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Preethi Premkumar, Juliana Onwumere, Lucy Betts, Fränze Kibowski, Elizabeth Kuipers
Schizotypal traits are a cluster of personality styles suggesting a potential liability for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Interpersonal schizotypal traits include cognitive disorganisation which consists of social anxiety, and introvertive anhedonia which consists of a lack of pleasure in social activities. Rejection sensitivity is evident all along this continuum. This study aimed to determine whether psychosocial quality of life (QOL), neuroticism and agreeableness mediates the relation between schizotypy and rejection sensitivity...
June 5, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Michael D Buhrmester, Sanaz Talaifar, Samuel D Gosling
Over the past 2 decades, many social scientists have expanded their data-collection capabilities by using various online research tools. In the 2011 article "Amazon's Mechanical Turk: A new source of inexpensive, yet high-quality, data?" in Perspectives on Psychological Science, Buhrmester, Kwang, and Gosling introduced researchers to what was then considered to be a promising but nascent research platform. Since then, thousands of social scientists from seemingly every field have conducted research using the platform...
March 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
Agathe Streiff, Barbara Orlando, Bryan Mahoney
Background: To maintain compliance with the current shift towards competency-based milestone assessment in graduate medical education, residency training programs must reflect this emphasis in their curricula starting with the intern year of training.1 In working towards collaborative efforts in curricular development between Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) anesthesiology residency programs, understanding the structure and design of the clinical base year for anesthesiology residency programs nationwide will serve as a valuable initial step...
January 2018: Journal of Education in Perioperative Medicine: JEPM
Andrea Fisler, Tobias Breidthardt, Nadine Schmidlin, Helmut Hopfer, Michael Dickenmann, Katrin König, Patricia Hirt-Minkowski
Renal dysfunction in the setting of cholestatic liver disease is multifactorial but most often due to decreased kidney perfusion from intravascular volume depletion, acute tubular injury/necrosis, and hepatorenal syndrome. Drug-induced hepatotoxicity may be associated with a cholestatic injury pattern. We report a case of a 56-year-old man with a diagnosis of bile cast nephropathy, as a complication of drug-induced severe hyperbilirubinemia due to the abuse of intramuscular anabolic steroids bought on the internet to increase muscular mass for bodybuilding training...
May 2018: Case Reports in Nephrology and Dialysis
Ross A Avant, Cameron M Charchenko, Manaf Alom, Mary E Westerman, Francisco Maldonado, Tanner Miest, Landon Trost
Background: To describe self-reported medication patterns and fertility rates in a population of anabolic steroid (AS) users. Methods: We reviewed data from an online survey of AS users and identified a sub-group who had attempted to achieve a pregnancy with their partners while using AS. The online survey consisted of questions addressing demographics, AS use, ancillary medications, and fertility outcomes. Results: A total of 97 men (of 231 total respondents) had attempted to achieve a pregnancy while taking AS and comprise the current cohort...
May 2018: Translational Andrology and Urology
Mary K Samplaski, Chase G Clemesha
Background: The accuracy of online medical information is variable. A 2014 Cochrane review did not support a robust improvement in male infertility after antioxidant supplementation. Many subfertile men take vitamins in hopes of improving their fertility. We sought to evaluate the content of online information for male fertility vitamins, and compare this with the published literature. Methods: We searched Google to assess online information regarding vitamins and male infertility...
May 2018: Translational Andrology and Urology
Kateryna Fesko, Dmitry Suplatov, Vytas Švedas
Understanding the role of specific amino acid residues in the molecular mechanism of a protein's function is one of the most challenging problems in modern biology. A systematic bioinformatic analysis of protein families and superfamilies can help in the study of structure-function relationships and in the design of improved variants of enzymes/proteins, but represents a methodological challenge. The pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzymes are catalytically diverse and include the aspartate aminotransferase superfamily which implements a common structural framework known as type fold I...
June 2018: FEBS Open Bio
Yang Zou, Jiang-Yan Zhou, Feng Wang, Zi-Yu Zhang, Fa-Ying Liu, Yong Luo, Jun Tan, Xin Zeng, Xi-Di Wan, Ou-Ping Huang
Endometriosis is a complex and heterogeneous pre-malignant inflammatory disease harboring multiple gene mutations. Previous studies have suggested that caspase recruitment domain family member (CARD)10 and CARD11 mutations may exist in endometriosis. In the present study, a collection of endometriotic lesions and paired peripheral blood from 101 patients with ovarian endometriosis were obtained, and the entire coding sequences of the CARD10 and CARD11 genes were sequenced. Evolutionary conservation analysis and online prediction programs were applied to analyze the disease-causing potential of the identified mutations...
July 2018: Oncology Letters
Stefania Fantinelli, Michela Cortini
This study takes place from the idea that the personal usage of mobile technologies can bring positive outcomes to the user and to their society in an indirect way. Technologies studied in this work are defined as persuasive technologies (Fogg, 1997) because they are intentionally designed to modify the users' attitude or behavior. This research is aimed to evaluate if the intention to use the application can be influenced by positive attitudes toward technology, by the persuasive power of the application and by the perceived fun...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Pierre Gérain, Emmanuelle Zech
Introduction: Parenting a child with special needs (CSN) may be an important challenge. Previous research has highlighted an increased risk of parental burnout among parents caring for their CSN. Yet, these studies only focused on children with specific issues and did not consider the wide variety of CSN. There is thus a need to take a more global approach to assessing the impact of caring for a CSN on parental burnout. In addition, the impact on parental burnout of personality and parenting (dis)agreement needs to be measured to have a better understanding of parent-caregivers' (PCgs) burnout...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Susan L Brady, Noel Rao, Patricia J Gibbons, Letha Williams, Mark Hakel, Theresa Pape
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of an online, interdisciplinary, interactive course designed to increase the ability to accurately interpret the fiberoptic endoscopic exam of the swallow (FEES) procedure to traditional, face-to-face (F2F) lectures for both graduate medical education (GME) and graduate speech language pathology (GSLP) programs. Design: This was a prospective, quantitative, nonrandomized study. Participants were medical residents in physical medicine and rehabilitation from two affiliated programs and graduate students in speech language pathology from two instructional cohorts at a single institution...
2018: Advances in Medical Education and Practice
Yazed AlRuthia, Bander Balkhi, Marwan Alrasheed, Ahmed Altuwaijri, Mohammad Alarifi, Huda Alzahrani, Wael Mansy
This study aimed to explore the health beliefs and patterns of dietary supplement usage among fitness center members. This cross-sectional study was conducted in four large indoor fitness centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. This study involved male fitness center members aged ≥18 years with no speech or hearing disabilities. In-person interviews were conducted with fitness center members who agreed to participate using a newly developed questionnaire. Information on participants' sociodemographics (e.g., age and education), smoking status, health status, exercise frequency, average time spent exercising, different supplements used, used supplements sources, and health beliefs regarding dietary supplements were obtained...
2018: PloS One
Joseph P Pillion, Dana Boatman-Reich, Barry Gordon
Atypical responses to sound are common in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and growing evidence suggests an underlying auditory brainstem pathology. This review of the literature provides a comprehensive account of the structural and functional evidence for auditory brainstem abnormalities in ASD. The studies reviewed were published between 1975 and 2016 and were sourced from multiple online databases. Indices of both the quantity and quality of the studies reviewed are considered. Findings show converging evidence for auditory brainstem pathology in ASD, although the specific functions and anatomical structures involved remain equivocal...
June 2018: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology: Official Journal of the Society for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology
Sheena C Ranade, Christian A Refakis, Aristides I Cruz, Kelly L Leddy, Lawrence Wells, John Todd Lawrence, Theodore J Ganley
BACKGROUND: Greater frequency and intensity level of sports participation may be contributing to an increasing incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears in skeletally immature athletes. Prior studies have assessed the functional outcomes of physeal-respecting ACL reconstruction in this patient population based on adult functional outcomes scoring systems; however, there is only sparse literature evaluating functional outcomes of this specific patient population. This study aimed to retrospectively evaluate a cohort of pediatric patients who had undergone all-epiphyseal ACL reconstruction (AEACLR) with a set of clinically validated, pediatric-specific patient-reported functional outcomes scores (PRFOS)...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
Alicia F Marvin, Rebecca Volino Robinson
PURPOSE: This study assessed the critical aspect of individual staff attitudes and readiness for change within staff at a non-profit human service organization in Anchorage, Alaska, committed to adopting trauma-informed care (TIC). Organizational research has highlighted that staff attitudes and readiness impact the success of change efforts. METHOD: An online survey was used to measure staff knowledge about trauma, attitudes toward TIC, and readiness for change...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Evidence-informed Social Work
Fei Liu, Yingying Li, Xiaofeng Ju
INTRODUCTION: An online health community (OHC) is a unique social network that provides a platform for sharing healthcare information, communicating about health and offering health services. While many researchers have examined OHCs, the impact of patient reviews on patient consultation behavior in the OHCs has rarely been discussed in the existing literature. METHODS: A computer program was developed to download the required information. This process was conducted monthly to capture the variation in the dependent variable...
June 21, 2018: Telemedicine Journal and E-health: the Official Journal of the American Telemedicine Association
Alice Feurtey, Eva H Stukenbrock
Throughout evolutionary history in the kingdom Fungi, taxa have exchanged genetic information among species, as revealed in particular by analyses of genome sequences. In fungi, hybridization can occur by sexual mating or by fusion of vegetative structures giving rise to new species or leaving traces of introgression in the genome. Furthermore, gene exchange can occur by horizontal gene transfer between species and can even include organisms outside the kingdom Fungi. In several cases, interspecific gene exchange has been instrumental in rapid adaptive evolution of fungal species and has notably played a role in the emergence of new pathogens...
June 21, 2018: Annual Review of Microbiology
Kyla S Ost, June L Round
Mammalian immune systems evolved within a diverse world dominated by microbes, making interactions between these two life-forms inevitable. Adaptive immunity protects against microbes through antigen-specific responses. In classical studies, these responses were investigated in the context of pathogenicity; however, we now know that they have significant effects on our resident microbes. In turn, microbes employ an arsenal of mechanisms to influence development and specificity of host immunity. Understanding these complex reactions will be necessary to develop microbiota-based strategies to prevent or treat disease...
June 21, 2018: Annual Review of Microbiology
Manoj T Duraisingh, Kristen M Skillman
Eukaryotic pathogens must survive in different hosts, respond to changing environments, and exploit specialized niches to propagate. Plasmodium parasites cause human malaria during bloodstream infections, where they must persist long enough to be transmitted. Parasites have evolved diverse strategies of variant gene expression that control critical biological processes of blood-stage infections, including antigenic variation, erythrocyte invasion, innate immune evasion, and nutrient acquisition, as well as life-cycle transitions...
June 21, 2018: Annual Review of Microbiology
Andrew M Kiselica, Amy Duhig, Ivan Montoya, Phil Skolnick, Jennifer Floyd, Cigi Byars
BACKGROUND: Cannabis use disorder (CUD) as described/defined in DSM 5, is characterized by impaired control of marijuana use and related personal, health, and legal consequences. CUD is a serious public health problem, affecting nearly 6 million individuals in the United States. There are no FDA approved medications to treat this disorder. The lack of available treatment options contributes to uncertainties by drug sponsors about formulary and reimbursement decision-making for CUD pharmacotherapies...
June 21, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
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