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Antibiotic intensive care unit

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340851/comparison-of-antibiotic-dosing-recommendations-for-neonatal-sepsis-from-established-reference-sources
#1
T B Y Liem, E M A Slob, J U M Termote, T F W Wolfs, A C G Egberts, C M A Rademaker
Background Incorrect dosing is the most frequent prescribing error in neonatology, with antibiotics being the most frequently prescribed medicines. Computer physician order entry and clinical decision support systems can create consistency contributing to a reduction of medication errors. Although evidence-based dosing recommendations should be included in such systems, the evidence is not always available and subsequently, dosing recommendations mentioned in guidelines and textbooks are often based on expert opinion...
January 16, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324651/incidence-microbiological-profile-and-risk-factors-of-healthcare-associated-infections-in-intensive-care-units-a-10-year-observation-in-a-provincial-hospital-in-southern-poland
#2
Małgorzata Kołpa, Marta Wałaszek, Agnieszka Gniadek, Zdzisław Wolak, Wiesław Dobroś
Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) occurring in patients treated in an intensive care unit (ICU) are serious complications in the treatment process. Aetiological factors of these infections can have an impact on treatment effects, treatment duration and mortality. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and microbiological profile of HAIs in patients hospitalized in an ICU over a span of 10 years. The active surveillance method was used to detect HAIs in adult patients who spent over 48 h in a general ICU ward located in southern Poland between 2007 and 2016...
January 11, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317840/an-antibiotic-stewardship-exercise-in-the-icu-building-a-treatment-algorithm-for-the-management-of-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-based-on-local-epidemiology-and-the-2016-infectious-diseases-society-of-america-american-thoracic-society-guidelines
#3
Lyn S Awad, Dania I Abdallah, Anas M Mugharbil, Tamima H Jisr, Nabila S Droubi, Nabila A El-Rajab, Rima A Moghnieh
Introduction: Management of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), the most common infection in patients on mechanical ventilation, should be tailored to local microbiological data. The aim of this study was to determine susceptibility patterns of organisms causing VAP to develop a treatment algorithm based on these findings and evidence from the literature. Materials and methods: This is a retrospective analysis of the microbiological etiology of VAP in the intensive care unit (ICU) of a Lebanese tertiary care hospital from July 2015 to July 2016...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313312/influence-of-single-dose-antibiotic-prophylaxis-for-early-onset-pneumonia-in-high-risk-intubated-patients
#4
Timothy D Lewis, Kelly A Dehne, Kathryn Morbitzer, Denise H Rhoney, Casey Olm-Shipman, J Dedrick Jordan
BACKGROUND: Early-onset pneumonia (EOP) after endotracheal intubation is common among critically ill patients with a neurologic injury and is associated with worse clinical outcomes. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study observed outcomes pre- and post-implementation of an EOP prophylaxis protocol which involved the administration of a single dose of ceftriaxone 2 g around the time of intubation. The study included patients ≥ 18 years who were admitted to the University of North Carolina Medical Center (UNCMC) neuroscience intensive care unit (NSICU) between April 1, 2014, and October 26, 2016, and intubated for ≥ 72 h...
January 8, 2018: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313072/-antibiotic-stewardship-measures-for-optimizing-prescription-of-anti-infective-agents
#5
REVIEW
C Lanckohr, H Bracht
Antibiotic stewardship (ABS) comprises a bundle of different interventions to improve anti-infective treatment in a hospital setting. An important component of ABS interventions is the interdisciplinary approach to infection management. Besides improving infrastructural aspects on a hospital level, including surveillance of the use of anti-infective agents and nosocomial infections, collation and interpretation of statistics on resistance and formulation of local treatment guidelines, ABS teams go to the wards and advise treating physicians on antibiotic therapy...
January 8, 2018: Der Anaesthesist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310404/extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-combined-with-continuous-renal-replacement-therapy-in-cutaneous-burn-and-inhalation-injury-caused-by-hydrofluoric-acid-and-nitric-acid
#6
Qinhua Pu, Jinxian Qian, Weiyi Tao, Aixiang Yang, Jian Wu, Yaodong Wang
RATIONALE: Hydrofluoric acid (HF) is a highly corrosive agent and can cause corrosive burns. HF can penetrate deeply into tissues through intact skin and the lipid barrier, leading to painful liquefactive necrosis, and inducing hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia. In this study, we hypothesize that continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) may be beneficial in addressing hemodynamic instability in cases of HF poisoning. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 25-year-old man fell into an electroplating pool containing 10% HF and 50% nitric acid...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309371/healthcare-utilization-and-infection-in-the-week-prior-to-sepsis-hospitalization
#7
Vincent X Liu, Gabriel J Escobar, Rakesh Chaudhary, Hallie C Prescott
OBJECTIVES: To quantify healthcare utilization in the week preceding sepsis hospitalization to identify potential opportunities to improve the recognition and treatment of sepsis prior to admission. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Two large integrated healthcare delivery systems in the United States. PARTICIPANTS: Hospitalized sepsis patients. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We quantified clinician-based encounters in each of the 7 days preceding sepsis admission, as well as on the day of admission, and categorized them as: hospitalization, subacute nursing facility, emergency department, urgent care, primary care, and specialty care...
January 5, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308753/-design-and-application-of-bundle-treatment-plan-in-the-early-stage-for-severe-human-infection-by-avian-influenza-h7n9
#8
Ling Wang, Xiaobin Fang, Yongling Yang, Zhengping Zhang, Jianlin Zhou, Jingsong Yang, Kaifeng Liu, Zhenhua Wang
OBJECTIVE: To design bundle treatment plan in the early stage for severe human infection by avian influenza H7N9, and explore its clinical efficacy and application value. METHODS: Fifteen patients with severe human infection by avian influenza H7N9 in Guizhou Province from December 29th, 2016 to June 7th, 2017 were enrolled. Patients admitted from March 6th, 2017 to June 7th, 2017 served as a prospective observation period (bundle treatment group), and those from December 29th, 2016 to March 5th, 2017 were selected as a historical control period (conventional treatment group)...
January 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306875/serum-lactate-cut-offs-as-a-risk-stratification-tool-for-in-hospital-adverse-outcomes-in-emergency-department-patients-screened-for-suspected-sepsis
#9
Amith L Shetty, Kelly Thompson, Karen Byth, Petra Macaskill, Malcolm Green, Mary Fullick, Harvey Lander, Jonathan Iredell
OBJECTIVES: We investigated specific lactate thresholds for adverse outcomes in patients presenting to emergency departments (EDs) with suspected sepsis identified based on the performance of a sepsis screening algorithm. DESIGN AND SETTING: A standardised sepsis bundle was implemented across public hospitals in New South Wales, Australia, as a quality improvement initiative. A register of all adult ED presentations (≥18 years) meeting predefined criteria for sepsis was created, using a combination of data linkage and direct reporting from 97 participating sites...
January 5, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304746/a-multi-center-study-on-the-risk-factors-of-infection-caused-by-multi-drug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii
#10
Huiping Huang, Borong Chen, Gang Liu, Jing Ran, Xianyu Lian, Xinhua Huang, Nan Wang, Zhengjie Huang
BACKGROUND: Acinetobacter baumannii (AB) is critical for healthcare-associated infections (HAI) with significant regional differences in the resistance rate, but its risk factors and infection trends has not been well studied. We aimed to explore the risk factors, epidemiological characteristics and resistance of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDR-AB) in intensive care unit inpatients. METHODS: Data of patients with MDR-AB (195 cases), and with antibiotic-sensitive AB infection (294 cases, control) during January to December, 2015 in three medical centers in Xiamen, China were conducted and analyzed in the present retrospective study...
January 5, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300363/unusually-high-incidences-of-staphylococcus-aureus-infection-within-studies-of-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-prevention-using-topical-antibiotics-benchmarking-the-evidence-base
#11
James C Hurley
Selective digestive decontamination (SDD, topical antibiotic regimens applied to the respiratory tract) appears effective for preventing ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. However, potential contextual effects of SDD on Staphylococcus aureus infections in the ICU remain unclear. The S. aureus ventilator associated pneumonia (S. aureus VAP), VAP overall and S. aureus bacteremia incidences within component (control and intervention) groups within 27 SDD studies were benchmarked against 115 observational groups...
January 4, 2018: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298407/a-hybrid-form-of-telemedicine-a-unique-way-to-extend-intensive-care-service-to-neonates-in-medically-underserved-areas
#12
Abhishek Makkar, Mike McCoy, Gene Hallford, Marilyn Escobedo, Edgardo Szyld
BACKGROUND: More than 90% of neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in the United States are in urban areas, denying rural residents' easy NICU access. Telemedicine use for patient contact and management, although studied in adults and children, is understudied in neonates. A hybrid telemedicine system, with 24/7 neonatal nurse practitioner coverage and with a neonatologist physically present 3 days per week and telemedicine coverage the remaining days, was recently implemented at Comanche County Memorial Hospital's (CCMH) Level II NICU...
January 3, 2018: Telemedicine Journal and E-health: the Official Journal of the American Telemedicine Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290490/-suboptimal-care-and-severe-bacterial-infection-in-the-french-caribbean-area
#13
E Goisque, E Launay, B Vrignaud, E Jolivet, F Henaff, C Gras-Leguen
OBJECTIVE: To study the frequency and types of suboptimal care in initial management of children suffering from a severe bacterial infection (SBI), in a French region where little is known about pediatric SBI epidemiology. METHOD: Retrospective single-center study over a 6-year period. Children between 3 months and 15 years of age, deceased or surviving and admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit of the university-affiliated hospital of Martinique for a community-onset SBI were included in this study...
December 28, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288367/antimicrobial-resistance-and-antibiotic-stewardship-programs-in-the-icu-insistence-and-persistence-in-the-fight-against-resistance-a-position-statement-from-esicm-escmid-waaar-round-table-on-multi-drug-resistance
#14
Jan J De Waele, Murat Akova, Massimo Antonelli, Rafael Canton, Jean Carlet, Daniel De Backer, George Dimopoulos, José Garnacho-Montero, Jozef Kesecioglu, Jeffrey Lipman, Mervyn Mer, José-Artur Paiva, Mario Poljak, Jason A Roberts, Jesus Rodriguez Bano, Jean-François Timsit, Jean-Ralph Zahar, Matteo Bassetti
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a clear and present danger to patients in any intensive care unit (ICU) around the world. Whereas AMR may affect any patient in the hospital, patients in the ICU are particularly at risk of acquiring AMR infections due to the intensity of the treatment, use of invasive devices, increased risk of transmission and exposure to antibiotics. AMR is present in every ICU, although prevalence is geographically different and AMR pathogens encountered are variable. Intensive care and infectious disease specialists from the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine, European Society of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases and World Alliance Against Antimicrobial Resistance, united in the ANTARCTICA (Antimicrobial Resistance in Critical Care) coalition, call for increased awareness and action among health care professionals to reduce AMR development in critically ill patients, to improve treatment of AMR infections and to coordinate scientific research in this high-risk patient population...
December 29, 2017: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285477/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-producing-metallo-%C3%AE-lactamases-vim-imp-sme-and-aim-in-the-clinical-isolates-of-intensive-care-units-a-university-hospital-in-isfahan-iran
#15
Farzin Khorvash, Mohammadreza Yazdani, Shiva Shabani, Aliasghar Soudi
Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a severe challenge for antimicrobial therapy, due to the chromosomal mutations or exhibition of intrinsic resistance to various antimicrobial agents such as most β-lactams. We undertook this study to evaluate the existence of SME, IMP, AIM, and VIM metallo-β-lactamases (MBL) encoding genes among P. aeruginosa strains isolated from Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients in Al-Zahra Hospital in Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods: In a retrospective cross-sectional study that was conducted between March 2012 and April 2013, a total of 48 strains of P...
2017: Advanced Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284716/burden-of-early-term-birth-on-adverse-infant-outcomes-a-population-based-cohort-study-in-brazil
#16
Maria do Carmo Leal, Ana Paula Esteves-Pereira, Marcos Nakamura-Pereira, Rosa Maria Soares Madeira Domingues, Marcos Augusto Bastos Dias, Maria Elisabeth Moreira, Mariza Theme-Filha, Silvana Granado Nogueira da Gama
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the national rate of early-term live births in Brazil and to evaluate the effect of birth at 37 and 38 weeks' gestation, as compared with 39 and 40 weeks' gestation on infant outcomes according to precursors of birth and the existence of maternal/fetal medical conditions. DESIGN: National perinatal population-based cohort study. SETTING: 266 maternity services located in the five Brazilian macroregions. PARTICIPANTS: 18 652 singleton live newborns from 37 0/7 to 40 6/7 weeks of gestation...
December 27, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284278/implementation-and-evaluation-of-the-early-onset-sepsis-risk-calculator-in-a-high-risk-university-nursery
#17
Jessica B Beavers, Shasha Bai, Jennifer Perry, Jordan Simpson, Sara Peeples
There is growing interest in the Kaiser early-onset sepsis (EOS) risk calculator though institutions are hesitant to deviate from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines and implement this in their hospitals. We describe the process of implementing routine use of the risk calculator in term and late preterm newborns delivered to mothers with chorioamnionitis in a level III neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). A retrospective chart review of infants delivered to mothers with chorioamnionitis from 2011 to 2014 was performed...
December 1, 2017: Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281989/necrotizing-soft-tissue-infection-clinical-characteristics-and-outcomes-at-a-reconstructive-center-in-jilin-province
#18
Jing-Chun Zhao, Bo-Ru Zhang, Kai Shi, Xi Zhang, Chun-Hui Xie, Jian Wang, Qing-Hua Yu, Xin-Xin Gao, Lei Hong, Jia-Ao Yu
BACKGROUND: To investigate the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes in necrotizing fasciitis (NF) patients in a reconstructive unit in northeastern China. METHODS: Medical records of patients diagnosed with and treated for NF in the extremities from November 2013 to December 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic data, clinical presentation, duration of signs and symptoms, location of infection, predisposing factors, causative microbiological organisms, laboratory risk indicator for necrotizing fasciitis (LRINEC) score, number of surgical debridements, length of hospital stay, treatments, and outcomes were recorded...
December 28, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278979/impact-of-a-telemedicine-eicu-cart-on-sepsis-management-in-a-community-hospital-emergency-department
#19
Shana M Machado, Erika H Wilson, John O Elliott, Kim Jordan
Introduction Intensivist involvement for patients with sepsis is associated with decreased complications and mortality, and lower hospital resource utilization, but few studies have evaluated outcomes for patients exposed to electronic intensive care unit (eICU) telemedicine sepsis management in the emergency department (ED). In this study, we assess whether eICU cart exposure in the ED improved compliance with components of the 2010 Surviving Sepsis Campaign bundles, length of stay (LOS), disposition and hospital costs...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277334/neurological-disease-may-precede-lymphadenopathies-in-actinomyces-europaeus-infection
#20
Silvia Corcione, Antonio Curtoni, Ivana A Paolucci, Giovanni Di Perri, Francesco G De Rosa, Rossana Cavallo
Actinomyces species are part of the commensal flora of the mucous membranes of the oropharynx, gastrointestinal tract and female genital tract. Actinomyces europaeus is a short, nonmotile, facultative anaerobic rod first described in 1997, susceptible in vitro to a wide range of b-lactam antibiotics which are regarded as first choice. In this report we described the case of A. europaeus infection in a young female patient admitted to Intensive Care Unit and the possible damage of vascular endothelium due to a chronic progressive actinomycosis that at first involved neck soft tissue, then cervical lymphnodes, and finally extended to the vascular structure...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
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