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Global Health Research Ethics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160115/linking-participatory-action-research-on-health-systems-to-justice-in-global-health-a-case-study-of-the-maternal-and-neonatal-implementation-for-equitable-health-systems-project-in-rural-uganda
#1
Bridget Pratt, Adnan A Hyder
An ethical framework called "research for health justice" provides initial guidance on how to link health systems research in low- and middle-income countries to health equity. To further develop the largely conceptual framework, we tested its guidance against the experience of the Maternal and Neonatal Implementation for Equitable Health Systems (Manifest) project, which was performed in rural Uganda by researchers from Makerere University. We conducted 21 in-depth interviews with investigators and research implementers, directly observed study sites, and reviewed study-related documents...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics: JERHRE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148963/clinical-stroke-research-in-resource-limited-settings-tips-and-hints
#2
Jeyaraj D Pandian, Hueiming Liu, Dorcas Bc Gandhi, Richard I Lindley
Background Most stroke research is conducted in high income countries, yet most stroke occurs in low- and middle-income countries. There is an urgent need to build stroke research capacity in low- and middle-income countries. Aims To review the global health literature on how to improve research capacity in low- and middle-income countries, provide additional data from the recently completed ATTEND Trial and provide examples from our own experience. Summary of review The main themes from our literature review were: manpower and workload, research training, research question and methodology and research funding...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146711/ethics-health-policy-and-zika-from-emergency-to-global-epidemic
#3
Euzebiusz Jamrozik, Michael J Selgelid
Zika virus was recognised in 2016 as an important vector-borne cause of congenital malformations and Guillain-Barré syndrome, during a major epidemic in Latin America, centred in Northeastern Brazil. The WHO and Pan American Health Organisation (PAHO), with partner agencies, initiated a coordinated global response including public health intervention and urgent scientific research, as well as ethical analysis as a vital element of policy design. In this paper, we summarise the major ethical issues raised during the Zika epidemic, highlighting the PAHO ethics guidance and the role of ethics in emergency responses, before turning to ethical issues that are yet to be resolved...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146650/benefits-and-risks-of-iron-interventions-in-children-brisc-protocol-for-a-three-arm-parallel-group-randomised-controlled-field-trial-in-bangladesh
#4
Mohammed Imrul Hasan, Sheikh Jamal Hossain, Sabine Braat, Michael John Dibley, Jane Fisher, Sally Grantham-McGregor, Fahmida Tofail, Julie A Simpson, Shams Ei Arifeen, Jena Hamadani, Beverley-Ann Biggs, Sant-Rayn Pasricha
INTRODUCTION: Anaemia is a major global health problem affecting about 43% of preschool children globally and 60% of 6-24-month-old children in rural Bangladesh, half of which is attributed to iron deficiency (ID). Although WHO recommends universal supplementation with iron or home fortification with iron-containing multiple micronutrient powders (MMPs) to children under 2 years, evidence for benefits of these interventions on childhood development (a key rationale for these interventions) and harms (especially infection) remains limited...
November 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124449/the-evolution-of-public-health-ethics-frameworks-systematic-review-of-moral-values-and-norms-in-public-health-policy
#5
REVIEW
Mahmoud Abbasi, Reza Majdzadeh, Alireza Zali, Abbas Karimi, Forouzan Akrami
Given the evolution of the public health (PH) and the changes from the phenomenon of globalization, this area has encountered new ethical challenges. In order to find a coherent approach to address ethical issues in PH policy, this study aimed to identify the evolution of public health ethics (PHE) frameworks and the main moral values and norms in PH practice and policy. According to the research questions, a systematic search of the literature, in English, with no time limit was performed using the main keywords in databases Web of Science (ISI) and PubMed...
November 9, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123352/spiritual-needs-and-quality-of-life-of-patients-with-cancer
#6
Mansooreh Azizzadeh Forouzi, Batool Tirgari, Mohammad Hossein Safarizadeh, Yunes Jahani
Background and Aim: Information about spiritual needs and quality of life (QoL) is limited in Iranian cancer patients. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between spiritual needs and QoL among cancer patients in Iran. Methods: This correlational study included a convenience sample of 150 eligible cancer patients who were hospitalized in the oncology wards and outpatient clinics. Using two questionnaires; the spiritual needs survey and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QoL Questionnaire-C30 data were collected...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122782/study-protocol-for-the-cities-changing-diabetes-programme-a-global-mixed-methods-approach
#7
A David Napier, John J Nolan, Malene Bagger, Louise Hesseldal, Anna-Maria Volkmann
INTRODUCTION: Urban living has been shown to affect health in various ways. As the world is becoming more urbanised and almost two-thirds of people with diabetes now live in cities, research into the relationship between urban living, health and diabetes is key to improving the lives of many. The majority of people with diabetes have type 2 diabetes, a subset linked to overweight and obesity, decreased physical activity and unhealthy diets. Diabetes has significant consequences for those living with the condition as well as their families, relationships and wider society...
November 8, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121199/the-next-19-years-of-the-american-head-and-neck-society
#8
Jeffrey N Myers
Jeffrey N. Myers, MD, PhD, president of the American Head and Neck Society (AHNS) for 2016 to 2017, offered his perspectives on the AHNS's history, present-day activities, and future plans at this year's annual meeting of the society. The society was created from the 1998 merger of 2 societies, the Society for Head and Neck Surgeons (SHNS), founded in 1954, and the American Society for Head and Neck Surgery (ASHNS), founded in 1959, to become the largest organization in North America for the advancement of research and education in head and neck oncology...
November 9, 2017: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119653/a-social-ecological-framework-a-model-for-addressing-ethical-practice-in-nursing
#9
P M Davidson, C H Rushton, M Kurtz, B Wise, D Jackson, A Beaman, M Broome
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To develop a framework to enable discussion, debate and the formulation of interventions to address ethical issues in nursing practice. BACKGROUND: Social, cultural, political and economic drivers are rapidly changing the landscape of health care in our local environments but also in a global context. Increasingly, nurses are faced with a range of ethical dilemmas in their work. This requires investigation into the culture of health care systems and organisations to identify the root causes and address the barriers and enablers of ethical practice...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110730/a-meta-science-for-a-global-bioethics-and-biomedicine
#10
David S Basser
BACKGROUND: As suggested by Shook and Giordano, understanding and therefore addressing the urgent international governance issues around globalizing bio-medical/technology research and applications is limited by the perception of the underlying science. METHODS: A philosophical methodology is used, based on novel and classical philosophical reflection upon existent literature, clinical wisdoms and narrative theory to discover a meta-science and telos of humankind for the development of a relevant and defendable global biomedical bioethics...
November 7, 2017: Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine: PEHM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073186/ethical-issues-in-the-development-and-implementation-of-nutrition-related-public-health-policies-and-interventions-a-scoping-review
#11
Thierry Hurlimann, Juan Pablo Peña-Rosas, Abha Saxena, Gerardo Zamora, Béatrice Godard
BACKGROUND: The limited integration of ethics in nutrition-related public health policies and interventions is one major concern for those who have the task of implementing them. Ethical challenges that are overlooked during the development of such interventions could raise serious ethical issues during their implementation and even after. As a result, these decision makers need technical support and ethical guidance for adaptation of interventions to local (cultural, social, economic, etc...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070641/dementia-population-risk-tool-demport-study-protocol-for-a-predictive-algorithm-assessing-dementia-risk-in-the-community
#12
Stacey Fisher, Amy Hsu, Nassim Mojaverian, Monica Taljaard, Gregory Huyer, Douglas G Manuel, Peter Tanuseputro
INTRODUCTION: The burden of disease from dementia is a growing global concern as incidence increases dramatically with age, and average life expectancy has been increasing around the world. Planning for an ageing population requires reliable projections of dementia prevalence; however, existing population projections are simple and have poor predictive accuracy. The Dementia Population Risk Tool (DemPoRT) will predict incidence of dementia in the population setting using multivariable modelling techniques and will be used to project dementia prevalence...
October 24, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070639/effects-of-a-multicomponent-workplace-intervention-programme-with-environmental-changes-on-physical-activity-among-japanese-white-collar-employees-a-protocol-for-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial
#13
Kazuhiro Watanabe, Norito Kawakami
INTRODUCTION: Physical activity is one of the most important health behaviours as a determinant of physical and mental health. Although intervention strategies for promoting physical activity among workers are needed, evidence for the effectiveness of multilevel workplace interventions with environmental changes on the promotion of physical activity are still limited due to lack of cluster randomised controlled trials (RCTs). The aim of this study is to investigate effects of a 3-month workplace intervention programme with environmental changes on the improvement in physical activity among Japanese white collar employees...
October 24, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070637/effects-of-photobiomodulation-therapy-in-patients-with-chronic-non-specific-low-back-pain-protocol-for-a-randomised-placebo-controlled-trial
#14
Shaiane Silva Tomazoni, Lucíola da Cunha Menezes Costa, Layana de Souza Guimarães, Amanda Costa Araujo, Dafne Port Nascimento, Flávia Cordeiro de Medeiros, Marina Athayde Avanzi, Leonardo Oliveira Pena Costa
INTRODUCTION: Low back pain (LBP) is one of the largest and most frequent public health problems worldwide. Photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) is a frequently used non-pharmacological therapy for the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders. However, there is little high-quality scientific evidence that demonstrates the effectiveness of PBMT in the treatment of patients with chronic LBP in the short, medium and long term. Therefore, the objective of this clinical trial is to evaluate the effects of PBMT in patients with chronic non-specific LBP in the short, medium and long term...
October 24, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033062/ethical-issues-in-global-health-engagement
#15
REVIEW
Melani Kekulawala, Timothy R B Johnson
With an increasing number of clinicians participating in global health work, such engagement is now more than ever in need of critical ethical scrutiny. Exemplary initiatives in research, academics and publication, and other special considerations, provide potential approaches for overcoming ethical challenges in global health work. These methods demonstrate that successful global health work includes a commitment to foundational ethical principles such as trust, honesty, open communication and transparency, sustainability, capacity building, and appreciation for multiple perspectives - principles that surpass the traditional considerations of clinical practice...
October 9, 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028233/ethics-in-public-health-call-for-shared-moral-public-health-literacy
#16
Els L M Maeckelberghe, Peter Schröder-Bäck
Public Health (PH) in Europe has become much more vocal about its moral understandings since 1992. The rising awareness that PH issues were inseparable from issues of human rights and social justice almost self-evidently directed the agenda of EUPHA and the European Public Health (EPH)-conferences. Problems of cultural and behavioural change, and environmental issues on a global scale were also added. The Section Ethics in PH invited the EPH community to join in 'arm chair thinking': coming together at conferences not only to share the 'how' and 'what' of PH research, practices and policies but also the 'why'...
October 1, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020703/-public-health-education-in-health-related-study-programs-in-germany-perspectives-from-course-coordinators
#17
Jutta Lindert, Annette Wehrwein, David Klemperer, Ulla Walter
Introduction Public health education in Germany takes place in public health courses and in health-related study courses. We aim to provide data and knowledge on structure and content of health-related study courses and on cooperation between universities and/or Universities of Applied Sciences. Methods We conducted an online-based cross-sectional study (01.6. - 15.9.2015), involving 93 universities and Universities of Applied Sciences in Germany. Herewith we addressed 351 study course coordinators. We included course coordinators from universities and Universities of Applied Sciences who were members of the German Association of Social Medicine and Prevention (DGSMP) or in the Association Universities for Health (HOGE)...
October 11, 2017: Das Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020562/a-question-of-social-justice-how-policies-of-profit-negate-engagement-of-developing-world-bioethicists-and-undermine-global-bioethics
#18
Subrata Chattopadhyay, Catherine Myser, Tiffany Moxham, Raymond De Vries
We identify the ways the policies of leading international bioethics journals limit the participation of researchers working in the resource-constrained settings of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) in the development of the field of bioethics. Lack of access to essential scholarly resources makes it extremely difficult, if not impossible, for many LMIC bioethicists to learn from, meaningfully engage in, and further contribute to the global bioethics discourse. Underrepresentation of LMIC perspectives in leading journals sustains the hegemony of Western bioethics, limits the presentation of diverse moral visions of life, health, and medicine, and undermines aspirations to create a truly "global" bioethics...
October 2017: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993388/medication-reminder-apps-to-improve-medication-adherence-in-coronary-heart-disease-medapp-chd-study-a-randomised-controlled-trial-protocol
#19
Karla Santo, Clara K Chow, Aravinda Thiagalingam, Kris Rogers, John Chalmers, Julie Redfern
INTRODUCTION: The growing number of smartphone health applications available in the app stores makes these apps a promising tool to help reduce the global problem of non-adherence to long-term medications. However, to date, there is limited evidence that available medication reminder apps are effective. This study aims to determine the impact of medication reminder apps on adherence to cardiovascular medication when compared with usual care for people with coronary heart disease (CHD) and to determine whether an advanced app compared with a basic app is associated with higher adherence...
October 8, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992388/impact-of-nutrition-interventions-on-pediatric-mortality-and-nutrition-outcomes-in-humanitarian-emergencies
#20
REVIEW
Kamna S Balhara, David M Silvestri, W Tyler Winders, Anand Selvam, Sean M Kivlehan, Torben K Becker, Adam C Levine
OBJECTIVES: Malnutrition contributes to pediatric morbidity and mortality in disasters and complex emergencies, but summary data describing specific nutritional interventions in these settings are lacking. This systematic review aims to characterize such interventions and their effects on pediatric mortality, anthropometric measures, and serum markers of nutrition. METHODS: A systematic search of OVID Medline, Cochrane Library, and relevant grey literature was conducted...
October 9, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
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