/association-between-low-grade-albuminuria-and-frailty-among-community-dwelling-middle-aged-and-older-people-a-cross-sectional-analysis-from-i-lan-longitudinal-aging-study
#7
Chun-Chin Chang, Chien-Yi Hsu, Ting-Yung Chang, Po-Hsun Huang, Li-Kuo Liu, Liang-Kung Chen, Jaw-Wen Chen, Shing-Jong Lin
Frailty is characterized by decreased physiological reserve and increased vulnerability to atherosclerosis and subsequent mortality. Recently, low-grade albuminuria has been proposed as an atherosclerotic risk factor. We aimed to investigate the relationship between low-grade albuminuria and frailty by using cross-sectional data among community-dwelling middle-aged and older people. Totally, 1,441 inhabitants of I-Lan County with normal urinary albumin excretion (urine albumin to urine creatinine ratio [UACR] <30 mg/g) were enrolled (677 men; mean age 63 ± 9 years, range from 50 to 91 years old)...
December 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989876/iridoid-glycoside-from-cornus-officinalis-ameliorated-diabetes-mellitus-induced-testicular-damage-in-male-rats-involvement-of-suppression-of-the-ages-rage-p38-mapk-signaling-pathway
#8
Yuping Chen, Yunhao Wu, Xiaoyang Gan, Kai Liu, L V Xing, Hongsheng Shen, Guoying Dai, Huiqin Xu
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cornus officinalis (CO) has been widely used as a traditional Chinese medicine for treating diabetes mellitus (DM) and its complications. Iridoid glycoside from C. officinalis (IGCO) can resist apoptosis, hyperglycemia, oxidation and so on. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of IGCO on DM-induced testicular damage through inhibition of the AGEs/RAGE/p38 MAPK signaling pathway. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A DM model of male Wistar rats was induced with streptozotocin injection (30mg/kg, i...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941962/microalbuminuria-and-its-association-with-subclinical-atherosclerosis-in-the-mexican-mestizo-population-the-gea-study
#9
Aida Medina-Urrutia, Juan Gabriel Juárez-Rojas, Rosalinda Posadas-Sánchez, Esteban Jorge-Galarza, Guillermo Cardoso-Saldaña, Gilberto Vargas-Alarcón, Rocío Martínez-Alvarado, Carlos Posadas-Romero
BACKGROUND: Microalbuminuria is an early marker of atherosclerosis. Ethnic differences for both conditions have been reported. We studied microalbuminuria prevalence and its association with coronary artery calcification as an early atherosclerosis marker in a Mexican-Mestizo population free of diabetes and hypertension (healthy), as well as in hypertensive and diabetic subjects. METHODS: In 1,472 adults (53.3 ± 9.4 years old, 50.3% women), anthropometric measurements, fasting blood glucose, and lipid profile were determined...
September 2016: Revista de Investigación Clínica; Organo del Hospital de Enfermedades de la Nutrición
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914528/food-advanced-glycation-end-products-aggravate-the-diabetic-vascular-complications-via-modulating-the-ages-rage-pathway
#10
Xing Lv, Gao-Hong Lv, Guo-Ying Dai, Hong-Mei Sun, Hui-Qin Xu
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of high-advanced glycation end products (AGEs) diet on diabetic vascular complications. The Streptozocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice were fed with high-AGEs diet. Diabetic characteristics, indicators of renal and cardiovascular functions, and pathohistology of pancreas, heart and renal were evaluated. AGEs/RAGE/ROS pathway parameters were determined. During the experiments, the diabetic mice exhibited typical characteristics including weight loss, polydipsia, polyphagia, polyuria, high-blood glucose, and low-serum insulin levels...
November 2016: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894216/bone-effects-of-canagliflozin-a-sodium-glucose-co-transporter-2-inhibitor-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#11
Thomas C Blevins, Azeez Farooki
Canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), lowers blood glucose by inhibiting renal glucose reabsorption and increasing urinary glucose excretion. It has been reported that SGLT2 inhibitors may have potential adverse effects on bone, including increased fracture risk and decreased bone mineral density (BMD). Across clinical studies, canagliflozin was not associated with meaningful changes in serum or urine calcium, vitamin D, or parathyroid hormone...
November 28, 2016: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878313/targeting-renal-glucose-reabsorption-to-treat-hyperglycaemia-the-pleiotropic-effects-of-sglt2-inhibition
#12
REVIEW
Volker Vallon, Scott C Thomson
Healthy kidneys filter ∼160 g/day of glucose (∼30% of daily energy intake) under euglycaemic conditions. To prevent valuable energy from being lost in the urine, the proximal tubule avidly reabsorbs filtered glucose up to a limit of ∼450 g/day. When blood glucose levels increase to the point that the filtered load exceeds this limit, the surplus is excreted in the urine. Thus, the kidney provides a safety valve that can prevent extreme hyperglycaemia as long as glomerular filtration is maintained. Most of the capacity for renal glucose reabsorption is provided by sodium glucose cotransporter (SGLT) 2 in the early proximal tubule...
February 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871607/highly-sensitive-determination-of-atropine-using-cobalt-oxide-nanostructures-influence-of-functional-groups-on-the-signal-sensitivity
#13
Razium Ali Soomro, Ayman Nafady, Keith Richard Hallam, Sana Jawaid, Abdullah Al Enizi, Syed Tufail Hussain Sherazi, Sirajuddin, Zafar Hussain Ibupoto, Magnus Willander
This study describes sensitive determination of atropine using glassy carbon electrodes (GCE) modified with Co3O4 nanostructures. The as-synthesised nanostructures were grown using cysteine (CYS), glutathione (GSH) and histidine (HYS) as effective templates under hydrothermal action. The obtained morphologies revealed interesting structural features, including both cavity-based and flower-shaped structures. The as-synthesised morphologies were noted to actively participate in electro-catalysis of atropine (AT) drug where GSH-assisted structures exhibited the best signal response in terms of current density and over-potential value...
December 15, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842978/significance-of-urinary-glycosaminoglycans-proteoglycans-in-the-evaluation-of-type-1-and-type-2-diabetes-complications
#14
Antonio Junior Lepedda, Pierina De Muro, Giampiero Capobianco, Marilena Formato
Because of the high incidence of kidney disease in diabetic patients, the early diagnosis of renal impairment is a key point for intervention and management. Although urinary albumin excretion currently represents the accepted standard to assess both diabetic nephropathy and cardiovascular risk, it has some limitations as structural changes in the glomerular basement membrane may occur before the onset of microalbuminuria. It is therefore important to identify urinary markers that may provide greater sensitivity, earlier detection, and greater predictive power for diabetes complications...
January 2017: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836107/albuminuria-predicts-early-neurological-deterioration-in-patients-with-acute-ischemic-stroke
#15
Takuya Kanamaru, Satoshi Suda, Kanako Muraga, Seiji Okubo, Yoko Watanabe, Syuichi Tsuruoka, Kazumi Kimura
BACKGROUND: Reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and albuminuria have been independently associated with an increased risk of stroke and unfavorable long-term outcomes. However, the association between GFR, albuminuria, and early neurological deterioration (END) in patients with ischemic stroke has not been well studied to date. We therefore investigated the ability of estimated GFR (eGFR) and albuminuria to predict END in patients with acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: We retrospectively enrolled 294 patients that were admitted to our stroke center with acute ischemic stroke between January 2011 and September 2012...
January 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833513/plasma-and-urinary-type-iv-collagen-levels-for-early-detection-of-nephropathy-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-patients
#16
K Balu Mahendran, M Vijaya Bhaskar, K Santha, R Inmozhi, K K Perumal
BACKGROUND: Diabetic nephropathy is a major complication with high morbidity and mortality, and leads to end stage renal disease (ESRD). Type IV collagen is the main component of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) and the extracellular matrix. The thickening of the GBM is due to accumulation of type IV collagen and alterations in its structure and composition. AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of plasma and urine type IV collagen with albuminuria status and to determine the clinical implications of type IV collagen as a marker in the early stage of diabetic nephropathy...
October 2016: International Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824970/a-pediatric-malignant-paraganglioma-and-brief-review-of-the-literature
#17
Jinhua Zi, Chao Ma, Changyun Xu, Yongli Bai
: A 10 years old boy presented to our hospital complaining of belly pain. He had a retroperitoneal mass diagnosed by ultrasound 3 days before. During that time he was found to have slight hypertension. Computed tomography (CT) showed a left retroperitoneal mass with edge enhancement and central necrosis indicating pheochromocytoma (PCC). Vanillymandelic acid (VMA) in the 24 hours urine sample was not elevated. Pheochromocytoma was suspected given his hypertension and the ultrasound and CT findings...
September 2016: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816591/highly-sensitive-on-site-detection-of-glucose-in-human-urine-with-naked-eye-based-on-enzymatic-like-reaction-mediated-etching-of-gold-nanorods
#18
Zhiyang Zhang, Zhaopeng Chen, Fangbin Cheng, Yaowen Zhang, Lingxin Chen
Based on enzymatic-like reaction mediated etching of gold nanorods (GNRs), an ultrasensitive visual method was developed for on-site detection of urine glucose. With the catalysis of MoO4(2)(-), GNRs were efficiently etched by H2O2 which was generated by glucose-glucose oxidase enzymatic reaction. The etching of GNRs lead to a blue-shift of logitudinal localized surface plasmon resonance of GNRs, accompanied by an obvious color change from blue to red. The peak-shift and the color change can be used for detection of glucose by the spectrophotometer and the naked eyes...
March 15, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801416/-evaluation-of-markers-for-renal-graft-dysfunction-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-after-kidney-transplantation-and-simultaneous-pancreas-kidney-transplantation
#19
A M Glazunova, M S Arutyunova, E V Tarasov, L V Nikankina, A V Il'in, M Sh Shamkhalova, M V Shestakova, Ya G Moisyuk
AIM: To study the markers of renal graft dysfunction in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) after kidney transplantation (KT) and simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation (SPKT). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The investigation enrolled 20 patients after successful SPKT and 41 patients after KT (of them 21 received continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion with an insulin doser; 20 had multiple insulin injections). The periods after KT and SPKT at patient inclusion were 8 (7; 8) and 11 (8; 18) months, respectively...
2016: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768399/coconut-water-does-not-improve-markers-of-hydration-during-sub-maximal-exercise-and-performance-in-a-subsequent-time-trial-compared-to-water-alone
#20
Daniel J Peart, Andy Hensby, Matthew P Shaw
The purpose of this study was to compare markers of hydration during sub-maximal exercise and subsequent time trial performance when consuming water (PW) or coconut water (CW). There was also a secondary aim to assess the palatability of CW during exercise and voluntary intake during intense exercise. 10 males (age 27.9 + 4.9 years, body mass 78.1 + 10.1kg, average max minute power 300.2 + 28.2W) completed 60-min of sub-maximal cycling followed by a 10-km time trial on two occasions. During these trials participants consumed either PW or CW in a randomised manner, drinking a 250 ml of the assigned drink between 10-15 min, 25-30 min and 40-45 min, and then drinking ad libitum from 55-min until the end of the time trial...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
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