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Global Health Research Ethics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314746/protocol-for-a-cluster-randomised-stepped-wedge-trial-assessing-the-impact-of-a-community-level-hygiene-intervention-and-a-water-intervention-using-riverbank-filtration-technology-on-diarrhoeal-prevalence-in-india
#1
Sarah L McGuinness, Joanne E O'Toole, Thomas B Boving, Andrew B Forbes, Martha Sinclair, Sumit K Gautam, Karin Leder
INTRODUCTION: Diarrhoea is a leading cause of death globally, mostly occurring as a result of insufficient or unsafe water supplies, inadequate sanitation and poor hygiene. Our study aims to investigate the impact of a community-level hygiene education program and a water quality intervention using riverbank filtration (RBF) technology on diarrhoeal prevalence. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We have designed a stepped wedge cluster randomised trial to estimate the health impacts of our intervention in 4 rural villages in Karnataka, India...
March 17, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298233/developing-consensus-measures-for-global-programs-lessons-from-the-global-alliance-for-chronic-diseases-hypertension-research-program
#2
Michaela A Riddell, Nancy Edwards, Simon R Thompson, Antonio Bernabe-Ortiz, Devarsetty Praveen, Claire Johnson, Andre P Kengne, Peter Liu, Tara McCready, Eleanor Ng, Robby Nieuwlaat, Bruce Ovbiagele, Mayowa Owolabi, David Peiris, Amanda G Thrift, Sheldon Tobe, Khalid Yusoff
BACKGROUND: The imperative to improve global health has prompted transnational research partnerships to investigate common health issues on a larger scale. The Global Alliance for Chronic Diseases (GACD) is an alliance of national research funding agencies. To enhance research funded by GACD members, this study aimed to standardise data collection methods across the 15 GACD hypertension research teams and evaluate the uptake of these standardised measurements. Furthermore we describe concerns and difficulties associated with the data harmonisation process highlighted and debated during annual meetings of the GACD funded investigators...
March 15, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285262/revised-cioms-research-ethics-guidance-on-the-importance-of-process-for-credibility
#3
Udo Schuklenk
This paper reviews the 2016 CIOMS International Ethical Guidelines for Health-related Research Involving Humans. I argue that these new guidelines constitute a significant improvement over the guidelines they replace. However, the procedures put in place by CIOMS resulted in an authoring group consisting of a majority of authors and advisors hailing from the global North, while the guidelines squarely aim at influencing policies in the global South. I question CIOMS' strategy to produce a consensus based document, and raise concerns about frequent appeals to authority designed to establish the credibility of these guidelines and the processes that led to them...
March 7, 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283116/bidirectional-exchanges-of-medical-students-between-institutional-partners-in-global-health-clinical-education-programs-putting-ethical-principles-into-practice
#4
Robert Rohrbaugh, Anne Kellett, Michael J Peluso
BACKGROUND: One-third of US medical students participate in global health (GH) education, and approximately one-quarter of US medical schools have structured programs that offer special recognition in GH. GH clinical electives (GHCEs) are opportunities for students to experience a medical system and culture different from their own. GHCEs are administered through institutional affiliation agreements, often between an institution in a high-income country (HIC) and one in a low- or middle-income country (LMIC)...
September 2016: Annals of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278750/the-ethics-of-researching-intimate-partner-violence-in-global-health-a-case-study-from-global-health-research
#5
Jenevieve Mannell, Adrian Guta
There has been an increase in attention to intimate partner violence (IPV) as a health issue that contributes to the spread of HIV, physical and emotional stress, depression, substance use, serious injuries, and higher rates of mortality in low-income settings. This paper explores the ethical implications raised by research on IPV by global health scholars. Drawing on Hedgecoe's work on critical bioethics to analyse a qualitative study of IPV in Rwanda, this paper discusses the risks and benefits of conducting research on IPV as part of the global health agenda...
February 20, 2017: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271978/lessons-from-cuba-for-global-precision-medicine-cyp2d6-genotype-is-not-a-robust-predictor-of-cyp2d6-ultrarapid-metabolism
#6
Pedro Dorado, Idilio González, María Eugenia G Naranjo, Fernando de Andrés, Eva María Peñas-Lledó, Luis Ramón Calzadilla, Adrián LLerena
A long-standing question and dilemma in precision medicine is whether and to what extent genotyping or phenotyping drug metabolizing enzymes such as CYP2D6 can be used in real-life global clinical and societal settings. Although in an ideal world using both genotype and phenotype biomarkers are desirable, this is not always feasible for economic and practical reasons. Moreover, an additional barrier for clinical implementation of precision medicine is the lack of correlation between genotype and phenotype, considering that most of the current methods include only genotyping...
January 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209208/food-safety-in-vietnam-where-we-are-at-and-what-we-can-learn-from-international-experiences
#7
Hung Nguyen-Viet, Tran Thi Tuyet-Hanh, Fred Unger, Sinh Dang-Xuan, Delia Grace
Food-borne diseases are attracting a lot of attention in Vietnam as a result of repeated episodes of adulterated and unsafe food. In this paper, we provide some perspectives on food safety in Vietnam from the point of view of an international research institution working on food safety with partners in the country. We argue that one of the key issues of food safety in Vietnam is that certain food value chain stakeholders lack ethics, which leads to the production and trading of unsafe foods in order to make profits irrespective of adverse health effects on consumers...
February 16, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194335/investigators-viewpoint-of-clinical-trials-in-india-past-present-and-future
#8
REVIEW
Mohandas K Mallath, Tanuj Chawla
India's success in producing food and milk for its population (Green Revolution and White Revolution) happened because of scientific research and field trials. Likewise improving the health of Indians needs clinical research and clinical trials. A Large proportion of the sick Indians are poor, illiterate with no access to good health care. They are highly vulnerable to inducement and exploitation in clinical trials. The past two decades saw the rise and fall of clinical trials in India. The rise happened when our regulators created a favorable environment, and Indian investigators were invited to participate in global clinical trials...
January 2017: Perspectives in Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185590/how-can-health-systems-research-reach-the-worst-off-a-conceptual-exploration
#9
REVIEW
Bridget Pratt, Adnan A Hyder
BACKGROUND: Health systems research is increasingly being conducted in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). Such research should aim to reduce health disparities between and within countries as a matter of global justice. For such research to do so, ethical guidance that is consistent with egalitarian theories of social justice proposes it ought to (amongst other things) focus on worst-off countries and research populations. Yet who constitutes the worst-off is not well-defined. METHODS AND RESULTS: By applying existing work on disadvantage from political philosophy, the paper demonstrates that (at least) two options exist for how to define the worst-off upon whom equity-oriented health systems research should focus: those who are worst-off in terms of health or those who are systematically disadvantaged...
November 15, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144901/investigating-public-trust-in-expert-knowledge-narrative-ethics-and-engagement
#10
Silvia Camporesi, Maria Vaccarella, Mark Davis
"Public Trust in Expert Knowledge: Narrative, Ethics, and Engagement" examines the social, cultural, and ethical ramifications of changing public trust in the expert biomedical knowledge systems of emergent and complex global societies. This symposium was conceived as an interdisciplinary project, drawing on bioethics, the social sciences, and the medical humanities. We settled on public trust as a topic for our work together because its problematization cuts across our fields and substantive research interests...
March 2017: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104710/protocol-of-a-feasibility-study-for-cognitive-assessment-of-an-ageing-cohort-within-the-southeast-asia-community-observatory-seaco-malaysia
#11
Devi Mohan, Blossom C M Stephan, Pascale Allotey, Carol Jagger, Mark Pearce, Mario Siervo, Daniel D Reidpath
INTRODUCTION: There is a growing proportion of population aged 65 years and older in low-income and middle-income countries. In Malaysia, this proportion is predicted to increase from 5.1% in 2010 to more than 15.4% by 2050. Cognitive ageing and dementia are global health priorities. However, risk factors and disease associations in a multiethnic, middle-income country like Malaysia may not be consistent with those reported in other world regions. Knowing the burden of cognitive impairment and its risk factors in Malaysia is necessary for the development of management strategies and would provide valuable information for other transitional economies...
January 19, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096898/characteristics-of-adolescents-frequently-restrained-in-acute-psychiatric-units-in-norway-a-nationwide-study
#12
Astrid Furre, Ragnhild Sørum Falk, Leiv Sandvik, Svein Friis, Maria Knutzen, Ketil Hanssen-Bauer
BACKGROUND: The use of restraints in adolescent psychiatric settings requires particular professional, ethical, and legal considerations. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the number of restraint episodes per patient was related to any of several characteristics of the adolescents. METHODS: In this nationwide study, we included all adolescents restrained during the period 2008-2010 (N = 267) in Norwegian adolescent acute psychiatric inpatient units...
2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077411/incidence-of-surgical-site-infection-following-caesarean-section-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-protocol
#13
Khalid B M Saeed, Richard A Greene, Paul Corcoran, Sinéad M O'Neill
INTRODUCTION: Caesarean section (CS) rates have increased globally during the past three decades. Surgical site infection (SSI) following CS is a common cause of morbidity with reported rates of 3-15%. SSI represents a substantial burden to the health system including increased length of hospitalisation and costs of postdischarge care. The definition of SSI varies with the postoperative follow-up period among different health systems, resulting in differences in the reporting of SSI incidence...
January 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060428/the-social-value-of-health-research-and-the-worst-off
#14
Nicola Barsdorf, Joseph Millum
In this article we argue that the social value of health research should be conceptualized as a function of both the expected benefits of the research and the priority that the beneficiaries deserve. People deserve greater priority the worse off they are. This conception of social value can be applied for at least two important purposes: (1) in health research priority setting when research funders, policy-makers, or researchers decide between alternative research projects; and (2) in evaluating the ethics of proposed research proposals when research ethics committees (RECs) assess whether the social value of the research is sufficient to justify the risks and burdens to research participants and others...
February 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024240/governance-of-global-health-research-consortia-sharing-sovereignty-and-resources-within-future-health-systems
#15
Bridget Pratt, Adnan A Hyder
Global health research partnerships are increasingly taking the form of consortia that conduct programs of research in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). An ethical framework has been developed that describes how the governance of consortia comprised of institutions from high-income countries and LMICs should be structured to promote health equity. It encompasses initial guidance for sharing sovereignty in consortia decision-making and sharing consortia resources. This paper describes a first effort to examine whether and how consortia can uphold that guidance...
November 29, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011805/climate-change-and-human-health-what-are-the-research-trends-a-scoping-review-protocol
#16
Niamh Herlihy, Avner Bar-Hen, Glenn Verner, Helen Fischer, Rainer Sauerborn, Anneliese Depoux, Antoine Flahault, Stefanie Schütte
INTRODUCTION: For 28 years, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has been assessing the potential risks associated with anthropogenic climate change. Although interest in climate change and health is growing, the implications arising from their interaction remain understudied. Generating a greater understanding of the health impacts of climate change could be key step in inciting some of the changes necessary to decelerate global warming. A long-term and broad overview of the existing scientific literature in the field of climate change and health is currently missing in order to ensure that all priority areas are being adequately addressed...
December 23, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008708/application-of-ethical-principles-to-research-using-public-health-data-in-the-global-south-perspectives-from-africa
#17
Evelyn Anane-Sarpong, Tenzin Wangmo, Osman Sankoh, Marcel Tanner, Bernice Simone Elger
Existing ethics guidelines, influential literature and policies on ethical research generally focus on real-time data collection from humans. They enforce individual rights and liberties, thereby lowering need for aggregate protections. Although dependable, emerging public health research paradigms like research using public health data (RUPD) raise new challenges to their application. Unlike traditional research, RUPD is population-based, aligned to public health activities, and often reliant on pre-collected longitudinal data...
December 22, 2016: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990299/sharing-health-related-data-a-privacy-test
#18
Stephanie Om Dyke, Edward S Dove, Bartha M Knoppers
Greater sharing of potentially sensitive data raises important ethical, legal and social issues (ELSI), which risk hindering and even preventing useful data sharing if not properly addressed. One such important issue is respecting the privacy-related interests of individuals whose data are used in genomic research and clinical care. As part of the Global Alliance for Genomics and Health (GA4GH), we examined the ELSI status of health-related data that are typically considered 'sensitive' in international policy and data protection laws...
August 17, 2016: NPJ Genomic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989237/modernising-epidemic-science-enabling-patient-centred-research-during-epidemics
#19
EDITORIAL
Amanda M Rojek, Peter W Horby
BACKGROUND: Emerging and epidemic infectious disease outbreaks are a significant public health problem and global health security threat. As an outbreak begins, epidemiological investigations and traditional public health responses are generally mounted very quickly. However, patient-centred research is usually not prioritised when planning and enacting the response. Instead, the clinical research response occurs subsequent to and separate from the public health response, and is inadequate for evidence-based decision-making at the bedside or in the offices of public health policymakers...
December 19, 2016: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976457/global-health-and-emergency-care-overcoming-clinical-research-barriers
#20
Adam C Levine, Meagan A Barry, Pooja Agrawal, Herbert C Duber, Mary P Chang, Joy M Mackey, Bhakti Hansoti
OBJECTIVES: There are many barriers impeding the conduct of high-quality emergency care research, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Several of these barriers were originally outlined in 2013 as part of the Academic Emergency Medicine Global Health and Emergency Care Consensus Conference. This paper seeks to establish a broader consensus on the barriers to emergency care research globally and proposes a comprehensive array of new recommendations to overcome these barriers...
December 15, 2016: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
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