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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/100001003/emergency-management-of-sepsis-the-simple-stuff-saves-lives
#1
David Sweet, Julian Marsden, Kendall Ho, Christina Krause, James A Russell
Many emergency departments have implemented sepsis protocols since the 2001 publication of results from the early goal-directed therapy trial, which showed early targeted resuscitation lowers mortality. As part of an attempt to improve clinical and operational outcomes for emergency departments across British Columbia, we reviewed sepsis management literature and considered sepsis protocol implementation in the province’s emergency departments. During the literature review we found that many observational studies confirmed an association between implementation of emergency sepsis protocols and decreased mortality...
May 2012: BC medical journal: BCMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926980/indexing-natural-products-for-their-potential-anti-diabetic-activity-filtering-and-mapping-discriminative-physicochemical-properties
#2
Mouhammad Zeidan, Mahmoud Rayan, Nuha Zeidan, Mizied Falah, Anwar Rayan
Diabetes mellitus (DM) poses a major health problem, for which there is an unmet need to develop novel drugs. The application of in silico techniques and optimization algorithms is instrumental to achieving this goal. A set of 97 approved anti-diabetic drugs, representing the active domain, and a set of 2892 natural products, representing the inactive domain, were used to construct predictive models and to index anti-diabetic bioactivity. Our recently-developed approach of 'iterative stochastic elimination' was utilized...
September 17, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926160/adult-plasticity-in-african-cichlids-rapid-changes-in-opsin-expression-in-response-to-environmental-light-differences
#3
Sri Pratima Nandamuri, Miranda R Yourick, Karen L Carleton
Phenotypic plasticity allows organisms to adapt quickly to local environmental conditions and could facilitate adaptive radiations. Cichlids have recently undergone an adaptive radiation in Lake Malawi where they inhabit diverse light environments and tune their visual sensitivity through differences in cone opsin expression. While cichlid opsin expression is known to be plastic over development, whether adults remain plastic is unknown. Adult plasticity in visual tuning could play a role in cichlid radiations by enabling survival in changing environments and facilitating invasion into novel environments...
September 19, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925371/inclusion-of-fluorophores-in-cyclodextrins-a-closer-look-at-the-fluorometric-determination-of-association-constants-by-linear-and-non-linear-fitting-procedures
#4
Rudi Hutterer
The author discusses methods for the fluorometric determination of affinity constants by linear and non-linear fitting methods. This is outlined in particular for the interaction between cyclodextrins and several anesthetic drugs including benzocaine. Special emphasis is given to the limitations of certain fits, and the impact of such studies on enzyme-substrate interactions are demonstrated. Both the experimental part and methods of analysis are well suited for students in an advanced lab.
September 19, 2017: Methods and Applications in Fluorescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924725/hiv-viral-suppression-37-states-and-the-district-of-columbia-2014
#5
Kristen L Hess, H Irene Hall
Achieving viral suppression among HIV-positive persons is a critical component of HIV treatment and prevention, because it leads to improved health outcomes for the individual and reduced risk of HIV transmission. There is wide variation in viral suppression across jurisdictions, races/ethnicities, age groups, and transmission risk groups. This analysis uses HIV surveillance data to examine rates of viral suppression among people living with diagnosed HIV (PLWDH) in 38 jurisdictions with complete lab reporting...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924562/assessment-of-analytical-performance-of-glucose-meter-in-pediatric-age-group-at-tertiary-care-referral-hospital
#6
Mohit Vijay Rojekar, Vandana Kumawat, Jayesh Panot, Surekha Khedkar, Arati Adhe-Rojekar
BACKGROUND: Glucometers are the excellent tools for self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). They are important especially in the circumstances where continuous monitoring is mandatory and at decision making levels. Tight glycemic control protocols are important for preventing the ill effects of fluctuating glucose levels. This increases the use of glucometers in various healthcare settings. As technology advances, glucometers are getting better in terms of quality of results. But still some lacunae are there...
2017: Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924283/a-framework-for-laparoscopic-simulations
#7
Osman Hasan, Sohail Iqbal
Due to their numerous advantages, laparoscopic surgical procedures are increasingly becoming common in the operation theatres over the past few decades. Virtual reality training simulators have played a significant role during this transition from traditional to laparoscopic procedures by enhancing surgical skills, such as hand-eye coordination in laparoscopy, and practising surgical scenarios that cannot be easily created using physical models. This paper presents a general framework for such a training simulator while identifying its key components and their specific roles in enhancing various laparoscopic skills...
September 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924282/overcrowding-and-possible-solutions-for-a-busy-paediatric-emergency-department
#8
Muhammad Irfan Habib, Khalid Mehmood Khan
OBJECTIVE: To quantify the extent of emergency department overcrowding in a tertiary care hospital and to identify possible solutions. METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted at the National Institute of Child Health, Karachi, and comprised data of all patients presenting to the emergency department from November 2014 to January 2015. Data was collected through the health management information system which generates daily report of patients. Patients who stayed at the emergency department for 4 or more hours were included...
September 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923860/in-silico-modeling-of-immunotherapy-and-stroma-targeting-therapies-in-human-colorectal-cancer
#9
Jakob Nikolas Kather, Jan Poleszczuk, Meggy Suarez-Carmona, Johannes Krisam, Pornpimol Charoentong, Nektarios A Valous, Cleo-Aron Weis, Luca Tavernar, Florian Leiss, Esther Herpel, Fee Klupp, Alexis Ulrich, Martin Schneider, Alexander Marx, Dirk Jaeger, Niels Halama
Despite the fact that the local immunological microenvironment shapes the prognosis of colorectal cancer, immunotherapy has shown no benefit for the vast majority of colorectal cancer patients. A better understanding of the complex immunological interplay within the microenvironment is required. In this study, we utilized wet lab migration experiments and quantitative histological data of human colorectal cancer tissue samples (n=20) including tumor cells, lymphocytes, stroma and necrosis to generate a multi-agent spatial model...
September 18, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923319/mechanics-of-pharmaceutical-pellets-constitutive-properties-deformation-and-breakage-behavior-%C3%A2
#10
Alexander Russell, Rok Šibanc, Rok Dreu, Peter Müller
To ensure robust manufacturing of unit-based oral solid dosage forms with minimal structural imperfections and high mechanical reliability across subsequent processing unit operations (for e.g. withstanding mechanical stresses during coating, optional axial compression, handling, packaging, storage and transport conditions), process design should include consideration of precise limits of accurate micro, macro and bulk properties of the constituent pellets. This communication presents a comprehensive intricate database of micro-mechanical properties' and breakage probability distribution functions of pellets, illustrating the stiffening and strengthening effects of coatings and the softening and weakening effects of structural moisture...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922390/identifying-novel-transcription-factors-involved-in-the-inflammatory-response-by-using-binding-site-motif-scanning-in-genomic-regions-defined-by-histone-acetylation
#11
Peter S Askovich, Stephen A Ramsey, Alan H Diercks, Kathleen A Kennedy, Theo A Knijnenburg, Alan Aderem
The innate immune response to pathogenic challenge is a complex, multi-staged process involving thousands of genes. While numerous transcription factors that act as master regulators of this response have been identified, the temporal complexity of gene expression changes in response to pathogen-associated molecular pattern receptor stimulation strongly suggest that additional layers of regulation remain to be uncovered. The evolved pathogen response program in mammalian innate immune cells is understood to reflect a compromise between the probability of clearing the infection and the extent of tissue damage and inflammatory sequelae it causes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921773/performance-of-aneuploid-backcross-hybrids-between-the-crop-brassica-napus-and-its-wild-relative-b-rapa
#12
Tom J de Jong, Karla Escobedo Quevedo, Karin C A M van der Veen-van Wijk, Mahmoud Moshgani
Crossings between the diploid wild Brassica rapa (AA, 2n=20) and the tetraploid cultivar B. napus (AACC, 2n=38) can readily be made. Backcrosses to the wild B. rapa (BC1 ) produce aneuploids with variable chromosome numbers between 20 and 29. How does survival and performance relate to DNA content of plants? Growth of the BC1 plants was measured in the lab. One plant in the F1 self-pollinated spontaneously and produced abundant F2 seeds that were also examined. The number of C-chromosomes was estimated from DNA-values obtained with flow cytometry...
September 16, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921435/fed-batch-cho-cell-culture-for-lab-scale-antibody-production
#13
Yuzhou Fan, Daniel Ley, Mikael Rørdam Andersen
Fed-batch culture is the most commonly used upstream process in industry today for recombinant monoclonal antibody production using Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Developing and optimizing this process in the lab is crucial for establishing process knowledge, which enables rapid and predictable tech-transfer to manufacturing scale. In this chapter, we describe stepwise how to carry out fed-batch CHO cell culture for lab-scale antibody production.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921417/bacteriocinogenic-lab-strains-for-fermented-meat-preservation-perspectives-challenges-and-limitations
#14
Lorenzo Favaro, Svetoslav Dimitrov Todorov
Over the last decades, much research has focused on lactic acid bacteria (LAB) bacteriocins because of their potential as biopreservatives and their action against the growth of spoilage microbes. Meat and fermented meat products are prone to microbial contamination, causing health risks, as well as economic losses in the meat industry. The use of bacteriocin-producing LAB starter or protective cultures is suitable for fermented meats. However, although bacteriocins can be produced during meat processing, their levels are usually much lower than those achieved during in vitro fermentations under optimal environmental conditions...
September 18, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920452/challenges-and-opportunities-in-bioanalytical-support-for-gene-therapy-medicinal-product-development
#15
Mark Ma, Nanda Balasubramanian, Robert Dodge, Yan Zhang
Gene and nucleic acid therapies have demonstrated patient benefits to address unmet medical needs. Beside considerations regarding the biological nature of the gene therapy, the quality of bioanalytical methods plays an important role in ensuring the success of these novel therapies. Inconsistent approaches among bioanalytical labs during preclinical and clinical phases have been observed. There are many underlying reasons for this inconsistency. Various platforms and reagents used in quantitative methods, lacking of detailed regulatory guidance on method validation and uncertainty of immunogenicity strategy in supporting gene therapy may all be influential...
September 18, 2017: Bioanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920403/comparison-of-bacterial-communities-in-leachate-from-decomposing-bovine-carcasses
#16
Seung-Hak Yang, Hee Kwon Ahn, Bong Soo Kim, Sun Sik Chang, Ki Yong Chung, Eun Mi Lee, Kwang Seok Ki, Eung Gi Kwon
Objective: Burial is associated with environmental effects such as the contamination of ground or surface water with biological materials generated during the decomposition process. Therefore, bacterial communities in leachates originating from the decomposing bovine carcasses were investigated. Methods: To understand the process of bovine (Hanwoo) carcass decomposition, we simulated burial using a lab-scale reactor with a volume of 5.15 m3. Leachate samples from 3 carcasses were collected using a peristaltic pump once a month for a period of 5 months, and bacterial communities in samples were identified by pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene...
September 18, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919648/optical-imaging-of-large-gyroid-grains-in-block-copolymer-templates-by-confined-crystallization
#17
Raphael Dehmel, James A Dolan, Yibei Gu, Ulrich Wiesner, Timothy D Wilkinson, Jeremy J Baumberg, Ullrich Steiner, Bodo D Wilts, Ilja Gunkel
Block copolymer (BCP) self-assembly is a promising route to manufacture functional nanomaterials for applications from nanolithography to optical metamaterials. Self-assembled cubic morphologies cannot, however, be conveniently optically characterized in the lab due to their structural isotropy. Here, the aligned crystallization behavior of a semicrystalline-amorphous polyisoprene-b-polystyrene-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (ISO) triblock terpolymer was utilized to visualize the grain structure of the cubic microphase-separated morphology...
August 22, 2017: Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919476/current-status-of-the-pilot-scale-anaerobic-membrane-bioreactor-treatments-of-domestic-wastewaters-a-critical-review
#18
REVIEW
Chungheon Shin, Jaeho Bae
This review presented the performances of the pilot-scale anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) treating domestic wastewater. High COD removal efficiencies and low biosolids productions were achieved at HRTs comparable to conventional aerobic processes under ambient temperatures. The energy demands for fouling control in the pilot-scale AnMBRs ranged from 0.04 to 1.35kWh/m(3), which is lower than those of lab-scale AnMBRs and aerobic MBRs. The energy demands for fouling control were in the order of gas sparging>particle sparging>rotating membrane AnMBR...
September 5, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919404/emergency-in-the-clinic-a-simulation-curriculum-to-improve-outpatient-safety
#19
Eve Espey, Gillian Baty, John Rask, Michelle Chungtuyco, Brenda Pereda, Lawrence Leeman
BACKGROUND: Emergency response skills are essential when events such as seizure, anaphylaxis or hemorrhage occur in the outpatient setting. As services and procedures increasingly move outside the hospital, training to manage complications may improve outcomes. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate a simulation-based curriculum in outpatient emergency management skills with the outcome measures of graded objective performance and learner self-efficacy...
September 14, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919029/recent-advances-of-controlled-drug-delivery-using-microfluidic-platforms
#20
REVIEW
Sharma T Sanjay, Wan Zhou, Maowei Dou, Hamed Tavakoli, Lei Ma, Feng Xu, XiuJun Li
Conventional systematically-administered drugs distribute evenly throughout the body, get degraded and excreted rapidly while crossing many biological barriers, leaving minimum amounts of the drugs at pathological sites. Controlled drug delivery aims to deliver drugs to the target sites at desired rates and time, thus enhancing the drug efficacy, pharmacokinetics, and bioavailability while maintaining minimal side effects. Due to a number of unique advantages of the recent microfluidic lab-on-a-chip technology, microfluidic lab-on-a-chip has provided unprecedented opportunities for controlled drug delivery...
September 15, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
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