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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238428/sensitive-screening-of-abused-drugs-in-dried-blood-samples-using-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-ion-booster-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry-uhplc-ib-qtof-ms
#1
Divyabharathi Chepyala, I-Lin Tsai, Hsiao-Wei Liao, Guan-Yuan Chen, Hsi-Chun Chao, Ching-Hua Kuo
An increased rate of drug abuse is a major social problem worldwide. The dried blood spot (DBS) sampling technique offers many advantages over using urine or whole blood sampling techniques. This study developed a simple and efficient ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-ion booster-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-IB-QTOF-MS) method for the analysis of abused drugs and their metabolites using DBS. Fifty-seven compounds covering the most commonly abused drugs, including amphetamines, opioids, cocaine, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, and many other new and emerging abused drugs, were selected as the target analytes of this study...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238202/brain-abnormalities-in-fucosidosis-transplantation-or-supportive-therapy
#2
Minyan Jiang, Sha Liu, Hua Jiang, Yunting Lin, Yongxian Shao, Hao Hu, Xiaoyuan Zhao, Hongsheng Liu, Yonglan Huang, Li Liu
Fucosidosis is a rare lysosomal storage disease caused by α-fucosidase deficiency, which leads to progressive neurological deterioration and death. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the best curative therapy if performed during the early stages of disease. We report two fucosidosis patients with brain abnormalities and the challenge faced in their management. The first patient received supportive therapy and the second one firstly underwent unrelated donor umbilical cord blood transplantation. After a period of follow-up, we found neurological symptoms were worsening day by day on patient1...
February 25, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237587/hepatic-mrna-expression-for-genes-related-to-somatotropic-axis-glucose-and-lipid-metabolisms-and-inflammatory-response-of-periparturient-dairy-cows-treated-with-recombinant-bovine-somatotropin
#3
P R B Silva, W J Weber, B A Crooker, R J Collier, W W Thatcher, R C Chebel
Objectives of this experiment were to evaluate the effects of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) treatment of periparturient dairy cows on hepatic mRNA expression for genes related to the somatotropic axis, insulin, glucose, and lipid metabolism, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Holstein cows were enrolled in the experiment at 253 ± 3 d of gestation and assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: untreated control (n = 53), 87.5 mg of rbST (n = 56; rbST87.5), and 125 mg of rbST (n = 57; rbST125). Cows in the rbST87...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237471/pesticide-exposure-in-the-local-community-of-vehari-district-in-pakistan-an-assessment-of-knowledge-and-residues-in-human-blood
#4
Muhammad Farhan Saeed, Mussarat Shaheen, Iftikhar Ahmad, Ali Zakir, Muhammad Nadeem, Arif Ali Chishti, Muhammad Shahid, Khuda Bakhsh, Christos A Damalas
The present study is based on cross-sectional data collected from rural and market areas of Vehari District in Pakistan to assess public awareness of pesticide risks and determine the levels of exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the local community. Blood samples were collected from 56 volunteer donors (VDs) including children, female workers, farm workers involved in pesticide business, farm workers involved in pesticide spraying activities, and people who were living away from agricultural fields...
February 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28234789/reply-to-packed-red-blood-cells-accumulate-oxidative-stress-with-increased-storage-duration
#5
Alex L Chang, Timothy A Pritts
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 23, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230974/femtogram-resolution-of-iron-content-on-a-per-cell-basis-ex-vivo-storage-of-human-red-blood-cells-leads-to-loss-of-hemoglobin
#6
Jeffrey J Chalmers, Xiaoxia Jin, Andre Francis Palmer, Peter Amaya, Mark H Yazer, Lee R Moore, Kyoung-Joo Park, X Jeff Pan, Maciej Zborowski
The magnetic characteristics of hemoglobin (Hb) changes with the binding of dioxygen (O2) to the heme prosthetic groups of the globin chains: from paramagnetic ferrous Hb to diamagnetic ferrous oxyhemoglobin (oxyHb) with reversibly bound O2, or paramagnetic ferric methemoglobin (metHb). When multiplied over the number of Hb molecules in a red blood cell (RBC), the effect is detectable through motion analysis of RBCs in a high magnetic field and gradient. This motion is referred to as magnetophoretic mobility which can be conveniently expressed as a fraction of the cell sedimentation coefficient...
February 23, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230298/vitamin-e-nanoemulsion-activity-on-stored-red-blood-cells
#7
C A L Silva, C A Azevedo Filho, G Pereira, D C N Silva, M C A B Castro, A F Almeida, S C A Lucena, B S Santos, M L Barjas-Castro, A Fontes
BACKGROUND: Stored red blood cells (RBCs) undergo numerous changes that have been termed RBC storage lesion, which can be related to oxidative damage. Vitamin E is an important antioxidant, acting on cell lipids. Thus, this study aimed to investigate vitamin E activity on stored RBCs. METHODS: We prepared a vitamin E nanoemulsion that was added to RBC units and stored at 4 °C. Controls, without vitamin E, were kept under the same conditions. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was monitored for up to 35 days of storage...
February 23, 2017: Transfusion Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228350/impact-of-technical-and-assay-variation-on-reporting-of-hemolysis-in-stored-red-blood-cell-products
#8
Ruqayyah J Almizraq, Qi Long Yi, Jason P Acker
BACKGROUND: Hemolysis of RBCs is an important measure of product quality and is influenced by donor factors, blood component manufacturing and storage. Percent hemolysis is determined using hematocrit (Hct), supernatant Hb (SHb) and total Hb (THb), each of which can be measured using a variety of methods. METHODS: Sixteen members of an international collaborative were surveyed to understand equipment and procedural variation in hemolysis testing. In a laboratory-based evaluation, we examined how hemolysis was impacted by: measurement of Hct, SHb, THb and number and force of centrifugations for SHb preparation...
February 20, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225837/storage-time-of-intraoperative-transfused-allogeneic-red-blood-cells-is-not-associated-with-new-onset-postoperative-atrial-fibrillation-in-cardiac-surgery
#9
Jiwei Gu, Regitze Kuhr Skals, Christian Torp-Pedersen, Søren Lundbye-Christensen, Carl-Johan Jakobsen, John Bæch, Mikkel Steen Petersen, Jan Jesper Andreasen
BACKGROUND: Allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) transfusion has been associated with new-onset postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) following cardiac surgery. Prolonged storage time of RBC may increase the risk. The primary aim of the study was to evaluate whether the storage time of RBC is associated with development of POAF. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pre-, per- and postoperative data were retrieved from the Western Denmark Heart Registry and local blood banks regarding patients who underwent coronary artery bypass surgery, valve surgery or combined procedures in Aalborg or Aarhus University Hospital during 2010-2014...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221362/disrupted-iron-regulation-in-the-brain-and-periphery-in-cocaine-addiction
#10
K D Ersche, J Acosta-Cabronero, P S Jones, H Ziauddeen, R P L van Swelm, C M M Laarakkers, R Raha-Chowdhury, G B Williams
Stimulant drugs acutely increase dopamine neurotransmission in the brain, and chronic use leads to neuroadaptive changes in the mesolimbic dopamine system and morphological changes in basal ganglia structures. Little is known about the mechanisms underlying these changes but preclinical evidence suggests that iron, a coenzyme in dopamine synthesis and storage, may be a candidate mediator. Iron is present in high concentrations in the basal ganglia and stimulant drugs may interfere with iron homeostasis. We hypothesised that morphological brain changes in cocaine addiction relate to abnormal iron regulation in the brain and periphery...
February 21, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220519/red-blood-cell-concentrates-treated-with-the-amustaline-s-303-pathogen-reduction-system-and-stored-for-35-days-retain-post-transfusion-viability-results-of-a-two-centre-study
#11
J A Cancelas, J L Gottschall, N Rugg, S Graminske, M A Schott, A North, N Huang, N Mufti, A Erickson, S Rico, L Corash
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pathogen reduction technology using amustaline (S-303) was developed to reduce the risk of transfusion-transmitted infection and adverse effects of residual leucocytes. In this study, the viability of red blood cells (RBCs) prepared with a second-generation process and stored for 35 days was evaluated in two different blood centres. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a single-blind, randomized, controlled, two-period crossover study (n = 42 healthy subjects), amustaline-treated (Test) or Control RBCs were prepared in random sequence and stored for 35 days...
February 21, 2017: Vox Sanguinis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220494/mortality-outcomes-in-patients-transfused-with-fresher-versus-older-red-blood-cells-a-meta-analysis
#12
C Chai-Adisaksopha, P E Alexander, G Guyatt, M A Crowther, N M Heddle, P J Devereaux, M Ellis, D Roxby, D I Sessler, J W Eikelboom
BACKGROUND: Among transfused patients, the effect of the duration of red blood cell storage on mortality remains unclear. This study aims to compare the mortality of patients who were transfused with fresher versus older red blood cells. METHODS: We performed an updated systematic search in the CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL databases, from January 2015 to October 2016. RCTs of hospitalized patients of any age comparing transfusion of fresher versus older red blood cells were eligible...
February 20, 2017: Vox Sanguinis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217691/%C3%AE-1-antitrypsin-deficiency-a-misfolded-secretory-protein-variant-with-unique-effects-on-the-endoplasmic-reticulum
#13
David H Perlmutter
In the classical form of α1-antitrypsin deficiency (ATD) a point mutation leads to accumulation of a misfolded secretory glycoprotein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of liver cells and so ATD has come to be considered a prototypical ER storage disease. It is associated with two major types of clinical disorders, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by loss-of-function mechanisms and hepatic cirrhosis and carcinogenesis by gain-of-function mechanisms. The lung disease predominantly results from proteolytic damage to the pulmonary connective tissue matrix because of reduced levels of protease inhibitor activity of α1-anitrypsin (AT) in the circulating blood and body fluids...
September 2016: Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216049/chronic-treatment-with-fluoxetine-modulates-vascular-adrenergic-responses-by-inhibition-of-pre-and-post-synaptic-mechanisms
#14
Camila A Pereira, Fernanda L Rodrigues, Silvia G Ruginsk, Camila Z Zanotto, José A Rodrigues, Diego A Duarte, Claudio M Costa-Neto, Leonardo B Resstel, Fernando S Carneiro, Rita C Tostes
Fluoxetine, a serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), has other effects in addition to blocking serotonin reuptake, including changes in the vasomotor tone. Whereas many studies focused on the acute effects of fluoxetine in the vasculature, its chronic effects are still limited. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that chronic fluoxetine treatment modulates adrenergic vascular responses by interfering with post- and pre-synaptic mechanisms. Wistar rats were treated with vehicle (water) or chronic fluoxetine (10mg/kg/day) for 21 days...
February 17, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215668/potential-of-surfactant-coated-nanoparticles-to-improve-brain-delivery-of-arylsulfatase-a
#15
Tilman Schuster, Astrid Mühlstein, Claudia Yaghootfam, Olga Maksimenko, Elena Shipulo, Svetlana Gelperina, Jörg Kreuter, Volkmar Gieselmann, Ulrich Matzner
The lysosomal storage disorder (LSD) metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) is caused by a deficiency of the soluble, lysosomal hydrolase arylsulfatase A (ASA). The disease is characterized by accumulation of 3-O-sulfogalactosylceramide (sulfatide), progressive demyelination of the nervous system and premature death. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), based on regular intravenous injections of recombinant functional enzyme, is in clinical use for several LSDs. For MLD and other LSDs with central nervous system (CNS) involvement, however, ERT is limited by the blood-brain barrier (BBB) restricting transport of therapeutic enzymes from the blood to the brain...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214180/a-successful-experience-of-the-iranian-blood-transfusion-organization-in-improving-accessibility-and-affordability-of-plasma-derived-medicine
#16
REVIEW
Azita Chegini, Seyed Ardeshir Torab, Ali Akbar Pourfatollah
Plasma is the liquid part of blood. It is estimated 21.6 million liters of plasma collect from Whole blood annually. From these plasma, 4.2 million liters transfuse, 8.1 million liters fractionate, 9.3 million liters waste. Nowadays, blood products and PDM (plasma derived medicine) consider as essential medicine in modern health care and transfusion medicine. Iranian blood transfusion organization as a non-profit organization was established in 1974 in order to centralize all blood transfusion activities from donor recruitment to distribution of blood components to hospitals...
January 4, 2017: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212681/toxoplasma-gondii-survey-in-cats-from-two-environments-of-the-city-of-rio-de-janeiro-brazil-by-modified-agglutination-test-on-sera-and-filter-paper
#17
Paula F Bolais, Philippe Vignoles, Pamela F Pereira, Rafael Keim, Abdelkrim Aroussi, Khadja Ismail, Marie-Laure Dardé, Maria Regina Amendoeira, Aurélien Mercier
BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan with a worldwide distribution, in warm-blood animals, including humans. Local conditions and environmental disturbances may influence transmission dynamics of a zoonotic agent. This study evaluates the epidemiology of T. gondii based on toxoplasmosis prevalence in two populations of cats living in distinct urbanization conditions in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS: Among 372 domestic cats sampled, 265 were from a public shelter located downtown Rio and 107 from a relatively preserved wild environment in a residential area...
February 17, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211988/intrathecal-enzyme-replacement-therapy-reverses-cognitive-decline-in-mucopolysaccharidosis-type-i
#18
Igor Nestrasil, Elsa Shapiro, Alena Svatkova, Patricia Dickson, Agnes Chen, Amy Wakumoto, Alia Ahmed, Edward Stehel, Sarah McNeil, Curtis Gravance, Elizabeth Maher
Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is an inherited lysosomal storage disease that seriously affects the brain. Severity of neurocognitive symptoms in attenuated MPS subtype (MPS IA) broadly varies partially, due to restricted permeability of blood-brain barrier (BBB) which limits treatment effects of intravenously applied α-L-iduronidase (rhIDU) enzyme. Intrathecal (IT) rhIDU application as a possible solution to circumvent BBB improved brain outcomes in canine models; therefore, our study quantifies effects of IT rhIDU on brain structure and function in an MPS IA patient with previous progressive cognitive decline...
March 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210986/the-role-of-the-pharmacist-in-managing-type-2-diabetes-with-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonists-as-add-on-therapy
#19
REVIEW
Jerry Meece
: The prevalence and associated clinical burden of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing in the USA and other countries. As a consequence, the role of the pharmacist in managing T2D is expanding, and it is becoming increasingly important for pharmacists to have a complete understanding of the disease course and treatment options. Pharmacists have a key role in the use of injectable therapies, including incretin-based treatment with glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs). This article discusses the role of the pharmacist in the management of patients with T2D, particularly with respect to the use of GLP-1RAs to achieve glycemic control...
February 16, 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208668/redox-proteomics-and-platelet-activation-understanding-the-redox-proteome-to-improve-platelet-quality-for-transfusion
#20
REVIEW
Giona Sonego, Mélanie Abonnenc, Jean-Daniel Tissot, Michel Prudent, Niels Lion
Blood banks use pathogen inactivation (PI) technologies to increase the safety of platelet concentrates (PCs). The characteristics of PI-treated PCs slightly differ from those of untreated PCs, but the underlying reasons are not well understood. One possible cause is the generation of oxidative stress during the PI process. This is of great interest since reactive oxygen species (ROS) act as second messengers in platelet functions. Furthermore, there are links between protein oxidation and phosphorylation, another mechanism that is critical for cell regulation...
February 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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