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Global Health Research Ethics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903563/leveraging-ongoing-research-to-evaluate-the-health-impacts-of-south-africa-s-salt-reduction-strategy-a-prospective-nested-cohort-within-the-who-sage-multicountry-longitudinal-study
#1
Karen Charlton, Lisa J Ware, Elias Menyanu, Richard Berko Biritwum, Nirmala Naidoo, Chiné Pieterse, Savathree Lorna Madurai, Jeannine Baumgartner, George A Asare, Elizabeth Thiele, Aletta E Schutte, Paul Kowal
INTRODUCTION: Attempting to curb the rising epidemic of hypertension, South Africa implemented legislation in June 2016 mandating maximum sodium levels in a range of manufactured foods that contribute significantly to population salt intake. This natural experiment, comparing two African countries with and without salt legislation, will provide timely information on the impact of legislative approaches addressing the food supply to improve blood pressure in African populations. This article outlines the design of this ongoing prospective nested cohort study...
November 30, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898673/towards-equity-in-health-researchers-take-stock
#2
EDITORIAL
Annette Rid, Michael A Johansson, Gabriel Leung, Hannah Valantine, Esteban G Burchard, Sam S Oh, Cathy Zimmerman
For the 2016 end-of-the-year editorial, the PLOS Medicine editors asked 7 global health leaders to discuss developments relevant to the equitable provision of medical care to all populations. The result is a collection of expert views on ethical trial design, research during outbreaks, high-burden infectious diseases, diversity in research and protection of migrants.
November 2016: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895004/predictors-of-vascular-cognitive-impairment-poststroke-in-a-middle-eastern-bahrain-cohort-a-proposed-case-control-comparison
#3
Claire Donnellan, Mona Al Banna, Noor Redha, Adel Al Jishi, Isa Al Sharoqi, Safa Taha, Moiz Bakhiet, Fatema Abdulla, Patrick Walsh
BACKGROUND: Poststroke dementia and cognitive impairment are associated with poor long-term outcomes after stroke. The contribution of genetic factors such as the presence of apolipoprotein (ApoE) ɛ4 allele and its association with cognitive impairment poststroke remains inconclusive, particularly in Middle Eastern regions. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to examine all correlates and potential predictors of cognitive impairment including self-awareness and regulation deficits in stroke patients and compare these functions with healthy older adults from a Middle Eastern population...
November 28, 2016: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852724/opportunistic-screening-to-detect-atrial-fibrillation-in-aboriginal-adults-in-australia
#4
Kylie Gwynne, Yvonne Flaskas, Ciaran O'Brien, Thomas Lee Jeffries, Debbie McCowen, Heather Finlayson, Tanya Martin, Lis Neubeck, Ben Freedman
INTRODUCTION: There is a 10-year gap in life expectancy between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. The leading cause of death for Aboriginal Australians is cardiovascular disease, including myocardial infarction and stroke. Although atrial fibrillation (AF) is a known precursor to stroke there are no published studies about the prevalence of AF for Aboriginal people and limited evidence about AF in indigenous populations globally. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This mixed methods study will recruit and train Aboriginal health workers to use an iECG device attached to a smartphone to consecutively screen 1500 Aboriginal people aged 45 years and older...
November 15, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849442/to-genotype-or-phenotype-for-personalized-medicine-cyp450-drug-metabolizing-enzyme-genotype-phenotype-concordance-and-discordance-in-the-ecuadorian-population
#5
Fernando De Andrés, Santiago Terán, Francisco Hernández, Enrique Terán, Adrián LLerena
Genetic variations within the cytochrome P450 (CYP450) superfamily of drug metabolizing enzymes confer substantial person-to-person and between-population differences in pharmacokinetics, and by extension, highly variable clinical effects of medicines. In this context, "personalized medicine," "precision medicine," and "stratified medicine" are related concepts attributed to what is essentially targeted therapeutics and companion diagnostics, aimed at improving safety and effectiveness of health interventions...
November 16, 2016: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847352/the-effects-of-an-e-mental-health-program-and-job-coaching-on-the-risk-of-major-depression-and-productivity-in-canadian-male-workers-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
JianLi Wang, Scott B Patten, Raymond W Lam, Mark Attridge, Kendall Ho, Norbert Schmitz, Alain Marchand, Bonnie M Lashewicz
BACKGROUND: Major depression (MDE) is prevalent in men and affects men's health and productivity. Because of the stigma against depression and social/gender norms, men are less likely to seek help for emotion and stress-related issues. Therefore, innovative solutions tailored for men are needed. With rapid development of the Internet and information technologies, one promising solution that has drawn considerable attentions is electronic mental (e-mental) health programs and services...
November 15, 2016: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818395/inter-philosophies-dialogue-creating-a-paradigm-for-global-health-ethics
#7
Solomon Benatar, Ibrahim Daibes, Sandra Tomsons
While debate remains about the definition and goals of work on global health, there is growing agreement that our moral starting point is the reality of unjust inequalities in the distribution of the conditions necessary for human health and well-being. With the growth of multi-jurisdictional and multicultural global health partnerships, the adequacy of the prevailing bioethical paradigm guiding the conduct of global health research and practice is being increasingly challenged. In response to ethical challenges and conflicts confronted by decision-makers in global health research and practice, we propose an innovative methodology that could be developed to bridge the gap between polarized systems of ideas and values (metaphysical, epistemological, moral, and political)...
2016: Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798028/neurological-complications-of-sickle-cell-disease-in-africa-protocol-for-a-systematic-review
#8
Michel K Mengnjo, Joseph Kamtchum-Tatuene, Nicolas Nicastro, Jean Jacques N Noubiap
INTRODUCTION: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is highly prevalent in Africa. Considered as a public health problem, it is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Neurological complications of SCD can cause significant disability with important socioeconomic and psychological impact on the patients and their families, and can even lead to death if not properly managed. There are important knowledge gaps regarding the burden of neurological complications of SCD in African populations. We propose to conduct the first systematic review to summarise the epidemiological data available on neurological complications of SCD in Africa...
October 19, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797994/world-hip-trauma-evaluation-white-framework-for-embedded-comprehensive-cohort-studies
#9
Matthew L Costa, Xavier L Griffin, Juul Achten, David Metcalfe, Andrew Judge, Rafael Pinedo-Villanueva, Nicholas Parsons
INTRODUCTION: Osteoporotic hip fractures present a significant global challenge to patients, clinicians and healthcare systems. It is estimated that hip fracture accounts for 1.4% of total social and healthcare costs in the established market economies. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The World Hip Trauma Evaluation (WHiTE) was set up to measure outcome in a comprehensive cohort of UK patients with hip fracture. All patients in the cohort are treated under a single comprehensive treatment pathway...
October 21, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767224/ethical-legal-and-social-implications-of-personalized-genomic-medicine-research-current-literature-and-suggestions-for-the-future
#10
Shawneequa L Callier, Rachel Abudu, Maxwell J Mehlman, Mendel E Singer, Duncan Neuhauser, Charlisse Caga-Anan, Georgia L Wiesner
PURPOSE: This review identifies the prominent topics in the literature pertaining to the ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI) raised by research investigating personalized genomic medicine (PGM). METHODS: The abstracts of 953 articles extracted from scholarly databases and published during a 5-year period (2008-2012) were reviewed. A total of 299 articles met our research criteria and were organized thematically to assess the representation of ELSI issues for stakeholders, health specialties, journals, and empirical studies...
November 2016: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737006/good-and-bad-research-collaborations-researchers-views-on-science-and-ethics-in-global-health-research
#11
Michael Parker, Patricia Kingori
There has been a dramatic rise in the scale and scope of collaborative global health research. A number of structural and scientific factors explain this growth and there has been much discussion of these in the literature. Little, if any, attention has been paid, however, to the factors identified by scientists and other research actors as important to successful research collaboration. This is surprising given that their decisions are likely to play a key role in the sustainability and effectiveness of global health research initiatives...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729121/assessment-and-management-of-pain-in-pediatric-otolaryngology
#12
Maria Claudia Rodríguez, Perla Villamor, Tatiana Castillo
INTRODUCTION: Pain is a disease by itself and it's a public health concern of major implication in children, not just because of the emotional component of the child and his family, but also due to the potential morbidity and mortality involving it. A proper assessment of pain it's a challenge in the pediatric population, due to their lack of understanding and verbalization of hurt. Additionally, a satisfactory treatment of pediatric pain can be arduous due to a lack of clinical knowledge, insufficient pediatric research, and the fear to opioid side effects and addiction...
November 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694668/what-can-we-learn-about-the-processes-of-regulation-of-tuberculosis-medicines-from-the-experiences-of-health-policy-and-system-actors-in-india-tanzania-and-zambia
#13
Kabir Sheikh, Mukund Uplekar
BACKGROUND: The unregulated availability and irrational use of tuberculosis (TB) medicines is a major issue of public health concern globally. Governments of many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have committed to regulating the quality and availability of TB medicines, but with variable success. Regulation of TB medicines remains an intractable challenge in many settings, but the reasons for this are poorly understood. The objective of this paper is to elaborate processes of regulation of quality and availability of TB medicines in three LMICs - India, Tanzania, and Zambia - and to understand the factors that constrain and enable these processes...
March 9, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683519/patient-controlled-hospital-admission-for-patients-with-severe-mental-disorders-study-protocol-for-a-nationwide-prospective-multicentre-study
#14
Christoffer Torgaard Thomsen, Michael Eriksen Benros, Lene Halling Hastrup, Per Kragh Andersen, Domenico Giacco, Merete Nordentoft
INTRODUCTION: Patient-controlled hospital admission for individuals with severe mental disorders is a novel approach in mental healthcare. Patients can admit themselves to a hospital unit for a short stay without being assessed by a psychiatrist or contacting the emergency department. Previous studies assessing the outcomes of patient-controlled hospital admission found trends towards reduction in the use of coercive measures and length of hospital stay; however, these studies have methodological shortcomings and small sample sizes...
2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677416/registered-access-a-triple-a-approach
#15
Stephanie O M Dyke, Emily Kirby, Mahsa Shabani, Adrian Thorogood, Kazuto Kato, Bartha M Knoppers
We propose a standard model for a novel data access tier - registered access - to facilitate access to data that cannot be published in open access archives owing to ethical and legal risk. Based on an analysis of applicable research ethics and other legal and administrative frameworks, we discuss the general characteristics of this Registered Access Model, which would comprise a three-stage approval process: Authentication, Attestation and Authorization. We are piloting registered access with the Demonstration Projects of the Global Alliance for Genomics and Health for which it may provide a suitable mechanism for access to certain data types and to different types of data users...
September 28, 2016: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667476/replacing-reducing-and-refining-the-use-of-animals-in-tuberculosis-vaccine-research
#16
Rachel Tanner, Helen McShane
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a serious global health threat and an improved vaccine is urgently needed. New candidate TB vaccines are tested using preclinical animal models such as mice, guinea pigs, cattle and non-human primates. Animals are routinely infected with virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) in challenge experiments to evaluate protective efficacy, raising ethical issues regarding the procedure of infection itself, symptoms of disease and humane end-points. We summarise the importance and limitations of animal models in TB vaccine research and review current alternatives and modifications in the context of the NC3Rs framework for replacing, reducing and refining the use of animals for scientific purposes...
September 26, 2016: ALTEX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663979/eregistries-governance-for-electronic-maternal-and-child-health-registries
#17
Sonja L Myhre, Jane Kaye, Lee A Bygrave, Margunn Aanestad, Buthaina Ghanem, Patricia Mechael, J Frederik Frøen
BACKGROUND: The limited availability of maternal and child health data has limited progress in reducing mortality and morbidity among pregnant women and children. Global health agencies, leaders, and funders are prioritizing strategies that focus on acquiring high quality health data. Electronic maternal and child health registries (eRegistries) offer a systematic data collection and management approach that can serve as an entry point for preventive, curative and promotive health services...
September 23, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662831/difficulties-experienced-by-migrant-physicians-working-in-german-hospitals-a-qualitative-interview-study
#18
Corinna Klingler, Georg Marckmann
BACKGROUND: With Germany facing a shortage of doctors, hospitals have been increasingly recruiting physicians from abroad. Studies in other countries have shown that migrant physicians experience various difficulties in their work, which might impact the quality of patient care, physician job satisfaction, and, accordingly, retention. The experiences of migrant doctors in Germany have not been systematically studied so far and will likely differ from experiences migrant physicians make in other contexts...
2016: Human Resources for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660319/potentially-avoidable-and-ambulatory-care-sensitive-hospitalisations-among-forced-migrants-a-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Célina Lichtl, Sandra Claudia Gewalt, Stefan Noest, Joachim Szecsenyi, Kayvan Bozorgmehr
INTRODUCTION: There is an increasing number of forced migrants globally, including refugees, asylum seekers, internally displaced persons and undocumented migrants. According to international law, forced migrants should enjoy access to health services free of discrimination equivalent to the host population, but they face barriers to healthcare worldwide. This may lead to a delay in care and result in preventable hospital treatment, referred to as potentially preventable hospitalisation (PPH) or ambulatory care sensitive hospitalisation (ACSH)...
2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659511/protocol-for-the-systematic-review-of-the-prevention-treatment-and-public-health-management-of-impetigo-scabies-and-fungal-skin-infections-in-resource-limited-settings
#20
Philippa May, Asha Bowen, Steven Tong, Andrew Steer, Sam Prince, Ross Andrews, Bart Currie, Jonathan Carapetis
BACKGROUND: Impetigo, scabies, and fungal skin infections disproportionately affect populations in resource-limited settings. Evidence for standard treatment of skin infections predominantly stem from hospital-based studies in high-income countries. The evidence for treatment in resource-limited settings is less clear, as studies in these populations may lack randomisation and control groups for cultural, ethical or economic reasons. Likewise, a synthesis of the evidence for public health control within endemic populations is also lacking...
September 23, 2016: Systematic Reviews
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