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Antibiotic intensive care unit

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110095/prophylaxis-for-stress-ulcers-with-proton-pump-inhibitors-is-not-associated-with-increased-risk-of-bloodstream-infections-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#1
Margot E Cohen, Joanne M Hathway, Hojjat Salmasian, Jianfang Liu, Melissa Terry, Julian A Abrams, Daniel E Freedberg
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been associated with increased risk of infection, likely due to changes in intestinal epithelial permeability and the gastrointestinal microbiome. PPIs are frequently given to patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) to prevent stress ulcers. These patients are at risk for bloodstream infections (BSIs), so we investigated the relationship between PPI use and BSIs among patients in the ICU. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of adults (≥18 years) admitted to 1 of 14 ICUs within a hospital network of 3 large hospitals from 2008 through 2014...
January 18, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102514/carbapenemase-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-bloodstream-infection-in-critically-ill-patients-risk-factors-and-predictors-of-mortality
#2
M Papadimitriou-Olivgeris, F Fligou, C Bartzavali, A Zotou, A Spyropoulou, K Koutsileou, S Vamvakopoulou, N Sioulas, V Karamouzos, E D Anastassiou, I Spiliopoulou, M Christofidou, M Marangos
A significant increase in carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (CP-Kp) bacteraemias has been observed worldwide. The objective of the present work was to study the risk factors and predictors of mortality of CP-Kp bacteraemias among critically ill patients. During a 4-year period (2012-3015), a matched 1:2 case-control study was conducted. Klebsiella pneumoniae was identified by Vitek 2 technology. Antibiotic susceptibility was performed by the agar disc diffusion method and Etest. The presence of the bla KPC, bla VIM and bla NDM genes was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
January 19, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101156/clinical-and-microbiological-profile-of-babies-born-with-risk-of-neonatal-sepsis
#3
Bin Zhou, Xiao Liu, Jie-Bin Wu, Bao Jin, Yan-Yan Zhang
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of antibiotics on the condition of babies born with risk of neonatal sepsis. From March, 2014 to February, 2015, 200 neonates born with risk factors of septicemia in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at Xuzhou Central Hospital, were enrolled in the present study. Venous blood samples were collected within 6 h of birth using aseptic technique. Part of the blood specimens were cultured using BACTEC PEDS PLUS/F Culture Vials. Subsequently, the subcultures were prepared from each presumptive positive vial and bacterial isolates were identified...
December 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100714/the-dynamics-of-the-pulmonary-microbiome-during-mechanical-ventilation-in-the-intensive-care-unit-and-the-association-with-occurrence-of-pneumonia
#4
Tetyana Zakharkina, Ignacio Martin-Loeches, Sébastien Matamoros, Pedro Povoa, Antoni Torres, Janine B Kastelijn, Jorrit J Hofstra, B de Wever, Menno de Jong, Marcus J Schultz, Peter J Sterk, Antonio Artigas, Lieuwe D J Bos
RATIONALE: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most common nosocomial infections in patients admitted to the ICU. The adapted island model predicts several changes in the respiratory microbiome during intubation and mechanical ventilation. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesised that mechanical ventilation and antibiotic administration decrease the diversity of the respiratory microbiome and that these changes are more profound in patients who develop VAP. METHODS: Intubated and mechanically ventilated ICU-patients were included...
January 18, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099636/use-of-reactive-hyperemia-peripheral-arterial-tonometry-and-circulating-biological-markers-to-predict-outcomes-in-sepsis
#5
Vandack Nobre, Thiago Bragança Ataíde, Luisa Caldeira Brant, Clara Rodrigues Oliveira, Lucas Vieira Rodrigues, Antonio Luiz Pinho Ribeiro, Fernanda Barbosa Lopes, Ivan Euclides Saraiva, Marcus Vinícius Andrade
Objective: To evaluate the usefulness and prognostic value of reactive hyperemia - peripheral arterial tonometry in patients with sepsis. Moreover, we investigated the association of reactive hyperemia - peripheral arterial tonometry results with serum levels of certain inflammatory molecules. Methods: Prospective study, conducted in an 18-bed mixed intensive care unit for adults. The exclusion criteria included severe immunosuppression or antibiotic therapy initiated more than 48 hours before assessment...
October 2016: Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096867/nasal-nosocomial-myiasis-infection-caused-by-chrysomya-bezziana-diptera-calliphoridae-following-the-septicemia-a-case-report
#6
Seyed Farzin Mircheraghi, Seyed Farzam Mircheraghi, Hamed Ramezani Awal Riabi, Arezoo Parsapour
A 74 yr old woman from Gonabad, southern part of Khorasan Razavi Province of Iran was admitted to a Hospital of Gonabad, because of respiratory distress, exertional dyspnea and fever. Close contact with domestic animals, history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and completely resolved pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in remote past, were notable parts of her past medical history. Due to clinical, paraclinical and radiographic findings and because of recent hospitalization, she was admitted to internal medicine ward with the diagnosis of health care associated pneumonia (HCAP)...
April 2016: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096229/disseminated-melioidosis-in-the-head-and-neck
#7
Tze Ling Loh, Sergios Latis, Graeme Crossland, Hemi Patel
A 35-year-old man was admitted to an intensive care unit with unilateral facial swelling and septic shock after multiple presentations to the emergency department with non-specific unilateral pain over the parotid area. A CT scan of his neck showed diffuse right-sided facial soft tissue infection, mastoid effusion and temporal lobe cerebritis. The upper lobes of his lungs had cannonball lesions that were suggestive of septic lung metastases. Blood cultures and ear canal swabs were positive for Burkholderia pseudomallei The temporal lobe cerebritis eventually developed into an abscess, necessitating a cortical mastoidectomy, craniectomy and temporal lobectomy...
January 17, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092204/impact-of-combination-therapy-and-early-de-escalation-on-outcome-of-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-caused-by-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#8
Laurène Deconinck, Agnès Meybeck, Pierre Patoz, Nicolas Van Grunderbeeck, Nicolas Boussekey, Arnaud Chiche, Pierre-Yves Delannoy, Hugues Georges, Olivier Leroy
BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common cause of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Guidelines recommend dual coverage of P. aeruginosa, but the beneficial effect of combination therapy is controversial. We described antibiotic prescriptions and evaluated the clinical impact of initial combination antibiotic therapy and de-escalation strategy in patients with VAP caused by P. aeruginosa. METHODS: Between 1994 and 2014, all 100 patients with VAP caused by P...
January 16, 2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089672/isopropyl-alcohol-is-as-efficient-as-chlorhexidine-to-prevent-contamination-of-blood-cultures
#9
Jovanna Martínez, Juan H Macías, Virginia Arreguín, Jose A Álvarez, Alejandro E Macías, Juan L Mosqueda-Gómez
BACKGROUND: False-positive blood cultures can lead to unnecessary risks and misuse of antibiotics; to reduce rates of false-positives, it would be useful to determine whether use of an antiseptic with a prolonged effect is required. METHODS: Clinical study of efficacy (blinded and randomized) to compare the rate of blood culture contamination when skin antisepsis was performed with 70% isopropyl alcohol or 2% chlorhexidine gluconate in 70% isopropyl alcohol in 2 hospitals...
January 12, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088587/late-onset-neonatal-sepsis-in-arab-states-in-the-gulf-region-two-year-prospective-study
#10
Majeda S Hammoud, Abdullah Al-Taiar, Sameer Y Al-Abdi, Hussain Bozaid, Anwar Khan, Laila M AlMuhairi, Moghis Ur Rehman
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the incidence of Late-Onset Sepsis (LOS) in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in Arab states in the gulf region and describe the main causative organisms and their antibiotic resistance. METHODS: Observational prospective cohort study was conducted over two-year period in five NICUs in Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates. LOS was defined as the growth of a single potentially pathogenic organism from blood or cerebrospinal fluid in infants >3days of age with clinical and laboratory findings consistent with infection...
January 11, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081345/growing-oxa-23-type-strains-among-carbapenem-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-and-tigecycline-as-an-alternate-combination-therapy
#11
Şerife Altun, Zeliha Koçak Tufan, Belgin Altun, Ufuk Önde, Sami Kınıklı, Ali Pekcan Demiröz
BACKGROUND/AIM: The increasing prevalence and global spread of difficult-to-treat carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii has become a serious problem. The aim of this study is to investigate the resistance patterns and tigecycline sensitivity of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii strains. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Acinetobacter strains that were carbapenem-resistant and collected mainly from intensive care units were included into this study. The antibiotic sensitivity/resistance of the strains to other antibiotics and tigecycline were noted...
December 20, 2016: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077045/association-of-time-to-antibiotics-and-clinical-outcomes-in-adult-hematologic-malignancy-patients-with-febrile-neutropenia
#12
Allison R Butts, Christina Carracedo Bachmeier, Emily V Dressler, Meng Liu, Ann Cowden, Jeff Talbert, Val R Adams
Objective The objective of this study was to determine the clinical impact of time to antibiotic administration in adult inpatients who have hematologic malignancies and develop febrile neutropenia. Methods A retrospective chart review was conducted to screen for all febrile neutropenia events amongst adult hematologic malignancy patients between 1 January 2010 and 1 September 2014. All included patients were admitted to the hospital at the time of fever onset, having been admitted for a diagnosis other than febrile neutropenia...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076304/the-use-of-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-for-therapeutic-drug-monitoring-of-antibiotics-in-cancer-patients
#13
Nahed El-Najjar, Jonathan Jantsch, André Gessner
Cancer remains a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. In addition to organ failure, the most frequent reasons for admission of cancer patients to intensive care units (ICU) are: infections and sepsis. As critically ill, the complexity of the health situation of cancer patients renders the standard antimicrobial regimen more complex and even inadequate which results in increased mortality rates. This is due to pathophysiological changes in the volume of distribution, increased clearance, as well as to organ dysfunction...
January 11, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069789/hypotension-induced-by-the-concomitant-use-of-a-calcium-channel-blocker-and-clarithromycin
#14
Sayako Takeuchi, Yuki Kotani, Toshihide Tsujimoto
In the elderly, calcium-channel blockers are the first-line treatment for hypertension, and macrolides are commonly prescribed antibiotics. Here we report a 78-year-old man taking nifedipine, diltiazem and carvedilol who presented with persistent hypotension and bradycardia after clarithromycin was prescribed. He was diagnosed with drug-induced hypotension and treated with fluid resuscitation and vasoactive agents. His symptoms gradually improved. He was transferred out of the intensive care unit 3 days after hospitalisation...
January 9, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067569/optimizing-postoperative-handover-to-the-intensive-care-unit-at-a-tertiary-centre
#15
Shankar Kumar, Andrew R McKean, Andrew Ramwell, Carolyn Johnston, Susannah Leaver
BACKGROUND: Comprehensive handover of patients transferred from operating theatre to the intensive care unit is crucial in ensuring ongoing quality and safety of care. Handover in this setting poses unique challenges, yet few studies have considered or tested approaches to improve the process. A quality improvement project was undertaken to assess and improve the quality of information transfer during the handover of postoperative patients to the general intensive care unit at a tertiary centre...
January 2, 2017: British Journal of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064542/antibiotic-treatment-patterns-costs-and-resource-utilization-among-patients-with-community-acquired-pneumonia-a-us-cohort-study
#16
Christopher J Llop, Edward Tuttle, Glenn S Tillotson, Kerry LaPlante, Thomas M File
OBJECTIVES: The current treatment options for patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) often present a trade-off between the potential for treatment failure and safety concerns. We set out to investigate real-world outcomes associated with the use of currently available antimicrobial treatment options for CAP in both the outpatient and inpatient (non-intensive care unit [ICU]) settings. METHODS: This claims-based retrospective study included adult patients diagnosed with CAP and treated with antibiotic therapies, including any oral fluoroquinolone, macrolide, or beta-lactam monotherapy in the outpatient setting, and intravenous (IV) levofloxacin or IV azithromycin/ceftriaxone in the inpatient setting...
January 18, 2017: Hospital Practice (Minneapolis)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062856/rapid-resistome-mapping-using-nanopore-sequencing
#17
Eric van der Helm, Lejla Imamovic, Mostafa M Hashim Ellabaan, Willem van Schaik, Anna Koza, Morten O A Sommer
The emergence of antibiotic resistance in human pathogens has become a major threat to modern medicine. The outcome of antibiotic treatment can be affected by the composition of the gut. Accordingly, knowledge of the gut resistome composition could enable more effective and individualized treatment of bacterial infections. Yet, rapid workflows for resistome characterization are lacking. To address this challenge we developed the poreFUME workflow that deploys functional metagenomic selections and nanopore sequencing to resistome mapping...
January 6, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061799/ralstonia-picketti-neonatal-sepsis-a-case-report
#18
Deepak Sharma, Pradeep Sharma, Priyanka Soni, Basudev Gupta
BACKGROUND: Ralstonia genus are gram negative bacillus and includes four bacteria namely Ralstonia picketti, Ralstonia Solanacearum, Ralstonia insidiosa and Ralstonia mannitolilytica. These are opportunistic pathogens and cause infections in immunocompromised host. The sources of infection are usually contaminated solutions and water. The majority of the reported cases are caused by R. picketti. It is very rare cause of neonatal sepsis with less than twenty cases reported in literature till date...
January 7, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058720/an-observational-study-of-community-acquired-severe-sepsis-comparing-intensive-care-and-non-intensive-care-patients
#19
S T Nygård, S Skrede, N Langeland, H K Flaatten
BACKGROUND: Most studies of sepsis are from intensive care units (ICUs). We aimed to investigate community-acquired severe sepsis in a broader population, in order to compare patients treated in or outside an ICU . METHODS: We performed a 1-year prospective observational study with enrollment of patients from three units; a general ICU, a combined ICU/non-ICU and a medical ward with limited surveillance facilities. Hospital survivors were followed up for 5 years...
January 6, 2017: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057985/the-efficacy-of-noble-metal-alloy-urinary-catheters-in-reducing-catheter-associated-urinary-tract-infection
#20
Alanood Ahmed Aljohi, Hanan Elkefafy Hassan, Rakesh Kumar Gupta
BACKGROUND: Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) is the most common device-related healthcare-acquired infection. CAUTI can be severe and lead to bacteremia, significant morbidity, prolonged hospital stay, and high antibiotic consumption. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this study, we evaluated the CAUTI-reducing efficacy of noble metal alloy catheters in sixty patients (thirty per group) in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) at the King Fahad Hospital in Saudi Arabia...
October 2016: Urology Annals
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