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Heitor F N de Oliveira, Matthew T Clough, Roberto Rinaldi
Organic electrolyte solutions (OES)-binary mixtures of an ionic liquid (IL) with a neutral polar aprotic co-solvent-are being recognized as excellent candidate solvents for the dissolution, derivatization, and sustainable processing of cellulose. These solutions exhibit the beneficially combined properties of rapid-to-instantaneous cellulose dissolution, raised thermal stability, and reduced viscosity, compared to cellulose solutions in the parent ILs. Herein, we report the reversible, thermally triggered phase separation of cellulose solutions in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate with 1,3-dimethyl-2-imidazolidinone...
October 26, 2016: ChemSusChem
Pei Wang, Qin Zhang, Yuting Liu, He Bai, Kaili Zhang
The present study explored the characteristics of social categorization based on the unidimensional variation of gender or age using the Garner's Selective Attention Paradigm. The task of the experiment was to judge whether there was a mole on a person's face, and the results showed that young participants' response times were slower when the age or gender of the face stimuli varied, demonstrating that young people, rather than older people, can activate both an age category and a gender category automatically...
October 25, 2016: Cognitive Processing
Irina V Fedorova, Michael A Krestyaninov, Lyubov P Safonova
Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations of phosphoric acid (H3PO4)-N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) mixtures over the whole composition range have been carried out. It has been found that the neutral molecules are the dominant species in this system. The concentration dependences of the average number of H-bonds per proton acceptor atom in P=O and C=O groups as well as per proton donor atom in DMFH(+) ions towards phosphate species have been discussed. The H-bonding between components in all investigated mixtures of H3PO4 and DMF is possible...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Marvin Bishop, Paula A Whitlock
Additive binary mixtures of five dimensional hyperspheres were investigated by Monte Carlo simulations. Both equal packing fraction and equal mole fraction systems with diameter ratios of 0.4 and 0.5 were examined. A range of total densities were studied, spanning low to moderate density fluids. The pair correlation functions and the equations of state were determined and compared with molecular dynamics data and a variety of theoretical predictions. A significant result of the equal packing fraction simulations was the discovery of how quickly the larger hyperspheres reorganized into a dense fluid after a random initial placement...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Márcia Pessêgo, Sandra Gago, Nuno Basílio, César A T Laia, A Jorge Parola, João C Lima, Fernando Pina
A structurally constrained derivative of 4',7-dihydroxyflavylium was studied in aqueous solution and in CTAB micelles by pH jumps, flash photolysis and continuous irradiation with spectroscopic details assessed as well by theoretical calculations. In water, up to pH = 8, the compound shows only acid base chemistry with deprotonation of the flavylium cation to form a quinoidal base that further deprotonates with pKas of 4.8 and 7.4. In the basic region, unprotonated trans-chalcones are formed. No neutral trans-chalcone (Ct) is formed in water preventing the establishment of the well-known photochromism involving photoisomerization of this species with subsequent formation of the flavylium cation...
October 25, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Li Jin, Renjie Huo, Runping Guo, Fei Li, Da-Wei Wang, Ye Tian, Qingyuan Hu, Xiaoyong Wei, Zhanbing He, Yan Yan, Gang Liu
Electrostrictive effect has some advantages over the piezoelectric effect, including temperature-stability and hysteresis-free character. In the present work, we report the diffuse phase transitions and electrostrictive properties in lead-free Fe3+-doped 0.5Ba(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3-0.5(Ba0.7Ca0.3)TiO3 (BZT-0.5BCT) ferroelectric ceramics. The doping concentration was set from 0.25 mole % to 2 mole % . It is found that by introducing Fe3+ ion into BZT-0.5BCT, the temperature corresponding to permittivity maximum Tm was shifted toward lower temperature monotonically by 37 oC per mole % Fe3+ ion...
October 24, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Steffen Grampp, James L Platt, Victoria Lauer, Rafik Salama, Franziska Kranz, Viviana K Neumann, Sven Wach, Christine Stöhr, Arndt Hartmann, Kai-Uwe Eckardt, Peter J Ratcliffe, David R Mole, Johannes Schödel
Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is characterized by loss of function of the von Hippel-Lindau tumour suppressor (VHL) and unrestrained activation of hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs). Genetic and epigenetic determinants have an impact on HIF pathways. A recent genome-wide association study on renal cancer susceptibility identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in an intergenic region located between the oncogenes MYC and PVT1. Here using assays of chromatin conformation, allele-specific chromatin immunoprecipitation and genome editing, we show that HIF binding to this regulatory element is necessary to trans-activate MYC and PVT1 expression specifically in cells of renal tubular origins...
October 24, 2016: Nature Communications
Ömer Dag, Fadime Mert Balcı, Ömer Ulaş Kudu, Eda Yilmaz
Mesoporous Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) thin film is an important anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Mesoporous films could be prepared by self-assembly processes. Here we employed a molten salt assisted self-assembly (MASA) process to prepare mesoporous thin films of LTOs. A clear ethanol solution of CTAB, P123, LiNO3, HNO3, and Ti(OC4H9)4 form a gel-like meso-ordered films upon either by spin or spray coating. In the assembly process, The CTAB/P123 mole ratio of 14 is required to accommodate enough salt species in the mesophase, where the Li(I)/P123 can be varied between a mole ratio of 28 and 72...
October 23, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Subash Gireesan, Aniruddha B Pandit
One of the controlling parameters of the physical and chemical effects produced by acoustic cavitation is the use of dissolved gas as it affects the temperature and pressure obtained at cavity collapse and, the reactions happening in a bubble. It also enhances the nucleation rates by decreasing the threshold required for cavitation by providing dissolved gas nuclei. The present study looks into the effect of carbon dioxide gas on cavitation using a diffusion limited model. The model couples the dynamics of a single bubble with 11 chemical reactions involving 8 reactive species...
January 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Mudiwa Catherine Muronda, Patricia Guzman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2016: Pathology
Durata Haciu, Özgür Birer
Zinc acetate solution is sonicated at high power in water and in ethanol in the absence and presence of various peroxides. In the absence of peroxides, the products are zinc oxide and layered hydroxy zinc acetate in water and in ethanol, respectively. Layered basic zinc acetate are prepared for the first time using sonochemical methods. The addition of peroxides alters the reaction mechanisms. In water, insoluble peroxides produce zinc oxides while the water soluble peroxide, i.e. hydrogen peroxide, completely destroyed the structure and casted a doubt on the accepted peroxide initiated mechanism of reactions...
October 13, 2016: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Tommaso Michele Moles, Antonio Pompeiano, Thais Huarancca Reyes, Andrea Scartazza, Lorenzo Guglielminetti
Landraces represent an important part of the biodiversity well-adapted under limiting environmental conditions. We investigated the response of two Southern Italy tomato landraces, the well-known San Marzano (our commercial standard) and a local accession called "Ciettaicale", to different levels of sodium chloride in water irrigation (from 0 up to 600 mM) for a short-time exposure (one week). The combination of the chlorophyll a fluorescence and gas exchange analyses suggested that Ciettaicale maintained a higher efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry and CO2 utilization at high salinity concentrations than San Marzano...
October 12, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Jill Cox, Loretta Kaes, Miguel Martinez, Daniel Moles
Skin temperature may help prospectively determine whether an area of skin discoloration will evolve into necrosis. A prospective, observational study was conducted in 7 skilled nursing facilities to determine if skin temperature measured using infrared thermography could predict the progression of discolored intact skin (blanchable erythema, Stage 1 pressure ulcer, or sus- pected deep tissue injury [sDTI]) to necrosis and to evaluate if nurses could effectively integrate thermography into the clinical setting...
October 2016: Ostomy/wound Management
Astha Garg, Charles A Cartier, Kyle J M Bishop, Darrell Velegol
The zeta potential of a particle characterizes its motion in an electric field and is often thought to be negligible at high ionic strength (several moles per liter) due to thinning of the electrical double layer (EDL). Here, we describe zeta potential measurements on polystyrene latex (PSL) particles at monovalent salt concentrations up to saturation (~ 5 M NaCl) using electrophoresis in sinusoidal electric fields and high-speed video microscopy. Our measurements reveal that the zeta potential remains finite at even the highest concentrations...
October 21, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Yuyang Long, Jing Xu, Dongsheng Shen, Yao Du, Huajun Feng
Leachate membrane concentrates containing high concentrations of organics and trace toxic compounds pose a major threat to the environment, and their treatment is an urgent issue. In this work, various coagulants were used to treat leachate membrane concentrates. Appropriate pH values for treatments with FeCl2, FeSO4, polyaluminum chloride, and FeCl3 were 3, 5, 5, and 4, respectively. FeCl3 achieved the highest total organic carbon (TOC) removal efficiency. The effect of the various anions in ferric coagulants [FeCl3, Fe2(SO4)3, and Fe(NO3)3] on the TOC removal efficiency was negligible...
October 17, 2016: Chemosphere
Xianyu Song, Shuangliang Zhao, Shenwen Fang, Yongzhang Ma, Ming Duan
The dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) method is used to investigate the adsorption behavior of PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymers at the liquid/solid interface. The effect of molecular architecture on the self-assembled monolayer adsorption of PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymers on hydrophobic surfaces is elucidated by adsorption process, film properties, adsorption morphologies, respectively. The adsorption thicknesses on hydrophobic surfaces and diffusion coefficient as well as aggregation number of Pluronic copolymers in aqueous solution observed in our simulations agree well with previous experimental and numerical observations...
October 20, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 19, 2016: Nature
Monica R P Rao, Chaitanya Shirsath
Efavirenz is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor which is chronically prescribed for HIV patients. However, it exhibits solubility-limited bioavailability. Aim of this work was to enhance the solubility and dissolution of the Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) class II drug efavirenz, using beta-cyclodextrin-based nanosponges. Nanosponges have high drug loading capacity and are effective for solubility enhancement. Beta-cyclodextrin was crosslinked with carbonates in different ratios to prepare nanosponges...
October 18, 2016: AAPS PharmSciTech
Michael A Mole, Shaun Rodrigues DÁraujo, Rudi J van Aarde, Duncan Mitchell, Andrea Fuller
Most of southern Africa's elephants inhabit environments where environmental temperatures exceed body temperature, but we do not know how elephants respond to such environments. We evaluated the relationships between apparent thermoregulatory behaviour and environmental, skin and core temperatures for tame savanna elephants (Loxodonta africana) that were free-ranging in the hot parts of the day, in their natural environment. Environmental temperature dictated elephant behaviour within a day, with potential consequences for fine-scale habitat selection, space use and foraging...
2016: Conservation Physiology
Jeanette M Johnstone, Chelsea Roake, Ifrah Sheikh, Ashlie Mole, Joel T Nigg, Barry Oken
Adolescents are in a high-risk period developmentally, in terms of susceptibility to stress. A mindfulness intervention represents a potentially useful strategy for developing cognitive and emotion regulation skills associated with successful stress coping. Mindfulness strategies have been used successfully for emotional coping in adults, but are not as well studied in youth. This article details a novel proposal for the design of an 8-week randomized study to evaluate a high school-based mindfulness curriculum delivered as part of a two semester health class...
December 15, 2016: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications
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