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Second victim

Niall McCrae
With a spring in his step, lecturer Jeroen Ensink left his suburban London home to post cards to his many friends around the world, announcing the arrival of his baby daughter. Seconds later his life was over. A young man had pounced, and in a state of frenzy, savagely stabbed his random victim (Daily Mail, 4 January 2016). As psychiatric patient Femi Nandap begins detention in a high-security institution, we should spare some thought for Jeroen's wife, and his only child. This article is protected by copyright...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Advanced Nursing
M J J Kunst, M Van de Wiel
The current study investigated whether mental health practitioners are influenced by the narrative fallacy when assessing the psychological injuries of trauma victims. The narrative fallacy is associated with our tendency to establish logical links between different facts. In psychodiagnostic assessments, this tendency may result in overdiagnosis of mental disorders when psychological symptoms can be attributed to a traumatic event. Consequently, legal decision makers may be at risk of awarding compensation for psychological injuries which are not severe enough to justify financial reimbursement...
2016: Psychological Injury and Law
Clara Caldentey, Judit Tirado Muñoz, Tessie Ferrer, Francina Fonseca Casals, Paola Rossi, Juan Ignacio Mestre-Pintó, Marta Torrens Melich
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a public health problem worldwide. Several factors have been found to be associated with an increased prevalence of IPV, such as substance use. A cross-sectional study was conducted with the aim of determining the prevalence of IPV among women entering Hospital del Mar (Barcelona) for any medical/surgical reason, and who had a diagnosis of substance use disorder. Secondly, it was intended to psychometrically validate the Spanish version of the Hurt, Insulted, Threatened with Harm, Screamed (HITS) questionnaire...
September 29, 2016: Adicciones
Wendy Troop-Gordon, Niwako Sugimura, Karen D Rudolph
This research examined the development of stress responses across second to sixth grades and whether exposure to peer victimization alters stress response trajectories. Youth (338 girls; 298 boys; Mage  = 7.97 years, SD = .37) reported on stress responses; teachers and youth reported on peer victimization. Latent growth curve modeling revealed an increase in effortful engagement responses and a decrease in disengagement and involuntary engagement responses during this period. Peer victimization disrupted these normative trajectories, resulting in less effortful engagement and more effortful disengagement and involuntary stress responses in early adolescence...
October 6, 2016: Child Development
Hanan Edrees, Cheryl Connors, Lori Paine, Matt Norvell, Henry Taylor, Albert W Wu
BACKGROUND: Second victims are healthcare workers who experience emotional distress following patient adverse events. Studies indicate the need to develop organisational support programmes for these workers. The RISE (Resilience In Stressful Events) programme was developed at the Johns Hopkins Hospital to provide this support. OBJECTIVE: To describe the development of RISE and evaluate its initial feasibility and subsequent implementation. Programme phases included (1) developing the RISE programme, (2) recruiting and training peer responders, (3) pilot launch in the Department of Paediatrics and (4) hospital-wide implementation...
September 30, 2016: BMJ Open
Stacey Nofziger, Rachel E Stein, Nicole L Rosen
In cases of suspected child maltreatment, the caseworkers' evaluations of the harm and risk to the child are vital in determining if children are being abused and ultimately whether services are provided to the family. These evaluations are dependent on information caseworkers are able to uncover during their investigation, but may not reflect the experiences of the child. Using data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW-I), this study first compares how consistent children's claims of physical victimization are with caseworkers' assessments of harm, severity of risk, and whether there is physical abuse occurring...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
S T Chan, P C B Khong, W Wang
AIM: To provide an overview of healthcare professionals' psychological responses, coping strategies and supporting needs in the aftermath of an adverse event, thus informing health policy implications and future research in this aspect. BACKGROUND: Trauma experienced by healthcare professionals as second victims potentially provokes intense emotional distress, detrimental professional outcomes and imposes harsh long-term effects. METHODS: A systematic literature review was performed to synthesize the experiences and needs of second victims who are healthcare professionals being traumatized by an unanticipated adverse event, medical error or patient-related injury...
September 28, 2016: International Nursing Review
Thiago F Soares, Simao D Vasconcelos
Nocturnal flight of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) is a controversial issue in forensic entomology. We performed two field experiments to investigate the diurnal and nocturnal activity of six blow fly species in a rainforest fragment in Brazil. Initially, nocturnal (17:30-05:30) versus diurnal (05:30-17:30) flight activity was investigated. Only 3.9% of adults were collected at night, mostly the native species Mesembrinella bicolor, and nocturnal oviposition did not occur. In the second experiment, collection of adults took place at the following intervals: 05:30-08:30, 08:30-11:30, 11:30-14:30, and 14:30-17:30...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Barbara Krahé, Anja Berger
Objective: This article presents a longitudinal analysis of the links between sexual assault victimization, depression, and sexual self-esteem by examining their cross-lagged paths among both men and women. Method: Male and female college students (N = 2,425) in Germany participated in the study that comprised 3 data waves in their first, second, and third year of university, separated by 12-month intervals. Sexual assault victimization was assessed at Time 1 (T1) since the age of 14 and at Time 2 (T2) and Time 3 (T3) for the last 12 months...
September 26, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Ivan Jerković, Željana Bašić, Kristijan Bečić, Gordana Jambrešić, Ivan Grujić, Antonio Alujević, Ivana Kružić
Although in the cases of war crimes the main effort goes to the identification of victims, it is crucial to consider the execution event as a whole. Thus, the goal of the research was to determine the trauma type and probable cause of death on skeletal remains of civilians executed by partisans from WWS found in the three karst sinkholes and to explain the context in which the injuries occurred. We determined biological profiles, pathological conditions, traumas, and assessed their lethality. Nineteen skeletons were found, 68...
September 5, 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Ricardo Alexandre Stock, Elcio Luiz Bonamigo, Emeline Cadore, Rafael Allan Oechsler
BACKGROUND: Infectious crystalline keratopathy is a rare, progressive infection characterized by the insidious progression of branches and crystalline corneal opacities with minimal or no inflammation. This case report describes the evolution of an infectious crystalline keratopathy caused by Cladosporium sp., which developed after tectonic keratoplasty in a patient with a history of ocular trauma. CASE PRESENTATION: A 40-year-old Brazilian male was the victim of firework-induced trauma to the left eye, which resulted in a corneal laceration that could not be sutured as well as a severe traumatic cataract...
2016: International Medical Case Reports Journal
Nikolas Aho, Marie Proczkowska-Björklund, Carl Göran Svedin
The main objective of this article was to study the relationship between the different areas of victimization (eg, sexual victimization) and psychological symptoms, taking into account the full range of victimization domains. The final aim was to contribute further evidence regarding the bias that studies that focus on just one area of victimization may be introduced into our psychological knowledge. The sample included 5,960 second-year high school students in Sweden with a mean age of 17.3 years (range =16-20 years, standard deviation =0...
2016: Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics
Deepa S Pureswaran, Rob Johns, Stephen B Heard, Dan Quiring
Three main hypotheses have been postulated over the past century to explain the outbreaking population dynamics of eastern spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clemens). The Silviculture Hypothesis first arose in the 1920s, with the idea that outbreaks were driven by forestry practices favoring susceptible softwood species. In the 1960s, it was proposed that populations were governed by Multiple Equilibria, with warm weather conditions releasing low-density populations from the regulatory control of natural enemies...
September 1, 2016: Environmental Entomology
Eva Van Gerven, Luk Bruyneel, Massimiliano Panella, Martin Euwema, Walter Sermeus, Kris Vanhaecht
OBJECTIVE: To examine individual, situational and organisational aspects that influence psychological impact and recovery of a patient safety incident on physicians, nurses and midwives. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, retrospective surveys of physicians, midwives and nurses. SETTING: 33 Belgian hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: 913 clinicians (186 physicians, 682 nurses, 45 midwives) involved in a patient safety incident. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The Impact of Event Scale was used to retrospectively measure psychological impact of the safety incident at the time of the event and compare it with psychological impact at the time of the survey...
2016: BMJ Open
Azgad Gold, Rael D Strous
Extreme intentional and deliberate violence against innocent people, including acts of terror and school shootings, poses various ethical challenges, some related to the practice of medicine. We discuss a dilemma relating to deliberate violence, in this case the aftermath of a terror attack, in which there are multiple injured individuals, including the terror perpetrator. Normally, the priority of medical treatment is determined based on need. However, in the case of a terror attack, there is reason to question this...
August 29, 2016: Journal of Medical Ethics
Bernd Lenz, Daniela Thiem, Polyxeni Bouna-Pyrrou, Christiane Mühle, Christina Stoessel, Peter Betz, Johannes Kornhuber
Although women attempt suicides equally or more often than men do, men are more likely to die of suicide than women (sex paradox of suicidal behavior). Furthermore, the male traits of aggression and impulsivity predict suicide completion. Here, we studied the second-to-fourth-finger length ratio (2D:4D), a proxy for prenatal androgen exposure, in 46 suicide corpses and 25 non-suicide corpses. We report significantly lower 2D:4D in male suicide corpses than non-suicide corpses (p = .030, partial η (2) = ...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
Maxine Trent, Kimberly Waldo, Hania Wehbe-Janek, Daniel Williams, Wendy Hegefeld, Lisa Havens
BACKGROUND: Health care providers often experience traumatic events and adversity that can have negative emotional impacts on the profession and on patients. These impacts are typically multifaceted and can result from many different events, such as unanticipated outcomes, licensing board complaints, claims, and litigation. Because health care providers are exposed to diverse situations, they require adequate and timely support, imperative for provider resilience and patient safety. This study evaluated the success of an institution's second victim health care support program and best practices in responding to these traumatic experiences effectively...
August 2016: Journal of Healthcare Risk Management: the Journal of the American Society for Healthcare Risk Management
Gabrielle S Adams, M Ena Inesi
We investigate the possibility that victims and transgressors are predictably miscalibrated in their interpretation of a transgression, and that this has important implications for the process of forgiveness. Across 5 studies, we find that victims underestimate how much transgressors desire forgiveness. This is driven by a 2-part mediating mechanism: First, victims are more likely than transgressors to see the transgression as intentional, and second, this causes victims to believe transgressors feel less guilty than transgressors report feeling...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Lida Eslami, Mohammad Mehdi Mahmoudi
Following the proposal of Universal Design in 1974, a public society was founded in Iran in 1981, in order to aid the disabled victims of the Iran-Iraq war. Official authorities have also made legislation on this topic. During the last three decades many efforts have been made to apply this concept in public spaces. Unfortunately these have not succeeded. It means despite the existence of inherent rules and regulations and the general will to apply the principles of Universal Design in Tehran, urban spaces are still an improper environment for the independent presence and movement of people with disabilities...
2016: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Mohaddeseh Mohsenpour, MohammadAli Hosseini, Abbas Abbaszadeh, Farahnaz Mohammadi Shahboulaghi, HamidReza Khankeh
BACKGROUND: Patient safety, which is a patient's right, can be threatened by nursing errors. Furthermore, nurses' feeling of "being a wrongdoer" in response to nursing errors can influence the quality of care they deliver. RESEARCH OBJECTIVES: To explore the meaning of Iranian nurses' experience of "being a wrongdoer." RESEARCH DESIGN: A phenomenological approach was used to explore nurses' lived experiences. Nurses were recruited purposively to take part in semistructured interviews, and the data collected from these interviews were analyzed using Van Manen's thematic analysis...
August 12, 2016: Nursing Ethics
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