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Global Health Research Ethics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326187/pilot-study-protocol-to-inform-a-future-longitudinal-study-of-ageing-using-linked-administrative-data-healthy-ageing-in-scotland-hagis
#1
Elaine Douglas, Alasdair Rutherford, David Bell
INTRODUCTION: Population ageing is a welcome testament to improvements in the social, economic and health circumstances over the life course. However, these successes necessitate that we understand more about the pathways of ageing to plan and cost our health and social care services, to support our ageing population to live healthier for longer and to make adequate provisions for retirement. Longitudinal studies of ageing facilitate such understanding in many countries around the world...
January 10, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302322/-crowdsourcing-ten-years-in-a-review
#2
Kerri Wazny
Background: First coined by Howe in 2006, the field of crowdsourcing has grown exponentially. Despite its growth and its transcendence across many fields, the definition of crowdsourcing has still not been agreed upon, and examples are poorly indexed in peer-reviewed literature. Many examples of crowdsourcing have not been scaled-up past the pilot phase. In spite of this, crowdsourcing has great potential, especially in global health where resources are lacking. This narrative review seeks to review both indexed and grey crowdsourcing literature broadly in order to explore the current state of the field...
December 2017: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297375/the-role-of-male-partners-in-women-s-participation-in-research-during-pregnancy-a-case-study-from-the-partners-demonstration-project
#3
Kenneth Ngure, Susan Brown Trinidad, Kristin Beima-Sofie, Jared M Baeten, Nelly R Mugo, Elizabeth A Bukusi, Renee Heffron, Grace John-Stewart, Maureen C Kelley
The exclusion of pregnant women from health research remains a significant challenge globally. In settings where cultural traditions and gender norms support a more restricted decision-making role for women in general, little is known about the attitudes of male partners toward the inclusion of women in research during pregnancy. Understanding the expectations of both men and women in such cultural settings offers an opportunity to engage and address local ethical concerns to improve women's access to research during pregnancy and enhance intervention development...
December 14, 2017: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297373/research-with-pregnant-women-a-call-to-action
#4
Margaret Olivia Little, Marisha N Wickremsinhe
Despite a global need for the use of medication during pregnancy, the medical research community lacks robust evidence for safety and efficacy of treatments and preventives often taken by pregnant women. Given the biological differences between pregnant women and the rest of the population, the need to gather data on the ways in which medications behave in the pregnant body is critical to the health of pregnant women and their offspring. Three ethical reasons are central to this need: 1. Pregnant women deserve access to effective treatment, 2...
December 14, 2017: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291171/a-comprehensive-framework-for-international-medical-programs-a-2017-consensus-statement-from-the-american-college-of-academic-international-medicine
#5
Manish Garg, Gregory L Peck, Bonnie Arquilla, Andrew C Miller, Sari E Soghoian, Harry L Anderson Iii, Christina Bloem, Michael S Firstenberg, Sagar C Galwankar, Weidun Alan Guo, Ricardo Izurieta, Elizabeth Krebs, Bhakti Hansoti, Sudip Nanda, Chinenye O Nwachuku, Benedict Nwomeh, Lorenzo Paladino, Thomas J Papadimos, Richard P Sharpe, Mamta Swaroop, Stanislaw P Stawicki
The American College of Academic International Medicine (ACAIM) represents a group of clinicians who seek to promote clinical, educational, and scientific collaboration in the area of Academic International Medicine (AIM) to address health care disparities and improve patient care and outcomes globally. Significant health care delivery and quality gaps persist between high-income countries (HICs) and low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs). International Medical Programs (IMPs) are an important mechanism for addressing these inequalities...
October 2017: International Journal of Critical Illness and Injury Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282045/balancing-the-local-and-the-universal-in-maintaining-ethical-access-to-a-genomics-biobank
#6
Catherine Heeney, Shona M Kerr
BACKGROUND: Issues of balancing data accessibility with ethical considerations and governance of a genomics research biobank, Generation Scotland, are explored within the evolving policy landscape of the past ten years. During this time data sharing and open data access have become increasingly important topics in biomedical research. Decisions around data access are influenced by local arrangements for governance and practices such as linkage to health records, and the global through policies for biobanking and the sharing of data with large-scale biomedical research data resources and consortia...
December 28, 2017: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275347/two-epoch-cross-sectional-case-record-review-protocol-comparing-quality-of-care-of-hospital-emergency-admissions-at-weekends-versus-weekdays
#7
Julian Bion, Cassie P Aldridge, Alan Girling, Gavin Rudge, Chris Beet, Tim Evans, R Mark Temple, Chris Roseveare, Mike Clancy, Amunpreet Boyal, Carolyn Tarrant, Elizabeth Sutton, Jianxia Sun, Peter Rees, Russell Mannion, Yen-Fu Chen, Samuel Ian Watson, Richard Lilford
INTRODUCTION: The mortality associated with weekend admission to hospital (the 'weekend effect') has for many years been attributed to deficiencies in quality of hospital care, often assumed to be due to suboptimal senior medical staffing at weekends. This protocol describes a case note review to determine whether there are differences in care quality for emergency admissions (EAs) to hospital at weekends compared with weekdays, and whether the difference has reduced over time as health policies have changed to promote 7-day services...
December 22, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229654/protocol-for-developing-a-database-of-zoonotic-disease-research-in-india-dozoori
#8
Pranab Chatterjee, Soumyadeep Bhaumik, Abhimanyu Singh Chauhan, Manish Kakkar
INTRODUCTION: Zoonotic and emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) represent a public health threat that has been acknowledged only recently although they have been on the rise for the past several decades. On an average, every year since the Second World War, one pathogen has emerged or re-emerged on a global scale. Low/middle-income countries such as India bear a significant burden of zoonotic and EIDs. We propose that the creation of a database of published, peer-reviewed research will open up avenues for evidence-based policymaking for targeted prevention and control of zoonoses...
December 10, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225934/health-policy-and-systems-research-towards-a-better-understanding-and-review-of-ethical-issues
#9
REVIEW
Valerie Ann Luyckx, Nikola Biller-Andorno, Abha Saxena, Nhan T Tran
Given the focus on health systems in the post-millennium development goal era and moving towards the sustainable development goals, there is a compelling need for a common framework for health policy and systems research ethics to guide researchers and facilitate review by research ethics committees. A consultation of global health policy and systems research and ethics experts was convened to identify ethical considerations relevant to health policy and systems research based on existing knowledge and to identify knowledge gaps through a scoping review and further expert deliberation...
2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224784/ethics-based-global-health-research-for-all-including-women-children-indigenous-people-lgbtqi-people-with-disabilities-refugees-and-other-relevant-stakeholders-especially-in-least-developing-countries-and-small-island-developing-states-in-the-global-south
#10
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221536/exploration-of-global-health-careers-across-the-medical-fields
#11
Ernest Barthélemy, Vanessa Mallol, Alisse Hannaford, Christian Pean, Rehema Kutua, Christopher de Haydu, Natasha Anandaraja, Ramin Asgary, Ebrahim Elahi, Braden Hexom, Philip Landrigan, Taraneh Shirazian, Craig Katz
BACKGROUND: Despite expansion of interest among American medical students in global health (GH), academic medical centers face multiple obstacles to the development of structured GH curricula and career guidance. To meet these demands we sought to provide a systematic analysis of the accounts of GH experts. METHODS: We developed a collaborative, interview-based, qualitative analysis of GH experiences across six career-related themes that are relevant to medical students interested in GH: justification, medical education, economics, research prospects, law and ethics, and work-life balance...
May 2017: Annals of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221534/on-becoming-a-global-citizen-transformative-learning-through-global-health-experiences
#12
Debra K Litzelman, Adrian Gardner, Robert M Einterz, Philip Owiti, Charity Wambui, Jordan C Huskins, Kathleen M Schmitt-Wendholt, Geren S Stone, Paul O Ayuo, Thomas S Inui, Rachel A Umoren
BACKGROUND: Globalization has increased the demand for international experiences in medical education. International experiences improve medical knowledge, clinical skills, and self-development; influence career objectives; and provide insights on ethical and societal issues. However, global health rotations can end up being no more than tourism if not structured to foster personal transformation and global citizenship. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a qualitative assessment of trainee-reported critical incidents to more deeply understand the impact of our global health experience on trainees...
May 2017: Annals of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210791/design-and-evaluation-of-a-closed-loop-anesthesia-system-with-robust-control-and-safety-system
#13
Nicholas West, Klaske van Heusden, Matthias Görges, Sonia Brodie, Aryannah Rollinson, Christian L Petersen, Guy A Dumont, J Mark Ansermino, Richard N Merchant
BACKGROUND: Closed-loop control of anesthesia involves continual adjustment of drug infusion rates according to measured clinical effect. The NeuroSENSE monitor provides an electroencephalographic measure of depth of hypnosis (wavelet-based anesthetic value for central nervous system monitoring [WAVCNS]). It has previously been used as feedback for closed-loop control of propofol, in a system designed using robust control engineering principles, which implements features specifically designed to ensure patient safety...
November 22, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202094/the-experimental-public-in-longitudinal-health-research-views-of-local-leaders-and-service-providers-in-rural-south-africa
#14
Rhian Twine, Gillian Lewando Hundt, Kathleen Kahn
Background: The concept of 'experimental public' has been recently applied to publics involved in clinical trials. This term could also be applied to publics involved in longitudinal research such as health and demographic surveillance systems. The ethics of practice and public engagement with these experimental publics are of key importance and include issues of informed consent, confidentiality, collection of body tissue samples and fair local benefit. Methods: Individual (n = 11) and focus group (n = 5) qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 56 local leaders and service providers regarding their views about research activities in a longitudinal health research study site run by the MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt) in rural South Africa...
2017: Global Health Research and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183925/cohort-profile-the-truenth-global-registry-an-international-registry-to-monitor-and-improve-localised-prostate-cancer-health-outcomes
#15
Sue M Evans, Jeremy L Millar, Caroline M Moore, John D Lewis, Hartwig Huland, Fanny Sampurno, Sarah E Connor, Paul Villanti, Mark S Litwin
PURPOSE: Globally, prostate cancer treatment and outcomes for men vary according to where they live, their race and the care they receive. The TrueNTH Global Registry project was established as an international registry monitoring care provided to men with localised prostate cancer (CaP). PARTICIPANTS: Sites with existing CaP databases in Movember fundraising countries were invited to participate in the international registry. In total, 25 Local Data Centres (LDCs) representing 113 participating sites across 13 countries have nominated to contribute to the project...
November 28, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182962/the-possible-worlds-of-global-health-research-an-ethics-focused-discourse-analysis
#16
Ben Brisbois, Katrina Plamondon
Representations of the world enable global health research (GHR), discursively constructing sites in which studies can legitimately take place. Depoliticized portrayals of the global South frequently obscure messy legacies of colonialism and motivate technical responses to health problems with political and economic root causes. Such problematic representations of the world have not yet been rigorously examined in relation to global health ethics, a major site of scholarly effort towards GHR that promotes justice and fairness...
November 23, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173834/academy-of-nutrition-and-dietetics-revised-2017-scope-of-practice-for-the-registered-dietitian-nutritionist
#17
Denise Andersen, Shari Baird, Tracey Bates, Denise L Chapel, Alana D Cline, Shyamala N Ganesh, Margaret Garner, Barbara L Grant, Kathryn K Hamilton, Krista Jablonski, Sherri L Jones, Alexandra G Kazaks, Susan H Konek, Kelly K Leonard, Kimi G McAdam, Beth N Ogata, Egondu M Onuoha, Gretchen Y Robinson, Darrin W Schmidt, Nancy G Walters, Pauline Williams, Pamela Wu, Karen Hui, Carol Gilmore, Mujahed Khan, Dana Buelsing, Sharon M McCauley
The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (Academy) is the world's largest organization of food and nutrition professionals and the association that represents credentialed nutrition and dietetics practitioners-registered dietitian nutritionists (RDNs) and nutrition and dietetics technicians, registered (NDTRs). RDNs integrate research, professional development, and practice to stimulate innovation and discovery; collaborate to solve the greatest food and nutrition challenges now and in the future; focus on systemswide impact across the food, wellness, and health sectors; have a global impact in eliminating all forms of malnutrition; and amplify the contribution of nutrition and dietetics practitioners and expand workforce capacity and capability...
November 22, 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173101/advancing-global-precision-medicine-an-overview-of-genomic-testing-and-counseling-services-in-malaysia
#18
Angeliki Balasopoulou, Foong-Ming Mooy, Darrol J Baker, Christina Mitropoulou, Efthymios Skoufas, Awang Bulgiba, Theodora Katsila, George P Patrinos
Precision medicine, genomic and diagnostic services are no longer limited to developed countries. This broadening in geography of biomarker applications and omics diagnostics also demands empirical study of implementation, diagnostic testing, and counseling practices in the field. For example, the Malaysian population has large ethnic diversity and high prevalence of genetic disorders such as hemoglobinopathies and metabolic disorders. Increased morbidity and mortality from such diseases have a direct impact on society and health system sustainability and for this, decision-making becomes of outmost importance...
November 27, 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165682/the-silencing-of-political-context-in-health-research-in-ethiopia-why-it-should-be-a-concern
#19
Marit Tolo Østebø, Megan D Cogburn, Anjum Shams Mandani
In 2004, the Ethiopian government launched what has been called an innovative and groundbreaking solution to the country's public health challenges; the Health Extension Programme (HEP). The positive public health outcomes that have been reported following the implementation of the HEP have led researchers and global health actors to propose it as a model for other countries to emulate. In this systematic review, we point to a potential weakness and methodological bias in the existing research. Despite being implemented within a context of an increasingly authoritarian regime, research conducted following the implementation of HEP reflects a limited discussion of the political context...
November 20, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160115/linking-participatory-action-research-on-health-systems-to-justice-in-global-health-a-case-study-of-the-maternal-and-neonatal-implementation-for-equitable-health-systems-project-in-rural-uganda
#20
Bridget Pratt, Adnan A Hyder
An ethical framework called "research for health justice" provides initial guidance on how to link health systems research in low- and middle-income countries to health equity. To further develop the largely conceptual framework, we tested its guidance against the experience of the Maternal and Neonatal Implementation for Equitable Health Systems (Manifest) project, which was performed in rural Uganda by researchers from Makerere University. We conducted 21 in-depth interviews with investigators and research implementers, directly observed study sites, and reviewed study-related documents...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics: JERHRE
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