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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145465/hospital-associated-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-a-cross-sectional-analysis-of-risk-factors-in-south-african-tertiary-public-hospitals
#1
Liliwe L Shuping, Lazarus Kuonza, Alfred Musekiwa, Samantha Iyaloo, Olga Perovic
INTRODUCTION: Hospital-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (HA-MRSA) remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. We conducted a study to determine risk factors for HA-MRSA in order to inform control strategies in South Africa. METHODS: We used surveillance data collected from five tertiary hospitals in Gauteng and Western Cape provinces during 2014 for analysis. A case of HA-MRSA was defined as isolation of MRSA from a blood culture 48 hours after admission and/or if the patient was hospitalised in the six months prior to the current culture...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133567/risk-factors-and-outcomes-associated-with-multidrug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-upon-icu-admission
#2
Natalia Blanco, Anthony D Harris, Clare Rock, J Kristie Johnson, Lisa Pineles, Robert A Bonomo, Arjun Srinivasan, Melinda M Pettigrew, Kerri A Thom
Introduction: Multi-drug resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii, associated with broad-spectrum antibiotic use, is an important nosocomial pathogen associated with morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of MDR A. baumannii perirectal colonization among adult patients at ICU admission over a 5-year period, and to identify risk factors and outcomes associated with colonization.Methods: A retrospective cohort analysis of patients admitted to the medical (MICU) and surgical intensive care units (SICU) at the University of Maryland Medical Center from May 2005 to September 2009 was performed using perirectal surveillance cultures on admission...
November 13, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132794/saccharomyces-cerevisiae-fungemia-after-probiotic-treatment-in-an-intensive-care-unit-patient
#3
I Kara, F Yıldırım, Ö Özgen, S Erganiş, M Aydoğdu, M Dizbay, G Gürsel, A Kalkanci
Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a common colonizer of the human gastrointestinal system as a benign organism. Enteral supplementation of this yeast as a probiotic product is effective in the treatment of antibiotic associated diarrhae. In rare occasions it can cause invasive infections. We present two fungemia cases in an intensive care unit following probiotic treatment containing S. boulardii. We are warning the safety of probiotic treatment in critically ill patients.
November 10, 2017: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132352/intensive-care-antibiotic-consumption-and-resistance-patterns-a-cross-correlation-analysis
#4
Luminita Baditoiu, Carmen Axente, Diana Lungeanu, Delia Muntean, Florin Horhat, Roxana Moldovan, Elena Hogea, Ovidiu Bedreag, Dorel Sandesc, Monica Licker
BACKGROUND: Over recent decades, a dramatic increase in infections caused by multidrug-resistant pathogens has been observed worldwide. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between local resistance bacterial patterns and antibiotic consumption in an intensive care unit in a Romanian university hospital. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted between 1st January 2012 and 31st December 2013. Data covering the consumption of antibacterial drugs and the incidence density for the main resistance phenotypes was collected on a monthly basis, and this data was aggregated quarterly...
November 13, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128348/pattern-of-gram-negative-blood-stream-infections-and-their-antibiotic-susceptibility-profiles-in-a-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#5
Fatima Sana, Luqman Satti, Gohar Zaman, Adeel Gardezi, Anum Imtiaz, Abeera Ahmed, Muhammad Tahir Khadim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 8, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128346/mortality-risk-factors-among-non-icu-patients-with-nosocomial-vascular-catheter-related-bloodstream-infections-a-prospective-cohort-study
#6
Patrick Saliba, Ana Hornero, Guillermo Cuervo, Immaculada Grau, Emilio Jimenez, Dolors García, Fe Tubau, Jose María Martínez-Sánchez, Jordi Carratalà, Miquel Pujol
BACKGROUND: Vascular catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) are highly preventable hospital-acquired infections and a major threat to patient safety. While there is significant information regarding CRBSI outcome among Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients, data regarding non-ICU patients are scarce. AIM: To determine the risk factors associated with 30-day mortality among non-ICU patients with nosocomial CRBSIs. METHODS: Prospective cohort study of non-ICU patients with nosocomial CRBSIs in a tertiary-care centre, between January 2004 and December 2014...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126217/change-in-pneumococcus-serotypes-but-not-mortality-or-morbidity-in-pre-and-post-13-valent-polysaccharide-conjugate-vaccine-era-epidemiology-in-a-pediatric-intensive-care-unit-over-10-years
#7
Kam Lun Hon, King Hang Chan, Pak Long Ko, Michelle Ho Yan Cheung, Kathy Yin C Tsang, Lawrence C N Chan, Renee W Y Chan, Ting Fan Leung, Margaret Ip
Aim: Pneumococcus is a common commensal and an important pathogen among children for which immunization is available. Some serotypes occasionally cause severe pneumococcal disease with high mortality and morbidity. We reviewed all pneumococcal serotypes and mortality/morbidity in a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) following universal pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) immunization. Methods: A 13-valent PCV was introduced in the universal immunization program in late 2011 in Hong Kong...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124121/patients-comorbidities-reduce-the-clinical-value-of-emergency-colonoscopy-results-of-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#8
Cristiano Cremone, Anouk Esch, Charlotte Gagniere, Alessandro Fugazza, Faria Mesli, Michael Levy, Aurelien Amiot, Alexis Laurent, Yann LeBaleur, Francois Hemery, Nicolas De'Angelis, Francesco Brunetti, Iradj Sobhani
Background and study aims:  Urgent endoscopy is often used to diagnose and sometimes treat acute upper gastrointestinal syndromes (hemorrhage, toxic ingestion, and occlusion). However, its suitability concerning the management of lower gastrointestinal conditions in emergency circumstances is controversial. Patients and methods:  We studied the role of emergency colonoscopy in diagnosis and treatment of all consecutive patients presenting with acute lower gastrointestinal symptoms referred to our hospital on an emergency basis...
November 2017: Endoscopy International Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118940/frequency-of-antibiotic-associated-diarrhea-caused-by-clostridium-difficile-among-hospitalized-patients-in-intensive-care-unit-kerman-iran
#9
Ebrahim Rezazadeh Zarandi, Shahla Mansouri, Nouzar Nakhaee, Farhad Sarafzadeh, Zahra Iranmanesh, Mohammad Moradi
Aim: This study evaluated the frequency of C. difficile and CDAD in the ICU of Shahid Bahonhar Hospital, Kerman, Iran. Background: Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is the most important antibiotic associated diarrhea agent in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Based on its toxin producing ability, C .difficile is divided to toxigenic and non-toxigenic strains. Methods: A total of 233 diarrheal samples were collected from ICU patients...
2017: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118410/the-microbiological-characteristics-and-risk-factors-for-picc-related-bloodstream-infections-in-intensive-care-unit
#10
Shumin Zhang, Xiaofeng Sun, Yan Lei
The study was aimed to investigate the pathogens distribution and risk factors for PICC-related bloodstream infection in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. 402 patients placed with PICC in ICU were recruited in the study. The microbiological characteristics of PICC-related infection were investigated by Vitek 2 Compact automated microbial system. Antibiotics sensitivity was performed with disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) methods. Multivariate logistic and cox analyses were performed to identify the risk factors for PICC-related infection in ICU patients...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117669/late-diagnosis-of-influenza-in-adult-patients-during-a-seasonal-outbreak
#11
Seong-Ho Choi, Jin-Won Chung, Tark Kim, Ki-Ho Park, Mi Suk Lee, Yee Gyung Kwak
Background/Aims: Due to advances in diagnostic techniques, clinicians are more frequently performing influenza diagnostic tests and referring to their test results ahead of the administration of neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs). To investigate the clinical significance of the time from symptom onset to laboratory diagnosis, we reviewed the clinical characteristics of adult patients with influenza who had an early laboratory diagnosis (ED) or a late laboratory diagnosis (LD) at one of four tertiary care centers during a seasonal outbreak of influenza...
November 10, 2017: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103235/validation-of-a-cross-infection-control-program-in-an-understaffed-intensive-care-unit
#12
Amit Frenkel, Abraham Borer, Aviel Roy-Shapira, Evgeni Brotfain, Leonid Koyfman, Lisa Saidel-Odes, Alir Adina, Moti Klein
BACKGROUND: The authors describe a multifaceted cross-infection control program that was implemented to contain an epidemic of multidrug-resistant microorganisms (MRO) (carbapenem resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii; extended spectrum β-lactamase producing Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter Cloacae, and Proteus mirabilis; and ‎methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Candida species). OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of a control program on the incidence of cross-infection with MRO...
October 2017: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102989/universal-or-targeted-approach-to-prevent-the-transmission-of-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-in-intensive-care-units-a-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#13
Lidia Kardaś-Słoma, Jean-Christophe Lucet, Anne Perozziello, Camille Pelat, Gabriel Birgand, Etienne Ruppé, Pierre-Yves Boëlle, Antoine Andremont, Yazdan Yazdanpanah
OBJECTIVE: Several control strategies have been used to limit the transmission of multidrug-resistant organisms in hospitals. However, their implementation is expensive and effectiveness of interventions for the control of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) spread is controversial. Here, we aim to assess the cost-effectiveness of hospital-based strategies to prevent ESBL-PE transmission and infections. DESIGN: Cost-effectiveness analysis based on dynamic, stochastic transmission model over a 1-year time horizon...
November 3, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102205/a-multi-institutional-cohort-study-confirming-the-risks-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-associated-with-prolonged-antibiotic-prophylaxis
#14
Katherine A Kirkwood, Brian C Gulack, Alexander Iribarne, Michael E Bowdish, Giampaolo Greco, Mary Lou Mayer, Karen O'Sullivan, Annetine C Gelijns, Nishit Fumakia, Ravi K Ghanta, Jesse M Raiten, Anuradha Lala, Joseph S Ladowski, Eugene H Blackstone, Michael K Parides, Alan J Moskowitz, Keith A Horvath
OBJECTIVES: The incidence and severity of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) have increased rapidly over the past 2 decades, particularly in elderly patients with multiple comorbidities. This study sought to characterize the incidence and risks of these infections in cardiac surgery patients. METHODS: A total of 5158 patients at 10 Cardiothoracic Surgical Trials Network sites in the US and Canada participated in a prospective study of major infections after cardiac surgery...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096992/epidemiology-and-risk-factors-for-mortality-in-bloodstream-infection-by-cp-kp-esbl-e-candida-and-cdi-a-single-center-retrospective-study
#15
Silvia Corcione, Roberto Angilletta, Stefania Raviolo, Claudia Filippini, Lucina Fossati, Giovanni Di Perri, Rossana Cavallo, Francesco Giuseppe De Rosa
BACKGROUND: The incidence of C. difficile infection (CDI) and of bloodstream infection (BSI) caused by Candida spp., ESBL-E-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) and carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae (CP-Kp) is associated with high mortality. METHODS: We conducted a single centre retrospective study on patients admitted to Molinette Hospital, Turin, Italy, from January 2013 to April 2015 with CDI or BSI caused by Candida, ESBL-E or CP-Kp. For each patient demographic, clinical and microbiological data were collected...
October 30, 2017: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093233/optimal-amikacin-levels-for-patients-with-sepsis-in-intensive-care-unit-of-cipto-mangunkusumo-hospital-jakarta-indonesia
#16
Gestina Aliska, Rianto Setiabudy, Purwantyastuti Purwantyastuti, Anis Karuniawati, Rudyanto Sedono, Trisni U Dewi, Muhammad K Azwar
BACKGROUND: Amikacin is one of the antibiotics of choice for sepsis and septic shock. Pharmacokinetic of amikacin can be influenced by septic condition with subsequent effect on its pharmacodynamic. At Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital (RSCM), Jakarta, adult patients in the ICU were given standard amikacin dose of 1 g/day, however the achievement of optimal plasma level had never been evaluated. This study aimed to evaluate whether the optimal plasma level of amikacin was achieved with the use of standard dose in septic conditions...
July 2017: Acta Medica Indonesiana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090355/microbiological-comparison-of-blood-culture-and-amplification-of-16s-rdna-methods-in-combination-with-dgge-for-detection-of-neonatal-sepsis-in-blood-samples
#17
Isela García-Gudiño, Eucario Yllescas-Medrano, Rolando Maida-Claros, Diana Soriano-Becerril, Nestor F Díaz, Guadalupe García-López, Anayansí Molina-Hernández, Oscar Flores-Herrera, Francisco J Zavala-Díaz de la Serna, María Del Rosario Peralta-Pérez, Héctor Flores-Herrera
It is estimated that 15% of all newborns admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) for suspected sepsis receive multiple broad-spectrum antibiotics without pathogen identification. The gold standard for bacterial sepsis detection is blood culture, but the sensitivity of this method is very low. Recently, amplification and analysis of the 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) bacterial gene in combination with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) has proven to be a useful approach for identifying bacteria that are difficult to isolate by standard culture methods...
October 31, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082903/invasive-candidiasis-in-a-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-in-lagos-nigeria
#18
Beatrice Nkolika Ezenwa, Rita Okeoghene Oladele, Patricia Eyanya Akintan, Iretiola Bamikeolu Fajolu, Phillip Olayiwola Oshun, Oyinlola Omoniyi Oduyebo, Veronica Chinyere Ezeaka
BACKGROUND: Invasive candidiasis has been identified globally as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in neonatal intensive care units (NICU). Systemic candidiasis presents like bacterial sepsis and can involve multiple organs. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Candida infection in a NICU at a tertiary hospital in Nigeria and to identify its associated risk factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was a retrospective descriptive study of all cases of culture-proven invasive Candida infection (ICI) in neonates admitted to the NICU over a 4-year period...
July 2017: Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078905/sphingosine-rescues-aged-mice-from-pulmonary-pseudomonas-infection
#19
Teresa C Rice, Amanda M Pugh, Aaron P Seitz, Erich Gulbins, Vanessa Nomellini, Charles C Caldwell
BACKGROUND: Bacterial lung infection is a leading cause of death for those 65 y or older, often requiring intensive care unit admission and mechanical ventilation, which consumes considerable health care resources. Although administration of antibiotics is the standard of care for bacterial pneumonia, its overuse has led to the emergence of multidrug resistant organisms. Therefore, alternative strategies to help minimize the effects of bacterial pneumonia in the elderly are necessary...
November 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075483/extended-spectrum-and-metalo-beta-lactamase-producing-airborne-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-acinetobacter-baumanii-in-restricted-settings-of-a-referral-hospital-a-neglected-condition
#20
Fithamlak Bisetegen Solomon, Fiseha Wadilo, Efrata Girma Tufa, Meseret Mitiku
BACKGROUND: Frequently encountered multidrug-resistant bacterial isolates of P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii are common and prevalent in a hospital environment. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and pattern of antibiotic resistance, extended spectrum and metallo beta-lactamase producing P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii isolates from restricted settings of indoor air hospital environment. METHODS: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Wolaita Sodo University Teaching and referral Hospital, Ethiopia from December 1/2015 to April 30/2015...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
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