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Global Health Research Ethics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740618/ethical-issues-associated-with-medical-tourism-in-africa
#1
REVIEW
John J O Mogaka, Lucia Mupara, Joyce M Tsoka-Gwegweni
Global disparities in medical technologies, laws, economic inequities, and social-cultural differences drive medical tourism (MT), the practice of travelling to consume healthcare that is either too delayed, unavailable, unaffordable or legally proscribed at home. Africa is simultaneously a source and destination for MT. MT however, presents a new and challenging health ethics frontier, being largely unregulated and characterized by policy contradictions, minority discrimination and conflict of interest among role-players...
2017: Journal of Market Access & Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729309/the-role-of-a-decision-support-smartphone-application-in-enhancing-community-health-volunteers-effectiveness-to-improve-maternal-and-newborn-outcomes-in-nairobi-kenya-quasi-experimental-research-protocol
#2
Pauline Bakibinga, Eva Kamande, Milka Omuya, Abdhalah K Ziraba, Catherine Kyobutungi
INTRODUCTION: Improving maternal and newborn survival remains major aspirations for many countries in the Global South. Slum settlements, a result of rapid urbanisation in many developing countries including Kenya, exhibit high levels of maternal and neonatal mortality. There are limited referral mechanisms for sick neonates and their mothers from the community to healthcare facilities with ability to provide adequate care. In this study, we specifically plan to develop and assess the added value of having community health volunteers (CHVs) use smartphones to identify and track mothers and children in a bid to reduce pregnancy-related complications and newborn deaths in the urban slums of Kamukunji subcounty in Nairobi, Kenya...
July 20, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727695/where-to-from-here-posthumous-healthcare-data-digital-e-lectronic-mortality-and-new-zealand-s-healthcare-future
#3
Katie Hoeksema, Richman Wee, Alastair Macdonald, Parry Guilford, Jesse Wall, Jon Cornwall
Ongoing improvements in digital data acquisition and storage has led to the phenomenon of e(lectronic)-mortality, where digital data can now exist for a potentially infinite period. Globally, many countries are facilitating the acquisition and researcher-led access to large-scale, population-based digitised healthcare data sets. Their utilisation has led to numerous positive advances in healthcare. New Zealand's medical record system is becoming increasingly digitised, and as a consequence there will be an ever-increasing resource of posthumous healthcare data stored digitally, including genomic information...
July 21, 2017: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716796/clinical-and-cost-effectiveness-of-progressive-exercise-compared-with-best-practice-advice-with-or-without-corticosteroid-injection-for-the-treatment-of-rotator-cuff-disorders-protocol-for-a-2x2-factorial-randomised-controlled-trial-the-grasp-trial
#4
Sally Hopewell, David J Keene, Michael Maia Schlüssel, Melina Dritsaki, Susan Dutton, Andrew Carr, William Hamilton, Zara Hansen, Anju Jaggi, Chris Littlewood, Hessam Soutakbar, Peter Heine, Lucy Cureton, Karen Barker, Sarah E Lamb
INTRODUCTION: Shoulder pain is very common, with around 70% of cases due to disorders of the rotator cuff. Despite widespread provision of physiotherapy, there is uncertainty about which type of exercise and delivery mechanisms are associated with best outcomes. There is also uncertainty around the long-term benefits and harms of corticosteroid injection therapy, which is often used in addition to physiotherapy. The Getting it Right: Addressing Shoulder Pain trial will assess the clinical and cost-effectiveness of individually tailored, progressive exercise compared with best practice advice, with or without corticosteroid injection, in adults with a rotator cuff disorder...
July 17, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706087/periconception-endogenous-and-exogenous-maternal-sex-steroid-hormones-and-risk-of-asthma-and-allergy-in-offspring-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
Merhunisa Talovic, Aziz Sheikh, Nicola McCleary, Maijaliisa Erkkola, Minna Kaila, Suvi M Virtanen, Bright I Nwaru
INTRODUCTION: Pregnancy is associated with several hormonal changes which influence the developing fetus. Variations in maternal endogenous hormones and prepregnancy use of hormonal preparations have been linked to asthma and allergy in the offspring, but findings are inconsistent. We plan to undertake a systematic review to synthesise the evidence on the association between endogenous and exogenous maternal sex hormones and the risk of asthma and allergy in the offspring. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will search Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, Institute of Scientific Information Web of Science, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health, Scopus, Google Scholar, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, Global Health, Psychological Information (PsycINFO), Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience (CAB) International and WHO Global Health Library from inception until 2016 to identify relevant studies on the topic...
July 12, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690734/individual-and-socioeconomic-factors-associated-with-childhood-immunization-coverage-in-nigeria
#6
Obinna Oleribe, Vibha Kumar, Adebowale Awosika-Olumo, Simon David Taylor-Robinson
INTRODUCTION: Immunization is the world's most successful and cost-effective public health intervention as it prevents over 2 million deaths annually. However, over 2 million deaths still occur yearly from Vaccine preventable diseases, the majority of which occur in sub-Saharan Africa. Nigeria is a major contributor of global childhood deaths from VPDs. Till date, Nigeria still has wild polio virus in circulation. The objective of this study was to identify the individual and socioeconomic factors associated with immunization coverage in Nigeria through a secondary dataset analysis of Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS), 2013...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687532/studying-scale-up-and-spread-as-social-practice-theoretical-introduction-and-empirical-case-study
#7
James Shaw, Sara Shaw, Joseph Wherton, Gemma Hughes, Trisha Greenhalgh
BACKGROUND: Health and care technologies often succeed on a small scale but fail to achieve widespread use (scale-up) or become routine practice in other settings (spread). One reason for this is under-theorization of the process of scale-up and spread, for which a potentially fruitful theoretical approach is to consider the adoption and use of technologies as social practices. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to use an in-depth case study of assisted living to explore the feasibility and usefulness of a social practice approach to explaining the scale-up of an assisted-living technology across a local system of health and social care...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674137/key-priority-areas-for-patient-safety-improvement-strategy-in-libya-a-protocol-for-a-modified-delphi-study
#8
Mustafa Elmontsri, Ricky Banarsee, Azeem Majeed
INTRODUCTION: Patient safety is a global public health problem. Estimates and size of the problem of patient safety in low-income and developing countries are scarce. A systems approach is needed for ensuring that patients are protected from harm while receiving care. The primary objective of this study will be to use a consensus-based approach to identify the key priority areas for patient safety improvement in Libya as a developing country. DESIGN: A modified Delphi study...
July 2, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661286/research-capacity-strengthening-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-ethical-explorations
#9
Adnan A Hyder, Abbas Rattani, Bridget Pratt
With developed country governments and high resource institutions engaging in research in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), we argue that these entities have a moral obligation to help build and strengthen research infrastructure and capacity so local scientists and institutions can adequately conduct studies to understand and resolve the health burdens in low and middle income countries. We explore the moral justifications and motivations behind engaging in research capacity strengthening in the health sector in LMIC at multiple levels...
March 2017: Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics: a Journal of the American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659729/some-current-applications-limitations-and-future-perspectives-of-lactic-acid-bacteria-as-probiotics
#10
REVIEW
Smith Etareri Evivie, Gui-Cheng Huo, John Oamen Igene, Xin Bian
Several mechanism and non-mechanism-based studies supporting the claim that lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains confer health benefits and play immune-modulatory roles were examined in this review. Probiotic applications of LAB on global burdens such as obesity and type-2 diabetes were discussed as well as the use of yoghurt and ice cream as important vehicles to convey several beneficial LAB strains. Probiotic and symbiotic dairy products may be used in the nearest future to treat a variety of health disorders...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659166/familiar-ethical-issues-amplified-how-members-of-research-ethics-committees-describe-ethical-distinctions-between-disaster-and-non-disaster-research
#11
Catherine M Tansey, James Anderson, Renaud F Boulanger, Lisa Eckenwiler, John Pringle, Lisa Schwartz, Matthew Hunt
BACKGROUND: The conduct of research in settings affected by disasters such as hurricanes, floods and earthquakes is challenging, particularly when infrastructures and resources were already limited pre-disaster. However, since post-disaster research is essential to the improvement of the humanitarian response, it is important that adequate research ethics oversight be available. METHODS: We aim to answer the following questions: 1) what do research ethics committee (REC) members who have reviewed research protocols to be conducted following disasters in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) perceive as the key ethical concerns associated with disaster research?, and 2) in what ways do REC members understand these concerns to be distinct from those arising in research conducted in non-crisis situations? This qualitative study was developed using interpretative description methodology; 15 interviews were conducted with REC members...
June 28, 2017: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655667/ethics-of-health-research-partnerships-in-global-south%C3%A2-phd-students-in-learning
#12
E Barankanira, C Desclaux Sall, E Guichet, O Ky-Zerbo, H C Nana Djeunga, N F Ngom Gueye, S Servais, M Varloteaux
In view of the worldwide epidemic processes that require and result in simultaneous research in several countries and in an increasingly more structured scientific community, especially in countries of Global South, it is essential to establish partnerships between researchers, policy-makers, local supervisors, and communities in both the North and the South. The objectives of this essay are to: 1) present the context and issues linked to research in the framework of a North-South partnership; 2) describe the development of appropriate responses to improve consideration of ethical aspects; and 3) discuss the current role of young researchers in this era of multiple partnerships and share the observations and thoughts of PhD students in one research unit...
June 1, 2017: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651650/ethics-review-of-studies-during-public-health-emergencies-the-experience-of-the-who-ethics-review-committee-during-the-ebola-virus-disease-epidemic
#13
Emilie Alirol, Annette C Kuesel, Maria Magdalena Guraiib, Vânia de la Fuente-Núñez, Abha Saxena, Melba F Gomes
BACKGROUND: Between 2013 and 2016, West Africa experienced the largest ever outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease. In the absence of registered treatments or vaccines to control this lethal disease, the World Health Organization coordinated and supported research to expedite identification of interventions that could control the outbreak and improve future control efforts. Consequently, the World Health Organization Research Ethics Review Committee (WHO-ERC) was heavily involved in reviews and ethics discussions...
June 26, 2017: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645980/association-between-human-herpesvirus-infections-and-dementia-or-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-systematic-review-protocol
#14
Charlotte Warren-Gash, Harriet Forbes, Judith Breuer, Andrew C Hayward, Angelique Mavrodaris, Basil H Ridha, Martin Rossor, Sara L Thomas, Liam Smeeth
INTRODUCTION: Persisting neurotropic viruses are proposed to increase the risk of dementia, but evidence of association from robust, adequately powered population studies is lacking. This is essential to inform clinical trials of targeted preventive interventions. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will carry out a comprehensive systematic review of published and grey literature of the association between infection with, reactivation of, vaccination against or treatment of any of the eight human herpesviruses and dementia or mild cognitive impairment...
June 23, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589027/developing-a-globally-applicable-evidence-informed-competency-framework-to-support-capacity-strengthening-in-clinical-research
#15
Amélie Julé, Tamzin Furtado, Liam Boggs, Francois van Loggerenberg, Victoria Ewing, Manhaz Vahedi, Pascal Launois, Trudie Lang
Capacity development for clinical research is held back by a lack of recognition for the skills acquired through involvement in clinical trials and in other varied types of global health research studies. Although some competency frameworks and associated recognised career pathways exist for different clinical research roles, they mostly apply to a single role or study setting. Our experience supports the need for an integrated approach, looking at the many roles in parallel and at all types of clinical research beyond trials...
March 2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587502/ethical-values-in-nurse-education-perceived-by-students-and-educators
#16
Mahsa Boozaripour, Abbas Abbaszadeh, Mohsen Shahriari, Fariba Borhani
BACKGROUND: Education is considered the first function and mission of the university, and observing educational ethics guarantees the health of the teaching-learning process in the university. AIM: The aim of this study was to explore ethical values in nursing education from the perspective of Iranian nursing students and educators. RESEARCH DESIGN: This qualitative study was conducted using the Thematic Content Analyses method. The data were collected from seven semi-structured individual interviews and three focus group discussions from July to November 2015...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576902/application-of-pharmacogenomics-to-investigate-adverse-drug-reactions-to-the-disease-modifying-treatments-for-multiple-sclerosis-a-case-control-study-protocol-for-dimethyl-fumarate-induced-lymphopenia
#17
Kaarina Kowalec, Elaine Kingwell, Robert Carruthers, Ruth Ann Marrie, Sasha Bernatsky, Anthony Traboulsee, Colin J D Ross, Bruce Carleton, Helen Tremlett
INTRODUCTION: Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are a global public health issue. The potential for pharmacogenomic biomarkers has been demonstrated in several therapeutical areas, including HIV infection and oncology. Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is a licensed disease-modifying therapy for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). The use of DMF in MS has been associated with a severe reduction in lymphocyte counts and reports of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Here, we outline the protocol for a case-control study designed to discover genomic variants associated with DMF-induced lymphopenia...
June 2, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572417/going-global-toward-competency-based-best-practices-for-global-health-in-dental-education
#18
Brittany Seymour, Elizabeth Shick, Benjamin W Chaffee, Habib Benzian
The Global Oral Health Interest Group of the Consortium of Universities for Global Health (GOHIG-CUGH) published recommended competencies to support development of competency-based global health education in dental schools. However, there has been no comprehensive, systematically derived, or broadly accepted framework for creating and delivering competency-based global health education to dental students. This article describes the results of a collaborative workshop held at the 2016 American Dental Education Association (ADEA) Annual Session & Exhibition designed to build on the GOHIG-CUGH competencies and start to develop systematic approaches for their practical application...
June 2017: Journal of Dental Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554940/the-association-between-human-herpesvirus-infections-and-stroke-a-systematic-review-protocol
#19
Harriet J Forbes, Laura Benjamin, Judy Breuer, Martin M Brown, Sinéad M Langan, Caroline Minassian, Liam Smeeth, Sara L Thomas, Charlotte Warren-Gash
INTRODUCTION: After primary infection, human herpesviruses establish latency and persist lifelong. Periodic virus reactivation can lead to serious inflammatory complications. Recent research suggests that herpesvirus reactivation may also be linked to acute stroke. An improved understanding of this relationship is vital to inform public health prevention strategies. We will review the evidence regarding the role of human herpesviruses in triggering stroke. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A systematic literature review of published and grey literature studies with a human herpesvirus (infection or reactivation) as an exposure and stroke as an outcome will be carried out...
May 29, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554932/the-role-of-academic-health-centres-in-building-equitable-health-systems-a-systematic-review-protocol
#20
Alexandra Edelman, Judy Taylor, Pavel V Ovseiko, Stephanie M Topp
INTRODUCTION: Academic health centres (AHCs) are complex organisations often defined by their 'tripartite' mission: to achieve high standards of clinical care, undertake clinical and laboratory research and educate health professionals. In the last decade, AHCs have moved away from what was a dominant focus on high impact (clinical) interventions for individuals, towards a more population-oriented paradigm requiring networked institutions and responsiveness to a range of issues including distribution of health outcomes and health determinants...
May 29, 2017: BMJ Open
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