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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333929/the-rise-and-fall-of-rabies-in-japan-a-quantitative-history-of-rabies-epidemics-in-osaka-prefecture-1914-1933
#1
Aiko Kurosawa, Kageaki Tojinbara, Hazumu Kadowaki, Katie Hampson, Akio Yamada, Kohei Makita
Japan has been free from rabies since the 1950s. However, during the early 1900s several large-scale epidemics spread throughout the country. Here we investigate the dynamics of these epidemics between 1914 and 1933 in Osaka Prefecture, using archival data including newspapers. The association between dog rabies cases and human population density was investigated using Mixed-effects models and epidemiological parameters such as the basic reproduction number (R0), the incubation and infectious period and the serial interval were estimated...
March 23, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319531/examination-of-the-life-expectancy-of-patients-with-burns-over-20-of-their-total-body-surface-area-in-comparison-to-the-rest-of-the-population
#2
Weissman Oren, Wagman Yonathan, Givon Adi, Radomislensky Irina, Peleg Kobi, Stavrou Demetris, Haik Josef, Tessone Ariel
Patients with extensive burn injuries suffer from multisystem trauma, which affects their medical, psychological, and social well-being for many years. Monitoring those patients has revealed changes in the endocrine, cardiac, and respiratory systems years after the injury. Our study tries to examine whether changes manifest as a higher risk of death during their lifespan, compared with the general population. Data from the years 1998 to 2013 regarding two groups of patients was obtained from a national trauma registry: one group had suffered burns over 20% of their TBSA and survived the hospitalization period and the second group was a control group of patients admitted with minimal trauma (Injury Severity Score = 1-minor injury to a single body region)...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283133/lymphatic-filariasis-in-southwestern-nigerian-rural-communities-a-cross-sectional-survey-of-the-knowledge-awareness-and-predisposing-factors
#3
Bolatito Oluwabiyi, Oyetunde T Oyeyemi, Adetayo Olorunlana, Nofisat Omiyeniyi, Ayomide Koleosho
BACKGROUND: Nigeria is the second most endemic country in the world for lymphatic filariasis, with control efforts often hampered by poor community awareness and involvement in intervention strategies. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, perception, and psychosocial aspects of some residents in Nigerian rural communities about lymphatic filariasis in order to develop disease control and intervention strategies with active community involvement...
September 2016: Annals of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279107/why-second-victims-need-our-support
#4
Linsey Sheerin
Second victims are healthcare providers who are involved in unanticipated adverse patient events, such as clinical errors, or who have been traumatised by things that have happened at work.
March 10, 2017: Emergency Nurse: the Journal of the RCN Accident and Emergency Nursing Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242557/sensitive-dip-str-markers-for-the-analysis-of-unbalanced-mixtures-from-touch-dna-samples
#5
Fabio Oldoni, Vincent Castella, Frederic Grosjean, Diana Hall
Casework samples collected for forensic DNA analysis can produce genomic mixtures in which the DNA of the alleged offender is masked by high quantities of DNA coming from the victim. DIP-STRs are novel genetic markers specifically developed to enable the target analysis of a DNA of interest in the presence of exceeding quantities of a second DNA (up to 1000-fold). The genotyping system, which is based on allele-specific amplifications of haplotypes formed by a deletion/insertion polymorphism (DIP) and a short tandem repeat (STR), combines the capacity of targeting the DNA of an individual with a strong identification power...
February 14, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240735/universal-expositions-physics-chemistry-and-new-occupational-diseases-the-case-of-marie-sklodowska-curie-and-radium-girls
#6
Silvana Salerno
BACKGROUND: Radium discovery by Marie and Pierre Curies caused previously unknown diseases. Marie Sklodowska Curie (1867-1934) suffered from radiations effects, as did girls in the radium dial watches factories. Therapeutic effects of radium were soon discovered, its unhealthy effects were as yet unheard of. OBJECTIVES: Analysis of Marie Sklodowska Curie (Marie) and radium girls occupational exposure, taking scientific debate on radium dangerous effects into account...
February 15, 2017: La Medicina del Lavoro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229175/survival-prediction-of-trauma-patients-a-study-on-us-national-trauma-data-bank
#7
I Sefrioui, R Amadini, J Mauro, A El Fallahi, M Gabbrielli
BACKGROUND: Exceptional circumstances like major incidents or natural disasters may cause a huge number of victims that might not be immediately and simultaneously saved. In these cases it is important to define priorities avoiding to waste time and resources for not savable victims. Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS) methodology is the well-known and standard system usually used by practitioners to predict the survival probability of trauma patients. However, practitioners have noted that the accuracy of TRISS predictions is unacceptable especially for severely injured patients...
February 22, 2017: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220867/other-regarding-attention-focus-modulates-third-party-altruistic-choice-an-fmri-study
#8
Bastian David, Yang Hu, Frank Krüger, Bernd Weber
Third-party altruistic decision-making has been shown to be modulated by other-regarding attention (e.g., focusing on the offender's crime or the victim's situation especially in judicial judgment). However, the neural mechanisms underlying this modulation remain poorly understood. In this fMRI study, participants voluntarily decided if they wanted to punish the first-party offender or help the second-party victim using their own monetary endowment in an unfair context. Particularly, before deciding they were asked to focus on the (un)fairness of the offender proposing the offer (offender-focused block, OB), the feeling of the victim receiving this offer (victim-focused block, VB), or without any specific focus (baseline block, BB)...
February 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217970/anxiety-symptoms-as-a-moderator-of-the-reciprocal-links-between-forms-of-aggression-and-peer-victimization-in-middle-childhood
#9
John L Cooley, Andrew L Frazer, Paula J Fite, Shaquanna Brown, Moneika DiPierro
The current short-term longitudinal study evaluated whether anxiety symptoms moderated the bidirectional associations between forms (i.e., physical and relational) of aggression and peer victimization over a 1-year period during middle childhood. Participants were 228 predominantly Caucasian children (50.4% boys; M = 8.32 years, SD = .95 years) in the second through fourth grades and their homeroom teachers. Children completed a self-report measure of anxiety symptoms at Time 1. Peer victimization was assessed using self-reports at Time 1 and approximately 1 year later (Time 2), and teachers provided ratings of children's aggressive behavior at both time points...
February 20, 2017: Aggressive Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194041/initial-development-and-validation-of-the-bullyharm-the-bullying-harassment-and-aggression-receipt-measure
#10
William J Hall
This article describes the development and preliminary validation of the Bullying, Harassment, and Aggression Receipt Measure (BullyHARM). The development of the BullyHARM involved a number of steps and methods, including a literature review, expert review, cognitive testing, readability testing, data collection from a large sample, reliability testing, and confirmatory factor analysis. A sample of 275 middle school students was used to examine the psychometric properties and factor structure of the BullyHARM, which consists of 22 items and 6 subscales: physical bullying, verbal bullying, social/relational bullying, cyber-bullying, property bullying, and sexual bullying...
November 2016: Psychology in the Schools
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178913/training-us-health-care-professionals-on-human-trafficking-where-do-we-go-from-here
#11
Clydette Powell, Kirsten Dickins, Hanni Stoklosa
Some 21 million adults and children are labor-trafficked or sex-trafficked through force, fraud, or coercion. In recognition of the interface between trafficking victims and the healthcare setting, over the last 10 years there has been a notable increase in training of health care professionals (HCPs) on human trafficking (HT) and its health implications. Many organizations have developed curricula and offered training in various clinical settings. However, methods and content of this education on trafficking vary widely, and there is little evaluation of the impact of the training...
2017: Medical Education Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145602/feasibility-of-informed-consent-for-ct-in-acute-trauma-patients
#12
Nicole Moore, Nadia Zuabi, Bhavesh Patel, Mark I Langdorf, Robert M Rodriguez
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Computed tomography (CT) is common for trauma victims, but is usually done without informing patients of potential risks or obtaining informed consent. The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of two elements (time and normal level of alertness) necessary for informed consent for CT in adult trauma patients. METHODS: We conducted this prospective observational, two-phase cohort study at two urban, Level 1 trauma centers...
February 1, 2017: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141612/emergency-nurses-as-second-victims-of-error-a-qualitative-study
#13
Mehdi Ajri-Khameslou, Abbas Abbaszadeh, Fariba Borhani
There are many nurses who are victims of errors in the hospital environment. It is quite essential to perceive the outcome of mistakes in nurses' profession. The aim of this scientific study was to interpret the causes that place nurses in danger of errors in emergency departments and also the consequences resulting from confronting the errors in the job environment. This research was designed to pursue a qualitative approach following content analysis. Through the purposeful sampling, 18 emergency nurses were selected to participate in this study...
January 2017: Advanced Emergency Nursing Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134495/pathways-from-witnessing-parental-violence-during-childhood-to-involvement-in-intimate-partner-violence-in-adult-life-the-roles-of-depression-and-substance-use
#14
Clarice S Madruga, Maria Carmen Viana, Renata Rigacci Abdalla, Raul Caetano, Ronaldo Laranjeira
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of witnessing parental violence (WPV) during childhood and of current intimate partner violence (IPV) victimisation and aggression in a Brazilian sample, in order to verify pathways between WPV and involvement in IPV as an adult. DESIGN AND METHODS: The mediating roles of substance use and depression were investigated. Data came from the Second Brazilian National Alcohol and Drugs Survey, a multi-cluster probabilistic household survey, which gathered information on the use of psychoactive substances, current depressive disorder, history of childhood direct and indirect exposure to domestic violence and IPV in a nationally representative sample...
January 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131120/huddles-and-debriefings-improving-communication-on-labor-and-delivery
#15
REVIEW
Emily McQuaid-Hanson, May C M Pian-Smith
Interprofessional teams work together on the labor and delivery unit, where clinical care is often unscheduled, rapidly evolving, and fast paced. Effective communication is key for coordinated delivery of optimal care and for fostering a culture of community and safety in the workplace. The preoperative huddle allows for information sharing, cross-checking, and preparation before the start of surgery. Postoperative debriefings allow the operative team to engage in ongoing process improvement. Debriefings after adverse events allow for shared understanding, mutual healing, and help mitigating the harm to potential "second victims...
March 2017: Anesthesiology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131012/uniqueness-of-the-anterior-dentition-three-dimensionally-assessed-for-forensic-bitemark-analysis
#16
A Franco, G Willems, Phc Souza, W Coucke, P Thevissen
The uniqueness of the human dentition (UHD) is an important concept in the comparative process in bitemark analysis. During this analysis, the incisal edges of the suspects' teeth are matched with the bitemarks collected from the victim's body or crime scenes. Despite playing an essential part to exclude suspects, the UHD contained in the involved incisal tooth edges remains an assumption on bitemark level. The present study was aimed, first, to investigate three-dimensionally (3D) the UHD within different quantities of dental material from the incisal edges; second, to test these outcomes in a bidimensional (2D) simulation...
February 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110842/biomarkers-in-patients-admitted-to-the-emergency-department-after-exposure-to-acrylonitrile-in-a-major-railway-incident-involving-bulk-chemical-material
#17
Sebastiaan Colenbie, Walter Buylaert, Christophe Stove, Ellen Deschepper, Koenraad Vandewoude, Tom De Smedt, Michael Bader, Thomas Göen, An Van Nieuwenhuyse, Peter De Paepe
BACKGROUND: A railway incident with victims of exposure to the cyanogenic substance acrylonitrile (ACN). AIMS: We retrospectively (i)built an inventory of the clinical characteristics of individuals admitted to surrounding emergency departments (ED's) and (ii)studied the correlation between N-2-cyanoethylvaline (CEV), a biomarker used in a population study for evaluating exposure to ACN, with lactate and thiocyanate (SCN), biomarkers determined during emergency care...
January 3, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093300/the-surgeon-as-the-second-victim-results-of-the-boston-intraoperative-adverse-events-surgeons-attitude-bisa-study
#18
Kelsey Han, Jordan D Bohnen, Thomas Peponis, Myriam Martinez, Anirudh Nandan, Daniel D Yeh, Jarone Lee, Marc Demoya, George Velmahos, Haytham M A Kaafarani
BACKGROUND: An intraoperative adverse event (iAE) is often directly attributable to the surgeon's technical error and/or suboptimal intraoperative judgment. We aimed to examine the psychological impact of iAEs on surgeons as well as the surgeons' attitude about iAE reporting. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a web-based cross-sectional survey of all surgeons at 3 major teaching hospitals of the same university. The 29-item questionnaire was developed using a systematic closed and open approach focused on assessing the surgeons' personal account of iAE incidence, emotional response to iAEs, available support systems, and perspective about the barriers to iAE reporting...
January 16, 2017: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079564/an-anesthesiologist-s-perspective-on-the-history-of-basic-airway-management-the-artisanal-anesthetic-era-1846-to-1904
#19
Adrian A Matioc
This second installment of the history of basic airway management covers the early-artisanal-years of anesthesia from 1846 to 1904. Anesthesia was invented and practiced as a supporting specialty in the context of great surgical and medical advances. The current-day anesthesia provider tends to equate the history of airway management with the history of intubation, but for the first 58 yr after the introduction of ether anesthesia, airway management was provided by basic airway techniques with or without the use of a face mask...
March 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074704/the-toxicology-of-zinc-chloride-smoke-producing-bombs-and-screens
#20
REVIEW
Ayman El Idrissi, Lisanne van Berkel, Nadia E Bonekamp, Diana J Z Dalemans, Marcel A G van der Heyden
CONTEXT: Zinc chloride (ZnCl2)-based smoke bombs and screens are in use since the Second World War (1939-1945). Many case descriptions on ZnCl2 smoke inhalation incidents appeared since 1945. OBJECTIVE: We provide a comprehensive overview of the clinical symptoms and underlying pathophysiology due to exposure to fumes from ZnCl2 smoke producing bombs. In addition, we give a historical overview of treatment regimens and their outcomes. METHODOLOGY: We performed a literature search on Medline, Scopus and Google Scholar databases using combinations of the following search terms "smoke bomb", "smoke screen", "ZnCl2", "intoxication", "poisoning", "case report", "HE smoke", "hexachloroethane smoke", "smoke inhalation" and "white smoke"...
March 2017: Clinical Toxicology
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