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Global Health Research Ethics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104710/protocol-of-a-feasibility-study-for-cognitive-assessment-of-an-ageing-cohort-within-the-southeast-asia-community-observatory-seaco-malaysia
#1
Devi Mohan, Blossom C M Stephan, Pascale Allotey, Carol Jagger, Mark Pearce, Mario Siervo, Daniel D Reidpath
INTRODUCTION: There is a growing proportion of population aged 65 years and older in low-income and middle-income countries. In Malaysia, this proportion is predicted to increase from 5.1% in 2010 to more than 15.4% by 2050. Cognitive ageing and dementia are global health priorities. However, risk factors and disease associations in a multiethnic, middle-income country like Malaysia may not be consistent with those reported in other world regions. Knowing the burden of cognitive impairment and its risk factors in Malaysia is necessary for the development of management strategies and would provide valuable information for other transitional economies...
January 19, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096898/characteristics-of-adolescents-frequently-restrained-in-acute-psychiatric-units-in-norway-a-nationwide-study
#2
Astrid Furre, Ragnhild Sørum Falk, Leiv Sandvik, Svein Friis, Maria Knutzen, Ketil Hanssen-Bauer
BACKGROUND: The use of restraints in adolescent psychiatric settings requires particular professional, ethical, and legal considerations. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the number of restraint episodes per patient was related to any of several characteristics of the adolescents. METHODS: In this nationwide study, we included all adolescents restrained during the period 2008-2010 (N = 267) in Norwegian adolescent acute psychiatric inpatient units...
2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077411/incidence-of-surgical-site-infection-following-caesarean-section-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-protocol
#3
Khalid B M Saeed, Richard A Greene, Paul Corcoran, Sinéad M O'Neill
INTRODUCTION: Caesarean section (CS) rates have increased globally during the past three decades. Surgical site infection (SSI) following CS is a common cause of morbidity with reported rates of 3-15%. SSI represents a substantial burden to the health system including increased length of hospitalisation and costs of postdischarge care. The definition of SSI varies with the postoperative follow-up period among different health systems, resulting in differences in the reporting of SSI incidence...
January 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060428/the-social-value-of-health-research-and-the-worst-off
#4
Nicola Barsdorf, Joseph Millum
In this article we argue that the social value of health research should be conceptualized as a function of both the expected benefits of the research and the priority that the beneficiaries deserve. People deserve greater priority the worse off they are. This conception of social value can be applied for at least two important purposes: (1) in health research priority setting when research funders, policy-makers, or researchers decide between alternative research projects; and (2) in evaluating the ethics of proposed research proposals when research ethics committees (RECs) assess whether the social value of the research is sufficient to justify the risks and burdens to research participants and others...
February 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024240/governance-of-global-health-research-consortia-sharing-sovereignty-and-resources-within-future-health-systems
#5
Bridget Pratt, Adnan A Hyder
Global health research partnerships are increasingly taking the form of consortia that conduct programs of research in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). An ethical framework has been developed that describes how the governance of consortia comprised of institutions from high-income countries and LMICs should be structured to promote health equity. It encompasses initial guidance for sharing sovereignty in consortia decision-making and sharing consortia resources. This paper describes a first effort to examine whether and how consortia can uphold that guidance...
November 29, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011805/climate-change-and-human-health-what-are-the-research-trends-a-scoping-review-protocol
#6
Niamh Herlihy, Avner Bar-Hen, Glenn Verner, Helen Fischer, Rainer Sauerborn, Anneliese Depoux, Antoine Flahault, Stefanie Schütte
INTRODUCTION: For 28 years, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has been assessing the potential risks associated with anthropogenic climate change. Although interest in climate change and health is growing, the implications arising from their interaction remain understudied. Generating a greater understanding of the health impacts of climate change could be key step in inciting some of the changes necessary to decelerate global warming. A long-term and broad overview of the existing scientific literature in the field of climate change and health is currently missing in order to ensure that all priority areas are being adequately addressed...
December 23, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008708/application-of-ethical-principles-to-research-using-public-health-data-in-the-global-south-perspectives-from-africa
#7
Evelyn Anane-Sarpong, Tenzin Wangmo, Osman Sankoh, Marcel Tanner, Bernice Simone Elger
Existing ethics guidelines, influential literature and policies on ethical research generally focus on real-time data collection from humans. They enforce individual rights and liberties, thereby lowering need for aggregate protections. Although dependable, emerging public health research paradigms like research using public health data (RUPD) raise new challenges to their application. Unlike traditional research, RUPD is population-based, aligned to public health activities, and often reliant on pre-collected longitudinal data...
December 22, 2016: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990299/sharing-health-related-data-a-privacy-test
#8
Stephanie Om Dyke, Edward S Dove, Bartha M Knoppers
Greater sharing of potentially sensitive data raises important ethical, legal and social issues (ELSI), which risk hindering and even preventing useful data sharing if not properly addressed. One such important issue is respecting the privacy-related interests of individuals whose data are used in genomic research and clinical care. As part of the Global Alliance for Genomics and Health (GA4GH), we examined the ELSI status of health-related data that are typically considered 'sensitive' in international policy and data protection laws...
August 17, 2016: NPJ Genomic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989237/modernising-epidemic-science-enabling-patient-centred-research-during-epidemics
#9
EDITORIAL
Amanda M Rojek, Peter W Horby
BACKGROUND: Emerging and epidemic infectious disease outbreaks are a significant public health problem and global health security threat. As an outbreak begins, epidemiological investigations and traditional public health responses are generally mounted very quickly. However, patient-centred research is usually not prioritised when planning and enacting the response. Instead, the clinical research response occurs subsequent to and separate from the public health response, and is inadequate for evidence-based decision-making at the bedside or in the offices of public health policymakers...
December 19, 2016: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976457/global-health-and-emergency-care-overcoming-clinical-research-barriers
#10
Adam C Levine, Meagan A Barry, Pooja Agrawal, Herbert C Duber, Mary P Chang, Joy M Mackey, Bhakti Hansoti
OBJECTIVES: There are many barriers impeding the conduct of high-quality emergency care research, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Several of these barriers were originally outlined in 2013 as part of the Academic Emergency Medicine Global Health and Emergency Care Consensus Conference. This paper seeks to establish a broader consensus on the barriers to emergency care research globally and proposes a comprehensive array of new recommendations to overcome these barriers...
December 15, 2016: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27968918/behaviours-in-avoiding-indoor-exposure-to-second-hand-smoke-among-pregnant-women-in-five-geographical-areas-of-china-a-cross-sectional-study
#11
Xianglong Xu, Yunshuang Rao, Manoj Sharma, Jeff J Guo, Yong Zhao
BACKGROUND: Second-hand smoke is a major indoor pollutant that causes serious health problems, especially for pregnant women. The 2010 Global Adult Tobacco Survey in China reported that 65·1% of non-smoking women of childbearing age were exposed to second-hand smoke at home and 52·6% were exposed in the workplace. This study aimed to probe behaviours in avoiding indoor second-hand smoke exposure induced by different intimate relationships among pregnant women in China. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 2345 pregnant women aged 18 years and older surveyed in person by investigators from June 1, to Aug 31, 2015, from 16 hospitals in five provinces of Mainland China (Chongqing, Chengdu, Zunyi, Liaocheng, and Tianjin)...
October 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27968905/the-effect-of-an-e-health-web-based-support-programme-on-psychological-outcomes-and-health-related-quality-of-life-among-chinese-patients-with-coronary-heart-disease-a-parallel-group-randomised-controlled-trial
#12
Eliza M L Wong, Sek Y Chair, Doris Y Leung, Janet W Sit, Aileen W Chan, Kai C Leung
BACKGROUND: Coronary heart disease is the leading global cause of death, and e-health web-based programmes are effective to support patients. However, fewstudieshave reported psychological outcomes and health related quality of life (HRQoL) in Chinese populations. This study aimed to investigate the effect of an e-health web-based support programme for patients with coronary heart disease on anxiety, depression, and HRQoL across six months. METHODS: This parallel-group, randomised controlled trial was conducted in two specialist clinics in Hong Kong, China...
October 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27968897/medical-economic-burden-of-the-ageing-population-a-multistage-sampling-analysis-of-3%C3%A2-532%C3%A2-517-cases
#13
Yunbin Yang, Ang Zheng, Mingyang Li, Wenjuan Duan, Xin Mu, Xin Wang
BACKGROUND: Population ageing and the economic burden of aged disease have become topical issues in global health. The situation seems worse in China, which has 140 million people older than 65 years. We analysed the medical economic burden in Liaoning Province, China, and laid stress on the population aged 65 years and older. METHODS: We used a multistage random sampling method for selecting 252 medical institutions from four cities, Panjin, Tieling, Dalian, and Liaoyang, in Liaoning Province...
October 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27968887/infection-prevention-with-natural-protein-based-coating-on-the-surface-of-foley-catheters-a-randomised-controlled-clinical-trial
#14
Peng Zhao, Qijing Chen, Chao Lin, Zhaofen Lin, Liang Chang, Xiaoping Shao, Yueming Li, Jiangong Zhang, Zhongpeng Fan, Xuejun Wen
BACKGROUND: Health-care-associated infections characterised by antibiotic drug resistance are a global medical challenge that claims billions of dollars of health-care expenditure. Bacterial adhesion and subsequent formation of biofilms on catheters and tubes are the primary mechanisms through which these infections are initiated and propagated. We tested the efficacy and safety for clinical treatment of a coating based on natural protein, in which immunogenicity was eliminated through physical plasticising, applied to the surfaces of medical devices to inhibit bacterial adhesion...
October 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965856/ketamine-for-depression-relapse-prevention-following-electroconvulsive-therapy-protocol-for-a-randomised-pilot-trial-the-keep-well-trial
#15
Martha Finnegan, Karen Ryan, Enda Shanahan, Andrew Harkin, Leslie Daly, Declan M McLoughlin
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder is a common debilitating illness that is the second leading contributor to the global burden of disease. Unfortunately, about 30 % of patients do not respond to adequate trials of antidepressants and/or psychotherapies. About 45-60 % of such treatment-resistant patients will remit with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). However, relapse rates are high following ECT-38 % after 6 months. There is a need for better relapse prevention strategies. One possibility is to use ketamine, a competitive glutamate receptor antagonist used for anaesthesia...
2016: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955670/-the-way-the-country-has-been-carved-up-by-researchers-ethics-and-power-in-north-south-public-health-research
#16
Aisling Walsh, Ruairi Brugha, Elaine Byrne
BACKGROUND: Despite the recognition of power as being central to health research collaborations between high income countries and low and middle income countries, there has been insufficient detailed analysis of power within these partnerships. The politics of research in the global south is often considered outside of the remit of research ethics. This article reports on an analysis of power in north-south public health research, using Zambia as a case study. METHODS: Primary data were collected in 2011/2012, through 53 in-depth interviews with: Zambian researchers (n = 20), Zambian national stakeholders (n = 8) and northern researchers who had been involved in public health research collaborations involving Zambia and the global north (n = 25)...
December 12, 2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940891/researchers-regulators-and-sponsors-views-on-pediatric-clinical-trials-a-multinational-study
#17
Pathma D Joseph, Jonathan C Craig, Allison Tong, Patrina H Y Caldwell
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The last decade has seen dramatic changes in the regulatory landscape to support more trials involving children, but child-specific challenges and inequitable conduct across income regions persist. The goal of this study was to describe the attitudes and opinions of stakeholders toward trials in children, to inform additional strategies to promote more high-quality, relevant pediatric trials across the globe. METHODS: Key informant semi-structured interviews were conducted with stakeholders (researchers, regulators, and sponsors) who were purposively sampled from low- to middle-income countries and high-income countries...
October 2016: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940633/supporting-underserved-patients-with-their-medicines-a-study-protocol-for-a-patient-professional-coproduced-education-intervention-for-community-pharmacy-staff-to-improve-the-provision-and-delivery-of-medicine-use-reviews-murs
#18
Asam Latif, Kristian Pollock, Claire Anderson, Justin Waring, Josie Solomon, Li-Chia Chen, Emma Anderson, Sulma Gulzar, Nasa Abbasi, Heather Wharrad
INTRODUCTION: Community pharmacy increasingly features in global strategies to modernise the delivery of primary healthcare. Medicine Use Reviews (MURs) form part of the English Government's medicines management strategy to improve adherence and reduce medicine waste. MURs provide space for patient-pharmacist dialogue to discuss the well-known problems patients experience with medicine taking. However, 'underserved' communities (eg, black and minority ethnic communities, people with mental illness), who may benefit the most, may not receive this support...
December 9, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932343/influence-of-the-day-care-home-and-neighbourhood-environment-on-young-children-s-physical-activity-and-health-protocol-for-the-playce-observational-study
#19
Hayley Christian, Clover Maitland, Stephanie Enkel, Georgina Trapp, Stewart G Trost, Jasper Schipperijn, Bryan Boruff, Leanne Lester, Michael Rosenberg, Stephen R Zubrick
INTRODUCTION: The early years are a critical period in a child's health and development, yet most preschool children fail to meet physical activity guidelines. Outside of the home and neighbourhood, children spend a large proportion of time within early childhood education and care (ECEC) services such as long day care. Research is required to determine how the design of day care outdoor (and indoor) spaces provides opportunities or constraints for physical activity. A significant evidence gap surrounds what objectively measured attributes of the home and neighbourhood environment influence preschoolers' physical activity...
December 8, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903563/leveraging-ongoing-research-to-evaluate-the-health-impacts-of-south-africa-s-salt-reduction-strategy-a-prospective-nested-cohort-within-the-who-sage-multicountry-longitudinal-study
#20
Karen Charlton, Lisa J Ware, Elias Menyanu, Richard Berko Biritwum, Nirmala Naidoo, Chiné Pieterse, Savathree Lorna Madurai, Jeannine Baumgartner, George A Asare, Elizabeth Thiele, Aletta E Schutte, Paul Kowal
INTRODUCTION: Attempting to curb the rising epidemic of hypertension, South Africa implemented legislation in June 2016 mandating maximum sodium levels in a range of manufactured foods that contribute significantly to population salt intake. This natural experiment, comparing two African countries with and without salt legislation, will provide timely information on the impact of legislative approaches addressing the food supply to improve blood pressure in African populations. This article outlines the design of this ongoing prospective nested cohort study...
November 30, 2016: BMJ Open
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